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2012 Lanner Group Limited

WITNESS Getting Started Material


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2012 Lanner Group Limited
Table of Contents
Part I Preface
1
Part II What is new?
2
Part III Getting installed and running
3
Part IV Licensing your copy
9
Part V Getting Started
10
................................................................................................................................... 10 1 Simulation
................................................................................................................................... 11 2 The WITNESS Product Family
.......................................................................................................................................................... 11
WITNESS
.......................................................................................................................................................... 11
WITNESS Scenario Manager
.......................................................................................................................................................... 12
WITNESS Documentor
.......................................................................................................................................................... 12
WITNESS Optimizer
................................................................................................................................... 12 3 Lanner Group
Part VI Building your first model
14
................................................................................................................................... 15 1 Stage 1
................................................................................................................................... 19 2 Stage 2
................................................................................................................................... 23 3 Stage 3
................................................................................................................................... 27 4 Stage 4
................................................................................................................................... 33 5 Stage 5
................................................................................................................................... 34 6 Summary
Part VII Case study: JETTY.MOD
35
Part VIII Conducting a Simulation Project
44
................................................................................................................................... 44 1 Overview
................................................................................................................................... 44 2 Establish objectives
................................................................................................................................... 45 3 Scope and level of model detail
................................................................................................................................... 45 4 Data Collection
................................................................................................................................... 46 5 Structuring the model
................................................................................................................................... 46 6 Building the model
................................................................................................................................... 47 7 Running the model
................................................................................................................................... 47 8 Generating reports
................................................................................................................................... 48 9 Testing the model
................................................................................................................................... 48 10 Experimentation
................................................................................................................................... 49 11 Documentation
................................................................................................................................... 49 12 Presentation of results and implementation
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Part IX Modeling With WITNESS
51
................................................................................................................................... 51 1 Elements: the WITNESS building blocks
................................................................................................................................... 51 2 Discrete Elements
.......................................................................................................................................................... 51
Parts
.......................................................................................................................................................... 52
Buffers
.......................................................................................................................................................... 52
Machines
.......................................................................................................................................................... 52
Labor
.......................................................................................................................................................... 53
Conveyors
.......................................................................................................................................................... 53
Paths
.......................................................................................................................................................... 53
Tracks
.......................................................................................................................................................... 53
Vehicles
................................................................................................................................... 53 3 Power & free elements
.......................................................................................................................................................... 53
Network
.......................................................................................................................................................... 53
Section
.......................................................................................................................................................... 54
Station
.......................................................................................................................................................... 54
Carrier
................................................................................................................................... 54 4 Continuous Processing Elements
.......................................................................................................................................................... 54
Fluids
.......................................................................................................................................................... 54
Processors
.......................................................................................................................................................... 54
Tanks
.......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Pipes
................................................................................................................................... 55 5 Logical Elements and Modules
.......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Attributes
.......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Variables
.......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Files
.......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Distributions
.......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Functions
.......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Part Files
.......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Shifts
.......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Modules
................................................................................................................................... 56 6 Graphical & Reporting elements
.......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Pie Charts
.......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Timeseries
.......................................................................................................................................................... 57
Histograms
.......................................................................................................................................................... 57
Reports
................................................................................................................................... 57 7 Manipulating elements: Rules, Expressions and Actions
.......................................................................................................................................................... 57
Rules
.......................................................................................................................................................... 57
Expressions
.......................................................................................................................................................... 57
Actions
Part X Using and enhancing a WITNESS model
59
................................................................................................................................... 59 1 WITNESS Model Storage Formats
................................................................................................................................... 59 2 Help
................................................................................................................................... 59 3 Enhancing the screen display
................................................................................................................................... 60 4 Useful buttons
Part XI Example models
62
................................................................................................................................... 62 1 Dem1.mod - Simple Assembly Model
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................................................................................................................................... 66 2 Dem2.mod - Simple Logistics Model
Part XII Model Gallery
69
................................................................................................................................... 69 1 Typical Manufacturing Model
................................................................................................................................... 70 2 Typical Warehouse Model
................................................................................................................................... 71 3 Office Model
................................................................................................................................... 72 4 Call Centre Business Process
................................................................................................................................... 73 5 Airfield Logistics
................................................................................................................................... 74 6 Tracks and Vehicles
................................................................................................................................... 75 7 Garage Forecourt
................................................................................................................................... 76 8 Chemical Processing Plant
Part XIII Further learning resources
77
................................................................................................................................... 77 1 Learning More
.......................................................................................................................................................... 77
Support
Part XIV Appendix
79
................................................................................................................................... 79 1 System requirements
................................................................................................................................... 79 2 Hardware Dongle (On a local computer)
................................................................................................................................... 83 3 Installation of License Server
.......................................................................................................................................................... 87
Running WITNESS on Client Machines
Part XV Copyright & trademarks
88
Index 0
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1 Preface
Dear User,
Thank you for choosing WITNESS from Lanner Group. With Lanner simulation, business managers
can model, analyze and optimize processes to make superior decisions in a risk-free environment.
Lanner simulation is the key to improving productivity, efficiency and reducing costs. The aim of
this document is to make your first experience with our latest build of WITNESS highly productive.
Feedback on ways we can improve your experience and use is always appreciated.
Yours sincerely
David J ones
CEO
2012 Lanner Group Limited
2 What is new?
WITNESS 12
Simplified WITNESS Installation
Windows 7 compliance
64-bit platform support
WITNESS 'Visual Studio 2010' style U/I delivering the maximum modeling area on one and two
screen wide-angle displays
Support of two screen displays
Dock tool windows to the edge of a screen
Float windows over or outside a screen.
Minimize tool windows along the edge of a screen.
Display windows on different monitors.
Tile windows in the modeling window.
Reset window placement to the default layout.
Undo/Redo
Full screen display option
'Mouse over' enhance tool tips
'Mouse wheel / CTRL' zoom in/out
Go online to see more on earlier releases http://www.lanner.com/en/media/witness/whats_ new.cfm
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3 Getting installed and running
To install WITNESS you first need to know whether you are installing a stand-alone copy on a single PC
or whether it is to be linked into a network security system. Halfway through the installation process you
will be prompted as to whether you are using a Hardware Dongle ( on the local computer) or License
Server ( on a local network) . Please note that if you make the wrong response at this stage, it is not a
problem, as it is possible to alter the choice in a simple dialog when WITNESS is run.
The current platforms for WITNESS are Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 please be
aware that some of these require certain service packs to be applied see system requirements for full
details.
The current licensing systems for WITNESS are Hardware Dongle ( USB) and Licence Server
( Reprise ) . Older security systems also exist but are being actively retired. If you have a different
system or unsure, please contact your Lanner representative.
For stand-alone systems secured by a Hardware Dongle, there is no server program necessary, as the
licence will be linked to the dongle device itself.
For users of a Licence Server system, the license server program will need to be installed on a server
before the software can be licensed and run. You may still install WITNESS on an individual PC before
this is done, but the security setup can only be completed after the license server installation and is
running, as the name of the server and the appropriate licence code will need to be entered.
Please Note: A License Server is a local network license, not a Global license; it does not give the
user the right to move or use the software to other countries.A License Server is not licensed to
operate on a virtual machine environment. Please contact the Lanner support desk if this is required.
After installation all WITNESS systems need a licence code to work for details on how to obtain this
please read the section on licensing your copy
WITNESS is supplied by downloading from the internet( or can be supplied on DVD by request
please contact your Lanner representative) . In either case, run the setup.exe file in the root directory of
the image or the DVD, then follow on-screen instructions. When using a DVD the install program may
start automatically. We strongly recommend that you install WITNESS on each system that is required
to run it. It is possible to install WITNESS on a central server, but this will greatly reduce the
performance and responsiveness of the software.
WITNESS can be installed in the following configurations: Full WITNESS ( Commercial) , Full
WITNESS ( Educational) or Run Only. Run Only WITNESS licence's do not allow changes to be made
to model logic using the WITNESS dialogs all OK buttons are disabled. The Full Commercial and Full
Educational options offer exactly the same level of functionality in WITNESS, but the correct option
must be chosen to work with issued dongle / license. If you are unsure then please contact your Lanner
representative. The distinction between systems allows Lanner to recognise the version in which
models have been created to ensure academic licence's are not used for commercial work.
2012 Lanner Group Limited
A Full WITNESS software license enables WITNESS, Scenario Manager and Documentor. Your licence
may be extended to allow WITNESS Optimizer.
Installation
1. Run the setup.exe file and follow the on screen instructions. The installation should take less
than 5 minutes.
The on-screen instructions will offer you the following choices:
Manufacturing or Service edition and Options( optional modules and examples)
Manufacturing or Service Version of WITNESS: The English version of WITNESS is available in two
editions. The difference between the 2 editions is only certain names used in the software. The
manufacturing edition calls the elements machines, parts, buffers and talks about parts being shipped
or scrapped. The service edition calls the elements activities, entities and queues and talks about
entities being served or lost. Choose the appropriate edition for the industry you are to model.
In order to make use of Optimizer you will need to have purchased the necessary additional license.
Licensing options - Hardware Dongle ( on the local computer) or License Server ( local network
license)
The current main licensing systems for WITNESS are the ( USB) Hardware Dongle and the
( Reprise Network) Licence Server. Older security systems also exist but are being actively retired.
If you have a different system please see the appropriate section in this document or contact Lanner
if you are unsure.
Full WITNESS for commercial or educational use or a reduce 'Runtime' only version
Full WITNESS ( Commercial) , Full WITNESS ( Educational) or Run Only. Run Only WITNESS
licences do not allow changes to be made to model logic using the WITNESS dialogs all OK
buttons are disabled. The Full Commercial and Full Educational options offer exactly the same level
of functionality in WITNESS but the correct option must be chosen to work with issued dongle /
license. If you are unsure then please contact your Lanner representative. The distinction between
systems allows Lanner to recognise the version in which models have been created to ensure
academic licences are not used for commercial work.
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2. The second step to get WITNESS running is to get a security code for the supplied Hardware
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Dongle ( to operate on local computer) or link via your local network to a WITNESS License
Server.

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4 Licensing your copy
WITNESS requires you to register your copy with Lanner and receive a license security code. Lanner
offers two licensing security technologies, hardware dongle ( on local computer) or License Server
( Local Network) .
Hardware Dongle is a 'standalone' installation enables WITNESS to run on a selected
local PC.
License Server is a floating license that permits an agreed number of users to run
WITNESS across a company network. The license server is a machine remote from the WITNESS
users machines that serves multiple licenses to users across the network. When the agreed number
of WITNESS copies is running on the network, no more can be started until a license is freed by
another user closing down WITNESS.
Please Note:
A License Server is a local network license, not a Global license; it does not give the user the right to
move or use the software to other countries.
A License Server is not licensed to operate on a virtual machine environment. Please contact the
Lanner support desk if this is required.
Installation instructions for:
Hardware Dongle ( on local machine) Click here
License Server ( local network) Click here
2012 Lanner Group Limited
5 Getting Started
Thank you for using the WITNESS Manufacturing Performance Edition. Through this tutorial manual
we hope to introduce you to the basic technique of simulation using the WITNESS software package.
The tutorial concentrates on the central WITNESS functionality. Options exist to extend WITNESS s
capabilities dramatically ( for example, to add virtual reality graphics, perform automatic optimization,
link to process planning packages and so on) but the basics of simulation form the core of the
message here. Lanner wish to encourage the wide use of simulation in all business spheres due to the
enormous benefits that can be achieved in understanding where to invest and how best to apply
control.
This manual provides a brief overview of simulation and simulation projects. To bring the description
to life, two very simple demonstration models and a case study are included. They demonstrate the
visual impact and benefits of being able to see, in an animated graphic form, how the simulated
operations are performing.
In order to illustrate the ease and speed with which you can build WITNESS models, a model build is
also included. The tutorial leads you through a stepbystep exercise to create a simulation model from
scratch.
On-line help is built into the product with the usual search facilities and hypertext links to move you
quickly from topic to topic. Using the help system when you need assistance should gradually
increase your knowledge of WITNESS simulation modeling. Of course there is no substitute for
experience, but we hope that this tutorial starts you out on the path to discovering the fun, excitement
and satisfaction of applying simulation to real business problems and finding real business solutions.
5.1 Simulation
Simulation has much to offer all organizations, whether they are in manufacturing or in the service
industries.
The role of simulation is to evaluate practical alternatives available either in support of major strategic
initiatives which might involve a large financial outlay, or in support of the continuous search for better
performance at operational and tactical levels. Examples of such evaluations include changes to the
product mix, increases or decreases in volumes, improvements in throughput, shorter lead times and
improved customer response times.
Simulation provides the user with a greater breadth and depth of information on which to base
decisions: it is not an optimizing tool. It is capable of handling the complexity of large systems, even
a whole factory. In addition, the simulation approach supports sensitivity analysis by allowing rapid
changes to the model logic and data.
What is Visual Interactive Simulation?
Visual Interactive Simulation is one which has features for graphical creation of
simulation models, dynamic display of the simulated system and user interaction with
the running program. Interaction implies that the simulation halts and requests
information from the user, or the user stops the simulation at will and interacts with the
running program.
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R. D. Hurrion, Engineering J ournal of Operations Research
WITNESS is Lanner Group s simulation software package. It is the culmination of more than a
decade s development experience with computer-based simulation. This experience has led us to
evolve a visual, interactive and interpretive approach to simulation without the need for compilation.
There are currently more than 6,500 WITNESS systems in use worldwide, in organizations ranging
from automotive to pharmaceutical, aerospace to electronics, hospitals to banks, airports to defense
and more. The WITNESS Manufacturing Performance Edition is the version of WITNESS specially
designed for manufacturing applications. It is ideally suited to a variety of production and storage
layout and logistical modeling scenarios.
5.2 The WITNESS Product Family
5.2.1 WITNESS
WITNESS Can Provide The Right Answer For Your Business
- Reduces Risk in Decision Making - Accurately predicting how proposed changes to a facility or
process will work.
- Supports Investment Decisions - Provides evidence to identify profitable ideas and avoid costly
mistakes.
- Communicates the Optimal Solution to Decision Makers - Enables scenarios to be compared and the
best option for the business to be graphically reported.
- Generates an Operational Asset - Simulations deployed as robust applications become an asset in
operational decision making.
WITNESS is an established dynamic process simulation tool used by thousands of organizations to
validate a proposed facility or business process, to achieve a desired process performance metric or to
support continuous process improvement activities.
How WITNESS Works
WITNESS works by enabling you to represent a real world process in a dynamic animated computer
model. You see exactly how the process is operating as time advances. A simulation model can
incorporate all the variability of real life experience ( variable reliability, process times, resource
efficiency etc.) . This ability to include real life variability is a key advantage over spreadsheet models
where averages must be used. WITNESS includes a quick3D capability that is present in Full
WITNESS. Quick3D allows the creation of a 3D view of a WITNESS model using Lanner standard
library objects. For more information on WITNESS go to http://www.lanner.com/en/witness.cfm
5.2.2 WITNESS Scenario Manager
A module included as standard with both the manufacturing performance edition and the service and
process performance edition of WITNESS.
It offers a highly flexible framework for experimentation and analysis including:
Choice of model, run length, number of replications
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Specification of model parameters for experimentation
Parameter groups for linked input values
Full factorial simulation runs with progress indicators
Comprehensive statistics generated automatically for each model run
Flexible charting
Wizards to help
Professional SQL Server database repository
Option to add non simulation parameters such as investment level
Compare different experiments on different models with aliasing to align statistics for
comparison and charting.
For a full walkthrough of the Scenario Manager functionality please look at the example analysis in the
documentation directory ( found under the WITNESS directory) after installation.
5.2.3 WITNESS Documentor
The Documentor is a module included as standard with all WITNESS editions
It allows you to create a simple formatted version of the information included in a WITNESS model.
Accessed off the Model menu it offers an interface to select model elements and the details required in
the report. In this way it is easy to view the elements used, notes created, logic rules and actions for
part or all of a model in a single report.
5.2.4 WITNESS Optimizer
WITNESS Optimizer finds the best solutions for your simulation model. You choose a measure of
performance which is fully customizable, set the parameters that are allowed to change and the
optimizer will perform experiments intelligently to find the best solutions. It is an intelligent helper and
will work tirelessly to improve your results.
Using the latest in sophisticated mathematical techniques, it offers an easy-to-use interface and the
presentation of optimal results in a selection of useful and innovative tables and graphs.
5.3 Lanner Group
Lanner simulation software enables business process improvement for world leading organizations.
With Lanner simulation, business managers can model, analyse and optimize processes to make
superior decisions in a risk-free environment. Lanner simulation is the key to improving productivity,
efficiency and reducing costs.
Lanner's advanced simulation technology is supplied to simulation professionals through its
WITNESSbrand. Lanner's L-SIM brand has quickly established itself as the leading embedded
simulation engine used in enterprise suites from the top software solutions suppliers. Lanner's
technology is also embedded within its expanding range of individually badged, task specific
simulation and planning applications. Based in the UK with subsidiaries and partners in Europe, The
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Americas and the Far East, Lanner applications are used by more than 3,500 companies globally.
Please visit the Lanner website for the latest product and support information :
Contact our web site for support and information: www.lanner.com
2012 Lanner Group Limited
6 Building your first model
Introduction
This is a description of how to build and use a simple WITNESS model. The model demonstrates
concepts, and is not meant to represent a real industrial system. Much larger and more detailed
models can be developed in WITNESS. The model is built incrementally. In this way you can ensure
that each stage of the model is correct before you go on to the next stage, and it is possible to see
clearly the effects of any change that you make.
In stages 1 and 2, you build a simple model containing machines and buffers, and understand how to
run a model and obtain results. In stage 3 you add a simple conveyor and a further machining
operation and in stage 4 you add further characteristics - breakdowns and labor. By stage 5 the model
is complete, and you will learn how to view your model running in three dimensions. With even a
small increase in the complexity of the model it becomes difficult to calculate the statistics manually
and it is seen that simulation is essential to determine throughput.
If you don t want to build the model, but would like to see the incremental approach to model
building, run models STAGE1.MOD to STAGE4.MOD in the demo\tutorial subdirectory of your
WITNESS installation. These model files correspond to the model at the end of stages 1 to 4.
Model summary
In the model, Widgets are produced, washed and weighed. After each operation parts are passed to a
buffer in front of the next operation. After production they travel on a conveyor to a packing machine,
are packed in twos and then leave the model. A technician is required to operate the packing machine
and is also used to repair the wash machine when it breaks down.
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6.1 Stage 1
Open the model STARTUP.MOD, which is located in the Tutorial subdirectory of your WITNESS
installation directory.
This designer elements model allows you to add WITNESS elements to your model quickly and
easily.
The first stage of the model you are about to build contains a part, which is called Widget, a producing
machine ( Produce) and a buffer ( QWash) .
Click on the machine icon in the designer elements window, it will become selected ( you will
know when it is selected as the cursor changes to a cross and an outline rectangle is shown) .
Position the cursor in the layout window and click with the left-hand mouse button. A machine
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( called Machine001) appears selected in the simulation window.
Hold down the left mouse button whilst the cursor is inside the net and you can drag the new
element around the screen to position it. Click outside the net to remove it.
The machine is now part of the model you are building.
Add a buffer by clicking on the buffer icon in the designer elements window. Once it is selected
move the cursor into the layout window and click again to place the display which represents the
buffer. Drag the buffer to the position that you want.
Add a part in the same way.
The three elements for this first stage are now all added to the model and the next step is to add the
detail needed to run the model.
Process Flow Logic
The next step in this model is to define logic rules linking these elements together. The simplest way
to input these rules is by the toolbars and the mouse. There are several types of connection rules in
WITNESS ( please see the Quick Reference Book for full details) . Common ones include push and
pull, percent and sequence rules. Less common ones also exist to offer complex rules which will
match attributes or conditions, if rules to enter complex decision logic, etc.
We will begin by using simple PUSH and PULL rules to describe the flow of parts through the system.
Machine rule information
Select the machine Machine001 by clicking on its icon. Now click on the visual pull button on
the standard toolbar:
The default rule should be pull leave this in this case but note that others are selectable from
the pull down combo box.
Click on the Part001 display and then the WORLD button and you should see the following:
Hint : When you click on the Part001 display, it may appear that nothing has happened. There is
a small message at the bottom left of your screen that shows the current part type selected. It
initially says 'Current part: ALL', and will change as the part is selected.
WORLD is a term used by WITNESS to indicate parts that are outside the model, and hence will be
created and brought into the model by this command.
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Click on the OK button to accept the rule.
Now click on the Visual Push button :
Click on the buffer display and then OK to select this rule.
Running the model
Set the end time for the run in the text box next to the run until button ( alarm clock symbol) on
the run toolbar by clicking in the box and then typing in 100. Now click on the run button ( single
arrow pointing right) to start the model running.
WITNESS has been designed with an inbuilt safety mechanism to prevent you from running a model if
vital information is missing.
You have not entered a cycle time for the machine, so as soon as you start to run the model, it
prompts you for this. Enter:
Cycle Time: 5
Click on the OK button.
Run the model at different speeds using the run toolbar controls and adjusting the walk rate and
turning walk on and off using the run toolbar button and slide control:
Note the changing color of the machine's status icon yellow is idle ( ready to work) , green is
working. There are several more colors that you will see later on including blue waiting for cycle
labor, red broken down, magenta blocked and light blue for machine setups.
Anticipated results
With a cycle time of 5 minutes it is apparent that after 100 minutes you would expect 20 parts to have
been produced and be in the buffer waiting for the wash operation.
Observe this and also note in the statistics report for part ( use the right hand mouse button menu on
the Part001 display and select statistics with the left hand mouse button) that 21 parts are now
present in the model in total. That means 20 in the buffer and 1 in the machine.
Giving meaningful names to the elements
Although our model works, it relies on us knowing that the part is a widget, and the machine is the
'Produce' machine. As we extend the scope model, it will become more difficult to recognize all of the
machines, buffers etc. To help with this, we must change the names of the elements, and later we
will also change the icons used for their display.
You may have been using WITNESS with the element selector window open; this will allow you to
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see the names of all of the elements as you add them to your model. If it is not already open, you
should open it now by using the element selector button from the toolbar.
In the element selector window, select Part001. Now click on Part001 again ( don't double-click
or it will open up a far more complex data form that we will look at later on) , and you will be able
to type in a new name. Call it Widget.
Repeat the process to change the names of :-
Machine001 to Produce
Buffer001 to QWash.
The model has not changed in terms of how it will perform, simply in terms of how it looks and what
things are called. Check this out by re-running your model and ensuring that the results are correct.
Note the use of the Begin button to rewind the simulation back to time zero in order to re-run a
simulation.
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This corresponds to the model STAGE1.MOD.
6.2 Stage 2
Now you have created one machine and one buffer, and checked that the model works so far, you can
add more model elements.
The value of building a model in incremental stages like this cannot be emphasized too strongly. It is
much easier to isolate mistakes and potential problems and it enables you to understand what is
happening much more clearly. Additions and changes can be made at any time and these are
incorporated immediately without the need to reset your model.
You can continue building your model using the part and machine that you have already used in the
Basic set of designer elements. However, as a quick way of selecting machines with different
appearances, there are some alternatives available in the 'More Buffers' and 'More Machines' designer
groups. First of all select the 'More Machines' designer group.
Add another machine to the model by clicking on Mc_ Wash in the designer elements window
and positioning the new machine to the right of the existing buffer.
In terms of its logical behavior, this machine is exactly the same as the machine that you added
previously; however, you will see that it's display has been configured differently.
Change the name of this machine from the element selector as before.
Its new name is : Wash
When prompted, enter the Cycle Time : 4
Now add another buffer following the WASH machine. This time use the 'Bf_ Count' designer
element from the 'More Buffers' designer group; you will find that this displays a count of how
many parts are in the buffer rather than showing the parts. Change the name of this buffer in the
usual way:
Name : QWeigh
Add another machine based on the Mc_ Weigh machine in the 'More Machines' group, and as
before set:
Name : Weigh
When prompted, enter the Cycle Time : 3
Rules
In order to make the model run, the last step is to enter the input and output rules which control the
flow of parts through the model in the same way as in stage 1.
Click on the Wash machine to select it.
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( note Wash is displayed in the select box on the standard toolbar) .
Click on the visual pull button.
Then click on the QWash buffer display.
Click on OK to accept the rule Pull QWash
Then for the WASH machine:
Use the visual push button to create the rule Push QWeigh
Next, for the WEIGH machine:
Use the visual pull button to create the rule Pull QWeigh
Use the visual push button to create the rule Push SHIP
( use the SHIP button on the VISUAL RULE Bar)
SHIP is an expression used by WITNESS to represent things that are outside the model. It is similar
to the WORLD expression that we saw earlier. When a part is pushed to SHIP, it leaves the model.
Rearrange the elements on the screen if necessary. It should now look something like this :
Anticipated results
You know that the time taken to process a widget now is :
3 minutes to produce
4 minutes to wash
5 minutes to weigh
Therefore the first widget will be produced ( shipped) after 12 minutes and one every 5 minutes
thereafter ( due to the limiting rate of the Produce operation) .
Therefore it can be calculated that after 100 minutes 18 will have been shipped. Use the statistics
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report as in stage one to confirm this for a run of 100 minutes.
Modifying the model display
You may wish to modify the way elements are displayed to enhance the look of the model.
Element displays can be selected and dragged around the screen with the mouse. You can also move
the display of several elements at a time by drawing a net around the elements with the mouse and
then dragging the net.
WITNESS allows you to lock displays on windows or display layers, and also to link the various
display items for an element together. To lock displays use the view/layers option or the window/
control option.
Many display items can be changed directly through selecting on the screen and using the toolbar
buttons e.g. fonts, colors and layers. All other items have their displays altered using the display
toolbar for an element. Element displays can also be stretched and deleted, this is done using the
mouse.
To delete a graphical display of an element, select the graphic to remove using the right mouse button
to access the context menu. Now select the Delete Graphics option to remove the graphic from the
window.
To stretch a graphic, select it with the left mouse button, then use the handles that appear around the
graphic as well as holding the Control ( Ctrl) button to change its size. Handles will only appear in
Graphical Editing mode and if the graphic is resizable. To enable the graphical editing mode use the
View\Graphical Editing menu.
As an example of changing the graphical display, we will modify the icon for the Produce machine.
Right Click on the Produce machine icon and select 'Update Graphic...' from the menu with the left
hand mouse button.
You should see the following:
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Double click on the icon on the dialog to show the picture gallery. Then choose icon number 3 and
click OK to select from the gallery and Update to update the icon display.
Your model display should now look like this :
This corresponds to the model STAGE2.MOD.
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6.3 Stage 3
Now we will add a conveyor and the packing machine to finish the production line.
To create a conveyor select the Transport tab in the designer elements window. Click on Conveyor in
the designer window to select it and then click below Produce in the layout window.
Click again in order to position the conveyor. In order to create the correct layout for the conveyor
select it again and then use the Ctrl key on the keyboard in conjunction with the mouse left hand
button to drag the nodes of the conveyor to the correct places. The mouse is positioned correctly to
move a node when the 4 way arrow display changes to a 2 way arrow display. Selecting and dragging
in this way the directional arrows in the center of each section of conveyor ( with the Ctrl key)
creates additional sections and allows the creation of corners.
Lay out your conveyor roughly as shown with the co-ordinate displays turned on ( Window/Co-
ordinates menu item) note that the dimensions are shown for accurate depiction. Note also that the
display grid/display/snap to grid are all options please see on-line help for full details.
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Add another machine to the model by returning to the basic tab in the designer elements
window and clicking on machine and positioning the new machine to the right of the end of the
conveyor.
Change the name of the machine in the usual way.
Name : Pack
Detailing an Element
You are about to enter the Detail form for the new machine. This is your first introduction to a very
powerful facility that allows you to change the characteristics and behavior of WITNESS elements.
Elements can be detailed in several ways:
The easiest way to access and change the details of an element is to double-click on the element
displayed on the screen ( that is, the machine icons or the buffer numerical display) .
Other options include:
Clicking once on the element s icon, then clicking on the detail button on the standard toolbar
Using the right mouse button on the element in the element selector and selecting detail.
Change the detail of the new Pack machine by double clicking on its icon. Enter:
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Type of Machine : Batch ( select from pull down list)
Batch Min. : 2
Cycle Time : 7 ( Note that we have always input a cycle time previously by waiting to be
asked. You can now see how you would change the previous answers to adjust the model.)
Press the OK button to accept changes to the Pack Detail form.
The packing machine packs two widgets together. Often this would be classified as an assembly
machine but in this instance where it is the end of the line we will leave it as a batch machine.
Change the detail of the conveyor by double clicking it. Enter:
Length in parts : 40
Rules
Click on the Weigh machine to select it.
Click on the visual push button.
Delete SHIP in the rule
Then click on the Conveyor path display.
Click on OK to accept the rule Push Conveyor001
Click on the Pack machine to select it.
Click on the visual pull button.
Then click on the Conveyor path display.
Click on OK to accept the rule Pull Conveyor001
Click on the visual push button.
Click on SHIP in the rule bar
Click on OK to accept the rule Push SHIP
Running the Model
Run the model again for 100 time units entering the index time of the conveyor when prompted to
be 1.0
After 100 time units we would expect just 8 to have been shipped when we take into account the time
spent on the conveyor and all the machines.
Adding a Variable Counter
To create a variable to record and display the output from Pack on the screen choose the designer
element VInteger ( integer variable on the variables tab) and position on the screen as you have
done with other elements.
Change its name to NumberShipped ( no spaces) in the usual way. You could also change its
name by double-clicking on it to go to the Detail page, and then changing its name there.
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We will now use this to count widgets that are packed.
Double click on the Pack machine to select it.
Click on the actions on output button.
Enter: NumberShipped=NumberShipped+1
This is an action that occurs for every part the leaves the Pack machine;
it increases the value of our variable by one for each part counted.
( it can help to select the element name from the element names assistant on the assistant
toolbar
see quick reference guide/helptext for details)
Click on the OK button to accept this statement.
Click on the OK button to accept the Pack detail.
Experiment with the way that the variable is displayed, for example:-
Draw a net around the variable ( name and value) to select it all
Change the font ( button on the display edit toolbar) to be larger and bold
Change the font color ( another button on the display edit bar) .
The screen should now look like this:
Run the model and see the counter display change as parts are packed.
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This corresponds to the model STAGE3.MOD.
6.4 Stage 4
Now we will add a breakdown pattern ( with variability) for the Wash machine and labor
requirements into the model.
Add a labor element to the model from the basic tab in the designer elements window. Position in
the layout window.
Change the name of this element in the usual way. Enter:
Name : Technician
Random sampling
In real life, operations are subject to a certain degree of variability. You can introduce this variability
into your model by using distributions. WITNESS provides a wide range of distributions for you to
choose from ( or lets you define your own, if you wish to use your own data) .
WITNESS uses random number streams to sample from distributions. You may either specify these
or leave WITNESS to assign different random number streams in different places necessary for
repeatable and proper experimentation.
Double click on the Wash machine and select the Breakdowns tab.
Click on the add breakdown button ( circled in red below) to add the default New Breakdown.
Change the breakdown mode to busy time from the pull-down list as shown below.
We will then need to tell the model how frequently the machine breaks down, and how long it takes
to repair.
Locate the cursor in the time between failures field of the breakdown mode section of the
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screen. Now you are going to use the distribution assistant to define this.
In the element selector window, select the 'Assistants' tab.
Expand the 'Distributions' heading to show all distributions available.
Right-click the UNIFORM distribution ( scroll down if necessary) and select Insert with
Distribution Wizard.
Enter the limits as 100 and 300, and press the Preview button. This can be very useful to
visualize the shape of the distribution, especially when more complex distributions are used.
Click OK to accept the information entered.
Click on the Repair Time field.
Use the same procedure as before to add a Triangle distribution
Enter the parameters as Minimum=30, Most Likely=60 and Maximum=120.
Click OK to accept the data entered & OK again to close the machine dialog.
This means that the Wash machine now calculates:
the time between breakdowns using the uniform distribution with equal likelihood of any time
between 100 and 300 minutes
the repair time using the triangle distribution to sample a time between 30 minutes and 2 hours
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with the most likely value being 1 hour.
Now we will add the rules for the Wash and Pack machines to use labor:
Click on the Pack machine to select it.
Click on the labor rule button then click on the Technician labor element.
Click on the Save button, and then on the Close button
Click on the Wash machine to select it.
Click on the labor rule button again, but don't select the technician yet
This time change the type from Cycle to Repair using the pull-down list. This specifies the task
that the labor performs on this machine.
Now select the technician again as we did for the cycle of the Pack machine.
Now that you have introduced breakdowns, you should run the model for a longer time, for example to
time 5000, to ensure that several breakdowns occur. This is so that you can see the full interaction
between processes and the competition between elements for labor. Even in this very simple model it
is by now impossible to calculate all model statistics manually.
The model should now look as follows:
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This corresponds to the model in STAGE4.MOD.
Running the Model
Run the model for 5000 time units ( use the batch key to run fast if you wish) .
As you might predict from the figures for breakdown, the wash machine is not keeping up with the
work rate.
Note the queue of widgets in front of the wash machine the number of parts in this buffer is growing
steadily.
The statistics for the wash machine ( use the right hand mouse button menu to access statistics)
show us that the time spent waiting for the technician to come to repair the machine is small
compared to breakdown times and therefore the main problem is the reliability of the machine itself.
There are a number of alternative options. We'll look at just two.
First let us try adding a second wash machine.
Double click on the Wash machine and change the quantity to 2.
Reposition the display by dragging the second main icon below the first note that as the display
items are locked the other queues and icon representing the second wash machine move with the
main icon.
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Your display should look as follows:
Running the model to 5000 now indicates that the wash is no longer the bottleneck of the system
however the bottleneck has just moved downstream.
A powerful way to see this is to draw a net around all of your elements, and right-click to select
statistics. This will initially show statistics for the Widget, and by clicking the double right arrows you
can move on to buffers, machines etc. With the machines shown, press the Chart States button.
This gives the graphical representation of how each machine was occupied, as shown below.
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The model statistics show that the machine Weigh is blocked for a large percentage of the time and
that the Pack machine is waiting for labor for a large percentage of the time. Therefore it is unlikely
that any extra Weigh or Pack machines are needed. We could consider more labor at this point, and
may have to however there may be other alternatives. Although the Produce machine is fully used,
we can see from the screen that the buffer in front of Weigh is getting full; so we may get more
throughput by clearing this.
And here is the power of simulation we can try out what-if scenarios to evaluate many alternatives.
What if we could improve the reliability of the Wash machine. It may be worth a Six Sigma project in
this area. But is it? Let us try what if the interval between breakdowns could be increased to
between 150 and 300 minutes or even between 300 and 500 minutes.
Try these experiments by altering the parameters in the uniform distribution on the breakdown tab
for the Wash machine.
The first has no great beneficial value. However if the second were possible then it would cure all
throughput problems and even remove the need for a second wash machine ( try this too!) .
This type of sensitivity analysis is a great result from simulation. What are the key production levels
that require more machinery or labor can improved control help e.g. prioritizing work at different
areas? All ideas can be tried.
Of course in reality this model would be more complex. It may include shift patterns, raw material
deliveries or availability and complex production rules. All manner of complexity can be included and
tried in models.
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6.5 Stage 5
Looking at the model in three dimensions
We have built our WITNESS model as a two dimensional representation of the facility drawn in plan
view. This can be extremely powerful for understanding the layout and the flow. In particular the use
of status colors to show what each machine is doing can add a great deal of extra information to the
display.
However, there are times when it is useful to see the model in three dimensions. Each of the two
dimensional shapes in the WITNESS picture gallery is associated with a 3D shape. By using the
Model/Quick 3D menu option, a three dimensional view of your model will be created. As you learn
more about using WITNESS, you will discover how you can make adjustments to this 3D display.
Beyond that, the WITNESS VR module is available to extend this to produce fully realistic 3D
simulations of your own facility.
You will notice that in the default 3D view that you created has all equipment at floor level, which may
of course be correct. It is quite simple to adjust the height of items in the 3D display, and indeed to
create additional floors if necessary.
Let us suppose that the Produce machine, and the buffer before the Washers are at an elevated
position two metres above ground. We will place this on a different 'layer' in the simulation model.
Draw a net around the machine and the buffer, and change them from being on the 'Simulation Layer'
to the layer called 'Floor plus 2 metres'. You will see that a number of additional layers are defined in
the Startup model.
If you now run the Model/Quick 3D option again, you will find that machine and buffer appear at an
elevated position as shown below. The 3D window contains a number of toolbar buttons to allow you
to navigate around the 3D world and change its appearance. You will find details about how to use
these options in the Help system.
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6.6 Summary
We hope you have seen how easy it is to build models in WITNESS, and how quick changes can lead
to quick results.
Remember that you can use models in a group environment; to get new ideas, develop them, and
obtain consensus by being able to try them out. This manual contains relatively simple models which
introduce WITNESS, although WITNESS is capable of handling large, real life problems as well.
The complete, visual and interactive environment of WITNESS is unique and really does allow
managers and engineers to obtain the benefits that simulation can offer.
As well as interactive experimentation WITNESS offers a number of methods to conduct experiments
automatically please see the help text for details of experimentation and analysis.
The WITNESS Optimizer offers extended experimentation with algorithms that provide intelligent
searches for good solutions. If you have the WITNESS Optimizer you can try it with this model.
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7 Case study: JETTY.MOD
This model is a representation of a jetty where ships arrive to deliver a range of products. The crane
labor element is used by the jetty machine to represent the constraint that only one ship may unload
at any one time due to only one crane being available. Ships can only pass through the lock under
certain tide conditions. The tide is represented by the tide processor element which has rising and
warning levels to set the state of the tide.
To open this model, start WITNESS and then use the file/open command or the open file button
on the standard toolbar to open J ETTY.MOD in the DEMO directory beneath your WITNESS
installation.
Use the Window command to view different windows which contain additional information.
A histogram of mooring delays can be seen by using the associated view from the histogram icon
at the top left of the window entitled Facility Overview. The window entitled J etty Utilization
displays a series of pie charts showing jetty utilization s.
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This model can be used to illustrate the power of simulation in determining how facilities can be
improved.
To understand this scenario fully, it is necessary to find out more information. This is a typical phase
of many simulation projects and generally you should do this before you start building a model. It is
vital to understand the process or business situation being modeled as fully as possible and to
establish the objectives of the modeling work to be done.
For this particular scenario the Harbor Operations Manager has been targeted with establishing how
business could be increased. Ships that pass this harbor have the option of using alternative facilities
a short distance further on. If the outer harbor area here is full, no ships will wait, and they will move
on to the alternative facilities. However if the outer harbor area is not full ( and the current capacity for
holding inbound ships here is 2 ships only) then all ships will wait.
The above story illustrates an occasion when a skilled simulation practitioner will, at the very least,
ask one or two more questions about this situation. When considering the alternatives open to the
Harbor Operations Manager, it is important to verify the accuracy of the above rules. For example, it
may be the case that the alternative facility owners may be enticing custom for some ships with
special two for the price of one offers. Therefore, it may not be the case that all ships will prefer
this harbor, even if they are given the opportunity. It is vital that you establish as much information
regarding the model as possible so that you can explore the what-if scenarios accurately.
In this case, we will take it that the above rules have been established to be true.
The timing data for the base case model has all been established and is already loaded into the model
included in the WITNESS installation. Timings include :
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Lock timing for one ship 20 minutes
Inter-arrival rate for ships NEGEXP( 60,1)
Crane Unloading time for each ship 150 minutes
Capacity of Outer Harbor Holding area for inbound ships 2
Capacity of Inner Harbor Holding area for inbound ships 3
Capacity of Inner Harbor Holding area for outbound ships 2
Number of Cranes 1
Tidal System
High tide to low tide in 5 hours. Low tide
to high tide in 5 hours. 1 hour at full tide.
Lock operation depth above 3 meter depth
The inter-arrivals rate NEGEXP( 60,1) means that, on average, one ship arrives every 60 minutes
( but spread randomly) . This random arrival pattern is represented by the Negative Exponential
distribution which is one of WITNESS s many standard distributions. The 1 represents pseudo
random number stream 1. You could think of this as an electronic die which is rolled whenever a value
needs to be used. In this way, different arrival intervals are set as the simulation runs. WITNESS
experiments are repeatable in that every run will generate the same samples of random numbers ( in
this case, the same arrival pattern) .
Again, the distributions and accuracy of timings and so on can be vital to the simulation results. If a
timing can vary between ten and twenty minutes, then you may need to model this.
Dealing with uncertain data
When data is uncertain, the best course of action is to use the best guess data available, but
make sure that sensitivity analysis on this data is carried out in the experimentation.
For example, if a timing is given as 10 minutes but it could be anywhere between 5 and 15
minutes, then ( if you cannot time it easily) use the value 10 in the model but do some model
runs with values of 5 and 15, and perhaps several values in between. If the different timings make
a significant difference to your results, then it is important that you establish the data more
accurately. The simulation model has proved that you need to know this data if you are to predict
what-if information.
However, if the different timings make little or no difference, then why waste time and energy in
establishing the data more accurately?
Let us now look at the base experiment with the model. A suitable run time for this model is one
hundred days. Please note that many simulation models should be run for a long time. This example
model contains a particularly unpredictable distribution in the negative exponential. It is this that
means that the model must be run for a fairly long time to cater for all the inherent variability in the
process.
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If your machine is not powerful enough and is taking too long to perform the experiments then try
shorter run lengths; although the results will not match the ones shown here exactly, the comparisons
between runs will probably still largely be indicative of the true choices. However, please be aware of
the problems of run lengths which are too short.
Several of the standard texts on simulation give full explanations of how to establish run length ( or in
the case of non-equilibrium situations, the number of replications with different random number
settings to be run) . In essence, you need to run the model until the model has experienced all the
variability a simple test of this is to look at the variability of the results over successive time
segments. That is, if the result from each 1000 minutes over a 10,000 minute run is the same, then
1000 is possibly the right length of run for further experiments. However, this can be misleading ( for
example, if the data contains one event that will only happen in a million time units then a million or
more may be necessary) .
To run the model for 100 days you can enter 100*24*60 in the box in the execute toolbar at the
bottom of the screen and then click on either the run or the batch ( fast forward) button. The
simulation model will stop at the entered time ( as long as the clock button by the side of the box
is depressed) .
To view results, display other windows by using the windows command. You can also look at the
standard result tables by using the reports, select all the elements in the simulation section of
the element selector and then click on the statistics button. The forward and backward arrow
keys in the reports dialogs enable you to move through the different pages of the reports.
As explained above, the results shown below represent a run of the base model data for one hundred
days, which is assumed to be sufficient in this case. This raises the question of which results should
be examined. In this case the key result is the level of business that is, the number of ships
unloaded versus the number rejected ( and consequently lost to the competition) .
Other interesting results include the average time that a ship takes to be unloaded ( from entering the
harbor) . This represents the level of service, which could affect the decision to return.
Other statistics will guide us as to the key options for change by indicating high or low utilization s of
different facilities, showing where bottlenecks occur in a process and where investment may help.
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956 ships have been shipped, the average turnaround time is 1102.35 minutes and ships at berth
positions have spent time waiting for the one crane available. If you examine the other WITNESS
results windows, the other key figures here are :
Crane busy 99.86% of the time
Lock busy 26.64% of the time ( however, from calculation it is available only 5/11 or 45.45% of
the time due to tidal considerations) .
It is often helpful to tabulate these results for comparisons with other runs :
Scenario Title Base Case Run
Ships Shipped 956
Ships Rejecting Harbor because full 1450
Average Turnaround Time 1102.35 mins
Crane Utilization 99.86%
Lock Utilization 26.64%
Berth Waiting for Crane 64.62% averaged over 3
jetties
Berth Blocked for ship leaving 1.58% averaged over 3
jetties
We will now assume that these results have been validated against actual performance data. This is
another vital step in many simulation projects, as if the model is inaccurate then conclusions from
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comparative runs may also be wrong.
Now we can examine the options open to the Harbor Operations Manager. In most simulation projects
there are usually a number of real-life options favored by the experience of the management of the
facility. This experience may uncover other data which may be relevant and need to be included in a
model. Often this experience will help you to decide the most useful options for experimentation.
However, it is also your duty as a simulation practitioner to explore the model that you have created;
to understand the relationships between the model parameters and to get to know the full dynamics of
the process. By playing with the model you can learn a lot which, in conjunction with other factors
such as experience, should help you to determine the best way ahead.
Some options may be ruled out as impractical or too costly. Cost is often to be taken into account.
In this example we will first simply look at the options which may increase the number of ships
served.
You may care to think about this yourself before proceeding. What options do you think may lie open
to the Harbor Manager ?
Some options include :
i. Increasing the number of unloading cranes
ii. Increasing the speed of the unloading cranes
iii. Increasing the capacities of the different harbor areas to accept more ships ( 3 separate
options here)
iv.Increasing the capability of the lock to handle ships for longer periods of time
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v. Increase the capacity of the lock
vi.Dredge the channels to the lock so that the lock can operate at lower levels.
There may well be other options which are dependent on the type of goods to be unloaded
alternative unloading mechanisms, different traffic organization in the inner harbor, and so on.
The results show that with the current situation the jetties are waiting for a crane for a long time.
Therefore our first experiment here may be to try adding another crane.
Double-click on the word crane on the jetty layout the jetty dialog should appear. Change the
quantity of cranes to 2 and click on the OK button.
Now run the model ( first begin and then batch the model) to the 100 day mark again.
The results this time show the following:
Scenario Title Base Case Run Two Cranes
Ships Served 956 1355
Ships Rejecting Harbor because full 1450 1055
Average Turnaround Time 1102 mins 647 mins
Crane Utilization 99.86% 70.68%
Lock Utilization 26.64% 37.67%
Berth Waiting for Crane 64.62% averaged over
3 jetties
14.69%
Berth Blocked for ship leaving 1.58% averaged over
3 jetties
22.69%
The comparisons show us that investing in a second crane would increase the number of ships that
can be shipped by 41.7%.
However the results also show that if this is done, the bottleneck is no longer the crane operation.
With berths being blocked for over 20% of the time there is now a bottleneck beyond this operation.
We can now try increasing the number of ships allowed in the inner harbor in the outgoing queue or
perhaps try increasing the availability of the lock.
To reset the capacity of the outward queue in the inner harbor, double click on the appropriate
queue and enter a capacity of 3 ( for example) instead of 2.
To change the capability of the lock, double click on the tide processor element, select the
warning levels page and alter both the rising and the falling level to 2. ( You can do this by
clicking on the level, altering the value in the box above and then updating the level) .
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Try each of these options singly and then both together, keeping 2 cranes in each case. This table shows the
evaluations of all five scenarios so far:
Scenario BaseCase 2 3 4 5
DATA
Number of Cranes 1 2 2 2 2
Outgoing Harbor Queue
Capacity
2 2 3 2 3
Lock availability in hours out of
11
5 5 5 7 7
RESULTS
Ships Shipped 956 1355 1379 1696 1705
Ships Rejecting Harbor
because full
1450 1055 1031 714 705
Average Turnaround Time 1102 647 626 488 473
Crane Utilization 99.86% 70.68% 71.93% 88.44% 88.91%
Lock Utilization 26.64% 37.67% 38.33% 47.14% 47.39%
Berth Waiting for Crane ( jetty
average)
64.62% 14.69% 14.17% 20.74% 21.02%
Berth Blocked for ship leaving
( jetty average)
1.58% 22.69% 12.82% 7.11% 1.94%
This shows that if the channels to the lock can be dredged to enable it to operate for 7 hours out of 11
instead of 5, this has a much bigger effect than enabling more queuing space in the inner harbor for
outgoing ships.
However all these results must be balanced with the practicality of the solution and the costs.
For this example we shall establish some costs:
Cost of an additional crane is $10Million ( depreciated over 500 days)
Cost of additional labor for new crane $1000 per day
Cost of dredging channels to lock $2,000 per day
Cost of increasing outgoing harbor queue to 3 ( through new organization/flow buoy installation/
extra drainage) $1,000 per day
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Profit cleared on normal operations for unloading one boat $4,000
Cost of third crane would be the same as the second
Cost of increasing other queuing capacity areas by one in the model is the same as for the
outgoing harbor queue.
Cost of building a second lock $10Million ( depreciated over 500 days)
Lanner s challenge to you is to establish the best option for this harbor, based on
the information given above. You can submit the result to support@lanner.co.uk for
verification.
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8 Conducting a Simulation Project
8.1 Overview
Projects which involve simulation have several unique aspects which must be managed particularly
carefully to ensure their success. The topics in this chapter outline a typical sequence of events in a
project, using a practical methodology:
establishing objectives
deciding the scope and level of detail in the model
collecting data
structuring the model
building the model
running the model
generating reports
testing the model
experimenting with the model
documenting the model
presenting the results and implementing them
8.2 Establish objectives
This is the first and most important phase of any simulation project. The aim of any simulation project
should be to make a better business decision. You, as simulation modeler, must understand this
business decision as it is likely to have important implications for the content of your simulation
model.
For example, consider two models of exactly the same production cell built for two entirely different
reasons.
The first model is built in order to discover the theoretical maximum throughput of the cell as it is
subjected to different product mixes. The model therefore contains detailed information on part
availability ( contained within a part file) and the cell's production schedule ( contained within a data
file) . Labor required to operate the cell at the maximum rate is not a consideration.
The second model is built to investigate the number of operators required to operate the cell
efficiently. The model therefore contains detailed information about labor priorities, job interruptions,
and shift patterns. In this case, the production schedule might assume less importance.
Thus the content of the models is driven by the business decision which needs to be made. There is
no requirement to represent every single feature of the real world production cell in either model.
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8.3 Scope and level of model detail
The scope of a simulation model refers to where it begins and where it ends. For example, consider a
model of a typing pool. The objective of the model is to decide how many typists are required in order
to provide a particular document delivery time. The typing pool could be considered in isolation.
Parts arrive in an in-tray ( buffer ) . Each typist takes documents from the in-tray, processes them
and pushes them out of the model ( to SHIP) .
Alternatively, the typing pool could be considered part of the paper-flow of the entire organization. This
involves shifting the start and end points of the simulation model to encompass more of the real world.
It is important to limit the scope of the model as far as possible. With regard to the level of detail
contained within a model, the golden rule is to model the minimum necessary in order to
achieve the model's objective.
At the beginning of the model-building process, small additions to the model lead to large increases in
its accuracy. As the model becomes more detailed, however, each subsequent addition adds less to
the model's accuracy. In fact, it could be argued that the addition of unnecessary detail could lead to
an eventual fall in the accuracy of the model. This is particularly true where you are trying to model
human behavior, which is often inconsistent. The graph below shows a typical relationship between
the level of detail of a model and the model's accuracy.
It is possible to use WITNESS elements to represent combinations of real world processes and
therefore to model a process at a 'higher level'. For instance, a manufacturing cell or even an entire
manufacturing plant could be represented solely as a WITNESS machine.
8.4 Data Collection
Information for a model is likely to fall into one of three categories:
1. Available - data is readily available and it is in an appropriate format that the model can use
immediately.
2. Not available but collectable - data is either in an incorrect format or it has not been
collated before. You might need to perform a small work study in order to collect this type of
data ( for example, timing certain processes manually) .
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3. Neither available nor collectable - data is not currently available and it is not easily
collectable ( for example, for a model of a new factory on a green-field site with new
machinery) .
If the data is neither available nor collectable, you must use estimates. You can obtain useful
estimates by:
1. Using manufacturer's data - Machine manufacturers often include information ( for
example, reliability data) in their promotional literature and machine specifications.
2. Sensitivity analysis - involves replacing an unknown parameter ( for example, a machine
cycle time) with a high value and a low value in turn and comparing the results of the entire
simulation. If the results are similar, then it follows that the machine cycle time is not a critical
part of the entire process and that a rough-cut estimate of the cycle time should be sufficient. If
the results differ markedly, then the machine cycle time is a critical statistic and further work
will be required to ensure that it is estimated closely.
Whenever you use an estimate, you should declare it as an assumption upon which the model is
based. If the model later proves inadequate as a representation of the real world situation, then it is
possible to scrutinize the assumptions upon which it was based.
8.5 Structuring the model
An important final step before building the simulation model is to structure it. This will identify the
most difficult areas for the model building and highlight any additional data requirements that may
have been overlooked up to now, such as a transfer time for parts between processes.
This plan typically takes the form of a sketch of the facility to be modeled. The plan should identify
which WITNESS element ( or collection of elements) is to be used to model each real-life process. It
may also contain information regarding the input and output rules to be used on key elements and a
summary of the actions language that needs to be included in the elements to give the necessary
degree of logical control. You may also incorporate other items ( such as the cycle times of machines
and the capacities of buffers) into the plan.
8.6 Building the model
It is recommended that you build the model incrementally, and that you test each stage thoroughly
before you build the next stage. If you do this, it is easier to find possible problems for a model than if
you have to search through an entire model.
Avoid the temptation to experiment with a model before it is complete. It is better to have a complete,
well-tested, model to act as a benchmark against which experimental results can be compared.
The main steps in building a model are creating elements ( defining, displaying and detailing them) ,
then linking them together with rules.
You can also build more complex logic into your model by using actions.
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8.7 Running the model
After defining, displaying and detailing the elements of your model, you can run it immediately, then
modify it by adding, changing or deleting elements. You can then run the model again in order to
assess the impact of these changes.
This ability to build a model incrementally, testing each section as you go, is a powerful aid to
productivity, and generates confidence in the validity of your model.
You can run the model in different modes, from step-by-step ( with full screen display) to a
batched time in the future ( with no screen display) .
There are many WITNESS features which aid analysis, including standard report tables and graphs
( which list the basic mathematical behaviors of all elements in the model automatically) , meteor
trails, elements flows and process views. You can also create timeseries, pie charts, histograms and
customized report tables and expressions in WITNESS.
8.8 Generating reports
When you have built and run your model, you can use WITNESS reports to help you choose between
alternative modeling scenarios.
For example:
In order to increase the utilization of machinery, you may be most interested in the proportion of
the time that machines spent in an idle state compared to the time they spent in a busy state
during a simulated shift.
In order to increase the throughput of your operation, you may be most interested in the number of
parts processed during a simulated day s operation.
In order to rationalize your work force, you ll be interested in the proportion of time that operators
of each grade spend busy.
In order to reduce wastage, you may be interested in the quantity of parts that were scrapped
during the simulated period.
In order to avoid losing customers because your queues are too long, you ll be interested in the
number of customers who failed to enter for this reason ( number of parts rejected) .
In order to estimate the life of your vehicles, you ll be interested in the total distance they travel
in a simulated week.
You can choose different types of report to run and you can output the report to a printer, display it on
screen, or save it to various types of file ( including CSV and HTML formats) . You can copy all
standard reports and graphs to the Windows clipboard and paste them into other applications.
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8.9 Testing the model
Testing a simulation model consists of verification and validation.
Verification ensures that the content of the model is consistent with your expectations. For
example, establish that the parts are traveling along the correct routes between elements and that any
labor used is attending to the correct elements in the correct priority order.
Validation ( which usually follows verification) investigates the accuracy of the model compared
with the real world. A typical validation exercise might involve providing a typical set of inputs ( for
example, a part arrival and production schedule) and studying a set of model outputs ( for example,
the average level of work-in-progress for a part, or part throughput times) .
The verification and validation stages of a simulation study are usually iterative in that they involve re-
visiting some of the stages already described. For example, the model may require the addition of
some processes not yet modeled, thus increasing the model's scope.
8.10 Experimentation
When you are satisfied that the model resembles the behavior of the real-life situation, you can
investigate a number of what-if scenarios. The scenarios should have been defined within the original
objectives of the simulation study.
Successful experimentation typically involves using a warm-up period or starting conditions, deciding
on a suitable run-length, and running the model with more than one random number stream.
A warm-up period allows the model to reach a steady state before WITNESS collates any results.
For example, it is highly unlikely that a production line would be completely empty of parts first thing
on a Monday morning, although the computer simulation would start from such a situation. A warm-up
period of, for example, one week would allow stocks to build up to a typical level. You could then
instruct the model to disregard the results for the first week and start to collate results from Monday
morning of the second week. You can use the model/options/statistics command or the model/
experiment command to specify a warm-up period.
A possible alternative to a warm-up period is to include some starting conditions within the model.
At time zero, parts are dispatched to various elements. The numbers of parts and their destinations
correspond to a typical work-in-progress situation. There is now no need for a warm-up period as the
model is being run from a typical real-life situation. You can create starting conditions by using active
part arrivals or dummy starting condition machines which process large numbers of parts at time zero
but are then made inactive for the remainder of the simulation.
You can also use part files to load a new model with element definitions.
Although most simulation runs require either warm-up periods or starting conditions, some situations
do not need either. For example, a model built to study customer service levels at a bank would
preferably start from an empty state since banks contain no customers when they open their doors
each morning.
Any experiment involves running a model for a specified length of time under different circumstances.
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The length of the run should be determined by a number of factors. The most important factor is that a
reasonable sample of random numbers is taken from each of the random number streams used in
the model. Each run should aim to use at least 10-15 numbers from each stream. If one stream is
being used to calculate a breakdown interval of between 1 and 2 weeks then a run length of between
20 and 30 weeks would be necessary.
Another factor is the reporting period of the real-life situation being modeled. It makes little sense to
calculate an optimum run length of 3 weeks and 1 day if you need to compare your model results with
a real-life situation which reports every 30 day period.
It is important to run any model with random activity by using several different sets of random number
streams before you can place any confidence in the model's results. Otherwise it is possible that the
results obtained are solely the consequence of one set of the random number streams chosen rather
than any model changes that you have made. You should compare each set of results; if you find any
uncharacteristic values, you should review and assess them and, if necessary, discard them.
You can use the model/random numbers command to reset random streams from antithetic to
regular, or regular to antithetic. Alternatively, you may use the model/experiment option to automate
the run of a model which uses number streams.
8.11 Documentation
It is a good idea to document the way in which you built the model, as it makes it easier to understand
if you ( or someone else) examines it at a later date. Such documentation should include the model
structure diagram. WITNESS also provides other facilities for model documentation, either within the
model itself, or externally to a file or a printer.
You can attach notes to most element detail dialogs and display the notes in the simulation window.
You can use these to enter descriptions of how each part of the model should work. You can also use
an exclamation mark in rules and actions in order to insert comments about the purpose of the rule
or action.
The sources of data used, the assumptions made and the results obtained should also form part of
the model documentation. If the project is documented as it proceeds then the documentation will
prove to be a less onerous task. It is recommended that any project documentation is completed
before the presentation of results as there is often less inclination to document a project which has
been laid to rest.
The WITNESS Documentor module allows the creation of a report from the names, notes and other
property fields within a model.
8.12 Presentation of results and implementation
The method of presentation for results depends on the size of the simulation project and the culture of
your organization.
An animated model provides an effective communication tool to support business decisions,
particularly if you have enhanced its graphical display.
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You should try to ensure that model results form part of the decision-making process and that the
model is not simply used to justify a past decision. Actions resulting from study of the simulation
model should be implemented. Otherwise, all your efforts will be wasted.
If your model is effectively documented, it will probably be used again, perhaps with changes made to
some of the parameters. The model will evolve to support better decision-making in the future.
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9 Modeling With WITNESS
This section provides an introduction to the basic building blocks of WITNESS and how you can use
them to build a model. The description is designed to give you an overall appreciation of the product
before introducing you to model examples where WITNESS s processes and features are explored in
more detail.
9.1 Elements: the WITNESS building blocks
A business or commercial operation might produce a number of different parts using a variety of
machines, conveyors, vehicles, other equipment and people.
A WITNESS model uses the same combination of parts, people, machines and other simulation
devices, called modeling elements, in order to simulate the operation being studied.
There are two main versions of WITNESS which offer different terminologies for manufacturing and for
service and process applications. This book is designed for people principally modeling manufacturing
applications. However the elements give scope for modeling other applications too. For example it is
possible to model logistical operations.
It is also possible to treat the manufacturing terminology in the product abstractly modeling people
or telephone calls as parts to be processed by different activities represented by machines, and so
on. For customers principally modeling non-manufacturing activities we recommend the Service and
Process Performance edition of WITNESS. Please contact Lanner for details.
As you become more familiar with the capabilities of each element, you will find that virtually any
aspect of your operation can be meaningfully represented.
9.2 Discrete Elements
These are displayed as dynamic icons and represent tangible elements in the real-life situation being
studied.
9.2.1 Parts
Parts flow through the model. They can represent, for example:
products ( cars, engines, etc) .
product batches.
a project progressing through a large corporation.
calls in a telephone exchange.
tiny electronic components or whole computers.
Parts can be:
displayed in different ways as an icon or a text description.
characterized by a particular set of attributes ( for example, weight, length, color) , which can
be fixed ( for every part of the same type) or variable ( for each individual part of the same
type) .
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handled in different ways ( batched, created singly or in lots, changed into other parts, many
parts can be combined into one part, or one part can be split into several parts) .
filled with fluid and emptied of fluid.
9.2.2 Buffers
These are places where parts can be held. For example:
parts awaiting an operation on a factory floor.
people in a queue.
the space containing aircraft waiting to land.
a hopper containing components at an assembly station.
Buffers can:
have parts arranged within them according to different ordering methods ( for example, first-in
first-out or by priority) .
be tied directly to machines ( dedicated buffers) .
hold parts for a specified minimum time. In this way buffers can be used to simulate equipment
such as ovens and operations such as settling or cooling.
hold parts for a specified maximum time after which they attempt to leave the buffer. An
example of a use of buffers In this way is to be used to simulate shelf life of components after
which they must be scrapped.
9.2.3 Machines
These are powerful elements which are used to represent anything that takes parts from somewhere,
processes them and sends them on to their next destination. For example:
a machine tool, lathe or a press.
a complete shop or a single supermarket checkout.
an organization which handles a project then passes it on.
an entire plant or an individual work cell.
Machines can:
be one of seven types, handling parts in a variety of ways.
model such factors as the time a machine takes to process a part, time between breakdowns,
multiple setups, multiple stations, multiple cycles, time to repair breakdowns and to set a
machine up, as well as labor for these events.
fill and empty parts with fluid.
9.2.4 Labor
This element can be used to model both human and physical resources ( for example, tools, people
or equipment) which may be required by other elements for processing, setting up, repair, cleaning
and so on. Controlling labor use is usually very important in modeling. There are many different
options available in WITNESS e.g. complex rules for allocation and the ability to take labor resources
away from an element so that a more important task can be completed for another element ( resource
pre-emption) .
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9.2.5 Conveyors
These are used to move parts from one fixed point in the model to another over time, both belt and
roller conveyors can be represented. There are two types of conveyors.
Fixed conveyors maintain a constant distance between parts. If the conveyor stops, the
distance between the parts on the conveyor remains the same.
Queuing conveyors allow parts to accumulate. If the conveyor becomes blocked, the parts will
slide together until the conveyor is full.
9.2.6 Paths
A path is an element that parts or labor units can travel along in order to get from one element to
another element. You can use it to represent the length and the physical route of a real life journey in
your model.
9.2.7 Tracks
These are the paths that vehicles follow when transporting parts. They also define points at which
vehicles may load, unload or park. You can model unidirectional or bi-directional tracks.
9.2.8 Vehicles
These represent vehicles, ( for example, Automatic Guided Vehicles, cranes, forklift trucks) which
transport parts. You can specify:
a variety of destinations and priorities for vehicles.
the time a vehicle should stop at the end of a track before going on to the next track.
a length of time the track remains busy after a vehicle has left it ( for example, to avoid
collision with the long train of the front vehicle) .
a maximum speed for a vehicle on a track.
the speed of a vehicle when loaded and unloaded.
vehicle acceleration and deceleration.
the time it takes for parts to be loaded and unloaded from a vehicle.
9.3 Power & free elements
Power and free elements allow you to model the specialized form of material transportation systems.
There are four types of power and free elements.
9.3.1 Network
The network groups a set of sections, stations and carriers together. There are two types of network:
self-powered and section-powered, and the type affects the behavior of sections and carriers within
the network.
9.3.2 Section
This is the path that carriers move along, the section must be part of a network. The network
determines the behavior of a section.
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9.3.3 Station
A point ( at the beginning or end of a section) at which you can execute actions either on the carrier
or on the entity in the carrier. There are four types of power & free stations: Basic stations ( allowing
simple actions) , Loading stations, Unloading stations and Parking stations.
9.3.4 Carrier
A carrier transports parts along sections or through stations, its behavior is determined by the type of
network it is on. If the network is self-powered, the carriers are active and propel themselves along
passive sections. If the network is section-powered, the carriers are passive and are picked up and
carried along sections by hooks ( or dogs )
9.4 Continuous Processing Elements
These are used to simulate models where continuous flow is a factor.
9.4.1 Fluids
Fluids represent liquids and free-flowing products, such as powder. They are displayed as blocks of
color that flow through pipe, tank and processor elements. Mixtures of fluids are shown bands of
different colors ( proportionate to the amount of each fluid in the mixture) .
9.4.2 Processors
Fluids flow into processors, undergo some type of operation, then flow out ( that is, they act like
machines for fluids) . An example of a processor could be a vessel in which a number of fluids are
mixed and then heated for a specified time. Processors can:
have calibrated levels, showing precise contents.
display the proportions of the mix of fluids in a processor as a percentage, together with the
names of the fluids.
have a minimum process level, below which the processor will not cycle.
be cleaned according to certain criteria.
break down according to certain criteria.
have specified rising and falling warning levels which cause something to happen when
reached.
change the name and color of a fluid on input or output.
9.4.3 Tanks
Tanks are continuous processing elements in which fluids may be held or stored ( that is, they act
like buffers for fluids) . Tanks can:
be cleaned at various stages.
have specified rising or falling warning levels, which cause something to happen when they are
reached.
change the name and color of a fluid on input or output.
be displayed in different ways.
display their contents in volume units on the screen.
display the proportions of mixtures of fluids as a percentage, together with the names of those
fluids.
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9.4.4 Pipes
These are the elements used to connect processors and tanks. Fluids flow through pipes at a given
rate. Pipes can:
be cleaned according to certain criteria.
break down according to certain criteria.
change the name and color of the fluid on input or output.
have negative flow rates.
flow with or without an output.
9.5 Logical Elements and Modules
These represent the data and reporting aspects of the model ( that is, control and information) . They
enable you to handle data easily, customize reports and build more complex logic into WITNESS
models.
9.5.1 Attributes
These are characteristics of a specific part or labor unit. For example, the number of cylinders in an
engine could be held in an attribute, and you could then use this attribute to determine the amount of
time required for tuning and adjustment. Each attribute may hold an integer, or a real number, or a
string, or a reference to another WITNESS modeling element.
9.5.2 Variables
Variables are values which can be accessed from anywhere in the model. For example, a variable
could be used to record the value of items in an inventory. In addition to variables that you define
yourself, WITNESS provides several system variables ( including one which holds the current
simulation clock time and one which holds the number of the current part in a batch) . A variable can:
hold an integer, or a real number, or a string, or a reference to another WITNESS modeling
element.
be set equal to an expression involving attributes, to a constant value, to a sample from a
distribution or to another variable.
display its name and value on the screen.
9.5.3 Files
Files allow you to take values that are relevant to the simulation and load them into a WITNESS
model, or save values from the WITNESS model to a file so that you can use them in another
application ( in order to produce customized reports, for example) .
9.5.4 Distributions
Distributions allow you to build variability into a model by including data which you have collected from
the real world. For example, if observations show that the milling operation on type X widgets takes
between 5 and 10 minutes but most often takes 8.2 minutes, the information could be introduced into
the model using a distribution. Distributions can:
be defined by you.
be one of the wide range of integer and real distributions already provided by WITNESS.
be either continuous or discrete.
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9.5.5 Functions
WITNESS provides a large number of built-in functions which you can use to build intelligence into the
logic of your model. For example, you could use a function to detect the number of parts currently on
a conveyor. You may also create your own functions. Built-in functions include:
reporting and status functions, for example, returns the number of parts in a specified element,
returns the amount of free space in an element.
random sampling functions, for example, returns a sample from a Normal distribution.
arithmetic and name functions.
Functions can:
display their name and most recently returned value on the screen as part of the model.
be created as elements and then be used repeatedly in the model with the same ease as the
built-in functions.
9.5.6 Part Files
A part file contains a list of parts; for each part in the file, you may specify the lot size ( how many
parts arrive at once) , attributes of the part ( for example, icon, color, weight) and the arrival time of
the part in the model. This is useful for modeling simple production scheduling problems where the
normal part inter-arrival mechanism does not allow you to specify part arrivals with sufficient precision.
You can also output parts from the model to part files. In this way it is possible to produce a part file
as an output from one model which is then used as an input to another model.
9.5.7 Shifts
The shift element is used to simulate a shift pattern ( or a series of shift patterns) which is, in
effect, a sequence of working and non-working periods. Shift patterns may be applied to labor and
other elements in order to simulate shift working.
9.5.8 Modules
A module is an element consisting of a collection of other WITNESS elements. Modules may be used
to facilitate black-box or hierarchical model building. You can define, display and detail a module
just like any other WITNESS element, and protect the module with a password. The options for using
modules are very extensive. Links to external module files provide concepts of inheritance.
9.6 Graphical & Reporting elements
These are graphical representations of what is happening to the model as a run proceeds.
9.6.1 Pie Charts
Pie charts allow you to present simulation results on the screen in the standard pie chart format. You
can incline the pie chart s display and pull out segments for greater impact. Pie charts are useful to
represent the percentage of time that an element spends in a certain state ( for example, that amount
of time that is spent in a busy or idle state) .
9.6.2 Timeseries
Timeseries allow you to present simulation results on the screen in the form of a graph which plots
values taken from the simulation against time. Up to seven values may be plotted with seven different
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colors. Timeseries are useful for determining the trends or cycles underlying the model since they
provide a history of the specified value as well as a mean and standard deviation.
9.6.3 Histograms
Histograms allow you to present simulation results on the screen in the form of a bar chart. This is
useful for determining the range of values observed for some parameter of the simulation.
9.6.4 Reports
Report Elements allow the definition of a custom report. This may either have the default display of a
table of values or a chart. The report element contains the details of the calculations to generate the
report which is usually based on the value of other functions or variables in a model.
9.7 Manipulating elements: Rules, Expressions and Actions
9.7.1 Rules
Parts and fluids are transferred between elements according to input and output rules on the detail
dialogs for those elements. Rules can:
allow you to model complex decisions about the transfer of parts and fluids based on almost
any criteria.
be entered semiautomatically by using a prompt feature in WITNESS.
contain comments documenting your logic.
direct parts and fluids to a variety of locations outside the model ( for example, they can be
shipped or scrapped) .
be created simply using buttons on the Standard toolbar.
9.7.2 Expressions
One of the most powerful features of WITNESS is the flexibility with which it handles values.
Wherever a value is required, you may specify a formula or expression ( if you use spreadsheet
programs you will recognize this concept) . Depending on the context, WITNESS either works out the
value immediately or stores the expression for future use. For example, a machine s cycle time can
be entered as an expression which is reevaluated each time the machine cycles.
9.7.3 Actions
WITNESS provides a simple programming language known as Actions. This shares similarities with
the BASIC programming language but reads more like English and incorporates help facilities. Using
actions, you can give WITNESS specific instructions about the logic of your model, allowing you to
model the calculations and formulae which underpin decisions in the reallife situation under study.
Actions can:
be used to introduce interaction between the model and the person using it, for example by
prompting them for specific responses at suitable points when the model is running.
be used at key stages of an element s operation ( for example, at the end of a machine
cycle, when a part leaves the model, before observations are plotted on a timeseries, when a
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processor finishes cleaning) .
be used to set the initial conditions of the model.
be used at any stage during the running of the model.
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10 Using and enhancing a WITNESS model
10.1 WITNESS Model Storage Formats
WITNESS allows you to save models and parts of models in several different formats. Some of the
most useful of these are :
.MOD Model file. This is the standard model save format. It includes all the definition of
the model in a fast loading format.
.SIM Model and status file. This is an extremely useful save format for WITNESS
models in that it saves a model at a particular point in a model run. When this file
is loaded again it is possible to view run statistics and even to run the model on
from that saved point in time.
.LST Library file. This is a text definition of a model file. It provides a way of looking at
a model file in a standard editor such as Notepad or Wordpad. The file can be
altered ( carefully) and loaded again as required.
.DES A designer elements elements file. This file format saves a single tab of a set of
designer elements to a file. This allows easy portability of designer elements
between models simply add another tab to the designer window in WITNESS
and load a DES file.
.MDL A module file. This saves part of a model ( or all if a single module) to a file for
re-use in another model. A designer module in the WITNESS designer element
palette links to an mdl file to define a whole model section at once.
.WXM A WITNESS model in XML format. Another text format of a model saved
according to the WITNESS XML schema.
10.2 Help
In addition to the WITNESS manuals and Help Desk support, on-line help is provided with the full
version of WITNESS. This is the most comprehensive documentation and contains hypertext jumps
and search facilities to move you quickly to the topic you require. Press the function key <F1>.
10.3 Enhancing the screen display
The following facilities are examples of the ways in which you can enhance your model and make it
clearer. You can add:
A backdrop display created in a CAD drawing package, by importing from a .DXF file.
Extra icons. You can also design your own icons, which can change color to reflect the status
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of the element that they are representing. Later, in the course of building a model, there is an
example of an icon library. It is possible to import bit-map files ( .BMP) , J PEG files ( .
J PG) , GIF files ( .GIF) , windows metafiles ( .WMF) , enhanced meta-files ( .EMF) and
Autodesk Drawing Interchange files ( .DXF) , these can all be used as WITNESS icons.
Text & Explanatory labels.
Lines for example, to indicate the flow of work in progress.
Boxes and ellipses for example, to divide the model into zones indicating operations or to draw
attention to certain areas.
Company logos.
Keys showing status colors for elements.
Audio enhancements ( using .wav files) .
Video enhancements ( using .avi files) .
You can choose:
Different colors for displaying text, lines and element names. Both background and foreground
colors may be altered.
Different fill patterns for boxes, circles or ellipses.
Different text fonts.
Different icon sizes.
To redefine the digital and analogue simulati on clocks to your requirements.
Display items can only be dragged, stretched, rotated etc after the button has been pressed
to enable the WITNESS 'Display Edit' toolbar.
10.4 Useful buttons
A complete listing of all menu commands and toolbar buttons is included in the Quick Reference
Book. Some of the most common are also listed below:
The open model button lets you open a WITNESS model.
The run button runs the model with the simulation visible on all currently selected windows.
The stop button stops a run in any of the chosen modes.
The step button lets you examine each step that is taken as the run proceeds.
The begin button resets the clock to time zero, clears statistics and sets elements to an
idle state.
The detail button lets you edit an element's details.
The display button lets you edit an element's display features.
The visual pull button lets you define a pull rule for a selected element.
The visual push button lets you define a push rule for a selected element.
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When activated ( pushed in) the run until button enables you to run a model either until
the time entered in its text box is reached or until an event occurs for a named element
The element selector
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11 Example models
11.1 Dem1.mod - Simple Assembly Model
In this model, a TOP and a BOTTOM are screwed together using two screws.
The assembly operation is modeled and is followed by a Test and Inspection operation after which the
finished parts leave the model.
1 Open DEM1.MOD. To see the model at its best, activate the walk button on
the execute toolbar ( by clicking on it) :
then run the model by clicking on the run button:
2 Adjust the slider control on the walk button to control the speed of the model.
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The detail for each element can be viewed by double clicking on its display.
The left hand buffer, TOPS, holds TOP parts which arrive in lots of 1 at variable times. The first
TOP arrives straight away. The middle buffer, BOTTOMS, holds BOTTOM parts which arrive in
lots of 1 at variable times. The first BOTTOM arrives straight away. The right hand buffer,
SCREWS, holds SCREW parts which arrive in lots of 6 at variable times. The first batch of
SCREWs arrives after 5 minutes.
The assembly machine, ASSEMBLY, pulls in 1xTOP, 1xBOTTOM and 2xSCREW parts and
cycles for 2.0 mins, merging all parts into 1xASSM part.
1xASSM part is output to the INSPECTION machine on the right, where they are collected in
groups of four and inspected for 5.0 mins before being shipped out of the model.
A timeseries, COST, shows two plots. A reading for each plot is taken every 5.0 minutes.
The first plot ( called RAW MATERIALS) appears when you run the model and is shown as a
yellow line. It indicates the value of the raw materials in the model. A builtin WITNESS function is
used to calculate the number of parts in each of the three buffers and their value.
The second plot ( called ASSEMBLY/INSPECTION) also appears when the model is run and is
shown as a dark red line. It indicates the value of all parts currently in the ASSEMBLY and
INSPECTION machines ( with the value of finished parts greater than the sum of constituents) .
The clock display has been customized to show the week, day and ( current) time in hours and
minutes. The simulation time is also shown on the run toolbar.
3 Try running the model in step mode :
Click on the begin button to return the time to zero and then use the step button.
WITNESS waits for you to press the <Enter> key or click the left mouse button so that it can
proceed to the next step, which occurs at the next unit of simulated time. Each step is
accompanied by a commentary in the window labeled Interact Box of what is happening in the
model.
Press the <Enter>key. Initially, a TOP part and a BOTTOM part arrive and enter the ASSEMBLY
machine. Keep stepping ( by pressing the <Enter> key) as the ASSEMBLY machine is waiting
for SCREW parts before it can cycle.
Another TOP and BOTTOM enter the model. They are not needed yet and wait in the buffers.
At time 5 a batch of six screws arrives. Two go into the ASSEMBLY machine and the rest wait in
the buffer. The ASSEMBLY machine starts to cycle and turns from yellow ( idle) to green
( busy) .
At time 7 the completed ASSM part goes to the INSPECTION machine ( which remains idle
because it needs three more ASSM parts before it can cycle) . The Assembly machine fills again.
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At time 18, the fourth part enters the INSPECTION machine and the icon turns green ( busy) .
Keep pressing the <Enter>key until time =20. At this point, the ASSEMBLY machine is blocked
and turns magenta because the INSPECTION machine is still busy and the ASSEMBLY machine
cannot output its part. It remains blocked until the four ASSM parts are shipped out of the model.
The completed ASSM part can then move from the ASSEMBLY machine into the INSPECTION
machine and then the ASSEMBLY machine can pull in four new parts to continue cycling normally.
Continue stepping through the model in this way and notice the changing status of the model and
the changing value of Work In Progress.
To stop the model running, click on the stop button.
You can stop the model at any time and examine the reports that were generated during the model s
run.
4 To access reports, click on an element and press one of the report buttons:
The statistics report button provides the most detail, selected elements are grouped by
type in the reports.
The summary report button provides a single line description of the detail logic for each
selected element.
The explode report button provides information on the current status of the selected
elements. It shows a list of parts currently at a location.
The used report button shows whether any elements reference the selected element,
and if so, how they are used.
Click on the >>and <<buttons to view the next or previous report in sequence.
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To look at multiple element reports use the element selector, if this is not shown use view/Element
Selector command to display it, which contains a tree of all the elements that you can select a report
for.
Expand the tree fully for the simulation branch by clicking with the right-hand mouse button on the
simulation branch, then choosing the expand all option with the left-hand mouse button. Then, using
the right-hand mouse button, click on the simulation branch again, then choosing the select all
option to select all elements. Finally, click on one of the report buttons to generate the reports.
( There are several other ways to access reports please try one of the other right mouse button
options and the screen selection including netting.)
You can see from the machine reports that, when the model is run to time 50, the ASSEMBLY
machine is idle for more than a third of the time, blocked for more than 10% of the time and the
INSPECTION machine is idle for more than two thirds of the time.
One of the ways that you could improve overall capacity would be to reduce the amount of time that
the INSPECTION machine blocks the ASSEMBLY machine by reducing the batch size and shortening
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the inspect time.
5 Try altering the model in the following way:
Doubleclick on the INSPECTION machine icon.
Edit the batch min field by clicking on the 4 and typing 2.
Edit the cycle time field by clicking on the 5.0 and typing 2.5.
Click on the OK button.
Start the model again and run it as before to see the difference in the blocked time for ASSEMBLY.
You should see that, when the model is run to time 50, the blocked time is reduced to 4%.
There are many other experiments you can try by changing other parameters in this model. Why not
explore some of these options and see how simulation can show the effect of changes to a process?
Further example: try decreasing the inspection time for 4 units ( batch minimum) to 4 minutes
and see the resulting decrease in blocking time to 8% for the ASSEMBLY machine.
11.2 Dem2.mod - Simple Logistics Model
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Open the model DEM2.MOD. This is located in the DEMO\TUTORIAL subdirectory of
your WITNESS installation directory.
In this model, parts called TRUCKS are pushed into the rear of a buffer WAITINGQ according to a time
profile of arrivals. Time profiles are commonly used in WITNESS and this model shows just one of the
ways in which WITNESS can define these. If you double click on the Truck name in the element
selector tree under Simulation you will see several detail tabs for the TRUCK entity. Under the Arrival
Profile you will see that 4 trucks arrive every half hour except for a couple of two hour periods in the
day when the arrival rate is raised to 6 trucks per half hour. With an arrival profile such as this
WITNESS will randomize arrivals at the given rate within the half hour periods.
Trucks queue in WAITINGQ until pulled by the LOADINGBAY machine. The loading bay activity
( machine) takes between 3 and 8 minutes for each truck. The time for each is sampled from the
uniform distribution.
In this particular model the loading bay has a problematical loading ramp. This often fails and needs
repairing. This type of event is modeled in WITNESS using the breakdown tab on the machine. Double
click on the display of the LOADINGBAY on the screen or in the tree and look at the Breakdown tab.
You will see that the ramp fails according to a distribution with mean of 4 hours and is takes between
10 and 25 minutes to repair. One of the strengths of simulation as a technique is that you can
evaluate the performance of systems such as this where parameters such as durations and
stoppages vary over time. When you run the model, you can see the trucks queuing up as they arrive
and have to wait their turn for loading.
A variable called TRUCKSSERVED is incremented by 1 every time a truck is pushed to served out of
the model. A timeseries called THROUGHPUT plots the TRUCKSSERVED number every 60.0 mins
and resets the variable back to zero. A piechart, which refreshes every 30 mins, reports on the
utilization of LOADINGBAY.
Another key statistic collected is the service time for trucks. A histogram on a second display window
shows a histogram of turnaround time for TRUCKS in minutes. Each truck records its time of arrival in
an attribute called ENTRYTIME. A record of TIME-ENTRYTIME is made in the histogram as a TRUCK
leaves the model. Run the model and examine the reports as before.
To improve service times you could, for example, alter the performance of the LOADINGBAY machine
by increasing the reliability of the loading ramp.
Try reducing the breakdown rate from 240 minutes average to 400 minutes average
and run the model again to see the difference in results.
Another plan might be to add a second loading bay try changing the quantity of
LOADINGBAY to 2. This has a dramatic effect!
To see significant changes it is sometimes necessary to run the model for a long period. This is
especially true where there is significant variability in the model. Look at the key result of average
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turnaround time ( shown in the histogram window) after you have run the model for 500 time units
and again after running to 2000 time units and note what the differences are. For the unaltered model
the results show :
SIMULATION TIME in minutes Average Turnaround Time in
minutes
500 13.15
2000 16.82
6000 20.80
10000 18.12
20000 18.19
30000 18.16
50000 18.07
200000 ( over 20 weeks) 17.90
This shows that it takes many minutes for the results of the simulation to become truly known. There
are many standard texts which explain in detail how you should establish simulation run time lengths,
or when you should choose to execute many different simulation runs with different random number
seeds. The above illustrates the importance of this.
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12 Model Gallery
12.1 Typical Manufacturing Model
A typical layout of a manufacturing facility model in WITNESS. It includes standard conveyors, robots,
machines, a carousel, manufacturing cells and a power and free conveyor system. It incorporates a
zoom view window and various customized reports.
One of the standard WITNESS designer module sets can also be seen.
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12.2 Typical Warehouse Model
A typical warehouse model in WITNESS. It includes conveyors from production and three different
uses of tracks and vehicles constructs in a high bay racking area, an AGV network serving P&D
stations and feeding a sortation lane system.
A repeat timeseries is included showing min, max and mean levels of stock per hour of the day and a
custom chart of throughput and service levels.
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12.3 Office Model
This model represents the layout and movement around an office complex.
It uses WITNESS path elements for modeling all movement routings and timings.
A key statistic in this model is the congestion at the cafeteria and the waiting times for people
completing registration and application activities. The element tree display shown is standard in all
models to enable easy access to data and reports. The table and central chart are standard reports.
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12.4 Call Centre Business Process
This model is a detailed business process model where each individual job carried out can be seen on
screen.
Each stage of the process is expanded to show the input queue, the entities being processed and the
human resources used to perform the tasks.
The model incorporates six sigma scores for achievement of the quality targets and process
throughput timing targets and a range of other custom reports and charts indicating other key
performance indicators.
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12.5 Airfield Logistics
This model shows an airfield logistics model where different strategies of local and central repair are
being experimented with for a key navigational component.
Success is measured in flying availability terms with the aim to keep all aircraft up and running for the
minimum spares cost.
Colored icons are used to distinguish components for different airfields, pie charts illustrate the flying
availability and fitting times. A special type of WITNESS timeseries shows the maximum, mean and
average repair loading across a repeated time period.
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12.6 Tracks and Vehicles
This model shows another example of WITNESS tracks and vehicles, with a shuttle mechanism
feeding parts to and from machines.
Parts are produced on four assembly machines from components held in the stores. The parts are
then taken at random but in equal proportions to one of five paint booths.
Colored icons are used to distinguish finished parts from the unpainted ones. Finally the parts are
baked, tested and dispatched. A graph shows production per eight-hour shift.
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12.7 Garage Forecourt
These models of garage forecourts show the ability of WITNESS to model at different levels.
Whilst one model is at the site level, the other models the exact distances between cars and the fuel
dispensers.
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12.8 Chemical Processing Plant
This model represents a chemical processing plant.
It shows the great variety of possibilities with WITNESS for the chemical and other process industries.
There are filling stations, logistics, production by order priority, recipes, multi-cycle reactors,
production planning etc.
Continuous modeling elements of fluids, pipes, tanks and processors are all available in WITNESS>
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13 Further learning resources
13.1 Learning More
Lanner has a set of learning materials to support users through their use of WITNESS. They are
organized like a target new users starting in the center and moving through to become experts by
the time users reach the outside. Materials are organized as self-paced learning and available online,
with the exception of the 1-5 day training.
The latest revision of the learning materials is available online via the MyLanner portal and is delivered
as part of each new WITNESS release. Teacher led Lanner Certified Practitioner Training courses can
be booked online at:
http://www.lanner.com/en/training-courses.cfm
13.1.1 Support
All users are recommended to invest in Support, Enhancements and Maintenance ( SEM) contracts.
Through these contracts you can access to the MyLanner portal in which you can:
Log and track support cases
Find solutions, tips and tricks out of hours
Download the latest product builds and learning materials.
MyLanner portal at http://www.lanner.com
In addition, for customers that have attended a Lanner Certified Practitioner Training course, the
support service provides an industry leading simulation modeling advisory service. This service is
aims to assist users if need to talk though a how to modeling issue.
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For users having Support, Enhancements and Maintenance
( SEM) contracts
To access the advisory service we recommend you send an email to support@lanner.com with a
description of your issue; a copy of the WITNESS model file and any associated files ( Excel) that
you are using. If your email system does not permit sending large attachments, you can use the link
below to post your files.
https://dropbox.yousendit.com/transfer.php?action=dropbox&dropbox=LannerGroup&secure=1
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14 Appendix
14.1 System requirements
WITNESS is supported on:
Intelor AMD processor
Minimum Processor Speed 2GHz, >2GHz recommended.
Windows XP service pack 3 , Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2003/2008 ( 32 and 64
bit )
Minimum 2GB of RAM ( >4GB recommended )
Approx. 1GB of available hard-disk space
800x600 screen resolution ( 1024x768 or above recommended)
DVD drive ( WITNESS can be issued on DVD )
USB socket required for Hardware Dongle ( on local computer) security option.
WITNESS requires graphics acceleration for best performance. Open GL or DirectX
acceleration. Examples include NVIDIA GeForce or ATI Radeon graphics cards commonly
supplied with PC's. Please ask Lanner for more details as the range available alters frequently.
Sound Card optional to support multimedia features such as sound files and video with sound which
may optionally be embedded in a WITNESS model.
14.2 Hardware Dongle (On a local computer)
1 To start to use WITNESS you should plug the supplied dongle in to your PC.
The supported dongle type is the SuperPro USB dongle. This device plugs in to the USB port on your
system.
2 Run WITNESS, when it finds no security code it will prompt you as a below.
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3 Press the License Administration button and the following screen will appear:
If the License settings dialog is NOT displayed then
Select the Security page
For the Licensing Method choose Dongle
Select the License page
This example shows that there are currently no software licenses supplied for this security device
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( Alternatively this screen may show some codes with an expired status or some codes valid for
earlier version of WITNESS) .
4 To request a new license security code press the License Request Form Button.
5 Fill in the details requested on the form and send it by email ( using the Request by E-
mail button) . Alternatively print it out and fax to Lanner at your chosen location. Then press
the Close button.
By return of fax or email, Lanner will send you a code consisting of 20 letters and digits.
6 When you have the code, please repeat steps 1-3 of the process above and enter the code
in the boxes at the bottom of the form, then press add license.
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It is not necessary to enter any dashes simply the numbers and letters. As you enter the last
character the Add License button will un-grey itself and may be pressed to add the license. If the Add
License button does not un-grey then please check the code carefully and if correct please contact
Lanner support.
Congratulations, a successful addition of a license will add a line to the dialog such as that below:
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14.3 Installation of License Server
These installation instructions are a quick guide to setting up the license server, so that it can serve
one or more run-time WITNESS licenses to WITNESS users.
Note: the License Server is not licensed to operate on a virtual machine environment. Please contact
the Lanner support desk if this is required.
In a Lab or teaching environment the machine chosen may be within the direct control of the Users or
the Tutor. In this way access to the machine can always be assured, should it suffer from a power-
failures etc.
In a large corporate environment, the most appropriate machine would be located in a centralised
server area, where its daily function is being monitored by IT personnel.
Installing the License Server Manager
You will need administrator rights to install the software.
To install the license manager the following steps need to be performed.
Run the Setup.exe in the Reprise License Server directory of the install
The installation will by default install the Reprise License Manager as a service called WITNESS
Reprise LM, and the service will be started automatically once the installation has completed
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The service is set to start automatically
By default the installation program will open the necessary ports in the Windows firewall. Ports
5053 (License Server) and 5054 (Reprise License Server Administration)
Once the Reprise License Server has been installed then a license can be requested and installed.
Once the Reprise License Server has been installed then a license can be requested and installed. To
request a license select Request Reprise License application from Programs | WITNESS Reprise LM.
You should now see a dialog like the one below.
The product can now be activated, there are two choices for activation.
Online activation
If you have received an Activation Code
Select Activate online using an activation code
Enter the Activation Code and then click on the Request online button
If the online request is successful then a license file is automatically installed
Start the web based license administrator (see Administrating the License Manager) and click on
the Reread / Restart Servers button and then click on the Reread/Restart button
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Offline activation
If you want to activate via e-mail
Select Request a license by e-mail button
Fill in the information
To request via e-mail click on the Request via e-mail button
If the server does not have an e-mail client installed then you can click on the Save to file
button which will allow the license request to saved to disk. The file can then be sent to '
LicenseUK@lanner.com' to request the license
When the license has been returned save the license file to disk and then click on the Import
License button and select the license file. The license file will be installed into the correct
location
Start the web based license administrator (see Administrating the License Manager) and click on
the Reread / Restart Servers button and then click on the Reread/Restart button
Administrating the License Manager
The Reprise License Manager can be administered by a web console. To start the web based
management console from the same machine as the license manager is running on type the following
address into a web browser http://localhost:5054
The web browser should now show the management console which should look like:
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The web based management console can also be accessed by other computers on the network by
typing in http://servername:5054 into a web browser where servername is the name of the server that
the Reprise License Manager is running on.
Note the "RLM Manual..." button to access additional information.
Also see Running WITNESS on Client Machine
Roaming a License
Reprise has the ability to allow a floating license to roam on to a computer which will subsequently be
disconnected from the network. Whilst disconnected from the network the computer will still be able to
use the roamed license for the number of days specified when the license was roamed. At the end of
the roaming period the license will automatically be returned to the license pool and the license will
cease to work. The license can be returned to the license pool early if required by reconnecting the
computer to the network and then deselecting the roaming option, this will return the roamed license to
the license pool and the computer will use a floating license the next time a license is requested.
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The License server is configured by Lanner to a maximum of 7 days consecutive roaming. From the
WITNESS toolbar menu, users can select
Help/About WITNESS.../License Administration, then select the License Server tab and
select the number of days to roam (up to the maximum of 7).
The minimum number of days that a license can be roamed for is 1 day. When a license is roamed it
actually roams it for the remainder of the day it was roamed on plus the number of days it was roamed
for. For example if you specify one day, the license is available until midnight tomorrow.
14.3.1 Running WITNESS on Client Machines
When using License Server security with WITNESS it is still necessary to install WITNESS on the
client machine, following the procedure in the "Getting installed and running" section of this guide. As
part of the installation process choose the License Server option.
After installation WITNESS will need connecting to the security system installed on the server. To do
this follow the steps below.
1 View the Reprise settings page
Run WITNESS.
On the Sign on banner select License Administration.
The License Server settings dialog will be displayed
If the License Server settings dialog is NOT displayed then
o Select the Security tab.
o For the Licensing Method choose License Server.
o Select the License Server tab.
2 Change the License Server server settings
On theLicense Server dialog make sure the Server Option is selected
Enter the location of the server where the Reprise License Server is installed.
o The default port will be 5053 so the entry will look similar to 5053@RepriseServerName
where RepriseServerName will be the name of your Reprise License Server.
Select OK
WITNESS will now restart and the licensing is complete
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15 Copyright & trademarks
Copyright 2011 Lanner Group Ltd
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means,
including photocopying and recording, without written permission of Lanner Group Ltd, application for
which should be addressed to the publisher.
WITNESS is a trademark of Lanner Group Ltd.
The information in this document is believed to be accurate. However no responsibility for its use is
assumed by Lanner Group Ltd. The information is subject to change without notice and it must not be
construed as a commitment by Lanner Group Ltd.
IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
Pentium is a trademark of Intel Corp.
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
Sentinel C-Plus B, Sentinel SuperPro, SuperPro USB and Sentinel are trademarks
of SafeNet, Inc.
NetHASP is a trademark of Aladdin Knowledge Systems.
OLicence is a trademark of Optimum Datamanagement Solutions GmbH.