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ONONDAGA COUNTY

ASH TREE MANAGEMENT


STRATEGY





June 2014






1A8LL CI CCN1LN1S

ACL

LxecuLlve Summary

1. lnLroducLlon 1

2. Lmerald Ash 8orer - An Cvervlew 1

3. reparlng for Lmerald Ash 8orer 2

4. lnvenLory of Ash 1rees on CounLy-Cwned Land 6

3. Ash 1ree ManagemenL AlLernaLlves Avallable Lo Lhe CounLy 7

6. 8egulaLory 8equlremenLs/ConslderaLlons 11

7. 1lmlng ConslderaLlons 11

8. roposed Ash 1ree ManagemenL SLraLegy 13
a. reempLlve 8emoval
b. ManagemenL of Wood WasLe
c. 8eplacemenL of LosL Canopy
d. reservaLlon of Plgh value Ash 1rees Lhrough lnoculaLlon
e. SelecLlon of esLlclde roducL
f. SLraLegy lmplemenLaLlon - ro[ecLed CosLs and Schedule
g. lan for llexlblllLy
h. ManagemenL of Ash 1rees ln CounLy-owned 1lmber SLands

9. lnformaLlon Avallable Lo 8esldenLs and Commerclal roperLy Cwners 20

----------

Appendlx A: Summarlzed ash Lree lnvenLory daLa
Appendlx 8: LsLlmaLed CosLs - CosL Curves and 1ables




LkLCU1IVL SUMMAk

Lmerald Ash 8orer (LA8) has arrlved ln Cnondaga CounLy and wlll evenLually klll every ash Lree noL
lnoculaLed Lo proLecL Lhem agalnsL LA8 lnfesLaLlon. 1he prospecL of Lhe loss of all ash Lrees ln Lhe
CounLy (approxlmaLely 1 ouL of every 9 Lrees) carrles wlLh lL poLenLlally slgnlflcanL ecologlcal,
recreaLlonal, economlc, publlc safeLy and quallLy of llfe lmpllcaLlons. ln parLlcular, lf noLhlng ls done Lo
manage ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy Lhese dead or dylng ash Lrees have Lhe poLenLlal Lo pose a
slgnlflcanL hazard Lo publlc safeLy.

1he goal of managlng ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land lncludes cosL-effecLlvely: 1) ensurlng publlc
safeLy, and 2) reLalnlng some of Lhe ecologlcal and soclal beneflLs LhaL Lhe ash Lrees currenLly provlde.
1hls Comprehenslve Ash 1ree ManagemenL SLraLegy has been developed Lo gulde Lhe CounLy's efforLs
Lo manage ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy.

1he CounLy began preparlng for Lhe arrlval of LA8 ln earnesL ln 2012 when Lhe CounLy LxecuLlve
requesLed LhaL Lhe CounLy LeglslaLure approprlaLe fundlng Lo carry ouL an lnvenLory of ash Lrees on
CounLy-owned properLy, an essenLlal flrsL sLep ln developlng Lhls comprehenslve ash Lree managemenL
sLraLegy. 1he CounLy owns 8,000 acres of land, lncludlng 13 parks/park properLles (e.g., sporLs faclllLles,
cemeLerles and a zoo), and ls responslble for 800 mlles of CounLy hlghway rlghL-of-way. LfforLs Lo daLe
have also lncluded an aggresslve monlLorlng program almed aL early deLecLlon of LA8 lnfesLaLlons. 1he
Cnondaga CounLy LA8 1ask lorce spearheaded Lhls efforL, and ln 2013 dlsLrlbuLed over 130 purple
Lraps, prlmarlly ln Lhe urbanlzed core. 1hese efforLs led Lo Lhe lnlLlal poslLlve ldenLlflcaLlon of LA8 ln 13
locaLlons ln Lhe ClLy of Syracuse, Lhe LasLwood area and Lhe 1own of ueWlLL. More have been ldenLlfled
slnce Lhen.

uurlng Lhe pasL Lwo years Lhe CounLy has been reachlng ouL Lo communlLles across Lhe unlLed SLaLes
LhaL have already been deallng wlLh or preparlng for an LA8 lnvaslon, wlLh Lhe lnLenL LhaL Lhe CounLy's
ash Lree managemenL sLraLegy reflecL and lnLegraLe Lhe lnslghLs and lessons learned from communlLles
LhaL have been deallng wlLh LA8 lnfesLaLlons for a number of years. Cnondaga CounLy, ln collaboraLlon
wlLh Lhe LA8 1ask lorce, has also been conducLlng a number of publlc meeLlngs aL varlous locaLlons
around Lhe CounLy and near Cnondaga Lake ark Lo educaLe Lhe publlc on LA8, Lo explaln managemenL
opLlons avallable Lo munlclpallLles responslble for managlng ash Lrees on publlc properLy, and Lo obLaln
publlc feedback on whaL conslderaLlons Lo Lake ln Lo accounL as Lhese plans are developed. 1he CounLy
held Lwo publlc meeLlngs (ln SepLember and CcLober of 2013) speclflcally almed aL accepLlng publlc
lnpuL on how Lo manage Lhe ash Lrees ln Cnondaga Lake ark.

1he CounLy's lnvenLory of ash Lrees has revealed LhaL Lhe number of ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land
wlLh LargeLs ln Lhe drop zone" (urop zone: Where Lree llmbs and Lree Lrunks are llkely Lo fall, 1argeLs:
eople, sLrucLures, Lralls or roads, parklng loLs, uLlllLles and oLher asseLs) ls 46,730. 1he locaLlons,
concenLraLlons, slze dlsLrlbuLlons, healLh and funcLlons of Lhe ash Lrees lnvenLorled are lmporLanL
facLors Lo conslder ln maklng managemenL declslons.

1he opLlons avallable Lo Lhe CounLy for deallng wlLh LA8 and ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy are
relaLlvely sLralghLforward, and lnclude: 1) preempLlve removal prlor Lo Lree morLallLy, 2) proLecLlon and
preservaLlon of ash Lrees wlLh pesLlcldes, and 3) planLlng of new, non-hosL Lrees Lo replace Lhe funcLlons
provlded by Lhose Lrees losL Lo LA8.



Cnondaga CounLy wlll lmplemenL a balanced or selecLlve" ash Lree managemenL sLraLegy. 1he beneflL
of Lhls balanced approach ls LhaL managemenL of ash Lrees can be opLlmlzed aL each locaLlon, preservlng
Lree funcLlons where Lhey provlde Lhe greaLesL value, resLorlng losL canopy over Llme ln oLher locaLlons,
and preempLlvely removlng less valuable Lrees before Lhey become a safeLy hazard. 1he CounLy's
program feaLures Lhe followlng key elemenLs:

1) reempLlve removal of approxlmaLely 93 of lnvenLorled ash Lrees over a perlod of 10 years (a
llLLle over 44,000 Lrees).

2) 8eplacemenL of approxlmaLely 10 of removed Lrees, phased over 10 years, prlmarlly ln Lhe
CounLy's parks, wlLh non-lnvaslve, non-hose Lree specles (a llLLle over 4,400 replacemenL Lrees).

3) reservaLlon of approxlmaLely 3 of lnvenLorled ash Lrees. 1hese wlll be carefully chosen, hlgh
value ash Lrees LhaL provlde slgnlflcanL amenlLles for up Lo 23 years (approxlmaLely 2,300 ash
Lrees).

1o carry ouL Lhe CounLy's Ash 1ree ManagemenL SLraLegy, Lhe CounLy Cfflce of LnvlronmenL wlll enLer
lnLo an AgreemenL wlLh Lhe Cnondaga CounLy Soll & WaLer ConservaLlon ulsLrlcL (SWCu) Lo prepare bld
documenLs, admlnlsLer conLracLs wlLh vendors and Lo oversee Lree removal and replacemenL. 1he
SWCu wlll also asslsL Lhe CounLy wlLh oLher LA8 assoclaLed acLlvlLles such as monlLorlng for lnfesLaLlons,
communlLy ouLreach and coordlnaLlon wlLh oLher munlclpallLles wlLhln Lhe counLy. lL ls esLlmaLed LhaL
Lhe cosL for Lhe SWCu Lo provlde Lhese servlces Lo Lhe CounLy wlll be $80,000/year. 1hough noL parL of
Lhese admlnlsLraLlve and overslghL cosLs, lL ls also expecLed LhaL Lhe SWCu wlll be responslble for
lnoculaLlng Lrees selecLed for preservaLlon.

1he pro[ecLed cosL Lo carry ouL Lhe CounLy's ash Lree managemenL sLraLegy over Lhe nexL 23 years ls
approxlmaLely $13.3 mllllon, $13.3 mllllon lf pald for Lhrough Lhe lssuance of bonds. ln round numbers,
esLlmaLed ash Lree managemenL cosLs lnclude:

LsLlmaLed Lree removal cosLs (over 10 years): $ 9.6 mllllon
LsLlmaLed Lree replacemenL cosLs (over 10 years): $ 1.3 mllllon
LsLlmaLed Lree lnoculaLlon cosLs (over 23 years): $ 1.6 mllllon
LsLlmaLed admlnlsLraLlve/overslghL cosLs (over 10 years): $ .8 mllllon
LsLlmaLed LoLal cosL (over 23 years): $13.3 mllllon
LsLlmaLed cosL Lo reLlre debL lf bonds are lssued: $ 1.8 mllllon
LsLlmaLed LoLal cosL lf bonds are lssued: $13.3 mllllon

1

Introduct|on

Lmerald Ash 8orer (LA8) has arrlved ln Cnondaga CounLy and wlll evenLually klll every ash Lree noL
lnoculaLed Lo proLecL Lhem agalnsL LA8 lnfesLaLlon. 1he prospecL of Lhe loss of all ash Lrees ln Lhe
CounLy (approxlmaLely 1 ouL of every 9 Lrees) carrles wlLh lL poLenLlally slgnlflcanL ecologlcal,
recreaLlonal, economlc, publlc safeLy and quallLy of llfe lmpllcaLlons. ln parLlcular, lf noLhlng ls done Lo
manage ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy, Lhese dead or dylng ash Lrees have Lhe poLenLlal Lo pose a
slgnlflcanL hazard Lo publlc safeLy.

1he goal of managlng ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land lncludes cosL-effecLlvely: 1) ensurlng publlc
safeLy, and 2) reLalnlng some of Lhe ecologlcal and soclal beneflLs LhaL Lhe ash Lrees currenLly provlde.
1hls Comprehenslve Ash 1ree ManagemenL SLraLegy has been developed Lo gulde Lhe CounLy's efforLs
Lo manage ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy. CLher efforLs descrlbed brlefly aL Lhe end of Lhls
documenL are underway Lo asslsL oLher munlclpallLles and resldenLs conLend wlLh Lhe challenges posed
by LA8.

Lmera|d Ash 8orer - An Cverv|ew

Lmerald ash borer (LA8) ls a small lnvaslve green beeLle LhaL lnfesLs and kllls all
specles of ash (lraxlnus) Lrees. LA8 has been ln Lhe u.S. slnce Lhe mld-1990s and
was llkely lnLroduced Lhrough wood packlng maLerlal ln Mlchlgan where lL was
dlscovered ln 2002. 1he flrsL dlscovery ln new ?ork was ln 2009 ln 8andolph,
CaLLaraugus CounLy. lL has slnce been found ln 13 oLher counLles ln new ?ork,
lncludlng Cnondaga CounLy ln 2013.








1h|s map, deve|oped by
the New ork State
Department of Lnv|ron.
Conservat|on, dep|cts
the re|at|ve r|sk to ash
trees |n the v|c|n|ty of
known LA8 |nfestat|ons
|n New ork State.
2

Cnce an ash Lree becomes lnfesLed wlLh LA8, Lhe Lree wlll Lyplcally dle wlLhln 2-7 years, dependlng upon
Lhe lnLenslLy of Lhe lnfesLaLlon and Lhe healLh of Lhe Lree. !usL as almosL no elm Lrees survlved Lhe
uuLch Llm ulsease ln Lhe pasL, almosL no ash Lrees wlll survlve Lhls lnvaslon of LA8 unless LreaLed wlLh
pesLlcldes. As ash Lrees ln CenLral new ?ork begln Lo dle as a consequence of LA8 lnfesLaLlons, Lhese
dead and dylng Lrees wlll pose a slgnlflcanL hazard Lo publlc safeLy. uolng noLhlng abouL ash Lrees on
CounLy-owned properLy ls noL an opLlon.

repar|ng for Lmera|d Ash 8orer

1he CounLy began preparlng for Lhe arrlval of LA8 ln earnesL ln 2012. Cnondaga CounLy recognlzes Lhe
lnherenL values and beneflLs LhaL all Lrees provlde Lo Lhls communlLy. 1rees help Lo remove polluLanLs
from Lhe alr and waLer, capLure sLormwaLer LhaL carrles polluLanLs and conLrlbuLes Lo floodlng and
lmpacLs on Lhe CounLy's comblned sewer sysLem (CSC), provldes shade ln parks, along Lralls, roads,
parklng loLs and for bulldlngs, whlch provldes cool rellef (and saves cosLs) on hoL summer days, and Lhelr
presence lncreases our quallLy of llfe, beneflLlng lndlvlduals and Lhe enLlre reglon allke. 1he acLlons
Laken by Lhe CounLy ln Lhe preparaLlon for LA8 and ln Lhe developmenL of Lhls comprehenslve sLraLegy
reflecL Lhls lmporLanL undersLandlng.

AnLlclpaLlng Lhe evenLual arrlval of LA8 ln
Cnondaga CounLy, ln 2012 Lhe CounLy
LxecuLlve asked Cornell CooperaLlve
LxLenslon of Cnondaga CounLy Lo esLabllsh
a communlLy-wlde LA8 1ask lorce,
comprlsed of experLs, educaLors,
regulaLors, munlclpal offlclals, uLlllLles and
oLher sLakeholders Lo begln Lo coordlnaLe
a CommunlLy-wlde LA8 preparedness
efforLs. Slnce Lhen Lhe 1ask lorce has
been meeLlng monLhly Lo explore
opporLunlLles for sharlng lnformaLlon,
Lechnology, equlpmenL and conLracLs, and
Lo educaLe Lhe publlc on LA8 and Lhe
challenges lL poses.
Cnondaga CounLy LA8 1ask lorce


1haL same year Lhe CounLy LxecuLlve also requesLed LhaL
Lhe CounLy LeglslaLure approprlaLe fundlng Lo carry ouL an
lnvenLory of ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy, an
essenLlal flrsL sLep ln developlng Lhls comprehenslve ash
Lree managemenL sLraLegy. 1he CounLy owns
approxlmaLely 8,000 acres of land, lncludlng 13 parks/park
properLles (e.g., sporLs faclllLles, cemeLerles and a zoo), and
ls responslble for 800 mlles of CounLy hlghway rlghL-of-way.
1o carry ouL Lhe lnvenLory Lhe CounLy enLered lnLo an
agreemenL wlLh Lhe Cnondaga CounLy Soll & WaLer
ConservaLlon ulsLrlcL.

3

ln 2013 Lhe CounLy LxecuLlve soughL,
and Lhe CounLy LeglslaLure
approprlaLed an addlLlonal $230,000 Lo
compleLe Lhe lnvenLory, summarlze and
analyze Lhe daLa, develop Lhls
comprehenslve ash Lree managemenL
sLraLegy and Lo begln preempLlvely
removlng prlorlLy ash Lrees LhaL already
exhlblL slgnlflcanL damage or decllne
(Lhough noL necessarlly due Lo LA8).
1hese are Lrees LhaL are noL sulLable for
preservaLlon Lhrough lnoculaLlon, and
are llkely Lo become safeLy hazards
sooner Lhan oLher ash Lrees ln Lhe
CounLy.

uurlng Lhe pasL Lwo years Lhe CounLy
has been reachlng ouL Lo communlLles
across Lhe unlLed SLaLes LhaL have Ash 1ree 8emoval ln Cnondaga Lake ark WlnLer 2014
already been deallng wlLh or preparlng
for an LA8 lnvaslon, wlLh Lhe lnLenL LhaL Lhe CounLy's ash Lree managemenL sLraLegy reflecL and
lnLegraLe Lhe lnslghLs and lessons learned from communlLles LhaL have been deallng wlLh LA8
lnfesLaLlons for a number of years. 1hls efforL was enhanced ln 2013 by a collaboraLlve efforL wlLh Lhe
Syracuse unlverslLy Maxwell School. 1he CapsLone SLudenL ro[ecL" lnvolved graduaLe sLudenLs from
Lhe Syracuse unlverslLy Maxwell School of CommunlcaLlon who lnLervlewed and engaged ln
conversaLlons wlLh urban foresLry and munlclpal park sLaff and oLher ClLy and CounLy offlclals ln 18
sLaLes, generaLlng 32 case sLudles of how Lhey have been deallng wlLh or preparlng for Lhe Lmerald Ash
8orer. lnserL Web Llnk Lo CapsLone SLudy on Lnv. Web SlLe

Cnondaga CounLy, ln collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe Cnondaga CounLy LA8 1ask lorce, has also been conducLlng
a number of publlc meeLlngs aL varlous locaLlons around Lhe CounLy and near Cnondaga Lake ark Lo
educaLe Lhe publlc on LA8, Lo explaln managemenL opLlons avallable Lo munlclpallLles responslble for
managlng ash Lrees on publlc properLy,
and Lo obLaln publlc feedback on whaL
conslderaLlons Lo Lake ln Lo accounL as
Lhese plans are developed. 1he CounLy
held Lwo publlc meeLlngs (ln SepLember
and CcLober of 2013) speclflcally almed aL
accepLlng publlc lnpuL on how Lo manage
Lhe ash Lrees ln Cnondaga Lake ark
(Wlllow 8ay area plcLured aL lefL).

ln november of 2013 Lhe CounLy lnvlLed a
number of experLs and sLakeholders Lo
dlscuss conslderaLlons assoclaLed wlLh
Lree replacemenL ln Cnondaga Lake ark.
1hose ln aLLendance lncluded
represenLaLlves from Lhe CounLy arks
4

ueparLmenL, Lhe CounLy Cfflce of LnvlronmenL, Lhe Cnondaga CounLy Soll & WaLer ConservaLlon
ulsLrlcL, Lhe College of LnvlronmenLal Sclence and loresLry, Cornell CooperaLlve LxLenslon and Lhe
Cnondaga naLlon.

LfforLs Lo daLe have also lncluded an aggresslve monlLorlng program almed aL early deLecLlon of LA8
lnfesLaLlons. 1he LA8 1ask lorce, ln cooperaLlon wlLh Lhe SLaLe ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenLal
ConservaLlon, spearheaded Lhls efforL, and ln 2013 dlsLrlbuLed over 130 purple Lraps, prlmarlly ln Lhe
urbanlzed core.

UkLL 1kA LCCA1ICNS IN CNCNDAGA CCUN1 IN 2013
3

1he CounLy also collaboraLed wlLh Lhe SLaLe
ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenLal ConservaLlon,
Cornell CooperaLlve LxLenslon of Cnondaga CounLy
and Lhe CounLy Soll & WaLer ConservaLlon ulsLrlcL
ln 2013 Lo supplemenL Lhe neLwork of purple Lraps
by esLabllshlng addlLlonal senLlnel Lrees"
(deslgned Lo aLLracL any LA8 ln Lhe vlclnlLy)
LhroughouL Lhe more rural areas of Lhe CounLy.
1hese comblned efforLs have led Lo Lhe poslLlve
ldenLlflcaLlon of LA8 ln 13 locaLlons ln Lhe ClLy of
Syracuse, Lhe LasLwood area and Lhe 1own of
ueWlLL.

Cnce Lhe LA8 was found ln Lhe CounLy, experL LsLabllshlng a SenLlnel 1ree ln 2013
members of Lhe LA8 1ask lorce began dellmlLlng
Lhe geographlc exLenL of Lhe lnfesLaLlons, whlch wlll furLher enable munlclpallLles Lo LargeL resources
lnLo crlLlcal areas and hopefully slow Lhe spread of LA8. LxperLs from Lhe College of LnvlronmenLal
Sclence and loresLry, who parLlclpaLe on Lhe LA8 1ask lorce, are now underLaklng an efforL Lo daLe"
Lhe exlsLlng lnfesLaLlons ln order Lo deLermlne how long LA8 mlghL have been ln Lhe CounLy. Cn-golng
LA8 deLecLlon efforLs and mapplng of lnfesLaLlons wlll conLlnue Lo be crlLlcal Lo efforLs Lo manage LA8
and Lo LargeL resources golng forward.

kNCWN LA8 INILS1A1ICNS WI1nIN CNCNDAGA CCUN1 - MAkCn 2014
1kLLS W1InIN 10 MILLS CI kNCWN INILS1A1ICNS (kLD DC1S) SnCULD 8L 1kLA1LD NCW























6

Inventory of Ash 1rees on County-owned |and

1he lnvenLory of ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land lncludes only Lhose ash Lrees wlLh LargeLs ln Lhe drop
zone," or where Lree llmbs and Lree Lrunks are llkely Lo fall. 1argeLs can lnclude people, sLrucLures, Lralls
or roads, parklng loLs, uLlllLles and oLher asseLs. Ash Lrees ln lsolaLed locaLlons, and Lherefore whlch wlll
noL pose a safeLy hazard when Lhey dle and fall, have been excluded from Lhe lnvenLory. 1he lnvenLory
daLa base lncludes lnformaLlon on
each Lree, such as CS locaLlon,
Lhe slze of Lhe Lree (measured as
dlameLer aL breasL helghL, or
u8P) and Lhe healLh of Lhe Lree
(wheLher Lhere are exlsLlng
damages or healLh lssues
assoclaLed wlLh Lhe Lree's Lrunk or
leaf canopy).

Inventory kesu|ts:

1he lnvenLory has revealed LhaL
Lhe number of ash Lrees on
CounLy-owned land wlLh LargeLs
ln Lhe drop zone ls 46,730. 1he
locaLlons, concenLraLlons, slze
dlsLrlbuLlons, healLh and funcLlons
of Lhe ash Lrees lnvenLorled are Lxample of lnvenLory Map of Ash 1ree LocaLlons
lmporLanL facLors Lo conslder ln Cnondaga Lake CuLleL
maklng managemenL declslons.

1he dlsLrlbuLlon of ash Lree slzes on CounLy-owned properLy, measured as dlameLer aL breasL helghL,
was found Lo be Lyplcal, wlLh a large percenLage of smaller dlameLer Lrees (less Lhan 12"), and
dlmlnlshlng numbers of Lrees as Lhe dlameLers lncreased (see flgure on followlng page).

Whlle Lhe CounLy's ash Lree lnvenLory reflecLs a Lyplcal dlsLrlbuLlon across dlameLer ranges, cerLaln
locaLlons do reflecL noLable concenLraLlons of ash Lrees of parLlcular slze ranges, whlch can be an
lmporLanL facLor ln deLermlnlng how besL Lo manage Lhe ash Lrees ln speclflc locaLlons. lor example,
Lhe overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of ash Lrees along Cnondaga Lake ark's WesL Shore 1rall are less Lhan slx
lnches ln dlameLer, whlle Lhe Wlllow 8ay area of Cnondaga Lake ark ls comprlsed predomlnanLly of
larger ash Lrees, whlch glve Wlllow 8ay lLs characLer and offers subsLanLlal shade Lo park paLrons
plcnlcklng and/or recreaLlng Lhere. 8emoval of all ash Lrees ln Lhe Wlllow 8ay area would dramaLlcally
alLer Lhe characLer of Lhls lnLenslvely used porLlon of Cnondaga Lake ark.

1he ash Lree lnvenLory also allows Lhe CounLy Lo ldenLlfy Lhe number and locaLlons of Lhose ash Lrees
LhaL are poor candldaLes for preservaLlon. 1he currenL healLh of an ash Lree ls an lmporLanL facLor ln
conslderlng lLs sulLablllLy for preservaLlon Lhrough Lhe use of pesLlcldes. 1he raLe of success ln aLLempLs
Lo preserve ash Lrees Lhrough Lhe use of pesLlcldes can be low for Lrees LhaL already exhlblL damage Lo
Lhe Lrunk or decllne ln leaf canopy. Ash Lrees exhlblLlng Lhese characLerlsLlcs are ldenLlfled ln Lhe
lnvenLory. Appendlx A lncludes a summary of CounLy ash Lree lnvenLory daLa.
7



Slze ulsLrlbuLlon of Ash 1rees on CounLy-Cwned roperLy





1he raLe of success ln aLLempLs Lo preserve ash Lrees
Lhrough Lhe use of pesLlcldes can be low for Lrees LhaL
already exhlblL damage Lo Lhe Lrunk or decllne ln leaf
canopy. Ash Lrees exhlblLlng Lhese characLerlsLlcs are
ldenLlfled ln Lhe lnvenLory. lcLured rlghL ls an example
of canopy dle back ln an ash Lree ln Cnondaga Lake
ark.

8

Ash 1ree Management A|ternat|ves Ava||ab|e to the County

1he goal of managlng ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land lncludes cosL-effecLlvely: 1) ensurlng publlc
safeLy, and 2) reLalnlng some of Lhe ecologlcal and soclal beneflLs LhaL Lhe ash Lrees currenLly provlde.
Ash Lree managemenL alLernaLlves avallable Lo Lhe CounLy lnclude:

uo noLhlng (allow naLure Lo Lake lLs course)
reempLlve removal of all ash Lrees
re-empLlve removal of all ash Lrees wlLh some percenLage of replacemenL/resLoraLlon
planLlngs
lnoculaLlon of all ash Lrees LhaL can be proLecLed from LA8 by use of pesLlcldes (agaln, noL all
Lrees can be saved wlLh lnoculaLlon, elLher because of damage Lo Lhe Lree or exlsLlng poor Lree
healLh)
Some comblnaLlon of pre-empLlve removal, Lree replacemenL and Lree preservaLlon Lhrough
pesLlclde lnoculaLlon

ollcy conslderaLlons for esLabllshlng ash Lree managemenL declslons on CounLy-owned properLy dlffer
from one locaLlon Lo Lhe nexL based on slLe condlLlons and use of Lhe slLe. 1haL ls, no slngle approach ls
sulLable for all locaLlons. lor example, Lhe funcLlons provlded by ash Lrees locaLed on publlc parkland
are llkely dlfferenL from Lhose provlded by ash Lrees locaLed ln hlghway rlghL-of-ways or ad[acenL Lo
emergency communlcaLlons Lowers. lurLher, declslons abouL how Lo manage ash Lrees locaLed ln
lnLenslvely used areas, such as Cnelda Shores ark, wlll dlffer from Lhose locaLed ln llghLly used areas,
such as ad[acenL Lo a wasLewaLer pump sLaLlon.

CpLlon 1: uo noLhlng - noL an opLlon!

uolng noLhlng, allowlng naLure Lo Lake lLs course, ls noL an opLlon wlLh respecL Lo managemenL of ash
Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy wlLh LargeLs ln Lhe drop zone.

LxlsLlng CounLy pollcy calls for Lhe removal of any specles of Lree LhaL poses a hazard Lo publlc safeLy.
1herefore Lhe do noLhlng" opLlon would lnvolve removal of ash Lrees as Lhey dle and become a hazard.
WalLlng would lnvarlably be more cosLly Lhan pre-empLlve removal, slnce dead Lrees are more dlfflculL,
more dangerous and more cosLly Lo remove Lhan llve Lrees, and Lhere ls no assurance LhaL Lhe CounLy
would be able Lo keep pace wlLh Lhe raLe of ash Lree morLallLy, as wlLnessed ln LA8 lnfesLed locaLlons ln
Lhe MldwesL. 1hls approach would resulL ln greaLer rlsk Lo publlc safeLy, and ls Lherefore nelLher a
responslble nor an accepLable opLlon.

under Lhls alLernaLlve, evenLually all ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy wlll suffer LA8 morLallLy, Lhe
funcLlons Lhese Lrees provlde would be losL and removal cosLs would be greaLesL.

CpLlon 2: reempLlve removal of all ash Lrees

reempLlve removal of all ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land - LhaL ls, Lhose wlLh LargeLs ln Lhe drop zone -
would lnvolve removlng all 46,730 ash Lrees, preferably before Lhey begln Lo exhlblL decllne assoclaLed
wlLh lnfesLaLlon by LA8.

9

1he numbers and concenLraLlons of ash Lrees, as
well as Lhe slzes and Lhelr funcLlons ln varlous
locaLlons LhroughouL Lhe counLy dlffer slgnlflcanLly.
Some locaLlons are home Lo hundreds of densely
clusLered, small dlameLer ash Lrees (e.g., Cnondaga
Lake ark WesL Shore 1rall and along some hlghway
rlghL-of-ways), whlle ln oLher locaLlons large
dlameLer ash Lrees are Lhe predomlnanL specles
(e.g., Wlllow 8ay). SLlll oLher locaLlons lnclude
sparse populaLlons of ash Lrees, lnLerspersed wlLh
oLher specles of Lrees. 1he naLure and exLend of
lmpacLs assoclaLed wlLh preempLlve removal of all
ash Lrees vary slgnlflcanLly dependlng upon Lhese
and oLher facLors. 8emoval of Ash 1ree

As noLed prevlously, all Lrees provlde useful funcLlons (e.g., energy conservaLlon, sLormwaLer
managemenL, alr quallLy beneflLs, wlldllfe hablLaL, carbon sequesLraLlon, aesLheLlcs, eLc.). LfforLs have
been made by oLhers across Lhe counLry Lo asslgn a dollar value Lo Lhese funcLlons, Lyplcally ln Lhe
nelghborhood of $120/Lree per year. 1he CounLy has noL aLLempLed Lo asslgn a dollar value for Lhe
funcLlons provlded by exlsLlng ash Lrees, buL does recognlze LhaL Lhere wlll be cosLs, real cosLs, beyond
Lhose of slmply physlcally removlng Lhese Lrees.


CpLlon 3: re-empLlve removal of all ash Lrees wlLh some replacemenL/resLoraLlon planLlngs

1hls alLernaLlve ls Lhe same as Lhe prevlous one (preempLlve removal of all ash Lrees) buL seeks Lo
mlLlgaLe some of Lhe ecologlcal and culLural lmpacLs assoclaLed preempLlve removals by replaclng some
number of ash Lrees wlLh new non-lnvaslve, non-hosL specles of Lrees. 1hls alLernaLlve ls lnLended Lo
[ump sLarL" Lhe resLoraLlon of urban foresL and losL ecologlcal and culLural funcLlons. 1he llmlLaLlon of
Lhls approach ls LhaL lL wlll llkely be decades before Lhe ecologlcal funcLlons and culLural beneflLs LhaL
had been provlded by large, older ash Lrees wlll be resLored.


reempLlve removal of all ash Lrees on
CounLy-owned land would lnvolve
removlng all 46,730 ash Lrees, preferably
before Lhey begln Lo exhlblL decllne
assoclaLed wlLh lnfesLaLlon by LA8, plus Lhe
addlLlonal cosL of resLoraLlon planLlngs. lL
has been esLlmaLed LhaL replacemenL
planLlngs (lncludlng Lrees sLock, maLerlals
and labor aL prevalllng wage raLes) would
cosL approxlmaLely $330/Lree. lf Lhe
CounLy were Lo replace 10 of Lhe ash
Lrees removed preempLlvely, Lhe cosL of
removal and replacemenL has been
esLlmaLed Lo be approxlmaLely $1.3 mllllon.

10

CpLlon 4: roLecLlon or preservaLlon of all healLhy ash Lrees by use of pesLlcldes

ManagemenL of Lmerald Ash 8orer (LA8) has been evolvlng aL a rapld pace slnce lL was flrsL ldenLlfled as
Lhe cause of wldespread ash morLallLy ln Lhe ueLrolL area ln 2002. Ash Lrees are belng successfully
LreaLed and proLecLed from LA8 wlLh sysLemlc lnsecLlcldes ln many communlLles ln Lhe MldwesL. 1he
Lerm ofLen used ln reference Lo such pesLlclde LreaLmenL ls lnoculaLlon."

As noLed before, noL all Lrees can be preserved by lnoculaLlon. 1rees LhaL already exhlblL Lrunk and/or
canopy damage or decllne, ofLen due Lo someLhlng oLher Lhan LA8, are less llkely Lo survlve lnfesLaLlon
by LA8 even wlLh lnoculaLlon because of Lhe Lree's reduced ablllLy Lo LranslocaLe Lhe pesLlcldes Lo all
areas of Lhe Lree. 8ased on Lhe lnvenLory daLa under Lhls alLernaLlve Lhe number of Lrees deemed Lo be
ln good enough healLh Lo be consldered for preservaLlon by lnoculaLlon ls 43,869. 1he balance of Lrees,
2,861, would be preempLlvely removed.

1he beneflL of Lhls approach ls LhaL Lhe funcLlons provlded by exlsLlng healLhy" ash Lrees would be
preserved unLll Lhe Lree dles of oLher naLural causes. uslng Lhls approach lL ls noL necessary Lo replace
losL funcLlons by planLlng replacemenL Lrees, or walLlng decades for replacemenL Lrees Lo maLure and
resLore losL funcLlons. ln conLrasL Lo preempLlve removal, whlch represenLs a one-Llme cosL, Lhls
approach resulLs ln a long-Lerm cosL as Lhe Lrees have Lo be lnoculaLed unLll Lhelr useful llves explre or
unLll naLure or new sclence leads Lo alLernaLlve, less cosLly conLrol measures. lL should also be polnLed
ouL LhaL preserved Lrees wlll conLlnue Lo grow, and consequenLly so wlll Lhe cosL of LreaLmenL per Lree
(LreaLmenL cosLs are based on Lree dlameLer). Cver Llme cosL lncreases due Lo Lree growLh are llkely Lo
be offseL Lo some exLenL by Lree losses (LhaL ls, as proLecLed ash Lrees dle of causes oLher Lhan LA8).

1here are Lwo Lyplcal Lypes of pesLlclde LreaLmenLs for LA8. Cne Lype lnvolves applylng pesLlcldes Lo
elLher Lhe Lree bark or Lo Lhe soll around Lhe Lree (e.g., a soll drench producL llke lmldacloprld). WlLh
Lhls laLLer sysLem pesLlcldes are ln[ecLed lnLo Lhe soll where Lhe rooLs of Lhe Lrees Lake up Lhe pesLlclde
durlng upLake of soll molsLure. 1he pesLlclde can be effecLlve aL reduclng populaLlons of LA8 larvae buL
does noL reduce populaLlons of LA8 lnsecLs foraglng on leaves. 1he dlsadvanLages of uslng a soll drench
lnclude:

esLlclde can blnd Lo Lhe soll.
esLlclde can be washed away by raln.
1he Lree may noL Lake up Lhe pesLlclde unlformly or aL deslred amounLs.
1here are per acre" llmlLaLlons on use for waLer quallLy reasons.

1he second Lype of pesLlclde LreaLmenL ls sysLemlc ln[ecLlon
of Lrees by dlrecLly ln[ecLlng pesLlcldes (e.g., emamecLlc
benzoaLe) Lhrough holes drllled lnLo Lhe lower sLem or Lrunk
of Lhe Lrees. 1he Lree dlsLrlbuLes Lhls Lype of pesLlclde
LhroughouL Lhe Lree, and lL ls effecLlve aL kllllng boLh Lhe
LA8 larvae ln Lhe Lree as well as Lhe LA8 adulLs foraglng on
Lhe green, leafy vegeLaLlon ln Lhe canopy of Lhe Lree.
Accordlng Lo Lhe label, sysLemlc pesLlclde ln[ecLlon can
provlde Lwo years of effecLlve LreaLmenL Lo a Lree.
MunlclpallLles ln Lhe MldwesL have reporLed success (ash
Lree survlval) ln reapplylng Lhls Lype of producL every Lhree ln[ecLlng pesLlclde lnLo Lree Lrunk
years lnsLead of every Lwo years.
11



All LreaLmenLs lnvolvlng Lhe use of pesLlcldes wlll requlre posLlng of pesLlclde appllcaLlon noLlflcaLlon
slgns on a mlnlmum of Lwo (2) sldes of each Lree, or posLlng of Lhe enLlre perlmeLer of Lhe LreaLmenL
area for 24 hours afLer appllcaLlon.

CpLlon 3: Some comblnaLlon of pre-empLlve removal, Lree replacemenL and Lree preservaLlon Lhrough
lnoculaLlon

A flnal opLlon would be Lo adopL a balanced or selecLlve" managemenL approach LhaL would feaLure
preempLlve removal of mosL ash Lrees wlLh LargeLs ln Lhe drop zone, preservaLlon of selecLed, hlgh value
ash Lrees LhaL are able Lo upLake Lhe sysLemlc Lrunk ln[ecLlon pesLlcldes (Lo klll LA8 larvae ln Lhe wood
and LA8 adulLs eaLlng Lhe green leafy Llssue), and mlLlgaLlon of losL funcLlons by replanLlng of some
number of new Lrees uslng non-hosL, non-lnvaslve Lree specles.

1he beneflL of Lhls balanced approach ls LhaL managemenL of ash Lrees can be opLlmlzed aL each
locaLlon, preservlng Lree funcLlons where Lhey provlde Lhe greaLesL value, resLorlng losL canopy over
Llme ln oLher locaLlons, and preempLlvely removlng less valuable Lrees before Lhey become a safeLy
hazard.


kegu|atory requ|rements]cons|derat|ons

Some aspecLs of ash Lree managemenL are sub[ecL Lo SLaLe and lederal regulaLlons, whlch wlll generally
fall under Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhree SLaLe or lederal Agencles:

1) new ?ork SLaLe ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenLal ConservaLlon (uLC)
2) new ?ork SLaLe ueparLmenL of AgrlculLure & MarkeLs
3) u.S. llsh & Wlldllfe Servlce

1he new ?ork SLaLe uLC regulaLes Lhe use of pesLlcldes wlLh respecL Lo appllcaLor cerLlflcaLlon and
pesLlclde use noLlflcaLlon. 1he uLC also regulaLes Lhe movemenL of ash flrewood and proLecLlng
"endangered specles" (whlch ln Lhe case of ash Lrees ln Cnondaga CounLy lnvolves Lhe presence of
roosLlng slLes for Lhe lndlana 8aL and Lhe requlremenL Lo llmlL lmpacLs Lo Lhls endangered specles.). 1he
SLaLe ueparLmenL of AgrlculLure & MarkeLs ls responslble for regulaLlng Lhe movemenL of LA8 lnfesLed
ash wood ln all forms (logs, branches, mulch, eLc.), and requlres Lhose lnvolved ln Lhe movemenL of
lnfesLed ash wood Lo enLer lnLo a CuaranLlne lnfesLed MaLerlals Compllance AgreemenL ln order Lo slow
Lhe spread of LA8. 1he u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce ls responslble for admlnlsLerlng Lhe lederal
Lndangered Specles AcL whlch, slmllar Lo Lhe roll of uLC above, lnvolves Lhe presence of roosLlng slLes
for Lhe lndlana 8aL and Lhe requlremenL Lo llmlL lmpacLs Lo Lhls endangered specles.

1|m|ng Cons|derat|ons

1lmlng conslderaLlons wlLh respecL Lo ash Lree managemenL declslons lnvolve Lhe followlng:

1he locaLlon of conflrmed LA8 lnfesLaLlons wlLhln and ln proxlmlLy Lo CounLy-owned ash Lrees
1he age of LA8 lnfesLaLlons (whlch lmpacLs LA8 populaLlons, Lhe raLe of spread of LA8 and Lhelr
lmpacL on Lhe raLe of ash Lree morLallLy)
12

1he Llmlng of LreaLmenL" wlLh respecL Lo Lree removal, replacemenL planLlng and lnoculaLlon

AL Lhe Llme of Lhls wrlLlng, LA8 has been conflrmed ln numerous locaLlons wlLhln Lhe ClLy of Syracuse,
LasLwood and Lhe 1own of ueWlLL (see flgure on page 3). ConsequenLly, declslons wlLh respecL Lo ash
Lree preservaLlon/lnoculaLlon ln proxlmlLy Lo Lhese locaLlons would besL be made wlLhouL delay.

8esearchers ln Lhe MldwesL have esLabllshed an ash Lree morLallLy curve for areas lnfesLed by LA8 (see
flgure below). 1hese morLallLy curves lndlcaLe LhaL for Lhe flrsL seven years followlng lnfesLaLlon by LA8
ash Lree morLallLy ls approxlmaLely 10 (LhaL ls, one ouL of 10 Lrees wlll dle). uurlng Lhe subsequenL flve
years (years 8-12 followlng lnlLlal lnfesLaLlon) ash Lree morLallLy rlses Lo approxlmaLely 90 (LhaL ls, nlne
ouL of Len Lrees wlll dle). A prlmary goal of Lhe CounLy's ash Lree managemenL sLraLegy ls Lo carry ouL
LreaLmenLs (removal and/or lnoculaLlon) before ash Lree morLallLy raLes fall wlLhln Lhe sLeep parL of Lhe
deaLh curve." As Lhe level of LA8 lnfesLaLlon lncreases, ash Lree managemenL opLlons avallable Lo Lhe
CounLy decrease, essenLlally because Lhe opLlon Lo preserve Lrees becomes less vlable.






1here ls also a seasonallLy" Lo LreaLmenL of ash Lrees wlLh respecL Lo removal, replacemenL planLlng
and lnoculaLlon wlLh pesLlcldes. 8ecause of Lhe poLenLlal presence of Lhe lndlana 8aL, Lree removals
13

below Lhe 900' elevaLlon mlghL be llmlLed ln some locaLlons Lo Lhe perlod from november 1
sL
Lo March
31
sL
when Lhe baLs are ln hlbernaLlon. lnoculaLlon of selecLed ash Lrees ls llkely Lo occur ln Lhe sprlng
and summer when Lhe Lrees can successfully LranslocaLe Lhe pesLlclde Lo all areas of Lhe Lree and Lhe
LA8 are llkely Lo be exposed Lo Lhe producL. 1he Llmlng of planLlng of replacemenL Lrees can vary based
on slLe condlLlons and exlsLlng weaLher-relaLed condlLlons (prlmarlly LemperaLure and preclplLaLlon).

Cnondaga County Ash 1ree Management Strategy

LA8 has now been conflrmed ln Cnondaga CounLy, and Lhe prospecL of Lhe LoLal loss of ash Lrees ln Lhe
CounLy (approxlmaLely 1 ouL of every 9 Lrees) carrles wlLh lL poLenLlally slgnlflcanL ecologlcal,
recreaLlonal, economlc, publlc safeLy and quallLy of llfe lmpllcaLlons. As noLed prevlously, Lhe opLlons
avallable Lo Lhe CounLy for deallng wlLh LA8 and ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy are relaLlvely
sLralghLforward, and lnclude: 1) preempLlve removal prlor Lo Lree morLallLy, 2) proLecLlon and
preservaLlon of ash Lrees wlLh pesLlcldes, and 3) planLlng of new, non-hosL Lrees Lo replace Lhe funcLlons
provlde by some of Lhose Lrees losL Lo LA8.

Cnondaga County w||| |mp|ement a ba|anced or "se|ect|ve" ash tree
management strategy that features the fo||ow|ng key e|ements:

1) reempt|ve remova| of approx|mate|y 9S of |nventor|ed ash trees,
phased over a per|od of 10 years (a ||tt|e over 44,000 trees)

2) kep|acement of approx|mate|y 10 of removed trees, pr|mar||y |n the
County parks and urban|zed port|ons of dra|nage d|str|cts, w|th non-
|nvas|ve, non-host tree spec|es (a ||tt|e over 4,400 rep|acement trees).
kep|acement p|ant|ngs w||| be phased over 10 years.

3) reservat|on of approx|mate|y S of |nventor|ed ash trees - carefu||y
chosen, h|gh va|ue trees that prov|de s|gn|f|cant amen|t|es - for up to 2S
years (approx|mate|y 2,300 ash trees).


reempLlve 8emoval

A ma[orlLy of ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land wlll be preempLlvely removed over a Len year perlod
beLween 2014 and 2024 so LhaL Lhese ash Lrees wlll noL become a safeLy hazard Lo Lhe publlc or CounLy
personnel. 1he declslon Lo opL for Lhls amounL and raLe of removal lncludes:

Many of Lhe ash Lrees are small dlameLer (almosL 30,000 of Lhe approxlmaLely 46,740
lnvenLorled Lrees are 8" or less ln dlameLer. 8emoval of Lhese Lrees before Lhey grow Lo
maLurlLy wlll reduce cosLs over Lhe long Lerm.

8ecause so many of Lhese Lrees are small, Lhe loss of canopy and Lree funcLlon ls relaLlvely
modesL and can be replaced relaLlvely qulckly.
14


As many as 8,000 of Lhe Lrees ln Lhe lnvenLory are noL sulLable for preservaLlon because of
exlsLlng lmpalrmenLs ln Lhe Lrunk or canopy, whlch would llkely llmlL Lhe success raLe of efforLs
Lo preserve Lhem.

Whlle Lhe annual cosL" Lo remove Lhese Lrees over a Len year perlod ls esLlmaLed Lo be greaLer
Lhan Lhe esLlmaLed annual cosL of preservaLlon Lhrough lnoculaLlon, Lhe LoLal or cumulaLlve"
esLlmaLed cosL for removal over 10 years ls less Lhan Lhe long-Lerm cosL of preservlng Lhls
number of Lrees over 23 years (see cosL curves ln Appendlx 8).

Whlle Lhese same conslderaLlons mlghL argue for more rapld removal of Lhese Lrees (e.g., ln flve years
raLher Lhan Len years) consLralnLs lmposed by Lhe avallablllLy of quallfled Lechnlclans Lo perform safe
removals, by Lhe presence of overhead and underground uLlllLles, by Lhe presence of Lhe publlc (uslng
CounLy roads and parkland), by regulaLory consLralns (e.g., Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe lndlana 8aL durlng
roosLlng season), by Lhe avallablllLy of wood uLlllzaLlon and/or dlsposal opLlons, and Lhe ablllLy Lo
oversee and monlLor Lree removal operaLlons ls llkely Lo make lL lmpracLlcal Lo remove LargeLed Lrees aL
a much more rapld raLe.

1he cosL for removal of approxlmaLely 44,000+ ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy over 10 years ls
pro[ecLed Lo be $9.6 mllllon. 1hls ls based on bld raLes obLalned for Lree removals ln !anuary 2014, and
a conservaLlve annual Lree growLh raLe of approxlmaLely x" per year over Len years (removal cosLs are
based largely on Lree slze, dlameLer aL breasL helghL).

1he CounLy wlll LargeL as an early prlorlLy for removal Lhose ash Lrees on CounLy-owned properLy ln
closesL proxlmlLy Lo know LA8 lnfesLaLlons. AL Lhe Llme of Lhls wrlLlng LhaL lncludes ash Lrees wlLhln
CounLy rlghL-of-ways ln Lhe 1owns of ueWlLL and Sallna, and lncludes Cnondaga Lake and Popklns 8oad
arks.

luLure removals ln CounLy parks, on CounLy campuses, ad[acenL Lo CounLy faclllLles (e.g., pump sLaLlons
or communlcaLlons Lowers) and along CounLy hlghway rlghL-of-ways wlll occur where proxlmlLy Lo pesL
lnfesLaLlons and pesL pressure ls greaLesL, wlLh Lhe goal of removlng as many Lrees as posslble before
LA8 lnfesLaLlons klll Lhe Lrees.

1o Lhls end, monlLorlng wlll conLlnue Lo be an lnLegral parL of Lhe CounLy's ash Lree managemenL
sLraLegy. ln addlLlon Lo Lhe use of purple Lraps" and/or any new LA8 deLecLlon meLhods developed ln
Lhe years ahead, Lhe CounLy wlll Lraln fleld sLaff ln key deparLmenLs (arks, 1ransporLaLlon, WaLer
LnvlronmenL roLecLlon) on ash Lree ldenLlflcaLlon and sympLoms Lo look for LhaL would lndlcaLe Lhe
llkellhood of LA8 lnfesLaLlons.

ManagemenL of Wood WasLe

ManagemenL of wood wasLe assoclaLed wlLh Lhe removal of such large quanLlLles of ash Lrees ls an
lmporLanL conslderaLlon ln developlng a managemenL sLraLegy. Ash wood ls a valuable hardwood used
Lo make such Lhlngs as furnlLure, wood veneer, Lool handles and baseball baLs.

Powever, noL all ash Lrees are sulLable for use ln processlng ash wood lnLo such producLs. 1he vasL
ma[orlLy of ash Lrees Lo be managed by Lhe CounLy ln lmplemenLlng Lhls sLraLegy are parL of Lhe urban
foresL, and noL parL of a remoLe or lsolaLed Llmber sLand. As a consequence, a ma[orlLy of Lhese Lrees
13

are small dlameLer, and noL Lyplcally soughL by mllllng operaLlons (almosL 30,000 of Lhe approxlmaLely
46,730 lnvenLorled Lrees are less Lhan 8" ln dlameLer).

MosL of Lhe Lrees ln CounLy parks, on CounLy campuses and along CounLy rlghL-of-ways are open
grown," and ofLen exhlblL feaLures noL found ln foresL grown Lrees. Cpen grown Lrees ofLen exhlblL
mulLlple sLems and many large llmbs LhaL orlglnaLe low on Lhe Lrunks. 8ecause of Lhe avallablllLy of
more sunllghL ln open grown seLLlngs, Lhe Lrees ofLen have co-domlnanL sLems very low ln Lhe Lrunk
raLher Lhan hlgher ln Lhe Lrees, whlch can also resulL ln bark lncluslon" and weak sLrucLure. lL ls noL
uncommon for urban Lrees Lo lnclude forelgn ob[ecLs, such as nalls and oLher meLal ob[ecLs LhaL pose a
concern Lo mlll operaLors due Lo Lhe damage such ob[ecLs cause Lo expenslve saw blades and Lhe
hazards Lhey pose for mlll workers.

As a consequence, a slgnlflcanL porLlon of Lhe wood wasLe generaLed from Lhe CounLy's ash Lree
managemenL sLraLegy, as a pracLlcal maLLer, wlll llkely be used for flrewood or Lurned lnLo mulch.
ulLlmaLely, all wood wasLe wlll be beneflclally used one way or anoLher. 1ree removal bld documenLs
wlll be wrlLLen ln such a way as Lo maxlmlze Lhe poLenLlal for reuse of wood wasLe ln an efforL Lo
mlnlmlze wood wasLe dlsposal cosLs and maxlmlze reuse of Lhe wood.

8eplacemenL of LosL Canopy

As noLed earller, all Lrees provlde useful or valuable funcLlons. Powever, some are clearly more useful
and/or valuable Lhan oLhers. 8esLoraLlon of losL value and funcLlons Lhrough replacemenL planLlngs ln
sLraLeglc locaLlons ls a vlLal elemenL of Lhe CounLy's ash Lree managemenL sLraLegy. 1he CounLy has
esLabllshed as a goal Lhe replacemenL of 10 of preempLlvely removed ash Lrees wlLh non-lnvaslve,
non-hosL specles. 1hese replacemenL Lrees wlll be planLed elLher ln locaLlons where Lhe losL funcLlon ls
crlLlcal, or ln locaLlons where Lhey wlll provlde Lhe greaLesL value, such as ln CounLy parks.

Specles SelecLlon

As noLed prevlously, a meeLlng was held on CcLober 29, 2013 aL Lhe Cnondaga Lake ark offlce wlLh
varlous groups Lo dlscuss an ash Lree replacemenL sLraLegy speclflcally ln Cnondaga Lake ark. MeeLlng
aLLendees helped develop a llsL of naLlve specles Lo lnclude ln Lhe park planLlng plan.

1he followlng goals emerged from Lhls dlscusslon, and can and should be applled ln oLher locaLlons
selecLed for replacemenL planLlngs: 1) Maxlmlze dlverslLy of Lree specles, 2) Lnsure LhaL selecLed specles
appear on Lhe www.urbanLree.org/llsL webslLe, 3) Lnsure LhaL none of Lhe selecLed specles are
ldenLlfled on Lhe n?SuLC llsL of lnvaslve LerresLrlal shrub and Lree specles, 4) SelecL specles LhaL are besL
sulLed Lo Lhe slLe Lo faclllLaLe long-Lerm success whlle aL Lhe same Llme mlnlmlzlng annual and long-Lerm
malnLenance requlremenLs, and 3) Source planLlng sLock from nurserles rearlng Lrees ln a gravel bed
sysLem ln Lhe uSuA planL hardlness zone 3b. 1he CounLy wlll sLrlve Lo use Lhese crlLerla ln selecLlng
replacemenL Lree specles.

reservaLlon of Plgh value Ash 1rees Lhrough lnoculaLlon

Agaln, all Lrees provlde useful or valuable funcLlons, buL some are clearly more useful and/or valuable
Lhan oLhers. Some ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land provlde valuable funcLlons LhaL cannoL be readlly
replaced lf removed. 1hese do noL consLlLuLe a ma[orlLy of CounLy-owned ash Lrees, buL raLher a selecL
group. 1he CounLy wlll aLLempL Lo preserve approxlmaLely 2,300 carefully chosen, hlgh value ash Lrees
16

LhaL provlde slgnlflcanL amenlLles for up Lo 23 years. 23 years ls vlewed Lo be a reallsLlc plannlng
horlzon, durlng whlch Llme lL ls undersLood LhaL: 1) Some of Lhe Lrees selecLed for preservaLlon wlll
suffer morLallLy due Lo facLors oLher Lhan LA8, 2) esL pressure wlll dlmlnlsh over Llme due Lo loss of
food source, 3) 1he sclence and undersLandlng of LA8 ls llkely Lo lead Lo lmproved, more cosL-effecLlve
conLrol measures, and 4) naLure mlghL respond ln some unanLlclpaLed manner LhaL serves Lo dlmlnlsh
LA8 populaLlons and/or enhance ash Lree reslsLance Lo LA8.

8ecause preservaLlon of ash Lrees represenLs an on-golng, long-Lerm cosL, Lhe declslon Lo preserve any
glven ash Lree musL be made [udlclously. Cnly Lhose ash Lrees LhaL are recognlzed Lo be of parLlcular
value wlll be preserved. 1he followlng crlLerla have been esLabllshed Lo ldenLlfy Lhose ash Lrees on
CounLy-owned land LhaL wlll be candldaLes for preservaLlon:

Ash Lrees exhlblLlng healLh characLerlsLlcs supporLlng a hlgh probablllLy of success/survlval.

Ash Lrees ln locaLlons characLerlzed by lnLenslve use by Lhe publlc, and where such lnLenslve
publlc use ls due, aL leasL ln parL, Lo Lhe presence of Lhe ash Lree(s) and Lhe funcLlon/value Lhe
Lree(s) provlde aL LhaL locaLlon.

Ash Lrees LhaL serve Lo
proLecL a CounLy asseL from
damage or harm (such as lake
shore, creek bank sLablllzaLlon or
a dralnage dlsLrlcL) LhaL cannoL
be cosL-effecLlvely achleved ln
some oLher manner.

Ash Lrees whlch are
llkely Lo provlde savlngs ln
energy use ln bulldlngs due Lo
shadlng ln Lhe summer and/or
LhaL serve as a barrler Lo wlnd ln
Lhe wlnLer.

Ash Lrees LhaL serve as
unlque hablLaL Lo rare or
endangered specles, such as
eagles.
"1agged" ash trees |n the W|||ow 8ay Area |n Cnondaga Lake ark


Ash Lrees locaLed proxlmaLe Lo fuLure LA8 lnfesLaLlons LhaL, lf lnoculaLed, could serve Lo slow
Lhe spread of Lhe beeLle Lo oLher areas.

PealLhy ash Lrees ln locaLlons LhaL creaLe dlfflculLles for removal (due Lo access or lnfrasLrucLure
lssues) LhaL would llkely lnvolve hlgh removal cosLs.

PealLhy ash Lrees ln unlque or speclal seLLlng, such as cemeLerles, where removal of a parLlcular
Lree mlghL be consldered unflLLlng.
17


1rees wlLh Lhe followlng characLerlsLlcs are noL vlewed as good candldaLes for preservaLlon:

Where nearly comparable funcLlon(s) are provlded by ad[acenL, non-hosL Lrees, and Lree
funcLlons wlll essenLlally be preserved even wlLh removal of Lhe ash Lree(s), an ash Lree or Lrees
wlLhln such a clusLer wlll noL be preserved.

1rees wlLh canopy decllne greaLer Lhan 40 and/or
exLenslve Lrunk damage

1rees exhlblLlng excesslve lean

1rees exhlblLlng sLorm damage and/or LhaL are
sLrucLurally unsound

1rees wlLh power llnes overhead

1rees wlLh rooLs LhaL LhreaLen nearby lnfrasLrucLure or oLher
asseLs (e.g., Lrall)

1rees wlLh co-domlnanL sLems

Small dlameLer Lrees (<12")

very large dlameLer Lrees (>36") aL Lhe ouLseL of Lhe
preservaLlon program

hoLo by: unlverslLy of llorlda
uepL. of LnvlronmenLal PorLlculLure

Some Lowns wlLhln Lhe CounLy have expressed an lnLeresL ln preservlng selecLed ash Lrees along CounLy
hlghway rlghL-of-way wlLhln Lhelr munlclpallLy. lL ls Lhe CounLy's lnLenL Lo allow munlclpallLles
lnLeresLed ln preservlng selecLed ash Lrees along CounLy hlghway rlghL-of-ways lf Lhe munlclpallLy enLers
lnLo an lnLer-munlclpal agreemenL wlLh Lhe CounLy and agrees Lo pay Lhe cosL of lnoculaLlng selecLed
Lrees.

SelecLlon of esLlclde roducL

1here are a llmlLed number of pesLlclde producLs avallable Lo Lhe CounLy Lo proLecL ash Lrees on CounLy-
owned land from LA8. 1hese were descrlbed on page 10.

Lxperlence ln oLher locaLlons LhaL have already been faclng LA8 lnfesLaLlons for several years now
lndlcaLes LhaL use of emamecLln benzoaLe provldes Lhe mosL effecLlve proLecLlon agalnsL LA8, and ls Lhe
only Lrunk ln[ecLed producL currenLly avallable LhaL ls labeled for Lwo years of proLecLlon. 8ecenL
research flndlngs have demonsLraLed LhaL emamecLln benzoaLe has provlded rellable proLecLlon for
Lhree years, and ln some cases (where lnfesLaLlon pressure ls sllghL) poLenLlally for as many as four
years.

18

AnoLher ln[ecLed" LA8 pesLlclde producL avallable Lo Lhe CounLy ls lmldlcloprld, buL Lhls producL
provldes only one year of proLecLlon agalnsL LA8, and has per acre llmlLaLlons" on use (LhaL ls, Lhere are
llmlLs Lo Lhe number of Lrees LhaL can recelve Lhe producL wlLhln a glven area).

8ecause Lhe advanLages afforded by ememecLln benzoaLe (ln[ecLed dlrecLly lnLo Lhe Lree, 2-3 years of
proLecLlon and no acreage llmlLaLlon), and Lhe poLenLlally slgnlflcanL dlsadvanLages assoclaLed wlLh
alLernaLlve producLs (applled Lo Lhe soll, shorLer perlod of effecLlveness and llmlLaLlons on Lhe area over
whlch lL can be applled), Lhe CounLy wlll use ememecLln benzoaLe Lo proLecL ash Lrees selecLed for
preservaLlon on CounLy-owned land.

All LreaLmenLs lnvolvlng Lhe use of pesLlcldes wlll requlre posLlng of pesLlclde appllcaLlon noLlflcaLlon
slgns on a mlnlmum of Lwo (2) sldes of each Lree, or posLlng of Lhe enLlre perlmeLer of Lhe LreaLmenL
area for 24 hours afLer appllcaLlon. All producLs wlll be applled by appllcaLors cerLlfled by Lhe SLaLe of
new ?ork.

ln general, one Lhlrd of Lhe Lrees selecLed for preservaLlon on CounLy-owned properLy wlll be lnoculaLed
each year. Where applled, lnoculaLlons wlll be dlsLrlbuLed roughly evenly geographlcally ln order Lo
maxlmlze effecLlveness. 1hls ls because research has shown LhaL havlng lnoculaLed Lrees ad[acenL Lo
unproLecLed Lrees serves Lo llmlL Lhe growLh of LA8 populaLlons, llmlL Lhe lnLenslLy of lnfesLaLlons ln
ad[acenL Lrees and Lo slow Lhe spread of LA8 Lo oLher locaLlons. Lven lf LA8 were Lo lnfesL unproLecLed
ad[acenL Lrees, lf Lhe lnfesLaLlon ls noL severe, LreaLlng such Lrees wlLhln one or Lwo years ls llkely Lo
provlde adequaLe proLecLlon Lo achleve survlval. ln Lhe evenL lnfesLaLlon pressure ls found Lo be more
lnLense Lhan expecLed, Lhe number of lnoculaLlons ln such locaLlons wlll be lncreased ln Lhe second year.
8y Lhe Lhlrd year lL ls expecLed LhaL all Lrees ldenLlfled for preservaLlon ln a parLlcular locaLlon wlll have
adequaLe proLecLlon Lo allow for on-golng lnoculaLlons of each Lree every Lhlrd year.

lnoculaLlons of selecLed ash Lrees are expecLed Lo conLlnue unLll a Lree becomes a hazard for reasons
oLher Lhan LA8 (e.g., damage due Lo wlnd, llghLnlng or dlsease), or unLll for some reason Lhe Lree no
longer provldes Lhe speclal funcLlon(s) whlch led Lo lLs selecLlon for preservaLlon.

1here ls some evldence LhaL once Lhe lnlLlal wave of LA8 move Lhrough an area, lnfesLaLlon pressure
drops off and Lhe frequency of lnoculaLlon appllcaLlons can be reduced. lL ls also hoped LhaL over Llme
oLher cosL-effecLlve alLernaLlves Lo managlng LA8 or proLecLlng ash Lrees from LA8 wlll become
avallable.

SLraLegy lmplemenLaLlon - ro[ecLed CosLs and Schedule

As sLaLed prevlously, Lhe CounLy's sLraLegy reflecLs a balanced or selecLlve" ash Lree managemenL
sLraLegy LhaL allows for Lhe preservaLlon of approxlmaLely 2,300 carefully chosen, hlgh value ash Lrees
LhaL provlde slgnlflcanL amenlLles (approxlmaLely 3 of Lhe ash Lrees lnvenLorled on CounLy-owned
properLy), whlle preempLlvely removlng Lhe balance of ash Lrees (approxlmaLely 44,000 Lrees) over a
perlod of 10 years (approxlmaLely 4,400 Lrees per year) LhaL would oLherwlse evenLually pose a safeLy
hazard Lo Lhe publlc. Loss of Lhe funcLlonal value of Lrees due Lo preempLlve removals (shade, hablLaL,
sLormwaLer managemenL, eLc.) wlll be parLlally offseL by planLlng approxlmaLely 4,400 replacemenL
Lrees phased over 10 years (approxlmaLely 10 of Lhe ash Lrees losL due Lo preempLlve removal or LA8
morLallLy).


19

1o carry ouL Lhe CounLy's Ash 1ree ManagemenL SLraLegy, Lhe CounLy Cfflce of LnvlronmenL wlll enLer
lnLo an AgreemenL wlLh Lhe Cnondaga CounLy Soll & WaLer ConservaLlon ulsLrlcL (SWCu) Lo prepare bld
documenLs, admlnlsLer conLracLs wlLh vendors and Lo oversee Lree removal and replacemenL. 1he
SWCu wlll also asslsL Lhe CounLy wlLh oLher LA8 assoclaLed acLlvlLles such as monlLorlng for lnfesLaLlons,
communlLy ouLreach and coordlnaLlon wlLh oLher munlclpallLles wlLhln Lhe counLy. lL ls esLlmaLed LhaL
Lhe cosL for Lhe SWCu Lo provlde Lhese servlces Lo Lhe CounLy wlll be $80,000/year. 1hough noL parL of
Lhese admlnlsLraLlve and overslghL cosLs, lL ls also expecLed LhaL Lhe SWCu wlll be responslble for
lnoculaLlng Lrees selecLed for preservaLlon.

ln order Lo pro[ecL oLher cosLs for Lhe CounLy's ash Lree managemenL sLraLegy, Lhe CounLy developed a
model LhaL Lakes lnLo accounL Lhe followlng facLors:

1he currenL cosL of Lree removal (based on recenL bld prlces), whlch ls Lled Lo Lree dlameLer aL
breasL helghL, managemenL of wood wasLe and sLump grlndlng cosLs, as well as Lree growLh (Lo
accounL for lncreaslng cosLs assoclaLed wlLh removlng larger dlameLer Lrees over Llme).

1he number and cosL of replacemenL Lrees expecLed Lo be planLed over a 10 year perlod
(lncludlng Lree sLock, maLerlals and labor).

1he anLlclpaLed cosL for lnoculaLlon of Lrees selecLed for preservaLlon over a 23 year perlod
(lncludlng lncreaslng cosLs assoclaLed wlLh Lree growLh over Llme).

1he pro[ecLed cosL Lo carry ouL Lhe CounLy's ash Lree managemenL sLraLegy over Lhe nexL 23 years ls
approxlmaLely $13.3 mllllon, $13.3 mllllon lf pald for Lhrough Lhe lssuance of bonds. ln round numbers,
esLlmaLed ash Lree managemenL cosLs lnclude:

LsLlmaLed Lree removal cosLs (over 10 years): $ 9.6 mllllon
LsLlmaLed Lree replacemenL cosLs (over 10 years) : $ 1.3 mllllon
LsLlmaLed Lree lnoculaLlon cosLs (over 23 years): $ 1.6 mllllon
LsLlmaLed admlnlsLraLlve/overslghL cosLs (over 10 years) $ .8 mllllon
LsLlmaLed LoLal cosL (over 23 years): $13.3 mllllon
LsLlmaLed cosL Lo reLlre debL lf bonds are lssued: $ 1.8 mllllon
LsLlmaLed LoLal cosL lf bonds are lssued: $13.3 mllllon

AddlLlonal lnformaLlon regardlng annual and cumulaLlve cosLs for sLraLegy lmplemenLaLlon ls provlded ln
Appendlx 8.

lan for llexlblllLy

1he goal of Lhe CounLy's Ash 1ree ManagemenL SLraLegy ls Lo ensure Lhe healLh and safeLy of Lhe publlc
and CounLy employees, and Lo mlLlgaLe Lhe culLural and ecologlcal lmpacLs of LA8 on CounLy-owned
land. 1he proposed sLraLegy calls for a balanced or selecLlve" approach LhaL, over Lhe nexL 23 years ls
lnLended Lo allow for Lhe preservaLlon of hlgh value ash Lrees, preempLlvely remove Lrees LhaL wlll
evenLually pose a safeLy hazard, and Lo parLlally offseL Lhe loss of Lhe funcLlonal values provlded by Lhe
Lrees selecLed for preempLlve removal by replaclng 10 of Lhem.

lL musL be recognlzed LhaL naLure, ln Lhls case Lhe emerald ash borer, does noL always accommodaLe
even Lhe besL lald plans. LA8 lnfesLaLlons could move aL a more rapld raLe Lhan expecLed, and requlre
20

some flexlblllLy ln order Lo achleve Lhe sLaLed ob[ecLlves, parLlcularly publlc safeLy. Schedules should be
vlewed as LenLaLlve and sub[ecL Lo change, dependlng prlmarlly upon observed pesL pressure and where
lL ls occurrlng.

ManagemenL of Ash 1rees ln CounLy-owned 1lmber SLands

1hls sLraLegy ls almed aL managlng ash Lrees on CounLy-owned land wlLh LargeLs ln Lhe drop zone (urop
zone: Where Lree llmbs and Lree Lrunks are llkely Lo fall, 1argeLs: eople, sLrucLures, Lralls or roads,
parklng loLs, uLlllLles and oLher asseLs), raLher Lhan ash Lrees ln Llmber sLands" on CounLy-owned land.
As of Lhls wrlLlng, Lhe CounLy has had lLs foresLry servlces experL, lorecon, lnvesLlgaLe opporLunlLles for
harvesLlng ash-heavy Llmber sLands ln Plghland loresL and Spafford loresL as a conslderaLlon ln
managemenL of LA8-relaLed lssues. Where such harvesLlng supporLs susLalnable foresL managemenL
pracLlces, harvesLlng has been and should conLlnue Lo be pursued.

lL should be noLed LhaL ln conslderlng Lhe harvesLlng of ash ln Llmber sLands as a posslble managemenL
sLraLegy, lL wlll be lmporLanL Lo conslder such facLors as: 1) slze (value) of Lhe ash Lrees (lL probably does
noL make sense Lo harvesL smaller dlameLer, less valuable ash Lrees LhaL are llkely Lo remaln unaffecLed
by LA8 for several years), 2) Lhe Lypes and sLaLus of oLher Lypes of Lrees locaLed among ash Lrees (lL
probably does noL make sense Lo remove a few ash Lrees ln locaLlons where Lhere are oLher Lypes of
Lrees LhaL wlll reallze Lhelr opLlmum economlc value (and Lhe value of Lhe sLand) aL a laLer daLe), and 3)
Lhe lmpacL on Lhe on Lhe overall healLh of Lhe foresL LhaL would be caused by ash Lree harvesLlng.

lL ls recommended LhaL susLalnable foresL managemenL sLraLegles be developed for all CounLy-owned
Llmber sLands so LhaL ash Lree removals can be managed ln Lhe conLexL of a more comprehenslve
susLalnable foresL managemenL sLraLegy.

Informat|on Ava||ab|e to kes|dents and Commerc|a| roperty Cwners

As noLed prevlously, Lhe Cnondaga CounLy Lmerald Ash 8orer 1ask lorce has been acLlvely worklng wlLh
munlclpallLles and publlc agencles Lo prepare for LA8 and coordlnaLe managemenL needs slnce Aprll
2012. 1he 1ask lorce ls comprlsed of represenLaLlves from local agencles, Lree commlsslons,
unlverslLles, uLlllLles and lndusLry. 1he mlsslon of Lhe 1ask lorce ls Lo coordlnaLe and faclllLaLe Lhe
sharlng of lnformaLlon, Lechnology, equlpmenL, pollcy and conLracLs ln order for all sLakeholders ln
Cnondaga CounLy Lo have a beLLer and less expenslve ouLcome wlLh regard Lo LA8 and ash Lree
managemenL. AnoLher goal of Lhe 1ask lorce ls Lo make lnformaLlon abouL LA8 avallable Lo Lhe publlc
so LhaL resldenLs and commerclal lnLeresLs are able Lo make more lnformed declslons abouL how Lo
manage ash Lrees on Lhelr properLy.

Cornell CooperaLlve LxLenslon of Cnondaga CounLy, Lhe enLlLy chalrlng Lhe CounLy LA8 1ask lorce, has
Laken Lhe lead ln lnformlng and educaLlng Lhe publlc on LA8 and Lhe opLlons avallable Lo manage ash
Lrees on prlvaLe properLy. Anyone lnLeresLed ln learnlng more abouL LA8 and whaL you can do Lo
responslbly manage your ash Lrees can go Lo Lhe CooperaLlve LxLenslon web slLe aL:
hLLp://www.exLendonondaga.org/ , or call Lhem aL (313)424-9483.

21



ALnulx A



Summar|zed ash tree |nventory data

22


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