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Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko

Modul 5
Pemilihan Bahan & Proses
Topik 4 :
Diagram Seleksi Material
Versi 1.0
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!sh"# M.$. : %Material Sele&tion in Me&hani&al Design'# Pergamon Press# 1(().
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+. !riosuko Dh.
,mail: r.ario-mer&uuana.a&.id
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Teknik Mesin
$akultas Teknik 0ni1ersitas Mer&u Buana
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Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
BAB 4
Diagram Seleksi Material
4.1. 6ntro dan Sinopsis
4.). Displai Properti Material Properties
4.4. Diagram7diagram Properti Material
4.4. +angkuman dan 8esimpulan
4.5. Ba&aan lan3ut
4.9. ,1aluasi
4.1 Intro dan Sinopsis
Properti material mematasi per:orma. Tetapi 3arang per:orma suatu komponen
tergantung pada han"a pd satu properti sa3a. Melainkan hampir selalu
merupakan suatu kominasi ;atau eerapa kominasi< properti# "ang erarti:
orang erpikir# seagai &ontoh# tentang nisah strength-to-weight ; s
:
/r <# atau
nisah stiffness-to-weight ; ,=r <# "ang mana masuk disain kelas ringan. 6ni
melahirkan gagasan untuk meren&anakan satu properti terhadap "ang lain#
meren&anakan daerah di dalam ruang properti "ang diduduki oleh masing7
masing kelas material# dan su7daerah "ang diduduki oleh material se&ara
indi1idu.
The idea o: a materials sele&tion &hart7is des&ried rie:l" in Se&tion 4.).
Se&tion 4.4 is not so rie:: it introdu&es# the &harts themsel1es. There is no
need to read it all# ut it is help:ul to persist :ar enough to e ale to read and
interpret the &harts :luentl"# and to understand >hat the additional &ontours
mean. 6:# later# "ou use one &hart a lot# "ou should read the a&kground to it#
gi1en here# to e sure o: interpreting it &orre&tl".
! &ompilation o: all the &harts# >ith a rie: e?planation o: ea&h# is &ontained in
!ppendi? @. 6t is intended :or re:eren&e A that is# as a tool :or ta&kling real
design prolems.
4.2 Penampilan properti material
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Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
,a&h propert" o: an engineering material has a &hara&teristi& range o: 1alues.
The range is large: o: the properties &onsidered here A properties su&h as
modulus# toughness# thermal &ondu&ti1it" A most ha1e 1alues >hi&h span
roughl" :i1e de&ades.
B. 4.1 6de diagram properti materialC modulus Doung# E# diplot thd densit"# # pd skala logarithmi&. Setiap
klas material me>akili suatu agian unik tertentu pd diagram. Skala logarithmi& memungkinkan ke&epatan
gelomang longitudinal elastik = (E/)
1/2
utk diplot sg suat set permukaan paralel.
The 1alues are &on1enientl" displa"ed on material selection charts, illustrated "
$ig. 4.1. *ne propert" ;the modulus# E, in this &ase< is plotted against another
;the densit"# p< on logarithmi& s&ales. The range o: the a?es is &hosen to
in&lude all materials# :rom the lightest# :limsiest :oams to the sti::est# hea1iest
metals. 6t is then :ound that data :or a gi1en &lass o: materials ;pol"mers# :or
e?ample< &luster together on the &hartC the subrange asso&iated >ith one
material &lass is# in all &ases# mu&h smaller than the full range o: that propert".
Data :or one &lass &an e en&losed in a propert" en1elope# as sho>n in $ig. 4.1.
The en1elope en&loses all memers o: the &lass.
!ll this is simple enough A 3ust a help:ul >a" o: plotting data. But " &hoosing
the a?es and s&ales appropriatel"# more &an e added. The speed o: sound in a
solid depends on the modulus# E and the densit"# pC the longitudinal >a1e
speed v, :or instan&e# is
=

1/2
or ;taking logs<
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log E = log + 2 log v
$or a :i?ed 1alue o: v, this eEuation plots as a straight line o: slope 1 on $ig. 4.1.
This allo>s us to add &ontours o: constant wave velocit to the &hart: the" are
the :amil" o: parallel diagonal lines# linking materials in >hi&h longitudinal >a1es
tra1el >ith the same speed. !ll the &harts allo> additional :undamental
relationships o: this sort to e displa"ed. !nd thereis more: design7optimising
parameters also plot as &ontours on to the &harts. But that is in @hapter !"
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!mong the me&hani&al and thermal properties# there are eighteen >hi&h are o:
primar" importan&e# oth in &hara&terising the material# and in engineering
design. The" >ere listed in Tale 4.1: the" in&lude densit"# modulus# strength#
toughness# thermal &ondu&ti1it"# di::usi1it" and e?pansion. The &harts displa"
data :or these properties# :or the nine &lasses o: materials listed in Tale 4.1.
The &lass list is e?panded :rom the original si? " distinguishing engineering
com#osites :rom foams and :rom woo$s though all# in the most general sense#
are &ompositesC and " distinguishing the high7strength eng i: leering ceramics
;like sili&on &aride< :rom the lo> strength# #orous ceramics ;like ri&k<. Fithin
ea&h &lass# data are plotted :or a representati1e set o: materials# &hosen oth to
span the :ull range o: eha1iour :or the &lass# and to in&lude the most &ommon
and most >idel" used memers o: it. 6n this >a" the en1elope :or a &lass
en&loses data not onl" :or the materials listed in Tale 4.1# ut :or 1irtuall" all
other memers o: the &lass as >ell.
The &harts sho> a range o: 1alues :or ea&h propert" o: ea&h materialC
sometimes the range is narro>: the modulus o: &opper# :or instan&e# 1aries "
onl" a :e> per&ent aout its mean 1alue# in:luen&ed " purit"# te?ture and su&h
like. Sometimes it is >ide: the strength o: alumina &erami& &an 1ar" " a :a&tor
o: 100 or more# in:luen&ed " porosit"# grain si2e and so on. 5eat treatment
and me&hani&al >orking ha1e a pro:ound e::e&t on "ield strength# damping and
the toughness o: metals. @r"stallinit" and degree o: &ross7linking greatl"
in:luen&e the modulus o: pol"mers# and so on. These structure-sensitive
properties appear as elongated ules >ithin the en1elopes on the &harts. !
ule en&loses a t"pi&al range :or the 1alue o: the propert" :or a single
material. ,n1elopes ;hea1ier lines< en&lose the ules :or a &lass.
The data plotted on the &harts ha1e een assemled :rom a 1ariet" o: sour&es#
the most a&&essile o: >hi&h are listed under $urther +eading# at the end o: this
&hapter.
4.3 Diagram properti material
The Modulus Density Chart (Chart 1, Fig. 4.2)
Modulus and densit" are :amiliar properties. Steel is sti::# ruer is &ompliant:
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these are e::e&ts o: modulus. Gead is hea1"C &ork is uo"ant: these are e::e&ts
o: densit". $igure 4.) sho>s the :ull range o: DoungHs modulus# E, and densit"#
p# :or engineering materials.
Data :or memers o: a parti&ular &lass o: materials &luster together and &an e
en&losed " an en1elope ;hea1" line<. The same &lass en1elopes appear on all
the diagrams: the" &orrespond to the main headings in Tale 4.1.
The $ensit o: a solid depends on three :a&tors: the atomi& >eight o: its atoms
or ions# their si2e# and the >a" the" are pa&ked. The si2e o: atoms does not
1ar" mu&h: most ha1e a 1olume >ithin a :a&tor o: t>o o: ) ? 10I m
4
. Pa&king
:ra&tions do not 1ar" mu&h either A a :a&tor o: )# more or less: &lose7pa&king
gi1es a pa&king :ra&tion o: 0.J4C open net>orks# like that o: the diamond7&ui&
stru&ture# gi1e aout 0.44. The spread o: densit" &omes mainl" :rom that o:
atomi& >eight# :rom 1 :or h"drogen to )4/ :or uranium. Metals are dense
e&ause the" are made o: hea1" atoms# pa&ked densel"C pol"mers ha1e lo>
densities e&ause the" are largel" made o: &aron ;atomi& >eight: 1)< and
h"drogen in a linear# t>o7 or three7dimensional net>ork. @erami&s# :or the most
part# ha1e lo>er densities than metals e&ause the" &ontain light 0# K or @
atoms. ,1en the lightest atoms# pa&ked in the most open >a"# gi1e solids >ith a
densit" o: around 1 Mg=rn
4
. Materials >ith lo>er densities than this are :oams A
materials made up o: &ells &ontaining a large :ra&tion o: pore spa&e. The mo$uli
o: most materials depend on t>o :a&tors: ond sti::ness# and the densit" o:
onds per unit area. ! ond is like a spring: it has a spring &onstant# S ;units:
K=rn<. DoungHs modulus# E, is roughl"
E = % / r
&
;4.1<
>here r
&
is the %atom si2e' (r I is the mean atomi& or ioni& 1olume<. The >ide
range o: moduli is largel" &aused " the range o: 1alues o: S. The &o1alent
ond is sti:: ;S L )0A)00 K=rn<C the metalli& and the ioni& a little less so ;S L 1!
' 100 K=rn<. Diamond has a 1er" high modulus e&ause the &aron atom is
small ;gi1ing a high ond densit"< and its atoms are linked " 1er" strong
springs ;S L )00 K=rn<. Metals ha1e high moduli e&ause &lose7pa&king gi1es a
high ond densit" and the onds are strong# though not as strong as those o:
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diamond. Pol"mers &ontain oth strong diamond7like &o1alent onds and >eak
h"drogen or Van der Faals onds ;S L &"! A) K=rn<C it is the >eak onds
>hi&h stret&h >hen the pol"mer is de:ormed# gi1ing lo> moduli.
But e1en large atoms (r
&
L 4 ? l0IMm< onded >ith >eak onds ;S L &"! K=rn<
ha1e a modulus o: roughl"
E=
0,5
3x 10
10
( 1 BPa ;4.)<
This is the lower limit :or true solids. The &hart sho>s that man" materials ha1e
moduli that are lo>er than this: the" are either elastomers# or :oams.
,lastomers ha1e a lo> E e&ause the >eak se&ondar" onds ha1e melted
;their glass temperature# )*, is elo> room temperature< lea1ing onl" the 1er"
>eak %entropi&' restoring :or&e asso&iated >ith tangled# long7&hain mole&ulesC
and :oams ha1e lo> moduli e&ause the &ell >alls end ;allo>ing large
displa&ements< >hen the material is loaded.
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The &hart sho>s that the modulus o: engineering materials spans :i1e de&ades#
1

:rom 0.01 BPa ;lo> densit" :oams< to 1000 BPa ;diamond<C the densit" spans a
:a&tor o: )000# :rom less than 0.1 to )0 Mg=m
4
. !t the le1el o: appro?imation o:
interest here ;that reEuired to re1eal the relationship et>een the properties o:
materials &lasses< >e ma" appro?imate the shear modulus# B# " +E/, and the
ulk modulus# -, " E, :or all materials e?&ept elastorners ;:or >hi&h B L E/+
and -..E)"
The log s&ales allo> more in:ormation to e displa"ed. The 1elo&it" o: elasti&
1Ver" lo> densit" :oams and gels ;>hi&h &an e thought o: as mole&ular s&ale# :luid7:illed# :oams< &an ha1e
moduli :ar lo>er than this. !s an e?ample# gelatin ;as in Nello< has a modulus o: aout 5 ? 10
75
BPa. Their
strengths and :ra&ture toughness# too# &an e elo> the lo>er limit o: the &harts.
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>a1es in a material# and the natural 1iration :reEuen&ies o: a &omponent made
o: it# are proportional to (E/#)/0 the Euantit" (E1#)/ itsel: is the 1elo&it" o:
longitudinal >a1es in a thin rod o: the material. @ontours o: &onstant (E/#)/ are
plotted on the &hart# laelled >ith the longitudinal >a1e speed: it 1aries :rom
less than 50 rn=s ;so:t elastomers< to a little more than i*I rn=s ;:ine &erami&s<.
Fe note that aluminium and glass# e&ause o: their lo> densities# transmit
>a1es Eui&kl" despite their lo> moduli. *ne might ha1e e?pe&ted the sound
1elo&it" in :oams to e lo> e&ause o: the lo> modulusC ut the lo> densit"
almost &ompensates. That in >ood# a&ross the grain# is lo>C ut along the grain#
it is high A roughl" the same as steel A a :a&t made use o: in the design o:
musi&al instruments.
The &hart helps in the &ommon prolem o: material sele&tion :or appli&ations in
>hi&h >eight must e minimised. Buide lines &orresponding to three &ommon
geometries o: loading are dra>n on the diagram. The" are used in the >a"
des&ried in @hapters 5 and 9 to sele&t materials :or elasti& design at minimum
>eight.
The Strength Density Chart (Chart 2, Fig. 4.3)
The modulus o: a solid is a >ell7de:ined Euantit" >ith a sharp 1alue. The
strength is not. The >ord %strength' needs de:inition ;see also @hapter 4#
Se&tion 4.4<. $or metals and pol"mers it is the iel$ strength, ut sin&e the
range o: materials in&ludes those >hi&h ha1e een >orked# the range spans
initial "ield to ultimate strengthC :or most pra&ti&al purposes it is the same in
tension and &ompression. $or rittle &erami&s# it is the crushing strength in
com#ression, not that in tension >hi&h is aout :i:teen times smallerC the
en1elopes :or rittle materials are sho>n as roken lines as a reminder o: this.
$or elastomers# strength means the tear strength" $or &omposites# it is the
tensile failure strength ;the &ompressi1e strength &an e less# e&ause o: :ire
u&kling<.
$igure 4.4 sho>s these strengths# :or >hi&h >e >ill use the s"mol *I ;despite
the di::erent :ailure me&hanisms in1ol1ed<# plotted against densit"# p. The
&onsiderale 1erti&al e?tension o: the strength ule :or an indi1idual material
re:le&ts its >ide range# &aused " degree o: allo"ing# >ork hardening# grain
si2e# porosit" and so :orth. !s e:ore# memers o: a &lass &luster together and
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&an e en&losed in an en1elope ;hea1" line<. ,a&h o&&upies a &hara&teristi&
area o: the &hart.
The range o: strength :or engineering materials# like that o: the modulus# spans
aout :i1e de&ades: :rom less than 0.1 MPa ;:oams# used in pa&kaging and
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energ"7asoring s"stems< to 10
4
MPa ;the strength o: diamond# e?ploited in
the diamond an1il press<. The single most important &on&ept in understanding
this >ide range is that o: the lattice resistance or 2eierls stress3 the intrinsi&
resistan&e o: the stru&ture to plasti& shear. Plasti& shear in a &r"stal in1ol1es the
motion o: dislo&ations. Metals are so:t e&ause the non7lo&alised metalli& ond
does little to pre1ent dislo&ation motion# >hereas &erami&s are hard e&ause
their more lo&alised &o1alent and ioni& onds ;>hi&h must e roken and
re:ormed >hen the stru&ture is sheared<# lo&k the dislo&ations in pla&e. 6n non7
&r"stalline solids >e think instead o: the energ" asso&iated >ith the unit step o:
the :lo> pro&ess: the relati1e slippage o: t>o segments o: a pol"mer &hain# or
the shear o: a small mole&ular &luster in a glass net>ork. Their strength has the
same origin as that underl"ing the latti&e resistan&e: i: the unit step in1ol1es
reaking strong onds ;as in an inorgani& glass<# the material >ill e strongC i: it
onl" in1ol1es the rupture o: >eak onds ;the Van de Faals onds in pol"mers
:or e?ample<# it >ill e >eak. Materials >hi&h :ail " :ra&ture do so e&ause the
latti&e resistan&e or its amorphous eEui1alent is so large that :ra&ture happens
:irst.
Fhen the latti&e resistan&e is lo># the material &an e strengthened "
introdu&ing osta&les to slip: in metals# " adding allo"ing elements# parti&les#
grain oundaries and e1en other dislo&ations ;%>ork hardening'<C and in
pol"mers " &ross7linking or " orienting the &hains so that strong &o1alent as
>ell as >eak Van der Faals onds are roken. Fhen# on the other hand# the
latti&e resistan&e is high# :urther hardening is super:luous A the prolem
e&omes that o: suppressing :ra&ture ;ne?t se&tion<.
!n important use o: the &hart is in materials sele&tion in light>eight plasti&
design. Buidelines are sho>n :or materials sele&tion in the minimum >eight
design o: ti&s# &olumns# eams and plates# and :or "ield7limited design o:
mo1ing &omponents in >hi&h inertial :or&es are important. Their use is
des&ried in @hapters 5 and 4"
The Fracture Toughness Density Chart (Chart 3, Fig. 4.4)
6n&reasing the plasti& strength o: a material is use:ul onl" as long as it remains
plasti& and does not :ail " :ast :ra&ture. The resistan&e to the propagation o: a
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&ra&k is measured " the racture toughness, !
"c
. 6t is plotted against densit"
in $ig. 4.4. The range is large: :rom 0.01 to o1er 100 MPa m
1=)
. !t the lo>er end
o: this range are rittle materials >hi&h# >hen loaded# remain elasti& until the"
:ra&ture. $or these# linear elasti& :ra&ture me&hani&s >orks >ell# and the
:ra&ture toughness itsel: is a >ell7de:ined propert". !t the upper end lie the
super7tough materials# all o: >hi&h sho> sustantial plasti&it" e:ore the" reak.
$or these the 1alues o: !
"c
are appro?imate# deri1ed :rom &riti&al N7integral ;5
c
<
and &riti&al &ra&k7opening displa&ement ;d
c
< measurements ;" >riting !
"c
L
(#$
c
)
%
, :or instan&e<. The" are help:ul in pro1iding a ranking o: materials. The
guidelines :or minimum >eight design are e?plained in @hapter &. The :igure
sho>s one reason :or the dominan&e o: metals in engineering: the" almost all
ha1e 1alues o: !
"c
ao1e )0 MPa m
O
# a 1alue o:ten Euoted as a minimum :or
&on1entional design.
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The Modulus Strength Chart (Chart 4, Fig. 4.&)
5igh7tensile steel makes good springs. But so does ruer. 5o> is it that t>o
su&h di::erent materials are oth suited :or the same taskP This and other
Euestions are ans>ered " $ig. 4.5# the most use:ul o: all the &harts.
6t sho>s DoungHs modulus# #, plotted against strength# o'. The Euali:i&ations on
%strength' are the same as e:ore: it means "ield strength :or metals and
pol"mers# &ompressi1e &rushing strength :or &erami&s# tear strength :or
elastomers# and tensile strength :or &omposites and >oodsC the s"mol o#is
used :or them all. The ranges o: the 1ariales# too# are the same. @ontours o:
normailse$ strength, c
1
/E, appear as a :amil" o: straight parallel lines.
,?amine these :irst. ,ngineering pol"mers ha1e normalised strengths et>een
0.01 and 0.1. 6n this sense the" are remarkal" strong: the 1alues :or metals are
at least a :a&tor o: 10 smaller. ,1en &erami&s# in &ompression# are not as
strong# and in tension the" are :ar >eaker ;" a :urther :a&tor o: 15 or so<.
@omposites and >oods lie on the 0.01 &ontour# as good as the est metals.
,lastomers# e&ause o: their e?&eptionall" lo> moduli# ha1e 1alues o: o()#
larger than an" other &lass o: material: 0.1 to 10.
The distan&e o1er >hi&h interatomi& :or&es a&t is small A a ond is roken i: it
is stret&hed to more than aout l*Fo o: its original length. So the :or&e needed
to reak a ond is roughl" Sr
0
F (4.3)
>here S# as e:ore# is the ond sti::ness. 6: shear reaks onds# the "ield
strength o: a solid should e roughl" 6 % E (7"7)
The &hart sho>s that# :or some pol"mers# it is. Most solids are >eaker# :or t>o
reasons. $irst# non7lo&alised onds ;those in >hi&h the &ohesi1e energ" deri1es
:rom the intera&tion o: one atom >ith large numer o: others# not 3ust >ith its
nearest neighours< are not roken >hen the stru&ture is sheared. The metalli&
ond# and the ioni& ond :or &ertain dire&tions o: shear# are like thisC 1er" pure
metals# :or e?ample# "ield at stresses as lo> as ,=l*#000# and strengthening
me&hanisms are needed to make them use:ul in engineering. The &o1alent
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ond is lo&alisedC and &o1alent solids do# :or this reason# ha1e "ield strength
>hi&h# at lo> temperatures# are as high as ,=1*. 6t is hard to measure them
;though it &an sometimes e done " indentation< e&ause o: the se&ond
reason :or >eakness: the" generall" &ontain de:e&ts A &on&entrators o: stress
A :rom >hi&h shear or :ra&ture &an propagate# o:ten at stresses >ell elo> the
%ideal' ,=l*. ,lastomers are anomalous ;the" ha1e strengths o: aout E)
e&ause the modulus does not deri1e :rom ond stret&hing# ut :rom the
&hange in entrop" o: the tangled mole&ular &hains >hen the material is
de:ormed.
This has not "et e?plained ho> to &hoose good materials to make springs. The
>a" in >hi&h the &hart helps >ith this is des&ried in the ne?t t>o &hapters#
parti&ularl" Se&tion 9.J.
The S*eciic Stiness S*eciic Strength Chart (Chart &, Fig. 4.+)
Man" designs A parti&ularl" those :or things >hi&h mo1e A &all :or sti::ness
and strength at minimum >eight. To help >ith this# the data o: @hart 4 are
replotted in @hart ! ;$ig. 4.9< a:ter di1iding# :or ea&h material# " the densit"C it
sho>s E/* plotted against 89/2"
@erami&s lie at the top right: the" ha1e e?&eptionall" high sti::ness and strength
per unit >eight. But the same restri&tions on strength appl" as e:ore. The data
sho>n here are :or &ompression strengthsC the tensile strengths are aout
:i:teen times smaller. @omposites then emerge as the material &lass >ith the
most attra&ti1e spe&i:i& properties# one o: the reasons :or their in&reasing use in
aerospa&e. Metals are penalised e&ause o: their relati1el" high densities.
Pol"mers# e&ause their densities are lo># are :a1oured.
The &hart has appli&ation in sele&tingmaterials :or light springs and energ"7
storage de1i&es. But that too has to >ait till @hapter !" 7
The Fracture Toughness Modulus Chart (Chart +, Fig. 4.,)
!s a general rule# the :ra&ture toughness o: pol"mers is less than that o:
&erami&s. Det pol"mers are >idel" used in engineering stru&turesC &erami&s#
e&ause the" are %rittle'# are treated >ith mu&h more &aution. $igure 4.J helps
resol1e this apparent &ontradi&tion. 6t sho>s the :ra&ture toughness# -
1*
, plotted
against DoungHs modulus# E" The restri&tions des&ried earlier appl" to the
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1alues o: -:3 >hen small# the" are >ell de:inedC >hen large# the" are use:ul onl"
as a ranking :or material sele&tion.
@onsider :irst the Euestion o: the necessar con$ition for fracture 6t is that
su::i&ient e?ternal >ork e done# or elasti& energ" released# to suppl" the
sur:a&e energ" ;
)
" per unit area< o: the t>o ne> sur:a&es >hi&h are &reated Fe
>rite this as BP)" ;4 !)
>here B is the energ" release7rate 0sing the standard relation - (E;)/2
et>een B and stress intensit" -, >e :ind !-''(2#y)'.2 (4.6)
<aterials %election =harts 4J Ko> the sur:a&e energies# "# o: solid materials
s&ale as their moduliC to an adeEuate appro?imation " L Er
&
t2&, >here r
&
is the
atom si2e# gi1ing -.*E>*?5@ (7A)
Fe identi:" the right7hand side o: this eEuation >ith a lo>er7limiting 1alue o:
-,*, >hen# taking r
&
as ) ? 10Q m# mm L I ? l*I m ;4./<
This &riterion is plotted on the &hart as a shaded# diagonal and near the lo>er
right &orner ;the >idth o: the and re:le&ts a realisti& range o: r
&
and o: the
&onstant = in " L Er
&
/=)" 6t de:ines a lower limit on 1alues o: -
1*
3 it &annot e
less than this unless some other sour&e o: energ" ;su&h as a &hemi&al rea&tion#
or the release o: elasti& energ" stored in the spe&ial dislo&ation stru&tures
&aused " :atigue loading< is a1ailale# >hen it is gi1en a ne> s"mol su&h as
(-:)*" Fe note that the most rittle &erami&s lie &lose to the threshold: >hen
the" :ra&ture# the energ" asored is onl" slightl" more than the sur:a&e energ".
Fhen metals and pol"mers and &omposites :ra&ture# the energ" asored is
1astl" greater# usuall" e&ause o: #lasticit asso&iated >ith &ra&k propagation.
Fe &ome to this in a moment# >ith the ne?t &hart.
Plotted on $ig. 4.J are &ontours o: toughness, /0, a measure o: the apparent
:ra&ture sur:a&e energ" ;B#I -,*1E)" The true sur:a&e energies# "# o: solids lie in
the range i0I
4
to i0I
4
kN=m
)
. The diagram sho>s that the 1alues o: the
toughness start at i*I kN=m
)
and range through almost si? de&ades to i0
4
kN=m
)
.
*n this s&ale# &erami&s ;107i to l* RkN=m
)
<# are mu&h lo>er than pol"mers ;107Hto
15 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
10 kN=m
)
<C and this is part o: the reason pol"mers are more >idel" used in
engineering than &erami&s. This point is de1eloped :urther in @hapter 9# Se&tion
9.1).
The Fracture Toughness Strength Chart (Chart ,, Fig. 411
The stress &on&entration at the tip o: a &ra&k generates a *rocess Bone3 a
plasti& 2one in du&tile solids# a 2one o: mi&ro&ra&king in &erami&s# a 2one o:
delamination# edonding and :ire pull7out in &omposites. Fithin the pro&ess
2one# >ork is done against plasti& and :ri&tional :or&esC it is this >hi&h a&&ounts
:or the di::eren&e et>een the measured :ra&ture energ" Bk and the true
sur:a&e energ"
)
". The amount o: energ" dissipated must s&ale roughl" >ith the
strength o: the material# >ith the pro&ess 2one# and >ith its si2e# $,," This si2e is
:ound " eEuating the stress :ield o: the &ra&k ;a L -C *
1
f2D*) at r L $,/2 to the
strength o: the material# O! gi1ing $ -,* ;4.(<
$igure 4./ A :ra&ture toughness against strength sho>s that the si2e o: the
2one# $, ;roken lines< 1aries enormousl"# :rom atomi& dimensions :or 1er"
rittle &erami&s and glasses to almost 1 metre :or the most du&tile o: metals. !t
a &onstant 2one si2e# :ra&ture toughness tends to in&rease >ith strength ;as
e?pe&ted<: it is this that &auses the data plotted in $ig. 4./ to e &lustered
around the diagonal o: the &hart.
The diagram has appli&ation in sele&ting materials :or the sa:e design o: load
earing stru&tures. The" are des&ried in @hapter ! and the &ase stud" o:
Se&tion 9.14.
The 2oss Coeicient Modulus Chart (Chart 1, Fig. 4.3)
Bells! traditionall"! are made o# $ron%e. &'e" (an $e (and sometimes are)
made o# glass) and t'e" (o*ld (i# "o* (o*ld a##ord it) $e made o# sili(on
(ar$ide. +etals! glasses and
&erami&s all# under the right &ir&umstan&es# ha1e lo> intrinsi& damping or
%internal :ri&tion'.# an important material propert" >hen stru&tures 1irate. Fe
measure intrinsi& damping " the loss coefficient, I# >hi&h is plotted in $ig. 4.(.
16 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
There are man" me&hanisms o: intrinsi& damping and h"steresis. Some ;the
%damping' me&hanisms< are asso&iated >ith a pro&ess that has a spe&i:i& time
&onstantC then the energ" loss is &entred aout a &hara&teristi& :reEhen&".
*thers ;the %h"steresis' me&hanisms< are asso&iated >ith time7independent
me&hanismsC the" asor energ" at all :reEuen&ies.
6n metals a large part o: the loss is h"stereti&# &aused " dislo&ation mo1ement:
it is high in so:t metals like lead and pure aluminium. 5ea1il" allo"ed metals like
ron2e and high7&aron steels ha1e lo> loss e&ause the solute pins the
dislo&ationsC these are the materials :or ells# ,?&eptionall" high loss is :ound in
the Mn A @u allo"s# e&ause o: a strain7indu&ed martensite trans:ormation# and
in magnesium# perhaps e&ause o: re1ersile t>inning. The elongated ules
:or metals span the large range a&&essile " allo"ing and >orking. ,ngineering
&erami&s ha1e lo> damping e&ause the enormous latti&e resistan&e pins
dislo&ations in pla&e at room temperature. Porous &erami&s# on the other hand#
are :illed >ith &ra&ks# the sur:a&es o: >hi&h ru# dissipating energ"# >hen the
material is loadedC the high damping o: some &ast irons has a similar origin. 6n
pol"mers# &hain segments slide against ea&h other >hen loadedC the relati1e
motion dissipates energ". The ease >ith >hi&h the" slide depends on the ratio
o: the temperature ;in this &ase# room temperature< to the glass temperature#
Tg# o: the pol"mer. Fhen )/)* S 1# the se&ondar" onds are %:ro2en'# the
modulus is high and the damping is relati1el" lo>. Fhen )1)g. 1# the se&ondar"
onds ha1e melted# allo>ing eas" &hain slippageC the modulus is lo> and the
damping is high. This a&&ounts :or the o1ious in1erse dependen&e o: v* on E
:or pol"mers in $ig. 4.(C indeed# to a :irst appro?imation# 4 ? l*HI L
;4.10< >ith E in Bpa.
The Ther4al Conducti5ity Ther4al Diusi5ity Chart (Chart 3, Fig. 4.16)
The material propert" go1erning the :lo> o: heat through a material at stead"
state is the thermal con$uctivit, ! ;units: 5im 8<C that go1erning transient heat
:lo> is the thermal $iffusivit, a ;units m
)
=s<. The" are related " ! a A
;4.11<
>here p is the densit" and =,, the spe&i:i& heat# measured in N=kg 8C the
17 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
Euantit" E=,, is the volumetric s#ecific heat" $igure 4.10 relates thermal
&ondu&ti1it"# di::usi1it" and 1olumetri& spe&i:i& heat# at room temperature.
The data span almost :i1e de&ades in ! and a" Solid materials are strung out
along the line #=**+ F 109 N=m
4
8 ;4.1)<
This &an e understood " noting that a solid &ontaining G atoms has
4K1irational modes.
,a&h ;in the &lassi&al appro?imation< asors thermal energ" :) at the asolute
temperature ), and the 1irational spe&i:i& heat is =,, =,, L +G: (51-) >here : is
Bol2mannHs &onstant ;1.4/ ? l0Q)4 4=8<. The 1olume per atom# :i# :or almost all
solids lies >ithin a :a&tor o: ) o: 1.4? 10Q)( m
4
thus the 1olume o: G atoms is
(G*2) m
4
. The 1olume spe&i:i& heat is then ;as the &hart sho>s<: p C'
370)78 , , 3 - 1.6 /0m
3
1 (4.13)
$or solids# =, and =,, di::er 1er" littleC at the le1el o: appro?imation o: this ook
>e assume them to e eEual. !s a general rule# then# ! = 4 ? 109 a ;! in N=m 8
and a in m
)
=s<. Some materials de1iate :rom this rule: the" ha1e lo>er than
a1erage 1olumetri& spe&i:i& heat. $or a :e># like diamond# it is lo> e&ause their
De"e temperatures lie >ell ao1e room temperatureC then heat asorption is
not &lassi&al# some modes do not asor :) and the spe&i:i& heat is less than
+G:" The largest de1iations are sho>n " porous solids: :oams# lo> densit"
:ireri&k# >oods and so on. Their lo> densit" means that the" &ontain :e>er
atoms per unit 1olume and# a1eraged o1er the 1olume o: the stru&ture# #=,, is
lo>. The result is that# although :oams ha1e lo> con$uctivities ;and are >idel"
used :or insulation e&ause o: this< their thermal $iffusivities are not ne&essaril"
lo>:
the" ma" not transmit mu&h heat# ut the" rea&h a stead" state Eui&kl". This is
important in design A a point rought out " the @ase Stud" o: Se&tion 4"1!"
The range o: oth ! and a re:le&t the me&hanisms o: heat trans:er in ea&h &lass
o: solid. ,le&trons &ondu&t the heat in pure metals su&h as &opper# sil1er and
aluminium ;top right o: &hart<. The &ondu&ti1it" is des&ried " ;4.14<
1 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
>here =e is the ele&tron spe&i:i& heat per unit 1olume# I is the ele&tron 1elo&it"
;) ? i*I m=s< and 6 the ele&tron mean :ree path# t"pi&all" i0I m in pure metals.
6n solid solution ;steels# ni&kel7ased and titanium allo"s< the :oreign atoms
s&atter ele&trons# redu&ing the mean :ree path to atomi& dimensions ; 10II rn<#
mu&h redu&ing ! and a.
,le&tron do not &ontriute to &ondu&tion in &erami&s and pol"mers. 5eat is
&arried " phonons A latti&e 1irations o: short >a1elengths. The" are
s&attered " ea&h other ;through an anharmoni& intera&tion< and " impurities#
latti&e de:e&ts and sur:a&esC it is these >hi&h determine the phonon mean :ree
path# 6. The &ondu&ti1it" is still gi1en " eEuation ;4.14< >hi&h >e >rite as
E=+2=#* (7"1!)
ut no> T is the elasti& >a1e speed ;around i0
4
rn=s A see @hart 1< and 2=,, is
the 1olumetri& spe&i:i& heat again. 6: the &r"stal is parti&ularl" per:e&t# and the
temperature is >ell elo> the De"e temperature# as in diamond at room
temperature# the phonon &ondu&ti1it" is high: it is :or this reason that single
&r"stal diamond# sili&on &aride# and e1en alumina ha1e &ondu&ti1ities almost
as high as &opper. The lo> &ondu&ti1it" o: glass is &aused " its irregular
amorphous stru&tureC the &hara&teristi& length o: the mole&ular linkages ;aout
i*I m< determines the mean :ree path. Pol"mers ha1e lo> &ondu&ti1ities
e&ause the elasti& >a1e speed I is lo> ;@hart 1<# and the mean :ree path in
the disordered stru&ture is small.
The lo>est thermal &ondu&ti1ities are sho>n " highl" porous materials like
:ireri&k# &ork and :oams. Their &ondu&ti1it" is limited " that o: the gas in their
&ells.
The Ther4al #9*ansion A Ther4al Conducti5ity Chart (Chart 16, Fig.
4.11)
!lmost all solids e?pand on heating. The ond et>een a pair o: atoms eha1es
like a linear elasti& spring >hen the relati1e displa&ement o: the atoms is smallC
ut >hen it is large# the spring is non7linear. Most onds e&ome sti::er >hen
19 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
the atoms are pushed together# and less sti:: >hen the" are pulled apart# that is#
the" are anharmoni&. The thermal 1iration o: atoms# e1en at room
temperature# in1ol1es large displa&ementsC as the temperature is raised# the
anharmoni&it" o: the ond pushes the atoms apart# in&reasing their mean
spa&ing. The e::e&t is measured " the linear eF#ansion coefficient Q1 d" a
' dT (4.16)
>here @ is a linear dimension o: the od".
The e?pansion &oe::i&ient is plotted against the &ondu&ti1it" in @hart 10 ;$ig.
4.11<. 6t sho>s that pol"mers ha1e large 1alues o: a# roughl" ten times greater
than those o: metals and almost a hundred times greater than &erami&s. This is
e&ause the Van der Faals onds o: the pol"mer are 1er" anharmoni&.
Diamond# sili&on# and sili&a ;Si0
)
< ha1e &o1alent onds >hi&h ha1e lo>
anharmoni&it" ;that is# the" are almost linear elasti& e1en at large strains<# gi1ing
them lo> e?pansion &oe::i&ients. @omposites# e1en though the" ha1e pol"mer
matri&es# &an ha1e l*> 1alues o: a e&ause the rein:or&ing :ires A parti&ularl"
&aron A e?pand 1er" little.
The &hart sho>s &ontours o: !=a# a Euantit" important in designing against
thermal distortion. ! design appli&ation >hi&h uses this is de1eloped in @hapter
9# Se&tion 9.1/.
The Ther4al #9*ansion A Modulus =hart (=hart 11, Fig. 4.12)
Thermal stress is the stress >hi&h appears in a od" >hen it is heated or
&ooled# ut pre1ented :rom e?panding or &ontra&ting. 6t depends on the
e?pansion &oe::i&ient# a# o: the material and on its modulus# E" ! de1elopment
o: the theor" o: thermal e?pansion ;see# :or e?ample# @ottrell ;1(94<< leads to
the relation :/;C< a A 3# ;4.1J<
>here 23 is BruneisenHs &onstantC its 1alue ranges et>een aout 0.4 and 4#
ut :or most solids it is near 1. Sin&e #=" is almost &onstant ;eEuation ;4.1)<<#
the eEuation tells us that a is proportional to l1E" $igure 4.1) sho>s that this is
so. Diamond# >ith the highest modulus# has one o: the lo>est &oe::i&ients o:
e?pansionC elastomers >ith the lo>est moduli e?pand the most. Some materials
>ith a lo> &oordination numer ;sili&a# and some diamond &ui& or 2in&lende
20 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
stru&tured materials< &an asor energ" pre:erentiall" in trans1erse modes#
leading to a 1er" small ;e1en a negati1e< 1alue o: Do and a lo> e?pansion
&oe::i&ient A that is >h" Si0
)
is e?&eptional. *thers# like 6n1ar# &ontra&t as the"
lose their :erromagnetism >hen heated through the @urie temperature and# o1er
a narro> range o: temperature# the" too sho> near72ero e?pansion# use:ul in
pre&ision eEuipment and in glass A metal seals.
*ne more use:ul :a&t: the moduli o: materials s&ale appro?imatel" >ith their
melting point# U ;4.1/<
>here : is Bolt2mannHs &onstant and 5) the 1olume per atom in the stru&ture.
Sustituting this and eEuation ;4.14< :or #=," into eEuation ;4.1J< :or a gi1es
;4.1(<
the e?pansion &oe::i&ient 1aries in1ersel" >ith the melting point# or ;eEui1alentl"
stated<# :or all solids the thermal strain# 3ust e:ore the" melt# depends onl" on
D&I and this is roughl" a &onstant. The result is use:ul :or estimating and
&he&king e?pansion &oe::i&ients.
4'ene5er t'e t'ermal e-pansion or (ontra(tion o# a $od" is pre5ented!
t'ermal stresses appear) i# large eno*g'! t'e" (a*se "ielding! #ra(t*re! or
elasti( (ollapse ($*(6ling). It is (ommon to disting*is' $et7een t'ermal
stress (a*sed $" e-ternal (onstraint (a rod! rigidl" (lamped at $ot' ends!
#or e-ample) and t'at 7'i(' appears 7it'o*t e-ternal (onstraint $e(a*se
o# temperat*re gradients in t'e $od". All s(ale as t'e 8*antit" a#, s'o7n
as a set o# diagonal (onto*rs on 9ig. 4.12. +ore pre(isel": t'e stress Ao
prod*(ed $" a temperat*re ('ange o# 1;< in a (onstrained s"stem! or t'e
stress per ;< (a*sed $" a s*dden ('ange o# s*r#a(e temperat*re in one
7'i(' is not (onstrained! is gi5en $" =Hto L aE ;4.)0<
>here = L 6 :or a?ial &onstraint# ;1 'v) :or ia?ial &onstraint or normal
Euen&hing# and ;1 A )1< :or tria?ial &onstraint# >here v is PoissonHs ratio. These
stresses are large: t"pi&all" 1 MPa=8C the" &an &ause a material to "ield# or
&ra&k# or spall# or u&kle# >hen it is suddenl" heated or &ooled. The resistan&e
21 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
o: materials to su&h damage is the su3e&t o: the ne?t se&tion.
The 7or4alised Strength A Ther4al #9*ansion Chart (Chart 12, Fig. 4.13)
Fhen a &old i&e &ue is dropped into a glass o: gin# it &ra&ks audil". The i&e is
:ailing " thermal sho&k. The ailit" o: a material to >ithstand su&h stresses is
measured " its thermal shoc: resistance" 6t depends on its thermal e?pansion
&oe::i&ient# a# and its normalised tensile strength# o,/E" The" are the a?es o: $ig.
4.14# on >hi&h &ontours o: &onstant o,/aE are plotted. The tensile strength# a##
reEuires de:inition# 3ust as =( did. $or rittle solids# it is the tensile :ra&ture
strength ;roughl" eEual to the modulus o: rupture# or M*+<. $or du&tile metals
and pol"mers# it is the tensile "ield strengthC and :or &omposites it is the stress
>hi&h :irst &auses permanent damage in the :orm o: delamination# matri?
&ra&king o: :ire deonding.
To use the &hart# >e note that a temperature &hange o: E), applied to a
&onstrained od" A or a sudden &hange !To: the sur:a&e temperature o: a
od" >hi&h is un&onstrained A indu&es a stress
#a E)
6 c ;4.)1<
>here = >as de:ined in the last se&tion. 6: this stress e?&eeds the lo&al strength
a, o: the material# "ielding or &ra&king results. ,1en i: it does not &ause the
&omponent to :ail# it >eakens it. Then a measure o: the thermal sho&k resistan&e is
gi1en "
E) A a,
= aE ;4.))<
This is not Euite the >hole stor". Fhen the &onstraint is internal
4
the thermal
&ondu&ti1it" o: the material e&omes important. %6nstant' &ooling >hen a od" is
Euen&hed reEuires an in:inite rate o: heat trans:er at its sur:a&e. 5eat trans:erV rates
are measured " the heat trans:er &oe::i&ient# h ;units: F=m
)
8<# and are ne1er
22 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
in:inite. Fater Euen&hing gi1es a high h, and then the 1alues o: !T &al&ulated :rom
eEuation ;4.))< gi1e an appro?imate ranking o: thermal sho&k resistan&e. But >hen
heat trans:er at the sur:a&e is poor and the thermal &ondu&ti1it" o: the solid is high
;there" redu&ing thermal gradients<# the thermal stress is less than that gi1en "
eEuation ;4.)1< " a :a&tor E >hi&h# to an adeEuate appro?imation# is gi1en "
E
A 6 > (h/E ;4.)4<
>here t is a t"pi&al dimension o: the sample in the dire&tion o: heat :lo>C the
Euantit" (h/E is usuall" &alled the Biot modulus. Tale 4.) gi1es t"pi&al 1alues o: E,
:or ea&h &lass# using a se&tion si2e o: 10 mmI
The eEuation de:ining the thermal sho&k resistan&e# E), no> e&omes 7
IHi)--*-J
A aE ;4.)4<
7'ere ? , C)@. &'e (onto*rs on t'e diagram are o# ?@T. &'e ta$le s'o7s t'at!
#or rapid 8*en('ing! @ is *nit" #or all materials e-(ept t'e 'ig' (ond*(ti5it"
metals: t'en t'e t'ermal
4/ <aterials %election in <echanical Kesign
&AB=> 4.) Lalues of the 6actor E ;Se&tion 1 L 10 mm<
@onditions $oa
ms
Pol"mers
@erami&s
Metals
!ir :lo> slo> (h L 10
F=m
1
8<
&"A! &"! 4 ?
10I
4 ? 10H
Bla&k od" radiation
500 to 0M@ (1i L 40
F=m
)
8<
0.(4 0.9 0.1) 1.4 ?
10)
!ir :lo> :ast (h L 10)
F=m
)
8<
1 &"A! &"2! 4 ? 10I
Fater Euen&h slo>
(1i L 10H F=m
)
8< 1 1 &"A! 0.)4
23 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
Fater Euen&h :ast
(h L 10I F=mH -) 1 1 1 I0.S
sho&k resistan&e is simpl" read :rom the &ontours# >ith appropriate &orre&tion :or the
&onstraint ;the :a&tor C). $or slo>er Euen&hes# t* ) is larger " the :a&tor 1/E, read
:rom the tale.
)he %trength A Te4*erature =hart (=hart 13, Fig. 4.14)
!s the temperature o: a solid is raised# the amplitude o: the thermal 1iration o:
their atoms in&reases and the solid e?pands. Both the e?pansion and the 1irational
energ" make plasti& :lo> easier. The strength o: solids :alls# 1er" slo>l" at :irst and
then more rapidl"# as the temperature in&reases. @hart 14 ;$ig. 4.14< &aptures some
o: this in:ormation. 6t sho>s the "ield strength ;at a %normal' test strain rate o: 10
4
=s<
plotted against temperature. The near hori2ontal part o: ea&h lo2enge sho>s the
strength in the regime in >hi&h temperature has little e::e&tC the do>n>ard sloping
part sho>s the more pre&ipitate drop.
There are mu&h etter >a"s o: des&riing high7temperature strength than this# ut
the" are mu&h more &ompli&ated. The &hart gi1es a irdHs7e"e 1ie> o: the regimes o:
stress and temperature in >hi&h ea&h material &lass# and material# is usale. Kote
that e1en the est pol"mers ha1e 1er" little strength ao1e )00M@C metals e&ome
1er" so:t " /00M@C and onl" &erami&s o::er strength ao1e 1...;<.
The Modulus A Aelati5e Cost Chart (Chart 14, Fig. 4.1&)
Properties like modulus# Rstrength or &ondu&ti1it" do not &hange >ith time. @ost is
othersome e&ause it does. Suppl"# s&ar&it"# spe&ulation and in:lation &ontriute to
the &onsiderale :lu&tuations in the &ost per kilogram o: a &ommodit" like &opper.
Data :or &ost per kg are taulated :or some materials in dail" papers and trade
3ournalsC those :or others are harder to &ome ". To remo1e the in:luen&e o: in:lation
and the units *: the &urren&" in >hi&h &ost is measured# >e de:ine a relati1e &ost
=M3
A @ost per kg o: the material
A @ost per kg o: mild steel rod
24 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
!t the time o: >riting# steel rein:or&ing rod &osts aout W0.)=kg ;0SX 0.4=kg<.
@hart 14 ;$ig. 4.1&) sho>s the modulus E plotted against relati1e &ost per unit
1olume =M2, >here p is the densit". @heap sti:: materials lie :o>ards the top le:t.
,?pensi1e &ompliant materials lie to>ards the ottom right.
The Strength A Melative Cost Chart (Chart 1&, Fig. 4.1+)
@heap strong materials are sele&ted using @hart 15 ;$ig. 4.19<. 6t sho>s strength#
de:ined as e:ore# plotted against relati1e &ost# de:ined ao1e. The Euali:i&ations on
the de:inition o: strength# gi1en earlier# appl" here also.
"t 4ust Be e4*hasised that the data *lotted here and on Chart 14 are less
reliaBle than those o *re5ious charts, and suB(ect to un*redictaBle change.
Despite t'is dire 7arning! t'e t7o ('arts are gen*inel" *se#*l. &'e" allo7
sele(tion o# materials! *sing t'e (riterion o# @#*n(tion per *nit (ostA. An
e-ample is gi5en in <'apter 6! Se(tion 6.1B.
C2 <aterials %election in <echanical Kesign
The Cear Aate A ?earing ;ressure Chart (Chart 1+, Fig. 4.1,)
Fear presents a ne> &lass o: prolem: it is not apropert" o: one material# ut that o:
one material sliding on another# >ith A i: luri&ated A a third in et>een. The
numer o: &ominations is :ar too large to hope to deal >ith it neatl". The est >e
&an do is to displa" the range o: >ear rates e?pe&ted under sme standard &ondition
A dr" sliding on a steel &ounter:a&e# :or instan&e.
The >ear rate is de:ined as
A 1olume o: material remo1ed
distan&e o: sliding
6t has units o: m
)
. !t lo> earing pressures 2 ;the :or&e pressing the t>o
sur:a&es together di1ided " the area o: &onta&t< it is :ound that
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Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
D=-EE2
>here -E is a &onstant# the !r&hard &onstant# >ith units o: ;MPa< I. But as a
&hara&teristi& ma?imum earing pressure Pma? is approa&hed# -E rises steepl".
@hart 19 ;$ig. 4.1J< sho>s the &onstant -E plotted against earing pressure 2" ,a&h
lo2enge sho>s the &onstant 1alue o: -E at lo> 2, and the steep rise as Pm is
approa&hed. Materials &annot e used ao1e 2m*" !n e?ample o: the use o: the
&hart is gi1en in Se&tion 9.)0.
The #n5iron4ental @ttac0 Chart (=hart 1,, Fig. 4.11)
@orrosion# like >ear# depends oth on the material and on its en1ironment. 6t &annot
e Euanti:ied in an" general >a". Data ooks and ases generall" rank the
resistan&e o: a material to atta&k in a gi1en en1ironment a&&ording to a s&ale su&h
as %!' ;>onder:ul< to %D' ;a>:ul<. This in:ormation is sho>n# :or si? en1ironments in
@hart 1J ;$ig. 4.1/<. 6ts use:ulness is 1er" limitedC at est it gi1es >arning o: a
potential en1ironmental ha2ard asso&iated >ith the use o: a gi1en material.
4.4 S*mmar" and <on(l*sions
The engineering properties o: materials are use:ull" displa"ed as material sele&tion
&harts. The &harts summarise the in:ormation in a &ompa&t# easil" a&&essile >a"C
and the" sho> the range o: an" gi1en propert" a&&essile to the designer and
indenti:" the material &lass asso&iated >ith segments o: that range. B" &hoosing the
a?es in a sensile >a"# more in:ormation &an e displa"ed: a &hart o: modulus E
against densit" p re1eals the longitudinal >a1e 1elo&it" (E1#) D a plot o: :ra&ture
toughness -fr against modulus E sho>s the :ra&ture sur:a&e energ" /0D a diagram
o: thermal &ondu&ti1it" E against di::usi1it"# a# also gi1es the 1olume spe&i:i& heat
#=* e?pansion# a! against normalised strength# c,/E, gi1es thermal sho&k resistan&e
E)"
The most striking :eature o: the &harts is the >a" in >hi&h memers o: a material
&lass &luster together. Despite the >ide range o: modulus and densit" asso&iated
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Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
>ith metals ;as an e?ample<# the" o&&up" a :ield >hi&h is distin&t :rom that o:
pol"mers# or that o: &erami&s# or that o: &omposites. The same is true o: strength#
toughness# thermal &ondu&ti1it" and the rest:
the :ields sometimes o1erlap# ut the" al>a"s ha1e a &hara&teristi& pla&e >ithin
the >hole pi&ture.
The position o: the :ields and their relationship &an e understood in simple ph"si&al
terms:
t'e nat*re o# t'e $onding! t'e pa(6ing densit"! t'e latti(e resistan(e and t'e
5i$rational modes o# t'e str*(t*re (t'emsel5es a #*n(tion o# $onding and
pa(6ing)! and so #ort'. It ma" seem odd t'at so little mention 'as $een made
o# mi(rostr*(t*re in determining properties. B*t t'e ('arts (learl" s'o7 t'at
t'e #irstEorder di##eren(e $et7een t'e properties o# materials 'as its origins in
t'e mass o# t'e atoms! t'e nat*re o# t'e interatomi( #or(es and t'e geometr"
o#
pa&king. !llo"ing# heat treatment and me&hani&al >orking all in:luen&e
mi&rostru&ture# and through this# properties# gi1ing the elongated ules sho>n on
man" o: the &hartsC ut the magnitude o: their e::e&t is less# " :a&tors o: 10# than
that o: onding and stru&ture.
The &harts ha1e numerous appli&ations. *ne is the &he&king and 1alidation o: data
;@hapter 11<C here use is made oth o: Ithe range &o1ered " the en1elope o:
material properties# and o: the numerous relations et>een material properties ;like
,I) L 100 :)*,), des&ried in Se&tion 4.4. !nother &on&erns the de1elopment o:#
and identi:i&ation o: uses :or# ne> materials ;@hapter 14<C materials >hi&h :ill gaps in
one or more o: the &harts generall" o::er some impro1ed design potential. But most
important o: all# the &harts :orm the asis o: a pro&edure :or materials sele&tion. That
is de1eloped in the ne?t :our &hapters.
4.C 9*rt'er Feading
The est ook on the ph"si&al origins o: the me&hani&al properties o:
materials remains that " @ottrell ;1(94<. There is no single sour&e o: data
:or material properties. Those listed elo> pro1ided aout one hal: o: the data
27 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
sho>n on the &harts. The rest &omes :rom original papers# reports and
suppliersH data sheets.
<aterial 2ro#erties3 ;eneral
@ottrell# !. 5. ;1(94< <echanical 2ro#erties of <atter" File"# KD# 0S!.
Taor# D. ;1(J/< 2ro#erties of <atter" Penguin Books# Gondon# 08.
Nan$boo:s of <aterial 2ro#erties
Emerican 1nstitute of 2hsics Nan$boo: ;1(J)I 4rd edition. M&Bra> 5ill# Ke> Dork.
0S!.
E%< <etals Nan$boo: ;1(J4< /th edition. !meri&an So&iet" :or Metals# @olumus#
*hio# 0S!.
Nan$boo: of =hemistr an$ 2hsics ;1(J1< 5)nd edition. The @hemi&al +uer @o.#
@le1eland# *hio# 0S!.
Han$olt-Iorastein )ab/es ;1(99< Springer# Berlin# Berman".
<aterials %elector ;1(()< Material ,ngineering. Panton Pulishing# @le1eland# *hio#
0S!.
Smithells# @. N. ;1(/4< <etals Meference Ioo:, 9th edition. Butter>orths# Gondon#
08.
Nan$boo: of 2lastics an$ Elastomers (1?A!) ,ditor @. !. 5arper. M&Bra> 5ill# Ke>
Dork. 0S!.
Bho>mi&k# !. 8. and Stephens# 5. G. ;1(//< Nan$boo: of Elaslomers" Mar&el
Dekker# KD# 0S!.
Nan$boo: of 2hsical =onstants ;1(99< Memoir (J. ,ditor S. P. @larke# mr. The
Beologi&al So&iet" o: !meri&a# Ke> Dork# 0S!.
Elsevier <aterials %elector ;1((1< ,lse1ier# !msterdam.
Morrell# +. ;1(/5# 1(/J< Nan$boo: of 2ro#erties of )echnical an$ Engineering
=eramics ParisY and 11. Kational Ph"si&al Gaorator"# 5er Ma3est"Hs Stationer"
*::i&e# Gondon# 08.
Din>oodie# N. M. ;1(/1< )imber, 1ts Gature an$ Iehaviour" Van Kostrand7+einhold#
Fokingham# 08.
3i$son! =. /. and As'$"! +. 9. (1BGG) Cellular Solids, Structure and ;ro*erties.
2 / 29
Modul Pemilihan Bahan & Proses - Ariosuko
Pergamon Press! O-#ord! H1.
29 / 29