You are on page 1of 6

FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF /4 -QPSK MODEM FOR EXAMINATION BLOCKS ALLOCATION SYSTEM.

Dept of.ECE, PDA Engineering Collge Gulbarga . 2013-14 73




APPENDIX
1. CREATING AN FPGA DESIGN
Begin this tutorial by creating a new Quartus II project. A project is a set of files that
maintain information about your FPGA design. The Quartus II Settings File (.qsf) and
Quartus II Project File (.qpf) files are the primary files in a Quartus II project. To compile a
design or make pin assignments, you must first create a project.
THE STEPS USED TO CREATE A PROJECT ARE
1. In the Quartus II software, select File > New Project Wizard. The Introduction page
opens, as shown in Figure 1























Figure 1 New Project Wizard introduction
2. Click Next.
3. Enter the following information about your project: (Note: File names, project names,
and directories in the Quartus II software cannot contain spaces.)
FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF /4 -QPSK MODEM FOR EXAMINATION BLOCKS ALLOCATION SYSTEM.


Dept of.ECE, PDA Engineering Collge Gulbarga . 2013-14 74

a. What is the working directory for this project? Enter a directory in which you will store
your Quartus II project files for this design. For example,
E:\My_design\my_first_fpga.
b. What is the name of this project? Type my_first_fpga.
c. What is the name of the top-level design entity for this project? Type my_first_fpga.
See Figure 2.











Figure 2 Project information
d. Click Next.
e. In the next dialog box, you will assign a specific FPGA device to the design. Select the
EP4CE22F17C6 device, as it is the FPGA on the DE0-Nano, as shown in Figure 3
f. Click Finish.
4. When prompted, select Yes to create the my_first_fpga project directory. You just
created your Quartus II FPGA project. Your project is now open in Quartus II, as shown
in Figure 4
FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF /4 -QPSK MODEM FOR EXAMINATION BLOCKS ALLOCATION SYSTEM.


Dept of.ECE, PDA Engineering Collge Gulbarga . 2013-14 75


















Figure 3 Specify the Device Example
















Figure 4 My_First_FPGA Project
FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF /4 -QPSK MODEM FOR EXAMINATION BLOCKS ALLOCATION SYSTEM.


Dept of.ECE, PDA Engineering Collge Gulbarga . 2013-14 76

2 EXPANSION PIN HEADERS OF ALTERA CYCLONE IV
FPGA
The DE0-Nano board provides TWO 40-PIN expansion headers. Each header
connects directly to 36 pins of the Cyclone IV E FPGA, and also provides DC +5V (VCC5),
DC +3.3V (VCC33), and two GND pins.





Figure 5.Pin1 locations of the GPIO expansion headers










Figure 6 Pin arrangement of the GPIO expansion headers


FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF /4 -QPSK MODEM FOR EXAMINATION BLOCKS ALLOCATION SYSTEM.


Dept of.ECE, PDA Engineering Collge Gulbarga . 2013-14 82

3. BIT ERROR RATE
In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of
a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due
to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.
The bit error rate or bit error ratio (BER) is the number of bit errors divided by
the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. BER is a unitless
performance measure, often expressed as a percentage.
The bit error probability p
e
is the expectation value of the BER. The BER can be
considered as an approximate estimate of the bit error probability. This estimate is accurate
for a long time interval and a high number of bit errors.
Bit-error rate curves for BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK and 16-PSK, AWGN channel is show in the
figure 7







Figure 7 Bit-error rate curves for BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK and 16-PSK, AWGN channel







Figure 8 BER comparisons between BPSK and differentially encoded BPSK with gray-coding
FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF /4 -QPSK MODEM FOR EXAMINATION BLOCKS ALLOCATION SYSTEM.


Dept of.ECE, PDA Engineering Collge Gulbarga . 2013-14 83

BER comparison between BPSK and differentially encoded BPSK with gray-coding
operating in white noise is show in the above figure 8.2
4. CHANNEL CAPACITY
Like all M-ary modulation schemes with M = 2
b
symbols, when given exclusive
access to a fixed bandwidth, the channel capacity of any phase shift keying modulation
scheme rises to a maximum of b bits per symbol as the signal-to-noise ratio increases.










Figure 9 Bits per Symbol as the signal-to-noise ratio increases
Above figure 9 Gives the clear idea on the fixed bandwidth, channel capacity vs. SNR
for some common modulation schemes