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CHAPTER 5

TRIGNOMETRY

KEY POINTS

1. Trignometrical Ratios : In AABC, ZB = 90 for angle A

= sin

Perpendicular

A

Hypotenuse

= cos

Base

A

Hypotenuse

= tan

Perpendicular

A

Base

= cot

Base

A

Perpendicular

= sec .

Hypotenuse

A

Base

= cosec

Hypotenuse

A

Perpendicular

2. Reciprocal Relations :

1 1

sin , cosec

cosec sin

u = u =

u u

1 1

cos , sec

sec cos

u = u =

u u

X Maths 37

1 1

tan , cot

cot tan

u = u =

u u

3. Quotient Relations :

sin cos

tan , cot

cos sin

u u

u = u =

u u

4. Indentities :

sin

2

u + cos

2

u = 1 sin

2

u = 1 cos

2

u and cos

2

u = 1 sin

2

u

1 + tan

2

u = sec

2

u tan

2

u = sec

2

u 1 and sec

2

u tan

2

u = 1

1 + cot

2

u = cosec

2

u cot

2

u = cosec

2

u 1 and cosec

2

u cot

2

u = 1

5. Trignometric Ratios of Some Specific Angles :

ZA 0 30 45 60 90

sin A 0

1

2

1

2

3

2

1

cos A 1

3

2

1

2

1

2

0

tan A 0

1

3

1

3

Not defined

cosec A Not defined 2

2

2

3

1

sec A 1

2

3

2

2 Not defined

cot A Not defined

3

1

1

3

0

38 X Maths

6. Trignometric Ratios of Complementary Angles

sin (90 u) = cos u

cos (90 u) = sin u

tan (90 u) = cot u

cot (90 u) = tan u

sec (90 u) = cosec u

cosec (90 u) = sec u

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Note : In the following questions 0 s u s 90

1. If x = a sin u and y = a cos u then the value of x

2

+ y

2

is _______

(a) a (b) a

2

(c) 1 (d)

1

a

2. The value of cosec 70 sec 20 is _____

(a) 0 (b) 1

(c) 70 (d) 20

3. If 3 sec u 5 = 0 then cot u = _____

(a)

5

3

(b)

4

5

(c)

3

4

(d)

3

5

4. If u = 45 then sec u cot u cosec u tan u is

(a) 0 (b) 1

(c)

2

(d)

2 2

X Maths 39

5. If sin (90 u) cos u = 1 and u is an acute angle then u = ____

(a) 90 (b) 60

(c) 30 (d) 0

6. The value of (1 + cos u) (1 cos u) cosec

2

u = _____

(a) 0 (b) 1

(c) cos

2

u (d) sin

2

u

7. ATRY is a right-angled isosceles triangle then cos T + cos R + cos Y is

_____

(a)

2

(b)

2 2

(c)

+ 1 2

(d)

+

1

1

2

8. If sec u + tan u = x, then sec u =

(a)

+

2

1 x

x

(b)

+

2

1

2

x

x

(c)

2

1

2

x

x

(d)

2

1 x

x

9. The value of

t t | |

u u u

| |

' '

cot sin cos

2 2

is _______

(a) cot u cos

2

u (b) cot

2

u

(c) cos

2

u (d) tan

2

u

10. If sin u cos u = 0, 0 s u s 90 then the value of u is _____

(a) cos u (b) 45

(c) 90 (d) sin u

40 X Maths

11.

u

u

2

sin

1 sin

can be written as

(a) cot u (b)

u sin

(c)

u

u

sin

cos

(d) tan u

12.

+ u

u

1 sin

1 sin

is equal to

(a) sec

2

u + tan

2

u (b) sec u tan u

(c) sec

2

u tan

2

u (d) sec u + tan

u

13. In an isosceles right-angled AABC, ZB = 90. The value of 2 sin A cos

A is _____

(a) 1 (b)

1

2

(c)

1

2

(d)

2

14. If

+

=

+

2 2

2 2

sin 20 sin 70 sec 60

2 cos 69 cos 21

K

then K is ______

(a) 1 (b) 2

(c) 3 (d) 4

15. If

u u

u = =

u + u

2 2

2 2

1 cosc sec

tan ,

7

cosec sec

then

(a)

3

4

(b)

5

7

(c)

3

7

(d)

1

12

X Maths 41

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

16. In APQR, ZQ = 90 and =

3

sin ,

5

R write the value of cos P.

17. If A and B are acute angles and sin A = cos B then write the value of

A + B.

18. If 4 cot u = 3 then write the value of tan u + cot u.

19. Write the value of cot

2

30 + sec

2

45.

20. Given that 16 cot A = 12, find the value of

sin cos

sin cos

A A

A A

+

.

21. If u = 30 then write the value of sin u + cos

2

u.

22. If u =

2 2

1 tan

3

then what is the value of u.

23. Find the value of u of u = 3 tan 2 3 0.

24. If u and | are complementary angles then what is the value of

cosec u sec | cot u tan |

25. If tan (3x 15) = 1 then what is the value of x.

26. If sin 5u = cos 4u, where 5u and 4u are acute angles. Find the value of u.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

27. Simplify :

tan

2

60 + 4 cos

2

45 + 3 (sec

2

30 + cos

2

90)

28. Evaluate

cos 58 cos 38 cosec 52

2 3

sin 32 tan15 tan 60 tan 75

| |

' '

29. Prove that

cosec

4

u cosec

2

u = cot

2

u + cot

4

u.

42 X Maths

30. If sin u + sin

2

u = 1 then find the value of cos

2

u + cos

4

u.

31. If sin 2u = cos (u 36), 2u and u 26 are acute angles then find the

value of u.

32. If sin (3x + 2y) = 1 and =

3

cos 3 2 ,

2

x y where 0 s (3x + 2y) s 90

then find the value of x and y.

33. If sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B then find the value of

(a) sin 75

(b) cos 15

34. Prove that

cos cos

cos , 45 .

1 tan 1 cot

A A

A A

A A

+ = =

35. Prove that

u u +

+ = u

u + u

sec 1 sec 1

2cosec

sec 1 sec 1

36. Find the value of

sin

2

5 + sin

2

10 + sin

2

15 + .... + sin

2

85

37. Prove that

u + u u

=

u u + u

tan sec 1 cos

.

tan sec 1 1 sin

38. If

2 sin 3 15 3 x = then find the value of

+ + +

2 2

sin 2 10 tan 5 . x x

39. Find the value of sin 60 geometrically.

40. Let p = tan u + sec u then find the value of

+

1

. p

p

41. Find the value of

u u + u u + +

2 2

tan cot 90 sec cosec 90 sin 35 sin 55

tan10 tan 20 tan 30 tan 70 tan 80

X Maths 43

42. If

o o

= =

| |

cos cos

and

cos sin

m n

show that (m

2

+ n

2

) cos

2

| = n

2

.

43. Prove that cos 1 cos 2 cos 3.........cos 180 = 0.

44. Prove that

u + u u u u

+ =

u u u + u

u

2

2

sin cos sin cos 2 sec

sin cos sin cos

tan 1

.

45. If A, B, C are the interior angles of a triangle ABC, show that

+ + | |

+ =

| |

' '

sin cos cos sin 1.

2 2 2 2

B C A B C A

ANSWERS

1. b 2. a

3. c 4. a

5. d 6. b

7. a 8. b

9. a 10. b

11. d 12. d

13. a 14. d

15. a 16. =

3

cos

5

P

17. 90 18.

25

12

19. 5 20. 7

21.

5

4

22. 30

23. 30 24. 1

25. x = 20. 26. 10

44 X Maths

27. 9 28. 1

30. 1 31. 42

32. x = 20, y = 15

33.

3 1 3 1

, ,

2 2 2 2

+ +

take A = 45, B = 30

34. 35.

36.

17

2

37.

38.

13

12

39.

40. 2 sec u 41.

2 3

42. 43. 60

44. ZA = 67.5, ZB = 37.5, ZC = 75

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