You are on page 1of 39

Chapter 6 Chapter 6

Using APDL in Mechanical 1


ANSYS Mechanical Advanced
(Using Command Objects)
6-1
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
( g j )
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Overview
Using an understanding of Mechanical APDL acquired from the
previous chapters, this section will demonstrate how to use APDL
commands to access advanced functionality within Mechanical.
Consider the APDL commands as a scripting language to:
Manipulate the mesh directly
Access advanced solver functionality
Access advanced postprocessing capabilities
In this chapter, using Commands objects in the Geometry, Remote In this chapter, using Commands objects in the Geometry, Remote
Points, and Connections branches will be explored.
6-2
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
A. Preliminaries
Before diving into the details of using Commands objects in
Mechanical, some general topics will be reviewed:
Solver unit system
Saving the Mechanical APDL database
Creating/deleting elements and other entities
Branches in the Outline Tree applicable to Commands objects
6-3
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Unit System
APDL commands may involve the input of values that are unit-
dependent, such as piezoelectric coefficients. Because Commands
objects are general, there is no mechanism to convert entered
f f arguments of APDL commands if a user decides to change the active
unit system from the Units menu.
Consequently, it is strongly recommended to manually specify the
l i i h D il i f h A l i S i solver unit system in the Details view of the Analysis Settings
branch. Solver Units: Manual allows the user to specify the unit
system for the Mechanical APDL solver
B tti S l U it M l ith S l By setting Solver Units: Manual with Solver
Unit System set appropriately, the user-specified
unit system will always by used by the
Mechanical APDL solver, regardless of what , g
the active unit system is in Mechanical
This ensures that, if another user obtains the
Workbench project, their solution will be in the
i
6-4
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
correct unit system
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Saving the Mechanical APDL database
Mechanical uses the file.rst result file for postprocessing. Most
postprocessing operations can be done in Mechanical using User
Results, dicussed later. However, there may be unforeseen
circumstances where a user may wish to postprocess results in
Mechanical APDL
Postprocessing in Mechanical APDL was covered in an earlier chapter
Because of this reason, it is highly recommended to save the
Mechanical APDL database (file.db).
In the Details view of the Analysis Settings
b h t S ANSYS db Y branch, set Save ANSYS db: Yes
The default is not to save file.db, so this must
be specified by the user
6-5
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Creating/Deleting Elements
When elements or nodes are created or deleting using APDL
commands, please note that Mechanical will not be aware of these
changes to the mesh.
If elements/nodes need to be created using APDL commands in a
Commands branch, postprocessing of these elements must be done
inside of Mechanical APDL
If possible avoid deleting elements via APDL commands Consider If possible, avoid deleting elements via APDL commands. Consider
modifying the geometry/mesh to omit regions that are not of interest
6-6
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Inserting Commands Objects
The following branches in the Outline tree allow
users to insert Commands objects:
Any Body under a Geometry branch
Any Remote Point under a Remote Points branch
Any Contact Region under Connections branch
Any Spot Weld under Connections branch
Any Joint under Connections branch
Any Spring under Connections branch
Any Beam under Connections branch
Directly under any analysis branch
Directly under the Solution branch
The details of each of these options will be covered
in this chapter
6-7
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Supplementary Branches
Two branches that do not use Commands objects
directly but are quite helpful are the Coordinate
Systems and the Named Selections branches
As will be discussed later, a Coordinate System can be
assigned a manual coordinate system ID number,
which can be used in APDL commands. For example,
this is useful for selecting a node near a coordinate this is useful for selecting a node near a coordinate
system or transforming results in a particular
coordinate system in Mechanical APDL.
Named Selections will appear as nodal or element pp
components in Mechanical APDL, where a
component is a group of nodes or elements. This
allows users to conveniently reference entities without
having to worry about geometry node/element ID having to worry about geometry, node/element ID
number, etc., and this method can be used for updated
geometry as well.
6-8
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Other Branches
Other branches, such as Construction Geometry,
Virtual Topology, Symmetry, Mesh, and
Solution Combination branches, are not applicable
C to APDL commands, so Commands objects are
not inserted under those branches.
6-9
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
B. Geometry Branch
A Commands object may be inserted under a
Body under the Geometry branch
Note that a Commands object cannot be inserted
directly under the Geometry branch or directly
under a multibody part. It can only be inserted under
a particular body
Point Masses are also not applicable for Commands Point Masses are also not applicable for Commands
objects
The below lists some reasons to use a Commands The below lists some reasons to use a Commands
object associated with a Body:
Definition of composite materials
Solving other types of physics not native to Solving other types of physics not native to
Mechanical
Adding nonlinear material models, such as creep or
viscoelasticity or anisotropic hyperelasticity
6-10
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
y p yp y
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch
Once a Commands object is inserted, APDL commands can be
pasted or typed into the text area.
The Commands object inserted under a Body can be used to
change the following element attributes for that Body:
Element type
Material Properties
Real Constants/Section Properties
Element Coordinate System
Use the APDL parameter MATID to reference the element type, p yp
material property, real constant, or section property ID number.
The Element Coordinate System ID will typically be 0 (default) unless a
Coordinate System has been associated with that body
6-11
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Element Type
As discussed in a previous chapter, changing element types is done
via the following two commands:
ET,MATID,
KEYOPT,MATID,
Changing the element type allows a user to solve different physics or
use a specialized element. However, the nodal connectivity must be
the same between the original and target element type
The Mesh branch controls whether the element will be higher- or lower-
order. The Mesh Method also dictates what the element shape will be
( h h d l t t h d l) (e.g., hexahedral, tetrahedral)
If any element-specific options (keyoptions) need to be set, use the
KEYOPT command
6-12
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Element Type
Caution concerning pyramid elements:
Note that while most higher-order elements have a pyramid shape, not all
lower-order elements have a pyramid shape. Hence, check the Elements
R f t th t th l t d l t t t id Reference to ensure that the selected element type supports pyramids.
For example, the structural 8-node p
brick element SOLID185 does not
show a pyramid form, so a user
should not attempt to use this
element if pyramids are present
Pyramids appear when a Mesh Method of Hex-Dominant Meshing or
MultiZone (with Free Mesh Type set) is used
element if pyramids are present
MultiZone (with Free Mesh Type set) is used.
When pyramids are present, this also typically means that tetrahedrons are
present as well. Mechanical will generate tetrahedrons as a 10-node tet while
pyramids and wedges are degenerate 20-node hex elements. Hence, in these
ill t th 10 d t t l t hil 1 ill f t
6-13
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
case, MATID will represent the 10-node tet elements while MATID+1 will refer to
the 20-node hex element type ID.
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Element Type
Note about Element Control:
In the Details view of the Geometry branch,
the user can change Element Control
By default, this is set to Program Controlled,
where the Mechanical APDL solver may change
keyoptions automatically prior to solution
Currently applicable to structural elements y pp
APDL Command is ETCONTROL
See the Commands Reference for ETCONTROL
for additional details
6-14
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Element Type
Note about Element Control (continued):
During solution, the following will be printed in the Solution Information
branch:
If automatic resetting of keyoptions is not desired, be sure to set Element
Control: Manual in the Details view of the Geometry branch
Notice that certain keyoptions
have been automatically reset by
Mechanical APDL.
Alth h th t ti tti f Although the automatic setting of
options is meant to aid the user in
selecting appropriate element
formulations, etc., the
k l d bl t t knowledgeable user may not want
keyoptions automatically
overridden. In this case, set
Element Control: Manual prior
t l ti
6-15
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
to solution.
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Material Properties
Deleting all existing material properties for the particular body is
done via the following commands:
MPDELE,Label,MATID
TBDELE,Label,MATID
As a review, defining linear elastic material properties:
MP,Label,MATID, (constant materials)
MPTEMP, and MPDATA,Label,MATID, (temperature-dependent)
To define nonlinear material properties, use:
TB,Label,MATID, to activate a particular material table , , , p
TBTEMP, and TBDATA, or TBPT, to define the parameters
In all of the above cases Label refers to the material property name In all of the above cases, Label refers to the material property name.
See the MP or TB help in the Commands Reference for details.
6-16
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Material Properties
Material Properties are the only element attribute which allows
superimposing multiple definitions.
For example, to define density and elastic modulus, one would repeat
the MP command as follows:
MP,EX,MATID,10e6
MP,DENS,MATID,0.1/386.1
To define bilinear isotropic plasticity and creep, one would do the
following:
MP,EX,MATID,200e3
Defines linear elastic properties
MP,NUXY,MATID,0.3
TB,BISO,MATID,1
TBDATA,1,300,2e3
Defines linear elastic properties
Defines bilinear plasticity constants
TB,CREEP,MATID,1,3,10
TBDATA,1,3.125E-14,5,0
For nonlinear structural material combinations, see Section 2.6
Defines creep law and its coefficients
6-17
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
o o ea st uctu a ate a co b at o s, see Sect o 6
Material Model Combinations in the Elements Reference for details
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Material Properties
Points to keep in mind:
When adding creep material properties via TB,CREEP,MATID, note that
Mechanical, by default, will not request creep strains to be saved. By
ddi O S C i C d bj t d th l i adding OUTRES,EPCR,ALL in a Commands object under the analysis
branch (discussed later), one can ensure that creep strains are stored for
postprocessing. (Note that, in the specific case of creep, RATE,ON must
also be added in the Commands object under the analysis branch.) j y )
For user-defined materials with TB,USER,MATID or user-defined creep
with TB,CREEP,MATID,,,100, state variables are often defined via
TB,STATE,MATID. As with the above case, the user should add
i C d bj t d th l i b h t OUTRES,SVAR,ALL in a Commands object under the analysis branch to
ensure that state variables are stored in the result file for postprocessing.
6-18
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Section Properties
The Elements Reference in the Mechanical APDL help system
describes whether a particular element uses real constants or section
properties
In either case, the APDL scalar parameter MATID can be used to reference
the real constant and section property ID number of that particular Body.
Deleting existing real constants or section properties:
RDELE,MATID
SDELETE,MATID
Recall the definition of a new real constant or section property:
R,ID,
SECTYPE,ID, and SECDATA,
Modification of a real constant:
RMODIF,ID,
(No equivalent functionality is present for sections. One must delete an
existing section and define a new section instead.)
6-19
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Geometry Branch: Section Properties
Tip for composite (layered) elements:
Composite elements define the material properties for each layer via real
constants or section properties. There is no need to redefine or modify
th t i l ID b i t d ith th B d the material ID number associated with the Body.
Note, however, that structural damping (MP,DAMP) and reference temperature
for thermal strains (MP,REFT) are defined via the material ID number, not per
layer. y
For composite elements, one must define the material ID numbers used
in each layer within the Commands object
Use material ID numbers that are larger than the number of parts present when
d fi i th t i l ID b f h l defining the material ID number for each layer
The actual material property definition used in layers only needs to be
performed once in the event that multiple bodies have composite definition
From the Workbench Project Schematic, link the Model to a From the Workbench Project Schematic, link the Model to a
Mechanical APDL system. Then, verify the composite definition inside
of Mechanical APDL using /ESHAPE,1 to visualize the 3D cross-section,
including layeres.
6-20
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
C. Remote Points
Remote Points are an integral part of many features
in Mechanical:
Point Mass
Joints
Springs
Moment
Remote Force
Remote Displacement
Each Remote Point has an (x, y, z) location and is ( y )
scoped to a geometric entity. One can think of
Remote Points as tying nodes on a geometric
entity to the remote point location, either with a
deformable or rigid behavior.
Understanding how Remote Points work allows
users to take advantage of them with Commands
6-21
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
objects
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Uses for Remote Points
The below are some reasons why one may wish to use Commands
objects with Remote Points:
Reduce the interface nodes for creation of CMS superelements for more
efficient system-level analyses
Define monitor locations, such as the average deformation of a given
surface
C t MNF fil f ith Ad /Fl

Create an MNF file for use with Adams/Flex

6-22
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669

Adams is developed by and is a registered trademark of MSC Software


Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Remote Point Representation
A Remote Point consists of contact and target elements
The target element is a 1-node element, representing the remote point
location
The contact elements are associated with the vertex, edge, or surface that
is scoped in the Remote Point Definition
This is an example of surface-based constraints using contact elements.
For details see Chapter 9 of the Contact Technology Guide For details, see Chapter 9 of the Contact Technology Guide.
TARGE170 Element (circled)
6-23
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
CONTA174 Elements (purple)
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Remote Point Behavior
To better understand the deformable and rigid behavior, consider
the simple 2D plate with a remote force (via remote point) applied to
the center hole:
Deformable behavior: circle does not retain shape p
6-24
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Rigid behavior: circle maintains shape
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Remote Points
Insert a Commands object under a Remote Point:
The parameter _npilot reflects the node ID number. One can define a
new parameter to keep track of this node ID number for later use, such as
d fi i t DOF defining master DOF:
MY_INTERFACE_NODE = _npilot
m,MY_INTERFACE_NODE,all
The parameter TID is the target elements element type ID number For The parameter TID is the target element s element type ID number. For
example, if one may wish to constrain only UX and UY DOF rather than all
6 (or all 3, if 2D), one can use the following command:
keyopt,TID,4,11
6-25
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Remote Points
Tips on using APDL with Remote Points:
Keep in mind that APDL parameters are persistent throughout the
Mechanical APDL run. Hence, per the previous slide, the parameter
C O ill h th l f th d ID b d MY_INTERFACE_NODE will have the value of the node ID number and can
be used in postprocessing as well.
Most functionality with regards to Remote Points, such as load
application postprocessing displacements or reaction forces application, postprocessing displacements or reaction forces,
spring/joint definition, are already built into the Mechanical GUI. Hence,
prior to using Commands objects with Remote Points, consider
whether or not the sought capability already exists within Mechanical.
6-26
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
D. Contact Regions
Commands objects may also be inserted
under any Contact Region
There are many situations where APDL
commands can access advanced controls:
Definition of debonding/delamination with CZM
Use of fluid pressure-penetration loading
Near-field contact radiation and convection
Definition of multiphysics contact (coupled
thermal-electric-structural) with frictional heat
ti generation
Inclusion of orthotropic friction or dynamic
coefficient of friction, along with cohesion
Changing contact detection locations Changing contact detection locations
other options available as well!
6-27
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Contact Regions
Most of the commonly-used contact options are present in the
Mechanical GUI.
However, ANSYS contact elements have a plethora of options to
allow users to simulate many different scenarios
To understand the various contact capabilities that are available, p ,
refer to the following sections in the Help documentation:
Contact Technology Guide > Chapter 3: Surface-to-Surface Contact
Contact Technology Guide > Chapter 7: Multiphysics Contact gy p p y
Contact Technology Guide > Chapter 12: Debonding
6-28
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Contact Regions
Insert a Commands object of the Contact Region of interest:
The parameters CID and TID are used to refer to the contact and target
element type IDs, respectively.
To apply fluid pressure-penetration loading where pressure loading
occurs when a contact status opens, use the following:
esel,s,type,,CID
sfe all 1 pres 120 sfe,all,1,pres,,120
allsel,all
To change the contact detection type to normal from target, use
keyopt,CID,4,2 keyopt,CID,4,2
6-29
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Contact Regions
Tips on Contact Regions and APDL:
Because Contact Regions are not included in Named Selections, to
reference a contact region for later use, use either of the following:
Define a parameter(s) with the CID (and TID) values
Create an element component (group) for later use via ESEL and CM commands
Understand the situations where symmetric and asymmetric contact
pairs exist If Behavior: Symmetric is set for Pure Penalty or pairs exist. If Behavior: Symmetric is set for Pure Penalty or
Augmented Lagrange algorithms, ensure that any change real
constants or material properties are reflected for both CID and TID.
6-30
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
E. Joints
Typical uses of Commands objects inserted
for Joints include the following:
Definition of Screw Joints and other joints not
available in the Mechanical GUI
Incorporation of nonlinear stiffness, nonlinear
damping, and/or Coulomb friction
1
Obt i i d t il d t l j i t Obtaining more detailed control over joint
behavior, such as applying rotational stops and
locks on a General Joint
6-31
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
1
Note that, at release 12.0, the hysteretic friction capability of Joints
(MPC184) has been removed in favor of the Coulomb friction model.
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Joints
Many sophisticated joint functionality are present in Mechanical:
Torsional stiffness and damping for Cylindrical and Revolute Joints
Bushing Joint, which can be thought of as a General Joint where a user
may input stiffness and damping relationships between all 6 relative DOF
Joint stops and locks for many joint types
Prior to implementing Commands objects for Joints, review the
Help system to ensure that the capability is not already present:
Mechanical (formerly Simulation) > Using the Mechanical Application
Features > Geometry in the Mechanical Application > Joints
6-32
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Joints
If it is deemed necessary to include a Commands object to access
functionality via APDL commands, review the following Help manual:
Multibody Analysis Guide > Chapter 2. Modeling in a Multibody
Simulation > Section 2.3 Connecting Multibody Components with Joint
Elements
Elements Reference > Element Library > MPC184
The element type used for joints is MPC184. Note that the joint
(MPC184 element) is connected to the solid model via Remote Points.
If the connection between the joint and solid part needs to be modified,
define a Remote Point with a Commands object, as discussed in an
earlier section of this chapter.
Only insert a Commands object under a Joint branch if the joint Only insert a Commands object under a Joint branch if the joint
property will be modified. This includes constraining relative DOF,
adding stops/locks, or defining joint material properties
6-33
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Joints
The APDL parameter _jid refers to the element type, material, real
constant, and section ID number of the MPC184 element:
To define nonlinear stiffness for a Translational Joint:
tb,join,_JID,1,4,jnsa
tbpt,,U1,F1
repeat (Each TBPT command defines pair of displacements U
i
and forces F
i
)
T dd t ti l t f l ti Z t ti f G l J i t b t To add a rotational stop for relative Z-rotation for a General Joint between
-45 and 45:
secstop,6,-acos(-1)/2,acos(-1)/2
(Notice input is in radians, and 6 refers to relative DOF 6 or ROTZ) (Notice input is in radians, and 6 refers to relative DOF 6 or ROTZ)
6-34
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Joints
Tips on using APDL commands with Joints:
The SECTYPE command is required to define the joint behavior and is
typically defined by Mechanical. Hence, to add stops/locks, one should
t th S C d if it l d d fi d b M h i l b t not use the SECTYPE command if it already defined by Mechanical, but
one can just add SECLOCK and SECSTOP commands, as the particular joint
ID will already be active.
Not all Joints support stops locks and joint material definition Not all Joints support stops, locks, and joint material definition
(friction, stiffness, damping) for example, the Spherical Joint supports
neither. Consult the Elements Reference for details on each Joint type
prior to using APDL commands to ensure that the feature is available for
that joint type
Modifying the local coordinate system which defines the orientation of
the relative joint DOF is highly discouraged since Mechanical will
incorrectly report results for that joint incorrectly report results for that joint.
The DJ command applies joint constraints while the FJ command applies
loading to the joints. However, when possible, use of Joint Loads in
Mechanical is recommended over using APDL commands, as the former
6-35
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
g ,
is much easier to implement.
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
F. Springs and Beams
In addition to Contact Regions and Joints, the
Connections branch allows use of Springs
and Beams
Springs are longitudinal springs and/or
dampers with preload capabilities
Beams have circular cross-sections and are
meant to represent structural connections that meant to represent structural connections that
carry bending loads
As with Joints, Springs and Beams are
connected to 2D or 3D bodies via Remote connected to 2D or 3D bodies via Remote
Points
If a Remote Point is not explicitly used, the
underlying finite element representation is still underlying finite element representation is still
using surface-based constraints of contact and
target elements, as elaborated in the Remote
Points section of this chapter
6-36
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Springs and Beams
A Spring is represented with a COMBIN14 element, and a Beam is
modeled with a single BEAM188 element.
Line Bodies are also represented with BEAM188 elements, and the two
should not be confused with each other.
When modeling beam structures, use line bodies (number of beam elements
per line body is controlled via Mesh Sizing).
To model a connection that can carry bending loads a Beam connection may To model a connection that can carry bending loads, a Beam connection may
be applicable.
Using Commands objects for Springs and Beams is not as
common as its usage in other branches, although a few reasons for g , g
doing so are listed below:
Changing the longitudinal Spring to a torsional one via keyoption
Replacing the Beam with a rigid beam (MPC184)
Replacing the Spring with nonlinear or other types of spring elements
6-37
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Springs and Beams
For Springs, after inserting a Commands object, use the parameter
_sid to reference the springs element type, material, and real
constant ID number
Example of changing to a torsional spring:
keyopt,_SID,3,1
Note that stiffness and force will refer to torsional stiffness and
moment
Springs do not use a section ID, so the section ID number will be 1
For Beams, the parameter _bid refers to the beams element type,
material, real constant, and section ID number
To replace the deformable beam with a rigid one, use the following:
mpdele,all,_BID
et,_BID,184,1,0
Note that the Beam has material properties, so density and thermal
expansion may be used, if present. To prevent these materials from
being used MPDELE is included in the above example to delete the
6-38
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669
being used, MPDELE is included in the above example to delete the
material definition for _BID (beams material ID).
Using APDL in Mechanical 1
Training Manual
Springs and Beams
1D springs may be required for an analysis, where the stiffness in a
particular direction is known beforehand.
1D springs should be modeled with COMBIN14 and KEYOPT(2)=1 through
6. The best practice is to model 1D springs with coincident nodes.
Because Springs in Mechanical are longitudinal springs, they must have
finite length. Hence, Springs should not be converted to 1D springs.
T t 1D i b t b di d fi 2 R t P i t t th To create 1D springs between bodies, define 2 Remote Points at the same
location but scoped to the 2 bodies geometric entities. Add
Commands objects under both Remote Points to record the pilot node
ID number as parameters. Using Commands object in the analysis p g j y
branch (described shortly), 1D spring(s) can be defined using the two
pilot node locations.
Springs operate in the nodal coordinate system. Hence, if Remote Points
d th t th f d di t t th are used, ensure that the referenced coordinate systems are the same.
6-39
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
June 2009
Inventory #002669