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CE 402: Part A

Shallow Foundation Design

Lecture No. (6): Eccentric Footing

Fayoum University

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

Eccentric Footing

Eccentric footing: A spread or wall footing that also must

resist a moment in addition to the axial column load.

A

e < A/6

Eccentric Loads or Moments

( )

f

M

e

P W

=

+

. . D L L L

P P P = +

A

e < A/6

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Eccentric Footing

Combined axial and bending stresses increase the pressure on one

edge or corner of a footing. We assume again a linear distribution

based on a constant relationship to settling.

If the pressure combination is in tension, this effectively means the

contact is gone between soil and footing and the pressure is really

zero.

To avoid zero pressure, the eccentricity must stay within the kern. The

maximum pressure must not exceed the net allowable soil pressure.

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

The kern

To avoid zero pressure, the

eccentricity must stay within

the kern.

A

A/3

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Eccentric Loads or Moments Cases

A

e <A/6

Case (a)

e =A/6

Case (b)

e >A/6

Case (c)

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

For case A and B (not case C)

Eccentric Loads or Moments

)

6

1 (

*

min

A

e

B A

P

q =

)

6

1 (

*

max

A

e

B A

P

q + =

B C

P

q

* * 3

* 2

max

=

For case c

e >A/6

Case (c)

C

A C 75 . 0 3 >

a

q q 20 . 1

max

s

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Footing Subjected to Double Moment

For contact pressure to remain (+) ve everywhere,

) 6 6 1 (

* B

e

A

e

B A

P

q

B A

=

0 . 1

6 6

s +

B

e

A

e

B A

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Eccentric Footing

Plain concrete footing (P.C.)

Assume thickness of P.C.:

t = (0.25 to 0.50)

Dim. of P.C. = A * B * t

a

S G

q

P

B A Area

.

50 . 1

* = =

Area A= Assume

f L F

D H M M *

.

+ =

L F

L F

P

M

e

.

.

=

s G L F

P P

. .

* 15 . 1 =

6

A

e s Check

A

A

1

t

1

t

P

F.L

P

G.S

q

max

G.S

M

H

D

f

q

min

)

6

1 (

*

.

max

A

e

B A

P

q q

L F

a

+ = =

B

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Spread Footing

Reinforced concrete footing (R.C.)

1

2 A A X =

*

cu

M

d C

b F

=

1

cov t d er = +

Dim. of R.C. = A

1

* B

1

* t

1

1

2 B B X =

t X ) 0 . 1 8 . 0 ( =

)

6

1 (

*

1

1

2 1

.

2 , 1

A

e

B A

P

f

S G

=

S G

P

M

e

.

1

1

=

3

2

* )

2

)( ( 2 / )

2

(

2

1

3 1

2

1

3

a A

f f

a A

f M

I

+

=

2

1 2 1

)

2

( * )

2

(

b B f f

M

II

+

=

A

1

t

1

P

G.S

f

1

G.S

a

f

2

f

3

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Spread Footing

Shear Stress:

0.75

cu

su

c

f

q

=

*

s

s su

Q

q q

b d

= s

Q

s

: shear force at critical sec. (II).

q

s

: shear stress.

q

su

: ultimate shear strength.

If q

s

> q

su

, Increase d

Notes:

No shear RFT in Footing.

)

2

( *

2

) (

1 4 1

) (

d

a A f f

Q

II s

+

=

)

2

( *

2

) (

1 2 1

) (

d

b B f f

Q

III s

+

=

t

1

P

G.S

(II)

G.S

a

(II)

(II)

d

A

1

f

1

f

2

f

4

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Spread Footing

Punching Stress:

| |

*2* ( ) ( )

p

A d a d b d = + + +

p

p

p

Q

q

A

=

| |

0.5 ( / ) / /

cup cu c cu c

q a b f f = + s

If q

p

> q

cup

, Increase d

t

1

A

1

P

G.S

G.S

a

d/2

a

d/2

d/2

d/2

b

f

1

f

2

)] ( * ) [(

2

) (

50 . 1

2 1

.

d b d a

f f

P Q

S G p

+ +

+

=

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Spread Footing

Footing Reinforcement:

Notes:

Minimum number of bars per meter is five.

Minimum diameter for main RFT is 12mm.

Number of bars may be taken 5 to 8.

Diameter of bars may be selected from 12 to 18mm.

t

1

G.S

a

G.S

A

1

j d f

M

A

y

II

s

* *

2

=

j d f

M

A

y

I

s

* *

1

=

Main RFT

As

2

Main RFT

As

1

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Eccentric Footing

Example(1):

Make a complete design for a footing supporting a 30cm X 60cm

column load of 120t at ground surface (G.S.), 20m.t moment

and 10t horizontal force at G.S. The foundation level is 2.00 m

below G.S. and the net allowable bearing capacity is 0.80kg/cm

2

.

Make the design considering the following two cases:

1- with plain concrete base

2- without Plain concrete base

a

= 0.60m. B= 0.30m

p

G.S

= 120t M=20m.t H=10t

q

a

= 0.80kg/cm

2

= 8t/m

2

.

f

cu

= 250kg/cm

2

.

f

y

=3600kg/cm

2

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Eccentric Footing

Plain concrete footing (P.C.)

Assume thickness of P.C.:

t = 0.30

Dim. of P.C. = 5.00* 4.65 * 0.30

2 .

5 . 22

8

120 * 50 . 1 * 50 . 1

* m

q

P

B A Area

a

S G

= = = =

m Area A 00 . 5 75 . 4 ~ = = Assume

t m M

L F

. 40 00 . 2 * 10 20

.

= + =

290 . 0

138

40

.

.

= = =

L F

L F

P

M

e

t P P

s G L F

138 120 * 15 . 1 * 15 . 1

. .

= = =

833 . 0

6

5

6

= = s

A

e

A

A

1

t

1

t

P

F.L

P

G.S

q

max

G.S

M

H=10

2.00

q

min

8 )

00 . 5

290 . 0 * 6

1 (

* 5

138

max

= + =

B

q m B 65 . 4 =

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Eccentric Footing

Reinforced concrete footing (R.C.)

Dim. of R.C. = 4.40 * 4.05* 0.75

m t X 30 . 0 = =

85 . 5 34 . 14 )

40 . 4

308 . 0 * 6

1 (

05 . 4 * 40 . 4

120 * 50 . 1

2 , 1

= = f

m

P

M

e

S G

308 . 0

120

70 . 1 * 10 20

.

1

1

=

+

= =

36 . 47

3

2

* )

2

6 . 0 4 . 4

)( 67 . 10 34 . 14 ( 2 / )

2

60 . 0 4 . 4

( 67 . 10

2 2

=

=

I

M

33 . 35 )

2

30 . 0 05 . 4

( * )

2

85 . 5 34 . 14

(

2

=

+

=

II

M

m X A A 40 . 4 30 . 0 * 2 00 . 5 2

1

= = =

m X B B 05 . 4 30 . 0 * 2 65 . 4 2

1

= = =

cm d 70 8 . 68

250 * 100

10 * 36 . 47

5

5

~ = =

cm t 75 5 70

1

= + =

t

1

P

G.S

F

1

=14.34

G.S

F

2

=5.85

F

3

=10.67

A

1

=4.40

1.90

0.60

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Spread Footing

Shear Stress:

Q

s

: shear force at critical sec. (II).

q

s

: shear stress.

q

su

: ultimate shear strength.

If q

s

> q

su

, Increase d

Notes:

No shear RFT in Footing.

71 . 15 ) 70 . 0 90 . 1 ( *

2

) 84 . 11 34 . 14 (

) (

=

+

=

II s

Q

86 . 11 ) 70 . 0

2

3 . 0 05 . 4

( *

2

) 85 . 5 34 . 14 (

) (

=

+

=

III s

Q

t

1

P

G.S

(II)

G.S

0.60

(II)

(II)

d

A

1

=4.40

1.90

f

2

=5.85

f

1

=14.34

f

4

=11.84

84 . 11 ) 6 . 0 60 . 0 90 . 1 ( *

40 . 4

) 85 . 5 84 . 11 (

85 . 5

4

= + +

+ = f

68 . 9 / 24 . 2

70 * 100

1000 * 71 . 15

2

s = = cm kg q

s

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Spread Footing

Punching Stress:

p

p

p

Q

q

A

=

| |

0.5 ( / ) / /

cup cu c cu c

q a b f f = + s

If q

p

> q

cup

, Increase d

t

1

A

1

P

G.S

G.S

a

d/2

a

d/2

d/2

d/2

b

f

1

f

2

88 . 166 )] 70 . 0 30 . 0 ( * ) 70 . 0 60 . 0 [(

2

) 85 . 5 34 . 14 (

120 * 50 . 1 = + +

+

=

p

Q

22 . 3 )] 70 . 30 . 0 ( ) 70 . 0 60 . 0 [( * 2 * 70 . 0 = + + + =

p

A

18 . 5

10 * 22 . 3

1000 * 88 . 166

4

= =

p

q

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Design of Spread Footing

Footing Reinforcement:

Notes:

Minimum number of bars per meter is five.

Minimum diameter for main RFT is 12mm.

Number of bars may be taken 5 to 8.

Diameter of bars may be selected from 12 to 18mm.

0.75

G.S

0.60

G.S

4.40

97 . 16

826 . 0 * 70 * 3600

10 * 33 . 35

5

2

= =

s

A

75 . 22

826 . 0 * 70 * 3600

10 * 36 . 47

5

1

= =

s

A

Main RFT

6|18/m

Main RFT

8|18/m

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Crane Footing

Maximum stress on soil should be less than allowable bearing capacity

a

q f s

max

The ratio between maximum and minimum stresses should be less

than four

4

) / 6 1 (

) / 6 1 (

min

max

=

+

=

A e

A e

f

f

4

min

max

s

f

f

e A 10 =

CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design

Uniform Stress

below Footing Subjected to Moment

Uniform stress required that the eccentricity at foundation level equal

zero

0 . 0 = e 0 . 0

. .

.

= =

s G

L F

P

M

e

A

P

F.L

P

G.S

q

a

G.S

M

e

c

a/2

e

a

c

A

+ + =

2 2

A

a

S G

q

P

B A

.

15 . 1

* = B

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