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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.

2, Issue 1, Jan, 2012


Print-ISSN: 2231-2013 e-ISSN: 2231-0347
RG Education Society (INDIA)
INHIBITIVE EFFECT OF ORGANIC INHIBITORS IN CONCRETE CONTAINING
QUARRY DUST AS FINE AGGREGATE

Prof. M. Devi

Department of Civil Engineering,
Paavai Engineering College,
Namakkal, Tamilnadu



Prof. V. Rajkumar
Department of Civil Engineering,
Government College of Engineering,
Salem, Tamilnadu



Dr. K. Kannan

Department of Chemistry,
Govt. College of Engineering,
Salem, Tamilnadu, India
devimcivil@gmail.com


Abstract- Concrete is the widely used building material in the
world. River sand has been the most popular choice for the fine
aggregate in concrete in the past, but overuse of the material
has led to environmental concerns, reduction of sources and an
increase in price. Quarry dust has been proposed as an
alternative to river sand that gives additional benefit to
concrete. The objective of this work is to study the strength
and corrosion resistive properties of concrete containing
quarry dust as fine aggregate along with organic inhibitors
namely Triethanolamine and Diethanolamine at 1%, 2%, 3%
and 4% by weight of cement. The specimens were tested for
compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength,
and bond strength in addition to water absorption. The
resistance to corrosion is evaluated based on the performance
of the concrete for the penetration of chloride ions by means of
Polarization Technique, Rapid Chloride Penetration Test
(RCPT) and Gravimetric weight loss method. From the results
obtained, it is found that replacement of sand by well graded
quarry dust along with super plasticizer increases the strength
of concrete; with the addition of inhibitors it offers very good
resistance against chemical attack and increases corrosion
resistance in addition to overall properties of concrete. The
optimum percentage addition of the organic inhibitors by
weight of cement in concrete containing quarry dust as fine
aggregate was also determined
Key words: concrete, quarry dust, super plasticizer,
corrosion resistance, inhibitor

1. INTRODUCTION
Concrete containing quarry dust as fine aggregate is
promising greater strength, lower permeability and greater
density which enable it to provide better resistance to
freeze/thaw cycles and durability in adverse environment
(1,2). 100% replacement of quarry dust in concrete is
possible with proper treatment of quarry dust before
utilization (3,4). The compressive strength of quarry dust
concrete can be improved with admixture E (5) and also
super plasticizers can be used to improve the workability of
quarry dust replaced concrete (6). Concrete produced using
quarry fines shows improvement in higher flexural strength,
abrasion resistance, and unit weight which are very
important for reducing corrosion or leaching(7). Self-
compacting concrete can also be produced using quarry dust
(8).
Durability of concrete may be defined as the ability
of concrete to resist weathering action, chemical attack and
abrasion while maintaining its desired engineering
properties (9,10). Corrosion of reinforcing steel is a major
problem facing the concrete infrastructures (11,12). Many
structures in adverse environments have experienced
unacceptable loss in serviceability of safety earlier than
anticipated due to the corrosion of reinforcing steel (13)
and thus need replacement, rehabilitation or strengthening
(14,15). Corrosion can be prevented by chemical method
by using certain corrosion inhibiting chemical and coating
to reinforcement. According to NACE (National
Association of Corrosion Engineers) inhibitors are
substances which when added to an environment decrease
the rate of attack on a metal (16). Corrosion inhibitors
function by reinforcing a passive layer or by forming oxide
layer and prevent out side agents and reduce the corrosion
current (17). Corrosion inhibitors are becoming an accepted
method of improving durability of reinforced concrete in
chloride laden environments (18). Organic corrosion
inhibitors consist of amines and fatty-acid act by adsorption
on the metal surface forming an organic layer that may
inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes and they are
considered as mixed inhibitors [19].The organic inhibitor
inhibits the corrosion of steel in concrete by a twofold
mechanism that involves the formation of a protective film
on the steel surface and a reduction in the susceptibility of
concrete to chloride ion penetration[20]. This paper deals
with the experimental study to investigate the effect of two
organic inhibitors namely Triethanolamine and
Diethanolamine in concrete containing quarry dust as fine
aggregate in resisting corrosion.

2. MATERIALS
Ordinary Portland Cement (43 Grade) was used
throughout the investigation. Locally available well-graded
quarry dust, conforming to Zone-II having specific gravity
2.68 and fineness modulus 2.70 was used as fine aggregate.
Natural granite aggregate having density of 2700kg/m
3
,
specific gravity 2.7and fineness modulus 4.33 was used as
coarse aggregate. High yield strength deformed bars of
diameter 16mm was used for pullout and corrosion tests. To
increase the workability of quarry dust concrete
commercially available super plasticizer ROFF 320 has
been used. The organic inhibitors used were
Triethanolamine - N(CH
2
CH
2
OH)
3,
Diethanolamine-
HN(CH
2
CH
2
OH)
2
at the dosage of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% by
weight of cement. To attain strength of 20 N/mm
2
a mix
proportion was designed based on IS 10262-1982 and
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.2, Issue 1, Jan, 2012

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SP23:1982(21). The mixture was 1:1.517:3.38 with water
cement ratio 0.45.

3. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM AND TEST
SPECIMENS
The following experiments were conducted to
thoroughly investigate the strength, water absorption and
corrosion resistance properties of the quarry dust replaced
concrete with and without inhibitors. For each inhibitor, the
dosage added were 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% by weight of
cement. Tests were conducted on a minimum of three
replicate specimens after 3 days , 7 days and 28 days curing
and the average values are reported.

Strength test
Concrete cubes of size 150 X 150 X 150mm, beams of
size 500 X 100 X 100 mm, cylinders of size 150mm
diameter and 300 mm long were cast with and with out
inhibitors for compressive, flexural and split tensile
strength. After 24 hours the specimens were demoulded and
subjected to water curing. After 3, 7and 28 days the
specimens were tested as per IS: 516 1964. Cylinders of
size150mm diameter and 300 mm long with rods of 70cm
length kept at the centre were used for determination of
bond strength. Water absorption of hardened concrete
specimens was calculated based on ASTM C642-81.

Durability tests
To assess the corrosion protection efficiency under
accelerated test conditions, concrete cylinders of size 75mm
diameter and 150mm length, with centrally placed steel rod
of 16mm diameter were cast. The steel rod is placed in such
a way that a constant cover is maintained all round
(i.e.29.5mm).
Polarization Technique or Impressed current method:
Specimens were subjected to the acceleration
corrosion process by impressed current method. 3% sodium
chloride salt mixed with water which represents typical sea
water was used as electrolyte solution; using a power pack
the current was supplied to the specimens. The test
specimens were subjected to a constant voltage of 6 volts
from the D.C power pack. The reinforcement in specimens
was connected to positive terminals of the power pack.
Stainless steel plates connected to the negative terminal of
the power pack was used as cathode to gather irons ions
diffusing from embedded steel (anodic area). The
galvanostat cell was created in FRP (fibre reinforced
plastics) tank. After the process of accelerated corrosion was
over the entire specimens were disconnected and removed
from FRP tank.

Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (ASTM-C1202)
The Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) is used to
determine the electrical conductance of concrete to provide
a rapid indication of its resistance to the penetration of
chloride ions. The RCPT is performed by monitoring the
amount of electrical current that passes through concrete
discs of 50mm thickness and 100mm diameter for a period
of six hours. A voltage of 60 V DC is maintained across the
ends of the specimen throughout the test. One lead is
immersed in a sodium chloride(NaCl) solution(0.5N) and
the other in a sodium hydroxide(NaOH) solution (0.3). The
total charge passed through the cell in coulombs has been
found in order to determine the resistance of the specimen to
chloride ion penetration

Corrosion by weight loss method
The steel rod of size 16 mm diameter and 150 mm
long is immersed in the pickling solution (Hydrochloric acid
+water in equal parts) for 15 minutes to remove the initial
rust. The initial weight (W
1
) of the rod was measured. At the
end of accelerated corrosion process, the cylinder specimens
were broken open and weight-loss rods were retrieved. After
cleaning with water, the rod was air dried and its final
weight (W
2
) was measured. From the initial and final
weight, the corrosion rate was calculated.
The corrosion rate is calculated using the following formula:
Corrosion rate in mmpy = 87.6 (W1 W2) / DAT
Where, W1 = Initial weight in milligrams, W2 = Final
weight in milligrams
D = Density of steel gm/ cm
3,
A = Area of the
specimen in cm
2,
T = Test period in hours.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Compressive, Split tensile, Flexural and Bond strength
The compressive strength results after 28 days curing
are shown in figure1.From the figure it is evident that 1%
addition of Triethanolamine shows 9.8% increase in the
compressive strength, while the addition of 2% of this
inhibitor gives hike of 13% and this yields the maximum
increase in the strength value. Further, addition of
Triethanolamine to 3% and 4% gives 7.2% and 0.7%
respectively which yields a comparatively lower value than
using 2%.Similarly, the addition of Diethanolamine gives
the maximum increase in the strength value at 2% dosage
and the increase in strength values is 12.45%. The split
tensile strength test results at the age of 28 days are shown
in figure2. In accordance with figure 2, it is understood that
addition of 2% of Triethanolamine and Diethanolamine
shows the maximum increase in the strength value by
14.55% and 11.43%. Figure 3 shows the flexural strength
test results after 28 days curing. Considering figure 3, it is
observed that the maximum increase in the strength is given
by 2% addition of Triethanolamine and Diethanolamine.
The strength values are increased by 12.68%, 10.38%
respectively. The Bond strength test results at 28 days are
shown in figure 4. The specimens with 2% addition of
Triethanolamine and Diethanolamine show a maximum
increase in the bond strength by 15.28% and 13.38%.
However, by increasing the inhibitor to 3% and 4 % there
was a marginal reduction in the strength values.
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.2, Issue 1, Jan, 2012

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From the results of the strength tests, it is observed that
when compared to control specimens, all the inhibitor added
specimens display slightly a higher strength than the control
specimen. The ethanolamine based organic inhibitors
Triethanolamine and Diethanolamine show improvement in
strength properties for 1% and 2% dosage since the total
porosity of the paste was lower in these percentages. For 3%
and 4% addition of inhibitors, there was a slight reduction in
strength due to retardation of C
3
S hydration (26).
Compressive strength at 28 days
25
27
29
31
33
35
1% 2% 3% 4%
Percentage of inhibitor
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

i
n

N
/
m
m
2
C
S1
S2

Fig .1Compressive strength
Split tensile strength at 28 days
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
1% 2% 3% 4%
Percentage of inhibitor
S
p
l
i
t

t
e
n
s
i
l
e

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

i
n

N
/
m
m
2
C
S1
S2

Fig.2 Split Tensile Strength

Water absorption test
Figure 5 shows the water absorption verses
percentage of inhibitors for all the mixes after 28 days
curing. The control specimen shows the highest water
absorption value than all mixes. For all the inhibitors the
absorption decreases as the concentration of inhibitor
increases up to 2%, on the other hand, 3% and 4% addition
of other inhibitors show relatively higher absorption than
the optimal percentage. However, when compared to the
control specimens, the addition of inhibitors definitely
produces lower absorption values.
Flexural strength at 28days
0
2
4
6
8
1% 2% 3% 4%
Percentage of inhibitor
F
l
e
x
u
r
a
l

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

i
n

N
/
m
m
2C
S1
S2

Fig. 3 Flexural strength

Bond strength at 28 days
0
5
10
15
1% 2% 3% 4%
Percentage of inhibitor
B
o
n
d

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

i
n

N
/
m
m
2
C
S1
S2

Fig. 4 Bond strength

Water absorption
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
1% 2% 3% 4%
Percentage of inhibitors
W
a
t
e
r

a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

i
n

%
C S1 S2

Fig .5 Water absorption

Durability Tests
Rapid Chloride Permeability Test
Figure6 shows the chloride diffusion results of the
different percentages of inhibitors. The RCPT value for
control concrete at 28 days is found to be 2426 Coulomb.
From the figure it is evident that 1% addition of
Triethanolamine shows 51.8%improvement, while the
addition of 2%and 3% gives 96.59% and 41.7%
respectively. Similarly the addition of Diethanolamine
shows 50.3%, 91.78% and 33.07% improvement at 1%, 2%
and 3% respectively. Further addition of 4% inhibitor yields
a comparatively lower value than control specimen for all
the organic inhibitors. The inhibitors reduce the ingress of
chlorides by filling concrete pores and blocking the porosity
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.2, Issue 1, Jan, 2012

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of concrete by the formation of complex compounds and
reduce the extent of corroded area.
Rapid chloride ion penetration
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
1% 2% 3% 4%
Percentage of inhibitor
C
h
a
r
g
e

p
a
s
s
e
d

i
n

C
o
u
l
o
m
b
s
C
S1
S2

Fig 6 Rapid chloride ion penetration
Polarization (impressed current) method
Corrosion initiation time of the organic inhibitors namely
Triethanolamine and Diethanolamine, at the dosage of 1%,
2%, 3% and 4% by weight of cement in concrete containing
quarry dust as fine aggregate are shown in figures 6 and 7.
The corrosion initiation time for control concrete is found to
be 168 hours.
From figure 6and 7, it is to be noted that even the
minimum value of the corrosion initiation time with respect
to the addition of inhibitors is slightly higher than that of the
control specimens. Among all the percentages added, 2%
addition of Triethanolamine and Diethanolamine proves to
be more effective in resisting corrosion. However the
corrosion resistance is slightly reduced for 3% and 4%
addition of inhibitors. The reasons for decrease in resistance
are formation of C-S-H with higher C/S ratio, rapid initial
setting followed by large heat development and a more
porous structure.

Corrosion initiation Time for addition of
Triethanolamine
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 66 132 198 264 330 396
Time in hours
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

i
n

m
A
C S11 S12 S13 S14

Fig. 6 Corrosion initiation time

Corrosion initiation Time for addition of
Diethanolamine
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 66 132 198 264 330 396
Time in hours
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

i
n

m
A
C S21 S22 S23 S24

Fig. 7 Corrosion initiation time

Gravimetric Weight Loss test

Table 5 Weight Loss Readings

Corrosion rate from the weight loss measurements
(Table 5) clearly indicates that the rate of corrosion
decreases with the increase of percentage of inhibitor upto
2% and further addition shows a slight increase in corrosion
rate. The results in Table 5 show the reduction of corrosion
rate by the addition of inhibitor.


Test Images:
(i) Compressive strength test:

Fig. 1.a.Cube specimens
Inhibitor
Corrosion rate in mmpy
1% 2% 3% 4%
Control
specimen
0.468
Triethanola
mine
0.209 0.190 0.221 0.246
Diethanola
mine
0.224 0.216 0.246 0.261
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.2, Issue 1, Jan, 2012

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Fig. 1.b.Compressive strength Test set up

(ii) Split Tensile strength test:

Fig. 2.a.Cylindrical specimens



Fig.2.b.Split tensile strength test set up











(iii) Flexural Strength test:

Fig. 3.a. Beam specimens


Fig. 3.b.Flexural strength test set up

(iv) Bond Strength test:

Fig. 4.a.Cylindrical specimens

International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.2, Issue 1, Jan, 2012

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Fig. 4.b.Bond strength test setup

(v) Water absorption

Fig. 5.a.Specimens in water

Fig. 5.b.Specimens in oven

(vi) Durability Test

Fig. 6.a. Cylindrical specimens


Fig. 6.b.Accelerated corrosion set up

5. CONCLUSION
From the experimental studies the following conclusions
were drawn:
1. The concrete containing well graded quarry dust as
fine aggregate along with plasticizer can be
effectively utilized in the construction industry.
2. Among the various percentages (1%, 2%, 3% and
4%) of Triethanolamine and Diethanolamine
added, the quarry dust replaced concrete with 2%
addition of inhibitor shows maximum improvement
in the compressive strength, split tensile strength,
flexural strength, and bond strength when
compared to the control specimen.
3. By adding corrosion inhibitor permeability & water
absorption properties were considerably reduced.
4. Addition of the organic inhibitors to quarry dust
replaced concrete, offered very good resistance
against chemical attack and increases corrosion
resistance by forming thin oxide layer to prevent
outside agents and shielding the anodic sites.
5. Considering strength as well as durability criteria,
the optimum percentage of Triethanolamine and
Diethanolamine to be added in concrete containing
quarry dust as fine aggregate is 2% for delaying
corrosion and to increase the strength and other
durability characteristics.

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