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Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference, Dec 7-9, Gold Coast

Effect of base plate uplift on liquid storage tank


behaviour in earthquakes


R. NOL
1)
, M. ORMEO
2)
, T. LARKIN
3)
, N. CHOUW
4)

1. Postgraduate Student, cole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'tat
(ENTPE), Rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin Cedex, France.
E-mail: romain.noel@entpe.fr

2. PhD Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the
University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
E-mail: morn010@aucklanduni.ac.nz

3. Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the
University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
E-mail: t.larkin@auckland.ac.nz

4. Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the
University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
E-mail: n.chouw@auckland.ac.nz



ABSTRACT

Theoretical studies by other researchers have shown that including uplift could reduce
the base shear and the base moment on tanks. However, there is no experimental
research that supports that. This paper reports the results obtained from shake table
tests of a model tank containing water. The study focuses on a comparison between a
fixed base system (tank with anchorage) and a system free to uplift (tank without
anchorage). The experiments were performed using stochastically simulated ground
motions based on the Japanese design spectrum and two different tank slenderness
ratios (height/radius). Measurements were made of the impulsive acceleration at the
elevation of the calculated impulsive mass and the horizontal displacement of the top
of the tank, and the anchorage forces. The uplift forces are also discussed.


Keywords: Storage tanks, uplift, fluid-structure interaction, earthquake, hold-down
force, shake table test







Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference, Dec 7-9, Gold Coast

1. INTRODUCTION

After an earthquake event, supplies such as oil, water or food are a priority. Hence, it
is essential that liquid storage tanks resist and remain operational after a seismic
event. In addition, a possible environmental issue should not be forgotten because
storage tanks may contain substances which can pollute the environment. For these
reasons, it is very important to design tank and piping systems to prevent leakage
during or following an earthquake. Even for less important tanks a subsequent
economic and social loss due to damage to the tank can be significant.

Figure 1 shows the usual model for liquid storage tanks given by Housner (1957); it
uses a springs-masses equivalent system to take into account the fluid-structure
interaction. The mass of the contents is divided into parts which move with different
frequencies.








Figure 1. Spring mounted masses after Housner (1957)

Previous studies have shown that two modal masses are sufficient to give good
approximations (Housner, 1957); the first mode, where the mass is considered to be
fixed to the tank wall, is called the impulsive mode, and the second mode, which
involves the upper body of the contents, is known as the convective or sloshing mode.

A lesser known aspect of tank design is the possibility for unanchored tanks to uplift
during an earthquake. The current design documents, API Standard 650 (2007) of
American Petroleum Institute or Seismic Design of Storage Tanks (NZSEE, 2009)
of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, consider that uplift causes
damage to structures. Therefore, they recommend using anchors in order to avoid any
uplift. Ormeo et al. (2012) discussed and compared a number of codes of practice and
design specifications.

Recently, the works of Malhotra (2000) and Malhotra and Veletsos (1994 a, b, c)
show that uplift can reduce base shear and overturning moment, therefore, there is an
important contrast between numerical work performed by Malhotra (2000) and the
recommendations of design documents. This situation has prompted this experimental
investigation to determine the influence of uplift on liquid storage tank.

The experiments were performed with a scaled model liquid storage tank on a shake
table. The experiments focused on the comparison between fixed base (with
anchorages) and free base (unanchored), for two slenderness aspect ratios (height of
fluid upon radius). The shake table excitations were numerically simulated ground
motions (Chouw and Hao, 2005).


Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference, Dec 7-9, Gold Coast

2. METHODOLOGY

The experiments were designed to excite the tanks with two aspect ratios, using two
different earthquakes time histories. Two situations were considered: a) the tank
bolted (anchored) to the shake table and b) the tank free to uplift (without any
anchorage system). In both situations the horizontal top displacement of the tank, and
the impulsive acceleration were recorded at the height of the computed impulsive
mass. In the fixed base case the hold-down forces in the bolts were also recorded and
in the free base case the uplift of the bottom plate was measured.

The use of a scale model to represent a prototype structure requires that similitude
conditions be met as far as possible. The Buckingham theorem (Buckingham, 1914)
was utilised for this purpose. The following table shows all the scale factors used.

Table 1: Scale factors
Dimension Scale factor
Length (m) 10
Time (s) 9.090
Mass (kg) 1000
Acceleration (m/s) 0.121
Force (N) 121.1
Stress (Pa) 1.211

All the experiments were performed with a cylindrical aluminium (AL) tank, and 4
AL angles were welded to the tank base for fixing the tank to the shake table (see
Figures 2 and 3). The angles were stiff relative to the rigidity of the wall during the
excitation. Table 2 lists the tank characteristics.

Table 2: Characteristics of the tank




Symbol Units Prototype Experimental model
Tank Proprieties
Radius R m 3 0.3
Height m 10 1
Thickness of the wall
h
s

mm 30 3
Thickness of the angles mm 40 4
Thickness of the base plate h
b
mm 30 3
Mass M kg 17558 17,6
Young Modulus E MPa 210 000 173 554
Poisson ratio

- 0.33 0.33
Yield stress of the material
y
MPa 250 206.612
Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference, Dec 7-9, Gold Coast










To measure the top displacement of the tank a wire transducer (Siko) was used, for
the acceleration piezo-electric accelerometers of 2 g were applied. For the uplift an
LVDT was used to measure the vertical displacement of the angles and the hold-down
forces were measured with strain gauges (SG) glued on a flattened surface of the
bolts.


The forcing function was provided by 2 stochastically generated ground motions
based on the Japanese design spectrum for hard soil.





Figure 3. Sketch of the tank with the sensor location
Accelerometer
Ground motion
1
2
Bolts with
SG and LVDT
3
4
Height of the impulsive
mass
The impulsive
mass
Figure 2. LVDT and SG
Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference, Dec 7-9, Gold Coast

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The two following plots show the impulsive accelerations of the tank with H/R values
of 1 and 3 for the simulated ground motion 1 (SGM1). In both considered SGM1 and
SGM2 cases, similar acceleration response amplitude can be observed.


It can also be seen that the peaks are mainly lower in the fixed base case, which
support the specification given in the design documents (NZSEE, 2009, API 650,
2007). Figure 6 gives a sketch of the tank with uplift, and Equation 1 gives the
expression for the total acceleration. Care needs to be taken in interpreting these
results because the systems are different and respond in a different manner. The tank
on free base is subjected to rotation acceleration.


Figure 6. Sketch of the rocking tank


h
i


u
Figure 4. Tank wall acceleration for H/R = 1due to the ground excitation SGM1
Figure 5. Tank wall acceleration for H/R = 3 due to the ground excitation SGM1
Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference, Dec 7-9, Gold Coast

The total acceleration as measured by the sensor is:

(1)
where:

= the total acceleration

= the acceleration of the shake table

= impulsive translational acceleration of the fluid


= the rotation caused by uplift
h
i
= height of the impulsive mass (592 mm)
u = uplift
M
i
= impulsive mass

The importance of the rotation acceleration is not yet known, and it is not easy to
separate it from the total acceleration. In Equation 1 the last term (

) has no
impact on the stresses in the wall of the tank. Another variable that can explain these
results is the stiffness of the base plate of the model. Because of the thickness of the
base plate and shell, the model developed a rigid body rocking motion during the
tests. In most of practical cases, the base plate of storage tanks can deform during a
ground motion which is equivalent to have a spring in the base (Figure 7) as was
shown by Malhotra (2000). This effect can also reduce the tank wall acceleration and
the impact force generated by rocking response and lead to a probability of buckling
with resulting elephant foot.

Another effect little studied is the effect of uplift on the sloshing response. For tall
slender tanks the sloshing mode plays a very minor role in the tank loading. Hence
while uplift may induce an increase in sloshing motion, it is likely that this will be of
minor importance.


Figure 7. Spring at the base representing the stiffness of the bottom plate

A display of the hold-down forces and uplift in Figure 8 shows that for the
unanchored base when the tension in the bolts starts to develop, uplift begins.
Correspondingly, a compression occurs in the bolts when uplift starts on the other side
of the tank. An examination of the acceleration time history in Figures 4 and 5 shows
that both systems respond similarly without a significant influence of both boundary
Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference, Dec 7-9, Gold Coast

conditions considered in spite of the loss of rigidity when there are no hold-down
bolts.


Figure 8. Time history of the hold-down force and the uplift (H/R = 1)
Table 3 shows the response of the prototype tank for both aspect ratios. It is calculated
by applying the scale factors in Table 1 to the measured values of the scaled model. A
comparison of acceleration of the tank walls shows that the free base gives higher
accelerations for an aspect ratio of 1 while for an aspect ratio of 3 the fixed base case
yields higher tank wall accelerations.

Table 3. Results due to SGM2


4. CONCLUSIONS

An experimental investigation of the uplift effect on the seismic response of a storage
tank was carried out. Two different ground motions and two different aspect ratios
were considered. For both excitations the impulsive acceleration is higher in the free
base case. However, because the rotational accelerations were not measured the result
of the experiments cannot be used to confirm or deny the numerical results obtained
by Malhotra (2000).

Further experiments including measurement of rotational acceleration are needed to
validate, in terms of excitations and aspect ratio, whether free base can be beneficial
to the structure.
Earthquake: SGM2
Max acceleration (g) 0.777 Max displacement (m) 0.320
Min acceleration (g) -0.634 Min displacement (m) -0.379


H/R = 1 H/R = 3
Fixed base Free base Fixed base Free base
Max Acceleration (g) 0.674 0.832 0.774 0.755
Min Acceleration (g) -0.563 -0.661 -0.839 -0.569
Max H. Displacement (m) 0.222 0.239 0.251 0.226
Min H. displacement (m) -0.269 -0.257 -0.287 -0.368
Max Uplift (mm) - 18.990 - 57.169
Max Hold-down Tension (kN) 462.79 - 1724.19 -
Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference, Dec 7-9, Gold Coast


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the French government and the ENTPE for the
support of the first authors research stay at the University of Auckland.


REFERENCES

API (2007). Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. API Standard 650, 11
th
Edition,
American Petroleum Institute.

Buckingham, E. (1914). On physically similar systems; illustrations of the use of
dimensional equations. Physical Review, 4, 345376

Chouw, N., Hao, H. (2005), Study of SSI and non-uniform ground motion effect on
pounding between bridge girders, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25,
717-728

Housner, G. W. (1957). Dynamic pressures on accelerated fluid containers, Bulletin of
the Seismological Society of America, 47, 15-35

Malhotra, P. K., Veletsos, A. S. (1994a), "Beam model for base uplifting snalysis of
cylindrical tanks", J. Struc. Eng., ASCE, 120(12), 3471-3488
Malhotra, P. K., Veletsos, A. S. (1994b). Uplifting analysis of base plates in
cylindrical Tanks, J. Struct. Engrg., ASCE, 120(12), 3489-3505

Malhotra, P. K., Veletsos, A. S. (1994c). Uplifting response of unanchored liquid-
storage tanks, J. Struct. Engrg., ASCE, 120(12), 3525-3547

Malhotra, P. K. (2000). Practical nonlinear seismic analysis of tanks, Earthquake
Spectra, 16(2), 473492

NZSEE (2009). Seismic Design of Storage Tanks - Recommendations of a study
group of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, NZSEE
Standard

ORMEO GODOY M., LARKIN T., CHOUW N. (2012). Comparison between standards
for seismic design of liquid storage tank with respect to Soil-Foundation-Structure
Interaction and Uplift, Bulletin of New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering,
45, 40-46