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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
Chapter ! "efraction of Li#ht
Checkpoint (p$%&)
1. A. A light ray bends towards the normal upon entering an optically denser
medium.
2. P
3. Applying Snells law, we have
( )

=

4 . 25
5 . 1
sin
5 ! sin
r
r
"he angle o# re#raction is 25.4$.
4. n
X
%
& .
' .

% 1.33.
Checkpoint (p$%%)
1. (
2. )edium O. *t is the optically least dense medium and thus light travels the #astest
in it.
3. (
'xercise (p$%%)
1. (
2. (
3. (
4. +a, "abulate the data as shown.
sin
a
sin
g
. .
.1-4 .115
.342 .225
.5 .32&
.&43 .423
.-&& .515
"he #ollowing graph is plotted.
1
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
+b, "he re#ractive inde/ is e0ual to the slope o# the graph in +a,, i.e.
4&5 .
- .

1 1.51.
5. Applying Snells law, we have
=
=
!4 . 25
sin 52 . 1 3 sin 33 . 1
r
r
"he angle o# re#raction is 25.!$.
&. 2rom the diagram,
=

=
!! . 41
1
21 3
tan
1
1

=
=

h
h
21
tan
21
tan
1
2
2

Applying Snells law, we have


( ) [ ]
- . 1-
!! . 41 sin 33 . 1 sin
21
tan
33 . 1
sin
sin
1 1
1
2
=
=

=

h
h

"he height o# the building is 1' m.


2
0.05 0.1 015 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
0
0.1
0.4 0.45 0.5
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.
sin
a
sin
g
0.55
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
All rights reserved
NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
-. Applying Snells law, we have

=
=
1 . 32
12 . 32
sin 33 . 1 45 sin 1

% 1 32.1$
Applying Snells law, we have

=
=
1 . 2'
13 . 2'
sin 5 . 1 sin 33 . 1


'. "he re#ractive inde/ o# material X is


4- sin
, 2 ! sin+
or
, 4- ! sin+
sin

r
.
"hus we have


=


2 . &1
, 4- ! sin+
sin
4- sin
, 2 ! sin+
r
r
Checkpoint (p$%!)
1. (
2.
3
o!server
o!"ect
image
a#uarium
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
3.
Checkpoint (p$())
1. (
2. +a, (orrect. 3ight ray a bends less upon entering the glass, showing that the
glass has a smaller re#ractive inde/ #or a.
+b, *ncorrect. "he glass has a smaller re#ractive inde/ #or a and thus the speed
o# a is higher.
+c, *ncorrect. All light waves travel at the same speed in vacuum.
'xercise (p$())
1. A
2. 3ight rays #rom the girls legs bend away #rom the normal when they cross the
water4air boundary. "he images o# the legs are at higher positions than the actual
ob5ects, causing the observer to thin6 that the legs are shorter than they really
are.
3. 3et n be the re#ractive inde/ o# the glass.
+a, Applying Snells law, we have
4
I
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
n %

2 sin
3 sin
% 1.4&2 1 1.4&.
+b, Applying Snells law, we have
=

=
-
4 sin
sin
4&2 . 1

4. +a, Applying Snells law, we have



=

=
4 . 1!
4 . 1!
sin
3 sin
55 . 1
a
a
a % b % d % e 1 1!.4$
Applying Snells law, c % f % 3$.
+b,
5. +a, +i, 3ight rays #rom the #ish bend away #rom the normal when they cross
the water4air boundary. "hus the image o# the #ish is at a nearer
position to )ichael than the actual ob5ect.
+ii, 3ight rays #rom )ichael bend towards #rom the normal when they
cross the air4water boundary. "hus the image o# )ichael is at a #arther
position to the #ish than the actual ob5ect.
5
$ichael%s e&es
'ish
image o'
the 'ish
*ater air
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
+b, +i, "he image o# the #ish as observed by )ichael becomes nearer to him.
+ii, "he image o# )ichael as observed by the #ish becomes #arther #rom it.
&.
-. +a, Applying Snells law, the angle o# re#raction r #or the red ray is
=

=
212 . 25
sin
4 sin
5! . 1
r
r
"hus the angle o# re#raction #or the blue ray is 25.212$ 7 .2-$ % 24.!42$.
Applying Snells law, the re#ractive inde/ #or blue light is

!42 . 24 sin
4 sin
1 1.524.
+b, "he ratio is 1.524.1.5! #or the travelling speed o# red light in the glass to
that o# blue light.
Checkpoint (p$(+)
1. "able 81.
medium re#ractive inde/ critical angle
9erspe/ 1.5 41.'$
water 1.33 4'.'$
diamond 2.42 24.4$
plastic bloc6 1.54 4.5$
2. +a, *ncorrect
+b, *ncorrect
+c, (orrect
&
$ichael
'ish%s e&es
*ater air
image o'
$ichael
image
image
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
Checkpoint (p$(,)
1. +a, Applying Snells law, we have
=

=
-! . 4-
sin
! sin
35 . 1

"hus the verte/ angle is 2 1 !5.&$.


+b, 2rom the diagram, we have
m &2 . &
3
2
tan

=
D
D

'xercise (p$+%)
1. +a, the occurrence o# #ish4eye view +or any reasonable answer,
+b, light transmission in optical #ibres +or any reasonable answer,
2. +a, Applying Snells law, we have

=
- . 34
sin
& sin
52 . 1
q
q
+b, "he critical angle is

52 . 1
1
sin
1
1 41.1$.
3. +a, "he critical angle is o# material X is

4' . 1
1
sin
1
1 42.5$.
+b, Applying Snells law, we have
( )

=
& . -&
! sin
2 sin
4' . 1
P
P

4. (onsider the diagram below.


-
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
Applying Snells law, the re#ractive inde/ is
, 4' ! sin+
! sin

1 1.4!.
5. +a,, +b,
+c, :sing prismatic periscope can avoid the #ormation o# multiple images and
hence a sharper image is obtained.
+d,
&. +a, +i, "he critical angle o# the water is

35 . 1
1
sin
1
% 4-.-! 1 4-.'$.
+ii,
3& . 1
5 . 1
-! . 4- tan

=
h
h
+b, ;es. "he diagram is shown below.
-. 3et n be the re#ractive inde/ o# li0uid X.
Applying Snells law, we have
334 . 1
! sin & sin 54 . 1
=
=
n
n
"hus the speed o# light in li0uid X is
334 . 1
1 3
'

1 2.25 < 1
'
m s
71
.
Chapter 'xercise (p$+!)
1. =
2. >
'
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
3. =
4. >
5. A
&. (
-. =
'. A
!. >
1. =
11. A
12. +a,
(1A for larger degree of bending by the violet light)
+b, "he critical angle o# the glass #or red light is larger than that #or violet light.
+c, "he violet light disappears #irst.
(1A)
"he angle o# incidence increases as the bloc6 is moved to the right.
(1A)
2rom +b,, we 6now that he violet light undergoes total internal re#lection
#irst and thus it disappears #rom the screen #irst.
(1A)

13. +a,
(1A for the image, 1A for correct bending of light)
+b, "he 6ey appears nearer to the swimmer.
(1A)
+c, (onsider the #ollowing diagram.
!
violet ra&
image
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
=
=
&! . 33
5 . 1
1
tan
a
a

(1M)
Applying Snells law, we have
=

=
&5 . 24
sin
&! . 33 sin
33 . 1
w
w

(1M)
"here#ore,
m 15 . 1
5 . 2
&5 . 24 tan

=
d
d
(1A)
14. +a, =irect a light ray to the middle o# the straight edge o# the semi4circular
bloc6
(1A)
. )easure the angle o# incidence i and the corresponding angle o#
re#raction r using the protractor
(1A)
. 9lot a graph o# sin i against sin r and a
straight line will be obtained
(1A)
. "his shows that sin i is directly
proportional to sin r.
+b, "he slope o# the graph in +a, is the re#ractive inde/ n o# the material the
semi4circular bloc6 is made o#
(1A)
. "he critical angle c o# the material can
be calculated using the e0uation

=

n
c
1
sin
1

(1A)
.
15. +a, +i, re#lection
(1A)
and re#raction
(1A)
+ii,
(1A for refracted light rays parallel to the ones incident from the air)
1
(e&
d

a
1.5 m
2.5 m
1 m
s)immer%s
e&es

)
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
+b, +i,
(1A for correct paths in each case)
+ii, "he phenomenon is 6nown as total internal re#lection
(1A)
. :sing
prisms can avoid the #ormation o# multiple images and hence a clearer
image can be obtained
(1A)
.
1&. +a,
(1A for rays and 1A for the images)
+b, ?o
(1A)
. "he image is virtual, i.e. light rays do not come #rom the image
directly, and it cannot be caught by a screen
(1A)
.
1-. +a, +i, Applying Snells law we have


=
4 . 5!
, 55 ! sin+
sin
5 . 1

(1M+1A)
+ii,
(1A for correct label of c)
11
image
image
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)

+b, +i, total internal re#lection
(1A)
+ii, %
JTZ QTR =
% 4$
(1A)
Applying Snells law,

=
=
& . -4
4 sin
sin
5 . 1
sin
sin
5 . 1

(1A)
+iii,
(1A for extended rays, 1A for correct position of image)
+iv, "he image is virtual.
(1A)
+v,
(1A)
1'. +a, >y the law o# re#lection, a % 3$.
(A)
Applying Snells law,

=

=
! . 1'
'' . 1'
sin
3 sin
545 . 1
b
b
(1A)
12
c
image
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
b % c % d % e 1 1'.!$
(1A)
Applying Snells law, f % 3$
(A)
+b, re#lection
(1A)
and re#raction
(1A)
+c,
(2A for correct paths in the bead and leaving the bead)
1!. +a,
(2A for correct paths of light rays and 1A for the image formation)
+b,
(2A for correct paths of light rays and 1A for the image formation)
13
image
coin
image
image
o!server
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
2. +a, "he critical angle #or the violet light is

55 . 1
1
sin
1
% 4.1'$.
(1M)
(1A for correct path in the prism and 1A for correct path leaving the prism)
+b, "he critical angle #or the red light is

52 . 1
1
sin
1
% 41.14$.
(1M)
(1A for correct path in the prism and 1A for correct path leaving the prism)
21.
(L!"# $!level May 2%%2 &1 '11)
22.
(L!"# $!level May 2%%( &2 '))
23.
(*+#, A,A-!level +an 2%%. &aper ()1,%1 '()
24.
(/#!0"# May,+1ne 2%%. &2 '.)
25.
(34# 1555 &1 '()
2&.
(34# 2%%1 &1 '6)
2-.
(34# 2%%2 &1 '2)
2'. +a, A plane mirror consists o# a glass with a silver coating at the bac6. 3ight is
14
image
coin
image
o!server
40$
5.1$
40$
77.7*
Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009
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NSS Physics in Life Full Solution of Textbooks
(Wave Motion)
re#lected by both sides and multiple images are #ormed
(1A)
. *n contrast, a
prism does not #orm multiple images and hence sharper images are obtained
(1A)
.
+b,
(1A for correct paths of rays and 1A for correct orientation of the prism)
15