c
=
c
c c ( (
= +
( (
c c
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( )
( ) 0
0
D
Dt
dxdydz u dxdydz
t x
u
t x
u
u
t x x
=
c c
=
c c
c c
+ =
c c
c c c
+ + =
c c c
For incompressible fluid: 0
D
Dt
~
Therefore for mass conservation: 0
u
x
c
=
c
Generalizing to a rectangular coordinate system ( ) , , x y z where (u, v, w) are the fluid
velocities at a point, for a small control volume
0
u v w
x y z
c c c
+ + =
c c c
NB: True for both steady and unsteady flow.
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1.3 Conservation of Momentum
Consider first flow in ( , ) x y plane. Consider flow in and out of a small control volume of
dimensions dx, dy, dz where the only nonzero velocity is u in x direction and is associated
with the centrepoint of the control volume as above.
Consider momentum balance in x direction
Mass acceleration =E Forces acting.
The forces that can act can be pressure forces p acting normal to the surfaces of control
volume due to effect of surrounding fluid, and shear forces, due to fluid viscosity, acting on
faces of control volume.
In Newtonian fluid in 1D motion recall from second year FM stress acting in x direction on a
surface in the y plane
yx
t is given by experimental observation as
yx
F du
A dy
t = =
where is absolute viscosity. This relationship between stress in the fluid, strain in the fluid,
and absolute viscosity constitutes a fundamental and unique property of the fluid, hence
known as the constitutive relationship. It will vary from fluid to fluid.
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Hence force balance can be written for simple case motion in xdirection only and with
elemental volume dV dxdydz = :
2 2
2 2
yx yx
yx yx
zx
u u p dx p dx
u dxdydz p dydz p dydz
t x x x
dy dy
dxdz dxdz
y y
t t
t t
t
c c c ( c (      
+ = + +
   ( (
c c c c
\ . \ . \ .
c c ( (
   
+ + +
  ( (
c c
\ . \ .
c
+ +
2 2
zx zx
zx
dz dz
dxdy dxdy
z y
t t
t
( c (    
+
  ( (
c c
\ . \ .
2 2
2 2
. .
. .
yx
zx
u u p
i e u
t x x y z
u u p u u
i e u
t x x y z
t
t
c
c c c c  
+ = + +

c c c c c
\ .
c c c c c  
+ = + +

c c c c c
\ .
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In general 3D motion, can show this is yields
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2
x
y
z
u u u u p u u u
M u v w
t x y z x x y z
v v v v p
M u v w v
t x y z y
w w w w p
M u v w g w
t x y z z
c c c c c c c c
c c c c c c c c
c c c c c
c c c c c
c c c c c
c c c c c
( (
+ + + = + + +
( (
(
( + + + = + V
(
(
( + + + = + V
(
The NavierStokes equations!
1.4 Conservation of Heat
If we ignore radiative heat transfer, then additional concept here is that fluid motion will
transport heat, but heat transfer also occurs by diffusion.
Observation Law (Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction)
If there is a mean gradient of temperature u in, say, x direction, random molecular motion will
lead to a heat flux per unit area q down the gradient given by
q k
x
cu
c
= (1.1)
where (SI) units [u]=C
[x] =m
[q] =W/m
2
Thermal conductivity [k] =
Wm
C
is the observed constant of proportionality.
Note the similarity in mathematical form to the constitutive relation for fluid above.
N.B. k is constant at particular temperature and in vector form
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q =  kVu.
For some Eulerian control volume V conservation of heat requires:
Rate change heat content =
(Heat transported out Heat transported in) +(Heat diffused out Heat diffused in)
Again consider 1D flow in x direction where temperature ( ) x u u = only.
For incompressible fluid, assuming C
p
is constant (coefficient of specific heat, a fluid
property and
1 o 1
J kg C
p
C ( =
):
( )
( )
p p
C dxdydz C u dxdydz q dxdydz
t x x
u
u
c c c  
=

c c c
\ .
(1.2)
Substitute (1.1) into (1.2):
assuming is not function
p p
p
C C u k
t x x x
k x
k
u
t x C x x
u u u
u u u
c c c c    
= +
 
c c c c
\ . \ .
c c c c  
= +

c c c c
\ .
Defining the Thermal diffusivity:
p
k
C
k
= , i.e.
 
2 1
m s k =
Hence
2
2
D
Dt
u
t x x
u
u u u
k
=
c c c
+ =
c c c
In general, in 3 dimensions,
2 2 2
2 2 2
u v w
t x y z x y z
u cu cu cu c u c u c u
k
c c c c c c
( c
+ + + = + +
(
c
NB. Apart from pressure term, very similar to conservation of momentum. Also known as the
advectiondiffusion equation (heat can be substituted for any scalar and use diffusivity for
that scalar).
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1.6 Boundary Conditions
To solve above sets equations, we also need conditions specified on boundaries of fluid
domain.
Types of boundary conditions:
1. Liquidsolid boundary  on microscopic scale
fluid particles (not molecules)
solid
Fluid particles at wall cannot move relative to the wall
"The noslip condition".
Macroscopic View
LIQUID Wall at rest
and liquid
moving
WALL
z
u
x
If fluid at z is at rest, but wall is moving at z =0, u
liquid
=u
wall
.
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2. Free liquid surface
AIR
LIQUID
Elevation = (x, t).
z
x
2 principles, kinematic and dynamic. For smooth surface with no rupture occurring.
a) Kinematic boundary conditions  fluid particles at surface must have vertical velocity
equal to that of the surface
i.e.
D
w u
Dt t x
q q q c c
= = +
c c
b) Dynamic boundary conditions  neglecting surface tension, normal stress or pressure
either side of the boundary must be same.
i.e. Along z = q(x,t), p
liquid
= p
air
c) Shear stress on a surface
e.g.
WIND
AIR
WATER
Z
Wind applies a stress
0
z
w water
t t
=
=
If flow laminar
0
0
water w
z
z
u
z
t t
=
=
c
= =
c
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2
; .
sec
u u m
z z
t
v v
  c c
= = =

c c
\ .
Usually its turbulent  so define turbulent or friction velocity :
2
*
u
K u
z
t
c
= =
c
 
2
*
m
Turbulent diffusivity
Where:
s
friction velocity
K
u
=
=
Wind energy provides:
i) forward motion
ii) eddies/ turbulence
iii) waves (vertical movement)
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1.7 Summary of Laws Governing Fluid Motion
Consider a Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z) with corresponding velocity components (u,
v, w)
Conservation of mass
For an incompressible fluid
0
u v w
x y z
c c c
c c c
+ + =
Conservation of linear momentum
For an incompressible, Newtonian fluid undergoing laminar motion
xdirection (M
x
) an using the definition of kinemtatic viscosity asv =
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
u u u u p u u u
u v w
t x y z x x y z
c c c c c c c c
v
c c c c c c c c
   
+ + + = + + +
 
\ . \ .
ydirection (M
y
)
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
v v v v p v v v
u v w
t x y z y x y z
c c c c c c c c
v
c c c c c c c c
   
+ + + = + + +
 
\ . \ .
zdirection (M
z
)
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
w w w w p w w w
u v w g
t x y z z x y z
c c c c c c c c
v
c c c c c c c c
   
+ + + = + + +
 
\ . \ .
Conservation of heat
If we denote the fluid temperature by u
2 2 2
2 2 2
u v w
t x y z x y z
cu cu cu cu c u c u c u
k
c c c c c c c
   
+ + + = + +
 
\ . \ .
where k is the molecular diffusivity
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Boundary Conditions
At the wall u
liquid
=u
wall
(i.e. noslip condition)
At the free liquid surface
kinematic: where ( , ) is the free surface
i
D
w x t
Dt
q
q = =
dynamic: (pressure continuous),
u
= (shear stress)
z
air liquid
p p
t
=
c
c