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ENVE3601

23/2/12 Physical Laws Governing Fluid Motion

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1. PHYSICAL LAWS GOVERNING FLUID MOTION (REVIEW
ENVE2601)
1.1 Kinematics
In mechanics there are two frames of reference used for describing motion: Lagrangian
(moving reference frame) and Eulerian (fixed reference frame). The former is natural in
particle mechanics, but Eulerian is of necessity used in fluid mechanics due to our general
inability to identify and track individual fluid particles.

In an Eulerian framework consider a rectangular coordinate system ( ) , , x y z where (u, v, w)
are the fluid velocities at a point, then the acceleration is given by

x
y
z
Du u u u u
a u v w
Dt t x y z
Dv v v v v
a u v w
Dt t x y z
Dw w w w w
a u v w
Dt t x y z
c c c c
= = + + +
c c c c
c c c c
= = + + +
c c c c
c c c c
= = + + +
c c c c

where operator
D
Dt
is called the material derivative. The material derivative is necessary as
we are writing the equations in an Eulerian or fixed reference frame.

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1.2 Conservation of Mass
Consider a single (chemical) species with fluid of density in control volume V. If pressure
has no significant effects, we say fluid is incompressible, density does not change as fluid
particles move around. Then the total mass M in control volume V, can only change if there
is a difference between the mass flux entering and leaving the control volume

out in
V
dM d
dv m m
dt dt
= =
}

Consider flow in ( , ) x y plane. Consider flow in and out of a small control volume of
dimensions dx, dy, dz where only non-zero velocity is u in x direction and is associated with
the centre-point of the control volume. Then mass conservation becomes

Infinitesimal volume element: dV=dx dy dz

( )
( ) ( )
2 2
out in
m m dxdydz
t
dx dx
u u dydz u u dydz
x x

c
=
c
c c ( (
= +
( (
c c

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( )
( ) 0
0
D
Dt
dxdydz u dxdydz
t x
u
t x
u
u
t x x

=
c c
=
c c
c c
+ =
c c
c c c
+ + =
c c c

For incompressible fluid: 0
D
Dt

~
Therefore for mass conservation: 0
u
x
c
=
c

Generalizing to a rectangular coordinate system ( ) , , x y z where (u, v, w) are the fluid
velocities at a point, for a small control volume
0
u v w
x y z
c c c
+ + =
c c c

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1.3 Conservation of Momentum
Consider first flow in ( , ) x y plane. Consider flow in and out of a small control volume of
dimensions dx, dy, dz where the only non-zero velocity is u in x direction and is associated
with the centre-point of the control volume as above.
Consider momentum balance in x direction
Mass acceleration =E Forces acting.

The forces that can act can be pressure forces p acting normal to the surfaces of control
volume due to effect of surrounding fluid, and shear forces, due to fluid viscosity, acting on
faces of control volume.

In Newtonian fluid in 1D motion recall from second year FM stress acting in x direction on a
surface in the y plane
yx
t is given by experimental observation as

yx
F du
A dy
t = =
where is absolute viscosity. This relationship between stress in the fluid, strain in the fluid,
and absolute viscosity constitutes a fundamental and unique property of the fluid, hence
known as the constitutive relationship. It will vary from fluid to fluid.

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Hence force balance can be written for simple case motion in x-direction only and with
elemental volume dV dxdydz = :
2 2

2 2

yx yx
yx yx
zx
u u p dx p dx
u dxdydz p dydz p dydz
t x x x
dy dy
dxdz dxdz
y y

t t
t t
t
c c c ( c ( | | | | | |
+ = + +
| | | ( (
c c c c
\ . \ . \ .
c c ( (
| | | |
+ + +
| | ( (
c c
\ . \ .

c
+ +
2 2
zx zx
zx
dz dz
dxdy dxdy
z y
t t
t
( c ( | | | |
+
| | ( (
c c
\ . \ .

2 2
2 2
. .
. .
yx
zx
u u p
i e u
t x x y z
u u p u u
i e u
t x x y z
t
t

c
c c c c | |
+ = + +
|
c c c c c
\ .
c c c c c | |
+ = + +
|
c c c c c
\ .

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In general 3D motion, can show this is yields
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2

x
y
z
u u u u p u u u
M u v w
t x y z x x y z
v v v v p
M u v w v
t x y z y
w w w w p
M u v w g w
t x y z z
c c c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c
c c c c c

c c c c c
c c c c c

c c c c c
( (
+ + + = + + +
( (

(
( + + + = + V
(

(
( + + + = + V
(

The Navier-Stokes equations!

1.4 Conservation of Heat
If we ignore radiative heat transfer, then additional concept here is that fluid motion will
transport heat, but heat transfer also occurs by diffusion.

Observation Law (Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction)
If there is a mean gradient of temperature u in, say, x direction, random molecular motion will
lead to a heat flux per unit area q down the gradient given by
q k
x
cu
c
= (1.1)
where (SI) units [u]=C
[x] =m
[q] =W/m
2
Thermal conductivity [k] =
Wm
C
is the observed constant of proportionality.
Note the similarity in mathematical form to the constitutive relation for fluid above.
N.B. k is constant at particular temperature and in vector form

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q = - kVu.
For some Eulerian control volume V conservation of heat requires:
Rate change heat content =
(Heat transported out Heat transported in) +(Heat diffused out Heat diffused in)
Again consider 1D flow in x direction where temperature ( ) x u u = only.
For incompressible fluid, assuming C
p
is constant (coefficient of specific heat, a fluid
property and
-1 o -1
J kg C
p
C ( =

):

( )
( )
p p
C dxdydz C u dxdydz q dxdydz
t x x
u
u
c c c | |
=
|
c c c
\ .
(1.2)
Substitute (1.1) into (1.2):

assuming is not function

p p
p
C C u k
t x x x
k x
k
u
t x C x x
u u u

u u u

c c c c | | | |
= +
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .
c c c c | |
= +
|
c c c c
\ .

Defining the Thermal diffusivity:
p
k
C
k

= , i.e.
| |
2 -1
m s k =
Hence
2
2
D
Dt
u
t x x
u
u u u
k
=
c c c
+ =
c c c

In general, in 3 dimensions,

2 2 2
2 2 2
u v w
t x y z x y z
u cu cu cu c u c u c u
k
c c c c c c
( c
+ + + = + +
(
c

NB. Apart from pressure term, very similar to conservation of momentum. Also known as the
advection-diffusion equation (heat can be substituted for any scalar and use diffusivity for
that scalar).

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1.6 Boundary Conditions

To solve above sets equations, we also need conditions specified on boundaries of fluid
domain.
Types of boundary conditions:
1. Liquid-solid boundary - on microscopic scale
fluid particles (not molecules)
solid

Fluid particles at wall cannot move relative to the wall

"The no-slip condition".
Macroscopic View
LIQUID Wall at rest
and liquid
moving
WALL
z
u
x

If fluid at z is at rest, but wall is moving at z =0, u
liquid
=u
wall
.
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2. Free liquid surface

AIR
LIQUID
Elevation = (x, t).
z
x

2 principles, kinematic and dynamic. For smooth surface with no rupture occurring.

a) Kinematic boundary conditions - fluid particles at surface must have vertical velocity
equal to that of the surface
i.e.
D
w u
Dt t x
q q q c c
= = +
c c

b) Dynamic boundary conditions - neglecting surface tension, normal stress or pressure
either side of the boundary must be same.
i.e. Along z = q(x,t), p
liquid
= p
air

c) Shear stress on a surface

e.g.

WIND
AIR
WATER
Z

Wind applies a stress
0

z
w water
t t
=
=

If flow laminar
0
0

water w
z
z
u
z
t t
=
=
c
= =
c

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| |
2
; .
sec
u u m
z z
t
v v

| | c c
= = =
|
c c
\ .

Usually its turbulent - so define turbulent or friction velocity :

2
*

u
K u
z
t

c
= =
c

| |
2
*

m
Turbulent diffusivity
Where:
s
friction velocity
K
u
=
=

Wind energy provides:
i) forward motion
ii) eddies/ turbulence
iii) waves (vertical movement)

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1.7 Summary of Laws Governing Fluid Motion
Consider a Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z) with corresponding velocity components (u,
v, w)
Conservation of mass
For an incompressible fluid
0
u v w
x y z
c c c
c c c
+ + =

Conservation of linear momentum
For an incompressible, Newtonian fluid undergoing laminar motion
x-direction (M
x
) an using the definition of kinemtatic viscosity asv =
2 2 2
2 2 2
1

u u u u p u u u
u v w
t x y z x x y z
c c c c c c c c
v
c c c c c c c c
| | | |
+ + + = + + +
| |
\ . \ .

y-direction (M
y
)
2 2 2
2 2 2
1

v v v v p v v v
u v w
t x y z y x y z
c c c c c c c c
v
c c c c c c c c
| | | |
+ + + = + + +
| |
\ . \ .

z-direction (M
z
)
2 2 2
2 2 2
1

w w w w p w w w
u v w g
t x y z z x y z
c c c c c c c c
v
c c c c c c c c
| | | |
+ + + = + + +
| |
\ . \ .

Conservation of heat
If we denote the fluid temperature by u
2 2 2
2 2 2
u v w
t x y z x y z
cu cu cu cu c u c u c u
k
c c c c c c c
| | | |
+ + + = + +
| |
\ . \ .

where k is the molecular diffusivity
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Boundary Conditions
At the wall u
liquid
=u
wall
(i.e. no-slip condition)
At the free liquid surface
kinematic: where ( , ) is the free surface
i
D
w x t
Dt
q
q = =
dynamic: (pressure continuous),
u
= (shear stress)
z
air liquid
p p
t
=
c
c