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IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1

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PartModule06 Lecture37

Module06:Integrationandplacementofequipment
Lecture37:IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
st
Part
Keyword:Gasturbine,Aciddewtemperature,afterburner,specificwork

In its non complicated form, the gas turbine consists of a air compressor driven by a turbine
mountedonthesameshaftasshowninFig.37.1.Ambientairiscompressedinthecompressor
and as a result its temperature increases. A portion of this air is sent to the combustion
chamberwherefuelisinjectedandtheotherpartisusedtocoolthecombustionchamberwall.
The mixture is fired and the temperature of the combustion chamber increases in excess of
1500C. This temperature is constrained by the turbine blade material. The hot mixture of air
andcombustiongasesthenentersthe turbine andisexpandedto generatemechanical power
to drive the compressor. The hot exhaust which is around 450600C is in general reach in
oxygen(15%O
2
)andcanbefiredsecondtimewithfueltoincreaseitstemperature.Forstand
alone applications , gas turbine efficiency is a critical parameter, however, in cases where the
gasturbineexhaustheatisrecovered,theefficiencyislessimportant.

Dependingupontheusage,manyconfigurationsofGasturbineareavialbleinmarket.

Compre
ssor
Gas
Turbine
AmbientAIR
Combustion
Chamber
FUEL
Power
Recuperator
HOTFLUEGAS
Fig.37.2Schematicdiagramofasimplegasturbinewithrecuperator
Shaftcoupling
Compre
ssor
Gas
Turbine
AmbientAIR
Combustion
Chamber
FUEL
Power
H
O
T

F
L
U
E

G
A
S

Fig.37.1Schematicdiagramofasimplegasturbine
Shaftcoupling
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

Fig.37.2 shows a gas turbine with recuperator ( or regenerator). The exhaust gas which is at a
fairlyhightemperaturefromtheturbinecanbedischargedtoatmosphereashsowninFig.371.
orcanbesenttoarecuperatortoexchangeheatwithincomingcompressedairtopreheatitto
increase the overall efficiency as shown in Fig.37.2. It has some disadvantages too, such as it
increasesthepressuredropinthesystemtherebyaffectingtheefficiency.Thetemperatureof
the exit gas from GT is fixed by operating constraints. However, it is possible to maniupulate
the temperature of this gas using a recuperator(Figs.37.2) or after burner(Fig. 37.3 ) so that it
suits the needs of the process. The exhaust gas from the turbine contains about 15% O
2
and
thus can be burned second time by injecting fuel to increase its temperature as shown in
Fig.37.3.

Fig.37.4showsanmechanicallycomplicatedarrangementcalledsplitshaftturbine.Thefirst
turbineprovidednecessarypowertodrivethecompressorandthesecondturbineprovides
powerforexternalload.

Compre
ssor
Turbine
AmbientAIR
Combustion
Chamber
FUEL
Power
After
burner
FUEL
HOTGAS
Fig.37.3Schematicdiagramofasimplegasturbinewithafterburner
Shaftcoupling
Compre
ssor
Gas
Turbine
AmbientAIR
Combustion
Chamber
FUEL
Power
H
O
T

F
L
U
E

G
A
S

Fig.37.4Schematicdiagramofasplitshaft gasturbine
Shaftcoupling
Gas
Turbine
Highpressureturbine
Power
Turbine
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

Fig.37.5showsanintegratedgasturbinewhichusestheexhaustfromgasturbine(GT)to
generatesteaminaheatrecoverysteamgenerator(HRSG)beforeitisventedtoatmosphere.Itis
possibletofirefuelinthegasexhaust(fromGT)toincreaseitstemperaturebeforeentering
intoHRSG.

TheGasTurbineperformanceisafunctionofanumberofimporatntparametersdiscussed
below:
Inlet temperature of GT : The power generated by a GT and its efficiency are proportional to
the inlet temperature measure in absolute tempearure scale. The maximum temperature is
constrainedbytheturbinebladematerialcoolingofwhichallowshigherinlettemperature(up
to1500C).
PressureRatio:Anincreaseinthepowerrationofthecompressorfirstincreasesthepowerout
put to a maximum point and then decreases it as shown in Fig.37.6. Moreover, the optimum
compression ratio increases with increasing inlet temperature.Pressure ration of industrial
machinesareintherageof1oto15.
Ambient condition: The perfomace is generally specified at International standards
organization(ISO)at15C,1.013kg/cm
2
and60%relativehumidity.Asthepowerconsumption
of compressure is proportaional to the inlet temperature air( in K) and relative humidity , the
efficiency and power out put increases with decrease in ambient air temperature as well as
relativehumidityandviceversa.
Compre
ssor
Gas
Turbine
AmbientAIR
Combustion
Chamber
FUEL
Power
Fig.37.5Schematicdiagramofgasturbine with heatrecoverysteamgenerator(HRSG)
Shaftcoupling
FUEL
Power
Stream
Turbine
HeatRecovery
StreamGenerator
Boilerfeedwater
Steam
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

WorkLoad:Theefficiencydropsasloaddecreasesfromits100%ratedcapacityasisafunction
ofmachineandassociatedcontrolsystem.
Specifif work: It is defined as work out put per unit of air flow. It increases with turbine inlet
temperature. It also increases with pressure ratio to a maximum limt and then decreases as
giveninFig.37.6
Back pressure: Back pressure is generated by systems added between the GT exhaust and
chimney. These may be heat recovery systems, another furnace for secondary burning or
exhaust gas treatment units. These units cause pressure drops and back pressure created by
thesedevicesdecreasesthepoweroutput.Evenifthesedevicesarenotpresent,thechangein
ambientpressurealsochangesthemachineperformance.
CombustioninGTcreatesemissions.TheNOxformationinaGTcanbedeltwithbystaged
combustion,steaminjectionandtreatmentofexhaaustgases.

Cogeneration efforts based on GT has increased in recent years. Though generation of steam
usingGTexhaustisacommonexample ,itsotherdirect usesuchasprocess fluid heatingand
dryingisnotuncommon.TheintegrationofGTexhaustwithprocessGCCcanbedonebasedon
Fig.37.6 VariationofSpecificworkwithcompressorpressureratioforgiventurbine
inlettemperature
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

w
o
r
k

k
J
/
k
g

350
300
250
200
150
100
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
CompressorPressureratio
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

framework of Pinch Technology. A detaild discussion on different aspects of direct integration


ofGTexhaustwithGCCasdiscussedbelow:
Forintegration,theprocessisrepresentedbyagradcompositecurve(GCC)whichistheutility
interfaceoftheprocess.Itclearlyshowshowcoldandhotutilitiesandtheirdifferentlevelscan
bematchedwiththeprocesstosatisfyitnees.TheconstructionofGCCisdiscussedindetailin
Lacture12. The hot utility available for direct integration with a process is hot gas coming out
from the exhaust of GT and the process is primarily convective heat transfer. If it is assumed
thatthespecificheatofhotgasdoesnotcahngewithtemperaturewithinthespecifiedrangeof
temperature in which exchange is taking place, then it can be represented by a straight line
having slope equal to the reciprocal of the heat capacity flow rate(CP) of gas as shown in
Fig.37.7. In this figure one can see two hot utility lines denoted by A and B. Both the hot
utilities which have different CP values supply equal amount of heat to process and have the
samestacktemperature.However,thesehavedifferentexhaustlossesascanbeseenfromthe
extrapolation (dotted line) of the line to ambient temperature. The hot utility line with high
temperature(T
1
) and low CP has low exhaust loss, whereas it is reverse for high CP and low
temperature(T
2
)hotutilitystream.Followingconclusionscanbedrawn:
1. Keeping the inlet temperature of hot utility constant, the exhaust loss will increase by
creasing the CP value of the hot utility line as it will drease the slope of the line. Thus
exhaustlossescanbeminimuzedbyminimizingCP.
2. Stacktempearturealsopaysimportantroleinrestraingexhaustlosses.Moreisthestack
temperaturemorewillbeexhaustlosses.Ideally,ifstackisadiabatic,stacktempearture
should be equal to acid dew point temperature under the condition that pinch
temperatureshouldbebelowaciddewpointtemperature.
Itshouldbenotedthatstacktemperaturesarekeptmorethanaciddewpointtempearturefor
fluegassescontingoxidesofsulfur(SOx).Metalhaetexchageservicesshouldbeoperatedabove
150160C in flue gases containg SOx to avoid condensation of acid. The acid dew point
dependsonthesulfurcontentoffluegasandtheamountofexcessair.
Letusdiscussadifferentsituation,giveninFig.37.8,wherethehotutilitylinedenotedbyAF
(slopeisfixedbyvalueofCP)cutstheprocessGCCdenotedbyBDEFGHatpointC.This
meansthatthehotutilitylinewillbotbeabletosupplytheheatrequiredbyCDportionofthe
GCC.Nowwhatarethedifferentoptionsavailabletodesignertosolvethisproblem.
1. IntroduceasecondutilitysuchassteamtoserviceDCpartoftheGCCasshownin
Fig.37.9
2. IncreasetheCP(byincreasingflowrateofGTexhaust)ofthehotutilitysothattheslope
oftheline(withHaxis)decreasesandthecompletelineisabovetheupperhalfGCC
asshowninFig.37.10
3. Keepthehotutilityflowconstantandincreasetheinlettemperatureofexhaustgasas
giveninFig.37.11
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

AlltheabovethreesolutionwillincreaseexhaustlossesascanbeseenfromFigs.37.9,37.10
&37.11.

Ambienttemperature
Stacktemperature
Aciddewpointtemperature
ExhaustLosses
H,kW
CP
1
CP
2
Slope=1/CP
2
CP
1
>CP
2
I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s

Fig.37.7ProcessGCCismatchedwithexhaustofgasturbineprofile
Pinch
A
B
T
1

T
2

ThisportionofGCCwillnotbe
servicedbythehotutility
Fig.37.8GCCiscutbyhotutilitygas (GTExhaust)line.
A
B
C
D
E
G
H
F
Acid dew
Temperature
H,kW
I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s

AmbientTemperature
HeatLossthroughstack
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s

Increasedgasflowrate
C
B
A
E
D
I
F
G
H
Aciddew
Temp.Acid
H,kW
Fig.37.10Gasflowrate isincreased tosupplyheattoallabovepinchregion
Excessheatlossthroughstack
Ambienttemperature
A
B
C
E
I
F
dewTemp.
H,kW
Fig.37.9Introducingasecondutility(steam)inthehotutilityplot.
I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s

Exhaustgas
Exhaustgas
Steam
D
G
H
Ambienttemperature
Excessheatlossthroughstack
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

Nowthequestionishowtofixuptheflowrateofexhaustgassothatitisabletodeliverthehot
utility tothe processGCC with minimumstackloss.To getanswerto this questiononeshould
know how the flow rate of exhaust gas affects the pertinent parameters of the GT. In a GT
basedcogenerationsystemtheexhaustgasflowrateiscontrolledbytherequiredpowertobe
generated. In fact, exhaust gas flow rate is controlled by turbine inlet temperature and
compressor ratio as discussed in the earlier part of the lecture. For all practical purposes the
exhaustgascanbbeconsideredaspureair.Thisisbecauselargepartoftheexhaustgasisair.
One of the pertinent parameter worth investigating is specific work(kJ/kg of air) defined as
workoutputfromGTperunitmassofairflow(kg).Thespecificworkincreaseswithincreasein
turbine inlet temperature and shows a unimodal convex shape with pressure ratio i.e. it
increases with increase in pressure ratio up to certain pressure ratio and then decreases with
the increase in pressure ratio. Thus , a turbine should be operated at highest possible
tempearture(limitedbyturbinebladematerial)tomaximizespecificwork.However,forafixed
turbineinlettemperaturethespecificworkvarieswithturbineinletpressurecharacterizedby
compressor pressure ratio. Thus gas turbine should work at a pressure ratio which provides
maximumspecificwork.
From Fig.37.12 which is drawn to show what happens when pressure ratio is changed clealy
indicates that when pressure ration is kept greater than optimum value the turbine exhaust
Fig.37.11Exhaustgassupplytemperatureincreasedkeepingflowrateconstant
H,kW
Aciddew
temp.
I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s

J
A
B
C
D
E
I
F
G
H
Inlet temperature raised keeping flow constant
Ambienttemperature
Excessheatlossfromstack
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

temperature drops and the stack loss also increases. Further, when it is kept lower than the
optimumvalue,theexhausttemperaturefromGTincreases.

Theabovefactmaylookencouraging,however,itisnotso.Whenpressureratioiskeptlower
than optimum, the gas flow need for the required power generation increases making the hot
utilitylineslopetodecreaseresultinginahigherstacklossanddecreasedefficiency.
Sotheconclusionsare:
1. The GT should operate at maximum possible inlet temperature to maximize specific
work.
2. The compressor pressure ration for operation should be selcetd so as to get maximum
specificwork.Thiscompressorpressureratioistheoptimumpressorratio.
TherequiredGTexhaustgastemperaturewhichwillmeettheprocessheatdemandcanbe
computedfromEq.37.1
I
g
= I
stuck
+
R
hp
w
ngt
c
pg
- -(S7.1)
The temperature of the exit gas from GT is fixed by operating constraints. However, it is
possible to maniupulate the temperature of this gas using a recuperator(Figs.37.2) or after
burner(Fig. 37.3 ) so that it suits the needs of the process. The exhaust gas from the turbine
Q
Hmin
(min. heat required by process )
Decreasedpressureratio
Optimumpressureratio
Increasedpressureratio
Acid dew temperature
Ambienttemperature
Stacklosses
H, kW
I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s

Fig.37.12Adeparturefromoptimumpressureratioresultsinincreasedstackloss
IntegrationofGasturbinewithprocess1
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PartModule06 Lecture37

contains about 15% O


2
and thus can be burned second time by injecting fuel to increase its
temperature.Therecuperatorisusedtotransfersomeoftheheatavailablewithfluegasesto
heat the compressed air used for burning. This way the fuel consumption is decreased at the
costofreducingthetemperatureofthefluegaswhichisusedforprocessheating.Thepresence
of a recuperator does not affect the specific work of the GT, nor it alters the relationship
betweengasflowandpowergeneration.

References
1. K.Sarabchi&G.T.Polley,GasTurbinedirectintegrationinthecontextofPinch
Technology,ChemicalEng.Technol,25(2002)8
2. Linnhoff,B.andFlower,J.R.,1978,Synthesisofheatexchangernetworks,AIChEJ,24(4):
633.
3. Linnhoff,B.andHindmarsh,E.,1983,Thepinchdesignmethodforheatexchanger
networks,ChemEngSci,38(5):745.
4. Linnhoff,B.,Townsend,D.W.,Boland,D.,Hewitt,G.F.,Thomas,B.E.A.,Guy,A.R.and
Marsland,R.H.,1994,AUserGuideonProcessIntegrationfortheEfficientUseof
Energy.(TheInstitutionofChemicalEngineers,Rugby,Warks,UK).
5. Smith,R.2005,ChemicalProcess:DesignandIntegration(seconded.),(J.Wiley,JWiley.

Nomenclature
T
g
=Gassupplytemperature,
0
C
T
Stack
=Stacktemperature,
0
C
R
hp
=heattopowerratio(H
tpr
)
w
ngt
=Gasturbinespecificwork,kJ/kg(SW
gt
)
c
pg
=Gasspecificheat,(kJ/(kg
0
C))