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012-02675

10/91
Revision B

Instruction Manual and


Experiment Guide for
the PASCO scientific
Model OS-8501

Interferometer

fic
scienti

Copyright February 1986

EL
MOD

TER
OME
RFER
TE
501 IN
OS-8

$10.00

Interferometer

012-02675B

Table of Contents

Section

Page

Copyright, Warranty, and Equipment Return ........................................ ii


Introduction............................................................................................... 1
Equipment ................................................................................................. 1
Equipment included:
Additional Equipment Needed:
Additional Equipment Recommended:

Theory of Operation .................................................................................2


Interference Theory
The Michelson Interferometer

Operation
The Interferometer ......................................................................................... 4
The Movable Mirror ....................................................................................... 4
Aligning the Interferometer .......................................................................... 5

Exp 1: Measuring the Wavelength of Light .......................................... 7


Exp 2: Measuring the Index of Refraction for Air ................................ 8
Appendix
Maintenance ................................................................................................. 11
Replacement Parts ...................................................................................... 11
Inteferometry with a Spectral Light Source .............................................. 12

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Interferometer

Copyright, Warranty and Equipment Return


PleaseFeel free to duplicate this manual
subject to the copyright restrictions below.

Equipment Return
Copyright Notice

Should the product have to be returned to PASCO


scientific for any reason, notify PASCO scientific by
letter, phone, or fax BEFORE returning the product.
Upon notification, the return authorization and
shipping instructions will be promptly issued.

The PASCO scientific Model OS-8501 Interferometer


manual is copyrighted and all rights reserved. However, permission is granted to non-profit educational
institutions for reproduction of any part of this manual
providing the reproductions are used only for their
laboratories and are not sold for profit. Reproduction
under any other circumstances, without the written
consent of PASCO scientific, is prohibited.

NOTE: NO EQUIPMENT WILL BE


ACCEPTED FOR RETURN WITHOUT AN
AUTHORIZATION FROM PASCO.

Limited Warranty
PASCO scientific warrants this product to be free from
defects in materials and workmanship for a period of
one year from the date of shipment to the customer.
PASCO will repair or replace, at its option, any part of
the product which is deemed to be defective in material or workmanship. This warranty does not cover
damage to the product caused by abuse or improper
use. Determination of whether a product failure is the
result of a manufacturing defect or improper use by the
customer shall be made solely by PASCO scientific.
Responsibility for the return of equipment for warranty
repair belongs to the customer. Equipment must be
properly packed to prevent damage and shipped
postage or freight prepaid. (Damage caused by
improper packing of the equipment for return shipment
will not be covered by the warranty.) Shipping costs
for returning the equipment, after repair, will be paid
by PASCO scientific.

When returning equipment for repair, the units


must be packed properly. Carriers will not accept
responsibility for damage caused by improper
packing. To be certain the unit will not be
damaged in shipment, observe the following rules:

The packing carton must be strong enough for the


item shipped.

Make certain there are at least two inches of


packing material between any point on the
apparatus and the inside walls of the carton.

Make certain that the packing material cannot shift


in the box or become compressed, allowing the
instrument come in contact with the packing
carton.

ii

PASCO scientific
10101 Foothills Blvd.
Roseville, CA 95747-7100

Phone:
FAX:
email:
web:

scientific

Address:

(916) 786-3800
(916) 786-3292
techsupp@pasco.com
www.pasco.com

012-02675B

Interferometer

Introduction
The PASCO scientific Model OS-8501
Michelson Interferometer is a precision instrument capable of measuring the wavelength of
visible, monochromatic light with an
accuracy of better than 5%. With the
included vacuum chamber, it can also be
used for precise measurements of the index of
air refraction.
CAUTION: Avoid touching all optical
surfaces on the interferometer, because
minute scratches can impair the clarity of
the interference image. For instructions
on cleaning the optical surfaces, see the
Maintenance section at the end of this
manual.

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R
METE
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1 IN
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Equipment
Equipment included:

Vacuum pump: To measure the index of refraction of


air, you will also need a vacuum pump. The PASCO
Hand Vacuum Pump (Model OS-8502) is an accurate
yet relatively inexpensive pump with a built-in gauge.
It allows precise control of the vacuum level when
counting fringes. However, the vacuum chamber can
be used with any pump that can be connected by a 1/4
inch (0.64 cm) I.D. (inner diameter) tube.

Interferometer base with built-in micrometer


and leveling feet
Movable mirror
Beam splitter
Three point adjustable fixed mirror
Vacuum cell for measuring the index of
air refraction

CAUTION: Do not use the vacuum chamber


with a compressor; it is not built to withstand
positive pressures.

Beam expanding lens with component holder


Fitted case
Additional Equipment Needed:

Additional Equipment Recommended:

Light source: To operate the Michelson Interferometer you will also need a monochromatic light source,
preferably a laser. We recommend the PASCO 0.5
mW He-Ne Laser (Model OS-9171), but any low
power laser that operates in the visible range will
work. For optimum ease of alignment, the level of the
beam should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) above the bench
top. Leveling screws on the interferometer allow the
height to be adjusted.

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The PASCO Optics Bench can function as an aid in


aligning the interferometer. It simplifies the alignment
procedure and the magnetic pads on the bench top hold
the laser and interferometer firmly in position once the
system is aligned. A 1.0 m Optics Bench can be purchased separately (Model OS-9103). A 70 cm optics
bench is included as an integral part of the PASCO
scientific Introductory Optics System (Model OS8500).

Interferometer

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Theory of Operation
Interference Theory

The Michelson Interferometer

A beam of light can be modeled as a wave of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. When two beams of
light meet in space, these fields add according to the
principle of superposition. At each point in space, the
electric and magnetic fields are determined as the
vector sum of the fields of the separate beams.

In 1881, some 78 years after Young introduced his


two-slit experiment, A.A. Michelson designed and
built an interferometer using a similar principle.
Originally Michelson designed his interferometer as a
method to test for the existence of the ether, a hypothesized medium in which light could propagate. Due in
part to his efforts, the ether is no longer considered a
viable hypothesis. Michelsons interferometer has
become a widely used instrument for measuring the
wavelength of light, and for using the wavelength of a
known light source to measure extremely small
distances.

If the two beams of light originate from separate


sources, there is generally no fixed relationship
between the electromagnetic oscillations in the beams.
If two such light beams meet, at any instant in time
there will be points in space where the fields add to
produce a maximum field strength. However, the
oscillations of visible light are much faster than the
human eye can apprehend. Since there is no fixed
relationship between the oscillations, a point at which
there is a maximum at one instant may have a minimum at the next instant. The human eye averages
these results and perceives a uniform intensity of light.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of a Michelson interferometer. A beam of light from the laser source strikes the
beam-splitter. The beam-splitter is designed to reflect
50% of the incident light and transmit the other 50%.
The incident beam therefore splits into two beams; one
beam is reflected toward mirror M1, the other is
transmitted toward mirror M2. M1 and M2 reflect the
beams back toward the beam-splitter. Half the light
from M1 is transmitted through the beam-splitter to the
viewing screen and half the light from M2 is reflected
by the beam-splitter to the viewing screen.

However, if the two beams of light originate from the


same source, there is generally some degree of correlation between the frequency and phase of the oscillations of the two beams. At one point in space the light
from the beams may be continually in phase. In this
case, the combined field will always be a maximum
and a bright spot will be seen. At another point the
light from the two beams may be continually out of
phase and a minima, or dark spot, will be seen.

VIEWING SCREEN

Thomas Young was one of the first to design a method


for producing such an interference pattern. He allowed
a single, narrow beam of light to fall on two narrow,
closely spaced slits. Opposite the slits he placed a
viewing screen. Where the light from the two slits
struck the screen, a regular pattern of dark and bright
bands became visible. When first performed, Youngs
experiment offered important evidence for the wave
nature of light.

BEAMSPLITTER

M2
(MOVABLE
MIRROR)

LASER

Youngs slits function as a simple interferometer. If


the spacing between the slits is known, the spacing of
the maxima and minima can be used to determine the
wavelength of the light. Conversely, if the wavelength
of the light is known, the spacing of the slits could be
determined from the interference patterns.

M1 (FIXED MIRROR)

Figure 1 MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER

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Interferometer

In this way the original beam of light splits, and


portions of the resulting beams are brought back
together. The beams are from the same source and
their phases highly correlate. When a lens is placed
between the laser source and the beam-splitter, the
light ray spreads out. An interference pattern of dark

Since the two interfering beams of light were split


from the same initial beam, they were initially in
phase. Their relative phase when they meet at any
point on the viewing screen, therefore, depends on the
difference in the length of their optical paths in reaching that point.
By moving mirror M2, the path length of one of the
beams can be varied. Since the beam traverses the
path between M2 and the beam-splitter twice, moving
M2 1/4 wavelength nearer the beam-splitter will reduce
the optical path of that beam by 1/2 wavelength. The
interference pattern will change; the radii of the
maxima will be reduced so they now occupy the
position of the former minima. If M2 is moved an
additional 1/4 wavelength closer to the beam-splitter,
the radii of the maxima will again be reduced so
maxima and minima trade positions. However, this
new arrangement will be indistinguishable from the
m
original pattern.

Figure 2 INTERFERENCE PATTERN

and bright rings, or fringes, is seen on the viewing


screen, as shown in Figure 2.

By slowly moving M2 a measured distance dm, and


counting m, the number of times the fringe pattern is
restored to its original state, the wavelength of the light
() can be calculated as:
2d
=
m

NOTE: Do not be concerned if your pattern


shows irregularities or has fewer fringes. As
long as fringes are clearly visible, measurements
will be accurate.

If the wavelength of the light is known, the same


procedure can be used to measure dm.

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Interferometer

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Operation
The Interferometer
The Michelson Interferometer is shown in
Figure 3. The alignment of the beamsplitter and the movable mirror, M2, is
easily adjusted by loosening the thumbscrews that attach them to the interferometer. The fixed mirror, M1, is mounted on
an alignment bracket. The bracket has two
alignment screws to adjust the angle of the
mirror.

M2 (MOVABLE MIRROR)

BEAM SPLITTER

M1 (FIXED MIRROR)

The movement of M2 toward and away


from the beam-splitter is controlled and
measured using the micrometer knob.
Each division of the knob corresponds to 1
micrometer
(10-6 meter) of mirror movement.

MICROMETER
KNOB

M1 ALIGNMENT
SCREWS

The Movable Mirror

Figure 3 INTERFEROMETER

To measure the wavelength of light, the movement of


M2 must be measurable for distances about 10-6
meters. Also, as the mirror moves, its reflective
surface must remain perpendicular to the axis of the
incident light beam.

In this way, a relatively large displacement of the lever


(d = R 0) results in a much smaller displacement of the
mirror (dm = r 0). By selecting appropriate values for
r and R , the motion of M2 is controlled so that each
division on the micrometer dial corresponds to 1
micron of mirror movement.

A taut-band carriage is used to maintain the alignment


of the reflective surface of M2 as it moves. The mirror
is mounted in a cradle that is fixed to two semi-rigid
aluminum bands. With this set-up the mirror is free to
move, but its movement is constrained to a line
parallel with the beam axis.

MYLAR
STRIP
M2

The micrometer mechanism controls and measures the


movement of M2. The cradle of M2 is attached to a
mylar strip that is attached to a lever arm. The displacement of the lever is controlled with the micrometer knob.

r
r

r
R

Suppose the micrometer knob is turned so it pushes the


lever in by a distance d (see Figure 4). The angle of
the lever arm changes by an amount 0 such that d = R
tan 0, as shown. Since the angle change is always
small,
R tan 0 = R 0, to a close approximation. This change
in the lever arm angle causes the mylar strip to be
pulled further around the lever post by an amount r 0,
where r is the radius of the lever post. The mirror is
therefore pulled away from the beam-splitter by the
amount, r 0.

MICROMETER
KNOB

Figure 4 MIRROR MOVEMENT MECHANISM


4

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Interferometer

Aligning the Interferometer

Rotate the beam-splitter so its surface is at an angle


approximately 45o with the incident beam from the
laser (see Figure 6). You will see two sets of laser
spots on the viewing screen, corresponding to the
two paths that the beam takes in reaching the
screen. (Each path results in more than one laser
spot because of multiple reflections within the
beam-splitter.) Adjust the beam-splitter so the two
sets of laser spots are as close as possible, then
tighten the thumbscrew to secure the beam-splitter.

NOTE: This alignment procedure is for


those using a PASCO scientific Optics Bench. If
you are not using an Optics Bench, tape a
straightedge to a flat level surface. The straightedge will provide a substitute for the alignment
rail of the optics bench.

Place the laser and the interferometer on the Optics


Bench, approximately 10 - 20 cm apart (Figure 5).
Be sure that the edges of both units are flush
against the alignment rail of the bench. Place a
viewing screen as shown. (A blank sheet of white
paper taped to the cover of a book provides a convenient screen.) Turn on the laser.

Using the alignment screws, adjust the angle of M1


until the two sets of laser spots are superimposed
on the viewing screen (the two brightest spots must
be superimposed).

Place the lens holder on the optical bench as shown

Loosen the thumbscrew that holds the beam-splitter

in Figure 7. Be sure its edge is flush against the


alignment rail. Then place the 18 mm focal length
lens on the lens holder (it attaches magnetically).
Adjust the position of the lens on the holder so the
light from the laser, now spread out by the lens,
strikes the center of the beam-splitter. If you have
performed the alignment correctly, you will see an
interference pattern of concentric rings on the viewing screen. If the alignment is not just right, the
center of the fringe pattern may not be visible on
the screen. Adjust the alignment screws on M1
very slowly as needed to center the pattern.

and rotate the beam-splitter so it is out of the beam


path of the laser as shown in Figure 5. Then loosen
the thumbscrew that holds M2, the movable mirror.
Adjust the rotation of M2 so the laser beam is reflected directly back toward the aperture of the laser. (The reflected beam need not be at the same
height as the incident beam, but it should strike the
front panel of the laser along a vertical line through
the aperture.) Hold M 2 in position and tighten the
thumbscrew.

VIEWING SCREEN
REFLECTED
LASER BEAM

LASER

ALIGNMENT RAIL
OPTICS BENCH

LASER BEAM

10 - 20 cm

Figure 5 ADJUSTING M1
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VIEWING SCREEN

Adjust the BeamSplitter and M1 to


superimpose the two
sets of laser spots on
the viewing screen.

45

LASER

M1 ALIGNMENT SCREWS

Figure 6 ALIGNING THE LASER SPOTS

VIEWING SCREEN

LENS HOLDER
LENS, 18 mm
FOCAL LENGTH

LASER

M1 ALIGNMENT SCREWS

Figure 7 POSITIONING THE LENS


6

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Interferometer

Exp 1: Measuring the Wavelength of Light


Theory
In many scientific and industrial uses of interferometers, a light source of a known wavelength is used to measure incredibly small displacements - about 10-6 meters. However, if
you know the distance of mirror movement, you can use the interferometer to measure the
wavelength of a light source. In this experiment you will use the interferometer to measure
the wavelength of your laser light source.

Procedure
Align the laser and interferometer as described in the preceding section, so an interference
pattern of circular fringes is clearly visible on your viewing screen.

Adjust the micrometer knob so the lever arm is approximately parallel with the edge of the
interferometer base. In this position the relationship between knob rotation and mirror
movement is most nearly linear.

Turn the micrometer knob one full turn counterclockwise. Continue turning counterclockwise until the zero on the knob is aligned with the index mark.

NOTE: Whenever you reverse the direction in which you turn the micrometer knob,
there is a small amount of give before the mirror begins to move. This is called
mechanical backlash, and is present in any mechanical system involving reversals in
direction of movement. By beginning with a full counterclockwise turn, and then turning
only counterclockwise when counting fringes, you can eliminate backlash in your
measurement.

If you are using a blank piece of paper as your viewing screen, make a reference mark on
the paper between two of the fringes. You will find it easier to count the fringes if the
reference mark is one or two fringes out from the center of the pattern.

Rotate the micrometer knob slowly counterclockwise. Count the fringes as they pass your
reference mark. Continue until a predetermined number of fringes has passed your reference mark (count at least 20 fringes). As you finish your count, the fringes should be in the
same position with respect to your reference mark as they were when you started to count.

Record dm, the distance that the movable mirror moved toward the beam-splitter as you
turned the micrometer knob. Remember, each division on the micrometer knob corresponds to one micron (10-6 meters) of mirror movement.
dm = _______________

Record m, the number of fringes that crossed your reference mark.


m = _______________

Calculate the wavelength of the laser light ( = 2dm/m).


Calculate the percentage difference between your measured value for the wavelength of the
laser light and the value recorded in the laser specifications. (Check with your teacher for
the laser specifications.)

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Interferometer

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Exp 2: Measuring the Index of Refraction for Air


Theory
For light of a specific frequency, the wavelength varies according to the formula:
= o/n;
where o is the wavelength of the light in a vacuum, and n is the index of refraction for the
material in which the light is propagating. In this experiment, you will use the interferometer
to measure the index of refraction for air.
For reasonably low pressures, the
index of refraction for a gas varies
linearly with the gas pressure. Of
course for a vacuum, where the
2
pressure is zero, the index of
INDEX OF
refraction is exactly 1. A graph for REFRECTION
the refraction index versus gas
(n)
1
pressure is shown in Figure 8.
The measurements you make in
this experiment will allow you to
calculate the slope of this graph for
air. From that, numerical values
can be determined for the index of
air refraction at various pressures.

0
0

GAS PRESSURE (cm Hg)

Figure 8 GRAPH,
INDEX OF REFRACTION VS PRESSURE

Procedure
Align the laser and interferometer as described earlier in this manual.
The experimental set-up is shown in Figure 9. Push the air hose of the vacuum pump over the
air outlet hole of the vacuum chamber. Then plug the banana plug of the vacuum chamber into
the hole in the interferometer base between the fixed mirror and the beam-splitter.

Adjust the alignment screws of the fixed mirror so the center of the interference pattern is
clearly visible on the viewing screen. (The fringe pattern will be somewhat distorted by
irregularities in the glass end-plates of the vacuum chamber.)

Notice that the banana plug of the vacuum chamber is free to rotate in its hole. For accurate
measurements, the end-plates of the vacuum chamber must be perpendicular to the laser beam.
Rotate the chamber slowly and observe the effect on the interference fringes. Based on your
observations, how can you be sure that the end-plates of the vacuum chamber are properly
aligned?

Be sure that the air in the vacuum chamber is at atmospheric pressure. If you are using a
PASCO Hand Vacuum Pump, this is performed by flipping the vacuum release toggle switch.
(Alternatively, many people find it more convenient to begin with the vacuum chamber
evacuated they then let air into the chamber as the fringes are counted. Use whichever
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Interferometer

VIEWING SCREEN

LASER

VACUUM CHAMBER
AIR HOSE

VACUUM PUMP
MODEL OS-8502

VACUUM CHAMBER
(front view)

INTERFEROMETER
BASE

BANANA PLUG

VACUUM RELEASE
TOGGLE SWITCH

Figure 9 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

method you find to be easier for controlling the air flow.)

Record Pi, the initial reading on the vacuum pump gauge.


Pi = ________________cm Hg

NOTE: Pi and Pf (see below) must be absolute pressure readings. Most vacuum gauges
measure vacuum pressure with respect to atmospheric pressure (e.g., when the gauge reads
34 cm Hg, it means that the pressure is actually 34 cm Hg BELOW atmospheric pressure).
In this case, the absolute pressure reading must be calculated as:
Pabsolute = 76 cm Hg - Pgauge
Of course, your room pressure may vary slightly from 76 cm Hg. If you have a more
accurate way of measuring room pressure, you can use that value to replace 76 cm Hg in
the above equation.

Mark a reference point between a pair of fringes on your viewing screen. Slowly pump out
the air in the vacuum chamber to some convenient pressure level. As you do this, count
m, the number of fringes that pass your reference point. Record m, below. Also record
Pf, the final reading on the vacuum gauge.

m = ______________
Pf = _______________cm Hg.

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Interferometer

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Analyzing Your Data


As the laser beam passes back and forth between the beam-splitter and the fixed mirror, it
passes twice through the vacuum chamber. Outside the chamber the optical path-lengths of the
two interferometer beams do not change throughout the experiment. Inside the chamber,
however, the wavelength of the light gets longer as the pressure is reduced.
Suppose that originally the chamber length d was 10 wavelengths long (it is actually much
longer). As you slowly pump out the chamber, the wavelength increases until, at some point,
the chamber is only 9-1/2 wavelengths long. Since the laser beam passes twice through the
chamber, the light now goes through one less oscillation as it passes through the chamber.
This has the same effect on the interference pattern as when the movable mirror is moved
toward the beam-splitter by 1/2 wavelength. A single fringe will have passed by the reference
mark on the viewing screen.
Originally there are mi = 2 d/i wavelengths of light within the chamber (counting both passes
of the laser beam). At the final pressure there are mf = 2 d/f wavelengths within the chamber.
The difference between these values, mi = mf, is just m, the number of fringes you counted
as you evacuated the chamber. Therefore:

m = 2 d/i - 2d/f
However, i = o/ni and f = o/nf; where ni and nf are the initial and final values for the
refraction index of the air inside the chamber. Therefore m = 2 d (ni = nf) /o, so that ni - nf =
mo/2d. The slope of the n vs pressure graph is therefore calculated as:
ni - nf

Pi - P f

m o/2d

Pi - P f

where Pi = the initial air pressure


Pf = the final air pressure
ni = the index of refraction of air at Pi
nf = the index of refraction of air at Pf

m = the number of fringes that passed the reference point during evacuation
o = the wavelength of the laser light in vacuum (obtain this value from your teacher)
d = the length of the vacuum chamber (3.0 cm)

Calculate the slope of the n vs pressure graph for air.

On a separate piece of paper, draw the n vs pressure graph. From your graph, what is natm, the
refraction index for air at a pressure of 1 atmosphere (76 cm Hg).
natm = ______________

NOTE: Remember that at zero pressure, n = 1 exactly. Using this as a fixed data point, use
your calculated slope to construct the graph. The slope will be very slight, since large
pressure changes result in very small changes in n. Adjust the scale of your graph as needed
so that you can accurately determine the small shift in n that occurs between zero pressure
and atmospheric pressure.

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Interferometer

Appendix
Maintenance

Replacement Parts
The following spare parts are available from PASCO
scientific:

IMPORTANT: All mirrors on the interferometer should be cleaned ONLY with alcohol
and a soft cloth. Other cleaning solvents, such as
Windex, may scratch or dissolve the aluminized
front surface of these mirrors.

Item

Vacuum cell assembly


Convex lens, 18 mm Focal Length
Three point adjustable mirror assembly
Beam-Splitter assembly
Movable mirror assembly
Component Holder

Besides cleaning the mirrors, no other maintenance is


required. If the mylar strip gets damaged, or a severe
shock causes the interferometer to lose its alignment,
return the unit to PASCO scientific for repair.

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PASCO Part No.

11

003-02197
003-02281
003-02671
003-02672
003-02673
648-02696

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To use the interferometer with a spectral or other


monochromatic light source:

Inteferometry with a Spectral Light Source


Although the Michelson Interferometer works best
with a laser light source, interferometry measurements
can be successfully made using any monochromatic
source of sufficient brightness. However, unless a
laser is used, it is generally not possible to project the
interference fringes onto a screen. The fringes are
viewed, instead, by looking into the beam-splitter.

Tape two thin pieces of wire or thread to the surface of the diffuser to form cross-hairs.

Set up the equipment as shown below, and turn on


the light source. The light source should be on a
level with the interferometer mirrors.

Adjust the alignment screws on the Fixed Mirror

A spectral light source such as the PASCO Model OS9287 Low Pressure Sodium Light Source works well
for this application. In addition to the spectral light
source, a diffuser is needed, such as PASCO Model
OS-9120.

(M1) until the front and back plates of the alignment bracket for M1 are approximately parallel.

While looking through the beam-splitter toward


M1, adjust the rotation of the beam-splitter until
you see an image of the cross-hairs reflected from
M1.

Now adjust the rotation of the Movable Mirror (M2)


until you see a second image of the cross-hairs.
Adjust the alignment screws on M1 until the two
cross-hair images are superimposed. The interference fringes should now be visible when looking
through the beam-splitter at M1.

NOTE: If you are using a spectral light


source with spectral lines at several different
wavelengths, it may be necessary to use a filter
that blocks all but one of the spectral waveM1 ALIGNMENT SCREWS

lengths.
M1 ALIGNMENT BRACKET
LENS HOLDER

M1
SPECTRAL LIGHT
SOURCE
MODEL OS-9287
LOW PRESSURE SODIUM

BEAM SPLITTER
DIFFUSER

THIN WIRE
OR THREAD

FIGURE 10 USING A SPECTRAL LIGHT SOURCE


12

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Technical Support
Feedback

Contacting Technical Support

If you have any comments about the product or


manual, please let us know. If you have any suggestions on alternate experiments or find a problem in the
manual, please tell us. PASCO appreciates any
customer feedback. Your input helps us evaluate and
improve our product.

Before you call the PASCO Technical Support staff,


it would be helpful to prepare the following information:

To Reach PASCO
For technical support, call us at 1-800-772-8700
(toll-free within the U.S.) or (916) 786-3800.
fax:

(916) 786-3292

e-mail: techsupp@PASCO.com
web:

www.pasco.com

If your problem is with the PASCO apparatus,


note:

- Title and model number (usually listed on the


label);

- Approximate age of apparatus;


- A detailed description of the problem/sequence
of events. (In case you cant call PASCO right
away, you wont lose valuable data.);

- If possible, have the apparatus within reach


when calling to facilitate description of individual parts.
If your problem relates to the instruction manual,
note:

- Part number and revision (listed by month and


year on the front cover);

- Have the manual at hand to discuss your questions.