You are on page 1of 8

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35 © IAEME

AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)

Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35

© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET

© I A E M E

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL

NEW APPROACH TO CASTING DEFECTS CLASSIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION BY MAGMA SOFT

M. Chandra Sekhar Reddy 1* ,

Talluri Ravi Teja 2

1 Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, UCE(A), Osmania University. 2 Research Scholar, UCE(A), Osmania University.

ABSTRACT

Foundry industry suffers from poor quality and productivity due to the large number of process parameters, combined with lower penetration of manufacturing automation and shortage of skilled workers compared to other industries. Global buyers demand defect-free castings and strict delivery schedule, which foundries are finding it very difficult to meet. Casting defects result in increased unit cost and lower morale of shop floor personnel. The defects need to be diagnosed correctly for appropriate remedial measures, otherwise new defects may be introduced. Unfortunately, this is not an easy task, since casting process involves complex interactions among various parameters and operations related to metal composition, methods design, molding, melting, pouring, shake-out, fettling and machining. For example, if shrinkage porosity is identified as gas porosity, and the pouring temperature is lowered to reduce the same, it may lead to another defect, namely cold shut. In this work, we present a 3-step approach to casting defect identification, analysis and rectification. The defects are classified in terms of their appearance, size, location, consistency, discovery stage and inspection method. This helps in correct identification of the defects.

Keywords: Casting Defects, Classification, Gating System Design, MAGMA SOFT, Optimisation.

1. INTRODUCTION

Metal casting is one of the direct methods of manufacturing the desired geometry of component. It is one of the primary processes for several years and one of important process even today in the 21st century. Early applications of casting are in making jewellery items and golden idols. Today, casting applications include automotive components, spacecraft components and many industrial & domestic components, apart from the art and jewellery items.

28

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35 © IAEME

The principle of manufacturing a casting involves creating a cavity inside a sand mould and then pouring the molten metal directly into the mould. Casting is a very versatile process and capable of being used in mass production. The size of components is varied from very large to small, with intricate designs. Out of the several steps involved in the casting process, moulding and melting processes are the most important stages. Improper control at these stages results in defective castings, which reduces the productivity of a foundry industry. Generally, foundry industry suffers from poor quality and productivity due to the large number of process parameters, combined with lower penetration of manufacturing automation and shortage of skilled workers compared to other industries. Also, Global buyers demand defect-free castings and strict delivery schedule, which foundries are finding it very difficult to meet.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Basic Principles of Metal casting and Metal casting processes like Sand casting, Die casting Investment casting and Expendabele Mold Casting and Non Expendabele Mold Casting. Parts of Gating System Sprues, Runners, Gates, Risers, vents Cores and Drafts. These Studies is done in Principles of Metal Casting by Richard Heine, Carl Loper, Philip Rosenthal That is automatic supervision and control of the technological process of manufacturing the elements from aluminium alloys and of the methodology of the automatic quality assessment of these elements basing on analysis of images obtained with the X-ray defect detection, employing the artificial intelligence tools. L.A. Dobrzański and M. Krupiński presented a new methodology in the paper. The optimal processing parameters for the cooling were obtained from the analysis of fluid flow and solidification. Numerical simulations of mold filling and solidification were used to optimize the casting process. The simulations were used to predict the temperature distributions and solidification sequences in the casting to optimize the casting conditions. S. M. Yoo, et. al, used to simulate the fluid flow in a sand mold. This paper deals with Casting defects in offset printing press cylinder and their remedies studied by Roby Joy et. al. A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring an image. D.N.Shivappa1 et. al, presented analysis of casting defects and identification of remedial measures carried out at Dakshin Foundry Ltd, Bangalore, India. Diagnostic study carried out on Trunion Support Bracket (TSB) Castings revealed that the contribution of the four prominent defects in casting rejections are sand drop, blow hole, mismatch, and oversize. It was noticed that these defects are frequently occurring at particular locations. Casting Simulation and Optimisation has become a powerful tool to visualize mould filling, solidification and cooling, and to predict the location of internal defects such as shrinkage porosity, sand inclusions, and cold shuts. This Paper Describes the benefits of Casting simulation. B. Ravi, 2008, “Casting Simulation and Optimization”, Indian Foundry Journal.

2. PROBLEM STATEMENT

Early in Foundry Industry the defects classified after the manufacturing. By taking that casting and doing defect testing like Radiography or Ultrasonic Testing Method. In this process the rejections are 60%.By adding MAGMA SOFT in this process the estimated rejections are 15%.

Every 10 castings 4-6 castings are rejected.

Every time affecting defects are Blow holes, Shrikage, Misrun and Cold shut.

More process variation due to more human involvement which leads to heavy rejection.

29

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35 © IAEME

Less Automation

Average cost of one casting is Rs.6000/- due to this rejection and again scrap recycle the cost

is almost all 6000/- to 6100/-. Cost saving through MAGMA

Customers In-Time Dispatch of Castings

3. PRESENT APPROACHES FOR ANALYSIS OF CASTING DEFECTS

At present, casting defect analysis is carried out using techniques like historical data analysis, cause-effect diagrams, design of experiments. They are briefly explained in this section.

3.1

Historical Data Analysis

 

To understand this concept, data for occurrence of defects are collected from one of leading casting manufacturer in Maharashtra for one year. From this data, occurrence chart has been prepared which further helps to identify occurrence major defects in castings. These data further help to prepare the chart for occurrence of defect.

 

Table 1: Historical Data of casting defects

 

Defects

 

Rejected

Job

Defects

Rejected

Job

 

Quantity

Rejection %

Quantity

Rejection

%

Cold Shut

     
  • 205 Cores Broken

    • 2.03 16

 

0.17

Crush

   
  • 188 Mismatch

  • 2.11 13

 

0.14

Knock Crack

   
  • 165 Sub. Contract

    • 1.85 10

 

0.11

Fettling Fault

Blow Hole

   
  • 123 Run Out

  • 1.38 7

 

0.07

Contractor’s

   
  • 55 Hard

  • 0.62 7

 

0.07

Houling Cracks

Bad Mold

   
  • 42 Slurry

  • 0.47 4

 

0.04

 

Penetration

Scab

     
  • 40 Low Hardness

    • 0.45 3

 

0.03

Fet Crack

   
  • 32 Core Scab

  • 0.36 1

 

0.01

Shrinkage

   
  • 31 Swell

  • 0.34 1

 

0.01

Slag

   
  • 23 Sink

  • 0.25 1

 

0.01

Bad Core

   
  • 19 Others

  • 0.21 3

 

0.003

 

TOTAL

 

989

 

11.1012

 

4. METHODOLOGY

 

4.1

Present Inspection Methods for Defects

 
  • 1. Process Inspection

  • 2. Visual Inspection

  • 3. Dimensional Inspection

30

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35 © IAEME

Start
Start
2D and 3D Modeling
2D and 3D
Modeling
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Pattern Making

Core Making

Inspection
Inspection
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Fetlling

Melting

Moulding

     

Core Making

Sample Submission
Sample
Submission
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Correction in Method and Tooling

Flow Diagram of Foundry industry

MAGMA

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Simulation

Start
Start
2D and 3D Modeling
2D and 3D
Modeling
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Moulding

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),
`Pattern Making
`Pattern
Making
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Melting

Inspection
Inspection
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Fetlling

Sample Submission
Sample
Submission
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Correction in Method

and Tooling

Proposed Flow Diagram using Magma

31

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0 976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35 © IAEME

Only 1 Trail below 5% reject ion

No need of trial and error me thod

Document evidence on meth od to the customer

Reduction in delivery time

Consistence in the casting qu ality

More business on customer s atisfaction for early submission to get more ord ers

4.2 Proposed Gating System Desig n

PART DESCRIPTION/ DRG. NO: AXLE HOUSING/ YZ 120704

RUNNER BAR DIMENSSIONS: 2 4 X 30 X 45

24 30
24
30

45

RUNNAER BAR CROSS SECTIO NAL AREA: 1215 mm²

INGATE AREA:

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0 976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 –
H=320mm C=403mm P=201.5mm M=5.93mm
H=320mm
C=403mm
P=201.5mm
M=5.93mm

INGATE AREA = 12.08CM² = 1208 MM² (Co nsidered 1073MM²)

TAKE 3 INGATES

THEREFORE AREA OF EACH I NGATE = 358MM² INGATE DIMENSSIONS: 30X 35 X 11 MM

32

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35 © IAEME

GATING RATIO: 1385: 1208: 1073 1:0. 87: 0.77

FILTER DETAILS: 100X 100X 22 MM

FEEDER DETAILS:

ON SMALL END: 10/17K SLEEVE RISER ON BIG END: 9/17K SLEEVE RISER MIDDLE: 10/17K SLEEVE RISER.

SMALL END

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

FLOW OFF DETAILS

BIG END

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

MIDDLE END

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

ON BIG END: Ø 16 X Ø20 X 85 MM LENGTH 1 NO ON SMALL END: Ø 16 X Ø20 X 100 MM LENGTH 1 NO

5. GATING SYSTEM

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Figure 1: Gating System Proposal 1

33

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35 © IAEME

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Figure 2: Gating System Proposal 2

5.1 Gating Geometry

Cad model insert in to the MAGMA soft Start the simulation select the area which it should

be velocity, temperature, speed, solidification and porosity. It will shows which parts the defects are going to occur(shown in fig.4) so some changes in gating design.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Figure 3: Gating Geometry in MAGMA SOFT

34

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 28-35 © IAEME

5.2 Solidification and Liquid

After analysis of Solidification and liquid of porosity

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online),

Figure 4: Porosity spots

6. CONCLUSION

From this study a method is proposed for Defect Prevention like blow hole, shrinkage etc. Reduction in lead time and sample products is achieved. A suggestion is made for Validation through MAGMA before manufacture. Cost saving can be done by using through MAGMA, and Customer In-Time Dispatch Without MAGMA it will take 3 months to manufacture, whereas with MAGMA it will take 1 month to manufacture. A Study conducted in Foundry department of Hinduja Foundry Producing Castings. The Prominent defects occurred in castings were identified by Radiography Testing. After considering the various aspects, two suggestions were put forward for reducing the defect density. From the two suggestions, gating system and Magma software implemented. By implementing the suggestions, 15% reduction in rejection rate was estimated.

REFERENCES

  • 1. Anderson, J.V. & Karsay, S.I., 1985., “Pouring rate, pouring time and choke design for S.G. Iron Castings”. British Foundryman.

  • 2. Gerhardt Jr., P.C. “Computer applications in Gating & Risering System Design for Ductile Iron Castings” AFS Transactions.

  • 3. Journal by Dr D.N. Shivappa, Mr Rohit, Mr. Abhijit Bhattacharya, “Analysis of Casting Defects and Identification of Remedial Measures”., Dakshin Foundry ltd.

  • 4. Peter Beeley, “Foundry Technology”, Butter Worth Heinemann, 2nd ed., 2001.

  • 5. B. Ravi, 2008, “Casting Simulation and Optimization”, Indian Foundry Journal, Special Issue.

  • 6. Richard Heine, Carl Loper, Philip Rosenthal, 1984, “Principles of Metal Casting”, Tata McGraw Hill Publications, New-Delhi.

  • 7. Cherian Paul and Parvathy Venugopal, “Modelling of Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient and Experimental Verification for Gravity Die Casting of Aluminium Alloys”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 253 - 274, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

  • 8. M.Narasimha, R.Rejikumar and K. Sridhar, “Statistical Methods to Optimize Process Parameters to Minimize Casting Defects”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 11 - 23, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

35