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# CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 1

CHAPTER CONTENTS
1A Solving linear equations and inequations
1B Rearrangement and substitution
1C Gradient of a straight line
1D Sketching linear functions
1E Simultaneous equations
1F Finding the equation of a straight line
1G Distance between two points and midpoint of a segment
1H Linear modelling
CHAPTER 1
Linear functions
DIGITAL DOC
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10 Quick Questions
1A
Solving linear equations
and inequations
A linear equation is one that involves a variable raised to the power of 1 only. Recall that x
1
is the same
as x, so a linear equation involving x would contain only xs, and not x
1
2
, x
2
, x
3
, x
1
, x
2
and so on. For
example, y = 7x 3, ax + by = c and
8
3
x + 1 = 9 are all linear equations.
Note that y =
1
x
is not a linear equation, as the
1
x
is really x
1
.
To isolate a particular variable known as making x (or whatever the variable is) the subject we
focus on the variable by undoing other terms and operations. Remember to do the same operation to both
sides of an equation, in the reverse order to that originally used to make up the equation.
Though the focus of this chapter is linear equations, some other types of equations will be included
for skills practice.
When there is only one variable involved in an equation, we may attempt to solve and fnd a numerical
value by rearranging to make the variable the subject.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Solve the following linear equations.
a 7x 4 = 17 b

+ =
x 3 2
4
5 1 c

=
x
2
4
5
1 6
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the equation. a = x 7 4 17
2 Add 4 to both sides. = x 7 21
3 Divide both sides by 7. =
=
x
x
21
7
3
b 1 Write the equation. b

+ =
x 3 2
4
5 1
2 Subtract 5 from both sides.

=

x 3 2
4
4
Contents
Linear functions 1
1A
Solving linear equations
and inequations 1
Exercise 1A
Solving linear equations and inequations
3
1B
Rearrangement and substitution 4
Exercise 1B
Rearrangement and substitution 6
1C
Gradient of a straight line 8
Exercise 1C
Gradient of a straight line 10
1D
Sketching linear functions 12
Exercise 1D
Sketching linear functions 14
1E
Simultaneous equations 15
Exercise 1E
Simultaneous equations 17
1F
Finding the equation of a straight
line 18
2 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
3 Multiply both sides by 4. =

x 3 2 16
4 Add 2 to both sides. =

x 3 14
5 Divide both sides by 3. =

x
14
3
c 1 Write the equation. c

=
x
2
4
5
1 6
2 Divide both sides by 2. =
x 4
5
1 3
3 Add 1 to both sides. =
x 4
5
4
4 Multiply both sides by 5. = x 4 20
5 Divide both sides by 4. =
=
x
x
20
4
5
When an equation has variables on both sides, at some stage they must be gathered together on the
same side of the equation.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Solve:
a 4x 3 = 3(6 x) b
+
=
+ x x 9 3
2
13 7
3
c

=
+
+
x x 3
4
9( 7)
10
1.
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the equation. a 4x 3 = 3(6 x)
2 Expand the right-hand side (RHS). 4x 3 = 18 3x
3 Collect xs on one side, for example, the side that results
in a positive x term, in this case, the left-hand side (LHS).
(That is, add 3x to both sides.)
7x 3 = 18
4 Add 3 to both sides. 7x = 21
5 Divide both sides by 7.
=
=
x
x
21
7
3
b 1 Write the equation. b
+
=
+ x x 9 3
2
13 7
3
2 Find the lowest common denominator for both terms. LCD = 6
3 Write all terms with the common denominator,
adjusting numerators accordingly (so that numerator and
denominator have been multiplied by the same amount).
+
=
+ x x 3(9 3)
6
2(13 7)
6
4 Now that all terms have the same denominator, the
numerators must be equal. (Multiply each side by 6.)
+ = + x x 3(9 3) 2(13 7)
5 Expand all brackets. + = + x x 27 9 26 14
6 Collect xs on the LHS and numbers on the RHS. = x x 27 26 14 9
7 Simplify and solve. x = 5
c 1 Write the equation. c

=
+
+
x x 3
4
9( 7)
10
1
2 Find the lowest common denominator for all three terms. LCD = 20
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 3
3 Write all terms with the common denominator,
adjusting numerators accordingly (so that numerator and
denominator have been multiplied by the same amount).

=
+
+
x x 5(3 )
20
2 9( 7)
20
20
20
4 Now that all terms have the same denominator, the
numerators must be equal. (Multiply each term by 20.)
5(3 x) = 18(x + 7) + 20
5 Expand all brackets. 15 5x = 18x + 126 + 20
6 Collect xs on the RHS and numbers on the LHS. = +
=

x x
x
15 126 20 18 5
131 23
7 Simplify and solve. =

x
131
23
=

x
131
23
There is only one solution to a linear equation. For example, the equation 3x + 2 = 8 has the solution
x = 2. The solution to a linear equation can be represented as a single point on a number line. If the
equals sign is replaced with an inequality sign, the solution is a portion of a number line. These
expressions are referred to as linear inequations (sometimes called inequalities).
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Solve the following linear inequations.
a 6x 7 3x + 5 b

3m + 5 <

7
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the inequations. a 6x 7 3x + 5
2 Combine the variable terms by subtracting
3x from both sides.
3x 7 5
3 Add 7 to both sides. 3x 12
4 Divide both sides by 3. x 4
b 1 Write the inequations. b

3m + 5 <

7
2 Subtract 5 from both sides.

3m < 12
3
Divide both sides by

## 3. Reverse the inequality sign,

as you are dividing by a negative number.
m > 4
Exercise 1A
Solving linear equations and inequations
1 WE1 Solve the following linear equations.
a 3x 19 =

13 b 4x + 25 =

7 c 9x + 19 =

2
d
x 3 1
4
5

= e
x 12 3
3
5

= f
x 4 6
3
7 3

=
g
x 7 4
3
8 9
+
=

h

=
x
2
3
5
1 10 i

=
x
7 8
4
77
2 WE2 Solve the following linear equations.
a 2x 9 = 3(2x 11) b 7x 1 = 17(3x 13) c x + 11 = 2(x + 12) d 3x 7 = 3(35 2x)
e
x x 2
6
5
3
+
=

f
x x 11
3
2( 14)
9
+
=
+
g
x x 4 66
3
13 3
4
+
=

h
x x 10
9
2(7 3 )
5
+
=

i
x x 6 7
5
5 1
4
1
+
=
+
+ j
x x 2 29
3
44
8
2
+
=
+
+ k
x x 7 9
9
21
3
18

=

l
x x 17
2
49 2
5
5

=
+
+
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Equation solvers
4 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
3 WE3 Solve the following linear inequations.
a 15 6x 2 b
x 11 3
7
6

c
x 19
4
3 1

+ >

## d 16 4x < 7(1 x) e 3x 7 2(35 2x) f

x x 4
3
2( 1)
6

+
1B
Rearrangement and substitution
When there is more than one variable involved in an equation, we may rearrange the equation to make a
particular variable the subject using the same rules of equation solving described in the previous section.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Rearrange each of the following to make the variable in parentheses the subject.
a 6x + 8y 48 = 0 (y) b = + s ut at k
1
2
2
(u) c = T
m
k
k 2 (k)
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the equation. a 6x + 8y 48 = 0
2 Add 48 to both sides. 6x + 8y = 48
3 Subtract 6x from both sides. 8y = 48 6x
4 Divide both sides by 8.
=

y
x 48 6
8
5 Cancel if possible. Here, divide the numerator and
denominator by 2.
=

y
x 24 3
4
6 Other ways of representing the answer are shown
opposite.
=
=
= +

y x
x
x
or
24
4
3
4
6
3
4
3
4
6
b 1 Write the equation. b s ut at
1
2
2
= +
2 Subtract at
1
2
2
from both sides. s at ut
1
2
2
=
3 Multiply both sides by 2. = s at ut 2 2
2
4 Divide both sides by 2t.

=
s at
t
u
2
2
2
5 Write the equation with the desired variable on the left.
=

u
s at
t
2
2
2
c 1 Write the equation. c = T
m
k
2
2
Divide both sides by 2.

=
T m
k 2
3 Square both sides.

=
T m
k 4
2
2
4 Form the reciprocal of both sides to make k the
numerator.

=
T
k
m
4
2
2
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 5
5 Multiply both sides by m.

=
m
T
k
4
2
2
6 Write the equation with the desired variable on the left.

= k
m
T
4
2
2
Once a variable is isolated, we may substitute values of other variables to calculate various values of
the isolated variable. The following worked example illustrates some practical applications.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
a The formula for converting temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (F) (which is the system used in
the USA) to degrees Celsius (C ) is C =
F 5( 32)
9
.
i Make F the subject.
ii What is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit when the temperature measured in degrees
Celsius is 21 C?
b The area (A) of a circle is given by A = r
2
, where r is the radius. Calculate the value of r correct
to 2 decimal places when A=20cm
2
.
THINK WRITE
a i 1 Write the equation. a i =

C
F 5( 32)
9
2 Multiply both sides by 9. = C F 9 5( 32)
3 Divide both sides by 5. =
C
F
9
5
32
4 Add 32 to both sides. + =
C
F
9
5
32
5 Write the equation with F frst. Sometimes it may be
appropriate to use a common denominator.
= +
=
+
F
C
F
C
9
5
32
or
9 160
5
ii 1
Replace C with 21. Note that 9C means 9 C. ii =

+ F
9 21
5
32
2 Evaluate F. F
F
F
189
5
32
37.8 32
69.8
= +
= +
=
so 21C = 69.8 F
b 1 Write the equation. Solve for r (make r the subject)
as follows.
b A = r
2
2
Divide both sides by .

=
A
r
2
3 Take the square root of both sides, and write r frst.
As r is the radius, we take the positive root only.

= r
A
4
Substitute A = 20 into the new formula. A
r
If 20,
20

=
=
5 Evaluate r. r = 2.52 cm, correct to 2 decimal
places
6 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Note: In this example, m represents metres, m/s represents metres per second (velocity),
and m/s
2
represents metres per second per second (acceleration).
The fnal velocity, v m/s, of an object that begins with velocity u m/s and accelerates at
am/s
2
over a distance of s m is given by the equation = + v u as 2 .
2 2
a Find the value of v when u = 16, a = 2 and s = 36.
b Rearrange the given equation to make s the subject.
c Find the distance travelled by an object that begins with a velocity of 10 m/s and has a fnal
velocity of 4 m/s while accelerating at

1 m/s
2
.
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the given equation and then make v the subject
by fnding the square root of both sides.
a = +
= +
v u as
v u as
2
2
2 2
2
2
Substitute u = 15, a = 2 and s = 36. 16 2 2 36
256 144
400
20
2
= +
= +
=
=
The fnal velocity is 20 m/s.
3 Simplify and evaluate v.
b 1 Begin with the given equation. b = + v u as 2
2 2
2 Subtract u
2
from both sides. = v u as 2
2 2
3 Divide both sides by 2a.
=
v u
a
s
2
2 2
4 Reverse so that s is given on the left. =

s
v u
a 2
2 2
c 1 Match the variables with the given information. c =
=
=

u
v
a
10
4
1
2 Write the formula that has s as the subject
(see part b above).
=

s
v u
a 2
2 2
3 Substitute the values given in step 1.
=

4 10
2 1
2 2
4 Simplify and evaluate.
=

=
=

16 100
2
84
2
42
5 Explain the answer in words. The object travels 42 m in its initial
direction.
Exercise 1B
Rearrangement and substitution
1 WE4 Each of the following is a real equation used in business, mathematics, physics or another
area of science. Make the variable shown in parentheses the subject in each case.
a A = L + P (P) b A = lw (l)
c v
d
t
= (t) d C = 2r (r)
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 7
e E = +
2
() f F
kQq
r
2
= (r)
g Fd mv mu
1
2
1
2
2 2
= (v) h v rT = ()
i S = 2w(l + h) + 2lh (w)
j S = 2r
2
+ 2rH (H)
2 WE5 Calculate the value of the subject (the first mentioned variable), given the values of the other
variables.
a I
k
d
2
= k = 60, d = 15
b E = K + mgh K = 250, m = 2, g = 10, h = 5
c D n ( )
1
2
= n = 3, = 2.8
d E = hf
0
W h = 6.62, f
0
= 5000, W = 20 000
e v r y
2 2
= = 2, r = 1.6, y = 1
3 Make the variable in parentheses the subject and find its value using the given information.
a A = l
2
(l) A = 60
b V r
4
3
3
= (r) V = 1000
c v = u + at (a) v = 25, u = 0, t = 6
d T
l
g
2 = (l) T = 4, g = 9.8
e K
c
1
2

## (c) K = 6.9, = 0.05

4 WE6 The perimeter, P, of a rectangle of length l and width w may be found using the equation
P = 2(l + w).
a Find the perimeter of a rectangle of length 16 cm and width 5 cm.
b Rearrange the equation to make w the subject.
c Find the width of a rectangle that has perimeter 560 mm and length 240 mm.
5 The area of a trapezium (Figure A) is given by A
a b
h
2
=
+

## , where a and b are the lengths

of the parallel sides and h is the height.
a Find the area of the trapezium shown in Figure B.
b Using Figure A, fnd an equation for determining side a in terms of the area A and side b.
c Find a in Figure C.
Figure A
a
h
b
Area
A
Figure C
62 cm
50 cm
a
Area = 2000 cm
2
9 m
16 m
21 m
Figure B
6 The size of a 2-year investment account with a particular bank is given by A D
r
1
100
2
= +

,
where A is the amount (\$) in the account after two years, D is the initial deposit (\$) and r is the
interest rate (%).
a Find the amount in such an account after two years if the initial deposit was \$1000 and the
interest rate was 6%.
b Make r the subject of the equation.
c Find the rate required for an initial deposit of \$1000 to grow to \$2000 after 2 years.
8 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
7 The object and image positions for a lens of focal length f are related by
the formula
u v f
1 1 1
, + =
where u is the distance of the object from the lens
and v is the distance of the image from the lens.
a Make f the subject of the equation.
b Make u the subject of the equation.
c How far from the lens is the image when an object is
30cm in front of a lens of focal length 25 cm?
8 The length of a side of a right-angled triangle can be found using
Pythagoras theorem: c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
, where c is the length of the longest side, and a and b are the lengths
of the two shorter sides. Find the value of b in the triangle above.
9 The volume of a cone is given by the rule V =
1
3
r
2
h, where r is the radius of the widest
part of the cone and h is the vertical height of the cone. Given that the volume of a
cone is 100 cm
3
and its radius at the widest point is 12 cm, find the height of the
1C
The gradient of a line describes its slope or steepness.
Positive
y
x
Negative
y
x
Zero
y
x
Infnite
y
x
The gradient may be calculated using the formula:
m =
rise
run
or m
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
=

## These terms are illustrated at left.

Here are two examples of where gradient can affect our
everyday lives. Can you think of others?
A cliff face with
a steeper
provides a
greater
challenge for
climbers.
Scientists calculate the required gradient of solar
panels so that the maximum amount of energy is
absorbed.
3 2
b
4
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Career profile
Rick Morris vigneron
r
h
cone
y
x
(x
1
, y
1
)
(x
2
, y
2
)
Run
Rise
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 9
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Calculate the gradient of this linear graph using the intercepts shown.
THINK WRITE
1 Identify the rise and run.
Rise = 14, run = 2.
2 Calculate m =
rise
run
.
=
=
m
14
2
7
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
Calculate the gradient of the line passing through the points (3,

6) and (

1, 8).
THINK WRITE
1 Use the formula m
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
=

. =

m
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
2 Match up the terms in the formula with the values given.
(x
1
, y
1
) (x
2
, y
2
)
(3,

6) (

1, 8)
3 Substitute the given values. =

=
=

m
8 6
1 3
14
4
7
2
4 Simplify.
=

14
4
5 Cancel if possible.
=

7
2
If the angle a line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis is known, the gradient may be found
using trigonometry applied to the triangle shown below.
y
x
rise
run
tan
=

opposite
= =
m
rise
run
( )

WORKED EXAMPLE 9
a Calculate the gradient (accurate to 3 decimal places) of a line making
an angle of 40 to the positive x-axis.
to 2 decimal places.
THINK WRITE
a Since the angle the line makes with
the positive x-axis is given, the
formula m = tan () can be used.
a m = tan ()
= tan (40)
= 0.839, correct to
3 decimal places
y
x 2
14
y
x
60
y
x
40
10 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
b 1 The angle given is not the one between
the graph and the positive direction of the
x-axis. Calculate the required angle .
b = 180 60
= 120
2
Use m = tan () to calculate m to
2 decimal places.
m = tan ()
= tan (120)
=

1.73
Exercise 1C
1 WE7 Calculate the gradient of each of the following linear graphs using the intercepts shown.
a
6
3
y
x
b
2
6
y
x
2 WE8 Without drawing a graph, calculate the gradient of the line passing through:
a (2, 4) and (10, 20) b (4, 4) and (6, 14)
c (10, 4) and (3, 32) d (5, 31) and (

7, 25).
3 WE9a Calculate the gradient (accurate to 3 decimal places) of a line making the angle
given with the positive x-axis.
a 50 b 72
c 10 d

30
e 150 f 0
g 45 h 89
4 WE9b Calculate the gradient of each line below. Give answers to 2 decimal places.
a
y
x
43
b
y
x
69
c y
x
28
d
y
x
15
5 Which of these lines has:
y
x
60
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straight line
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
54321 1 2 3 4 5 0 x
y
A
C
B
D
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 11
6 MC
a Which of the following lines has a

2?
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
54321 1 2 3 4 5 0 x
y
A C
E
B
D
b Which of the following lines has a
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
54321 1 2 3 4 5 0 x
y
A
C
E
B
D
7 Burghar plots the coordinates of a proposed driveway on a plan that is shown below. What is the
D
riv
ew
ay
Garage
2m
17m
8 An assembly line is pictured below. What is the gradient of the sloping section? (Give your answer as a
fraction.)
0.85 m
15 m
BOFFO
BOFFO
BOFFO
9 Determine the value of a in each case so the gradient joining the points is equal to the value given.
a (3, 0) and (5, a), gradient 2
b (2, 1) and (8, a), gradient 5
c (0, 4) and (a,

d (a, 5) and (5, 1), gradient

2
10 For safety considerations, wheelchair
ramps are constructed under regulated
specifications. One regulation requires
that the maximum gradient of a ramp
exceeding 1200 mm in length is
1
14
.
a Does a ramp 25 cm high with a
horizontal length of 210 cm meet
the requirements?
b Does a ramp with gradient
1
18
meet
the specifcations?
c A 16 cm high ramp needs to be
built. Find the horizontal length
of the ramp required to meet the
specifcations.
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SkillSHEET 1.1
find the value of a
parameter
12 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
1D
Sketching linear functions
The general form for linear equations is y = mx + c, where m is the gradient of the line and c is the
y-intercept.
y = mx + c
y
x
G
r
a
d
i
e
n
t

m
y-intercept
x-intercept
y
x
These lines have identical
To sketch a graph from a linear equation expressed in general form, follow these steps.
Step 1 Plot the y-intercept on a set of axes.
Step 2 Find and plot a second point on the line. Do this by substituting any value of x into the equation
and fnding the corresponding y-value.
Step 3 Join the two points.
Alternatively, you can use a CAS calculator or other graphing technology.
To fnd the equation of a line given the gradient and y-intercept, simply substitute the values of m and
c into y = mx + c.
Sketching linear graphs using intercepts
To draw a graph, only two points are needed. A line may then be drawn
through the two points, and will include all other points that follow the
given rule. The two points can be chosen at random; however, it is often
easier to sketch a graph using the points where the graph crosses the axes.
These points are called x- and y-intercepts. The x-intercept occurs when
y = 0, and the y-intercept occurs when x = 0.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Sketch the graph of y =

## x + 6, showing x- and y-intercepts.

THINK WRITE/DRAW
1
Find the y-intercept (when x = 0). Substitute
x = 0 into the equation.
If x = 0: y =

1 0 + 6
y = 6 (0, 6)
2
Find the x-intercept (when y = 0).
Substitute y = 0 into the equation.
If y = 0: x
x
0 6
6 (6, 0)
= +
=

## 3 Mark the intercepts on a set of axes. y

x
(0, 6)
(6, 0)
4 Join the intercepts with a straight line.
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WorkSHEET 1.1
y
x
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 13
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
Sketch the graph of 3x 2y = 12.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1
Find the y-intercept (when x = 0). Substitute
x = 0 into the equation.
If x = 0: 3 0 2y = 12

2y = 12
y
12
2
=

y =

6
2
Find the x-intercept (when y = 0). Substitute
y = 0 into the equation.
If y = 0: 3x 2 0 = 12
3x = 12
x = 4
3 Mark the intercepts on a set of axes.
y
x
6
4
4 Join the intercepts with a straight line.
The graphs of some equations do not have two intercepts, as they pass through the origin (0, 0). Such
equations are of the form y = k x or a x + by = 0.
To sketch graphs of such equations, we use (0, 0) and any other point, for example the point where
x = 1. (We could choose any other non-zero value.)
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Sketch the graph for the equation 4 x 3y = 0.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Try substituting x = 0 to fnd the y-intercept. If x = 0: 4 0 3y = 0

3y = 0
y = 0
2 Note that the graph passes through
(0, 0). There is no point substituting
y = 0, as we know well get x = 0.
(0, 0)
3 Substitute another x-value. In this example
we use x = 1.
If x = 1: 4 1 3y = 0
4 3y = 0
4 = 3y
y
4
3
=
(1, )
4
3
4 Plot the points (0, 0) and (1,
4
3
) on a set of
axes. Note that
4
3
is 1
1
3
, which is a little less
than 1
1
2
.
y
x
4

3
(1, )
(0, 0)
1
1
2
TUTORIAL
eles-1404
Worked example 12
14 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
Exercise 1D
Sketching linear functions
1 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of axes.
a y = x b y = 2x c y = 3x d y =

x e y =

2x
2 In question 1, what is the effect on the graph of the number in front of the x (the x-coefficient or
3 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of axes.
a y = x + 1 b y = x + 2 c y = x + 3 d y = x 4
4 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of
axes.
a y = 2x + 1 b y = 2x 7 c y =

3x + 6 d y = 3x 5
5 In questions 3 and 4, what is the effect on the graph of the number at the end of the equation (the
y-intercept)?
6 Write the equation of a line having the following properties (where m = gradient and
c = y-intercept).
a m = 2, c = 7 b m =

3, c = 1 c m = 5, c =

2
d m =
2
3
, c =
1
3
e m =
3
4

, c =
1
2

2
7 Rearrange the following equations and state the gradient and y-intercept for each.
a 2y = 8x + 10 b 3y = 12x 24 c

y = 3x 1 d 16 4y = 8x
e 21x + 3y =

27 f

10x + 5y = 25 g

11y 2x = 66 h 8x + 3y 2 = 0
i 15 6y + x = 0 j 2y + 7 + 5x = 0
8 State the equation for each of the following graphs.
a
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
6
1 2 0 x
y

1

2
b
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
2 2 0 x
y
c
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 1 2 0 x
y d
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 x
y
e
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
1 1 2 3 4 0 x
y f
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
3 2 1 1 2 3 0 x
y
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9701
Linear graphs
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 15
9 WE10 Sketch graphs of the following linear equations, showing x- and y-intercepts.
a y = 6x + 18 b y = 3x 21
c y =

2x 3 d y = 10 5x
e y =

9x + 30 f y = 2(x 8)
10 WE11 Sketch graphs for each of the following equations.
a 2x + 3y = 6 b 4x + 5y = 20
c 6x 3y =

18 d 7x 5y = 35
11 Sketch the graph for each equation.
a 6x + 7y + 42 = 0 b 5x 2y + 20 = 0
c

3x + 4y 16 = 0 d y 3x + 6 = 0
12 WE12 Sketch the graph for each equation.
a x + y = 0 b x y = 0
c 2x + y = 0
13 MC Which of the following is in the form ax + by = c?
A 2x 3y 1 = 0 B 2x + 3y + 1 = 0
C 2x + 3y = x
D 2x + 3y = 1
E y =
2
3
x 1
14 MC The x- and y-intercepts for the equation 2y =

3x + 12 are (respectively):
A 2 and 3 B

3 and 12
C

4 and 6 D

4 and

6
E 4 and 6
15 MC Which of the following has a y-intercept of

3?
A y =

3x 3 B y =

3x + 3
C x + 3y = 9 D x 3y + 9 = 0
E 3x + y + 9 = 0
1E
Simultaneous equations
Simultaneous equations are groups of equations containing
two or more variables. In this section, we look at pairs of linear
equations involving the variables x and y. Each equation, as
we have learned in previous sections, may be represented by a
linear graph that is true for many x- and y-values. If the graphs
intersect (when wouldnt they?), the values of x and y at the
intersection are those that make both equations true.
Graphical solution
Finding the point of intersection of two straight lines can be done graphically; however, the accuracy of
the graph determines the accuracy of the solution.
Consequently, using a calculator to solve the equations graphically is more reliable than reading the
solution from a hand-drawn graph.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Use a CAS calculator to solve the following simultaneous equations graphically.
y =

3x + 5 4x 7y + 8 = 0
THINK WRITE
1 Using a CAS calculator, make y the subject of the
second equation.
Complete the entry line as:
solve (4x 7y + 8 = 0, y)
solve (4x 7y + 8 = 0, y)
Result: =
+
y
x 4( 2)
7
Both graphs have
the same x- and
y-values here.
y
x
16 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
2 On a Graphs page, complete the function entry
lines as:
f 1(x) =

3x + 5
f x
x
2( )
4 ( 2)
7
=
+
Use the calculator to fnd the intersection point.
f 1(x) =

3x + 5
f 2(x) =
+ x 4( 2)
7
3 Write the answer. Solving y =

3x + 5 and 4x 7y + 8 = 0
simultaneously produces the solution
(1.08, 1.76).
Algebraic solution
It is possible to solve simultaneous equations without graphs, that is, algebraically. The methods of
substitution and elimination taught in earlier years may be used.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneous equations.
y = 2 x + 5

x + 3y = 25
THINK WRITE
1 Write down and label the equations. y = 2x + 5 

x + 3y = 25 
2 Substitute  into  and label the resulting
equation .

x + 3(2x + 5) = 25 
3 Solve  for x and label the solution as .

x + 6x + 15 = 25
5x + 15 = 25
5x = 10
x = 2 
4 Use the solution to solve for y and label the
solution as .
Substitute  into .
y = 2(2) + 5
y = 4 + 5
y = 9 
5 State the complete answer. Solution: (2, 9)
6 Optional check: substitute  and  into 
to check that these values for x and y make
 true.
Check in .
LHS =

x + 3y
=

2 + 3(9)
= 25
= RHS
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
Use the elimination method to solve these simultaneous equations.
2 x + 9y =

5
5 x 2y 12 = 0
THINK WRITE
1 Write down and label the equations. 2x + 9y =

5 
5x 2y 12 = 0 
2 Rearrange  so it is in a similar form to .
Call this . Write down  again.
5x 2y = 12 
2x + 9y =

5 
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 17
3 Obtain 10x in both  and . 2  10x 4y = 24 
5  10x + 45y =

25 
4 Eliminate x as shown.  : 49y =

49
5 Solve for y.
=

y
49
49
y =

1 
6 Substitute  into  to fnd x. Substitute  into .
2x + 9 (

1) =

5
2x 9 =

5
2x =

5 + 9
2x = 4
x = 2 
7 State the solution. Solution: (2,

1)
8 Again,  and  may be checked in  if desired. Check in .
LHS = 5x 2y 12
= 5(2) 2(

1) 12
= 10 + 2 12
= 0
= RHS
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Two shoppers buy the following at a fruit shop, paying the amounts given. What was the cost of
each apple and each banana?
Shopper 1: 4 apples and 3 bananas for \$2.59
Shopper 2: 6 apples and 5 bananas for \$4.11
THINK WRITE
1 Decide on variable names for the unknown
quantities.
Let a = cost of an apple (in cents).
Let b = cost of a banana (in cents).
2 Write equations involving these variables.
Work in terms of cents.
4a + 3b = 259 
6a + 5b = 411 
3 Choose a variable to eliminate, in this case b. 5 : 20a + 15b = 1295 
3 : 18a + 15b = 1233 
4
Find   and solve for a.  : 2a = 62
a = 31 
5 Solve for b. Substitute  into .
4 31 + 3b = 259
124 + 3b = 259
3b = 135
b = 45 
6 State the answer using  and  as a guide. The cost of an apple is 31 cents, and
the cost of a banana is 45 cents.
Exercise 1E
Simultaneous equations
1 WE13 Use a CAS calculator to solve the following simultaneous equations.
a y =

2x, y =

4x 6 b y = 3x 5, y = 20
c y = 3x + 5, y = 7x 4 d

3x + y =

4, y = 6x + 5
e y = 10x + 1, 2x + y =

6 f 9x + y = 17, x + y = 14
DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9702
Simultaneous linear
equations
graphical method
18 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
2 WE14 Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneously.
a y = 3x + 1, y = 2x + 2 b y = 5x + 5, y =

x 19
c y = x + 2, 3x 4y =

1 d y =

2x + 3,

5x + 2y = 1
e

4x 3y = 2, y =

6x + 7 f y = 10 x, 2x + 7y = 5
3 WE15 Use the elimination method to solve these simultaneous equations.
a 9x + 10y = 153, 3x y = 12 b 7x 11y =

13, x + y = 11
c 6x 2y = 10, 2x + 5y =

8 d

3x + y = 8, 4x + 2y = 21
e 7y x = 11, x + y = 10 f x 11y =

15, y + 6x = 9
4 WE16 At the conclusion of a tour of Wonky Willys confectionery factory, Nutrina buys 10 choc
balls and 8 fizz wizzers for \$4.30, and her friend purchases 6 choc balls and 9 fizz wizzers for \$4.05.
Determine the cost of each type of lolly.
5 The sum of two whole numbers, x and y, is 41. The difference between them is 3. Write two equations
involving x and y and solve them to find the numbers.
6 A farmer counts emus and sheep in a paddock, and notes there are 57 animals and 196 feet. Assuming
no animal amputees, how many of each animal are there?
7 A sports store supplies 24 basketballs and 16 cricket balls to one school for \$275.60, and delivers
12 basketballs and 32 cricket balls to another school for \$211. If delivery is free, how much did the
supplier charge for each type of ball?
8 A businessperson hires a stretch limousine for 2 days and a sedan for 3 days while on an interstate trip.
If the total car hire cost of the trip was \$675, and the limousine cost triple the price of the sedan, find
the cost per day of the limousine.
9 MC A manufacturing plant produces square and circular metal panels in fixed sizes. If the mass of a
square panel is 13 kg and that of a circular panel is 22 kg, how many of each panel are there in a truck
loaded with 65 panels of total mass 1205 kg?
The equations to solve are:
A 13s + 22c = 1205, s + c = 65 B 22s + 13c = 1205, s + c = 65
C 13s + 22c = 65, s + c = 1205 D 22s + 13c = 65, s + c = 1205
E 13s + 22c = 1205, s + c = 35
10 MC Which of the following is a solution of 11x + 2y =

222?
A (11, 2) B (

121,

9,

## 11) E (6, 10)

1F
Finding the equation of a straight line
Consider a general linear graph containing the particular points (x
1
, y
1
),
(x
2
, y
2
) and the general point (x, y) (which could be any point).
Using the frst two of these points in the formula for gra dient, we have

m
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
=


Using the frst point and the general point in the same formula yields
m
y y
x x
1
1
=


Putting  =  gives
y y
x x
y y
x x
1
1
2 1
2 1

=

y y
y y
x x
x x ( )
1
2 1
2 1
1

Since m
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
=

## , equation  may be written

y y
1
= m(x x
1
) 
This last formula may be used to fnd the equation of a straight line when two points are given or
when the gradient and only one point are given. When two points are given, the gradient m may be found
frst using m
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
=

## and substituted into the formula y y

1
= m(x x
1
) along with one of the points.
y
x
(x
1
, y
1
)
(x
2
, y
2
)
(x, y)
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 19
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Find the equation of the line having gradient
3
4
that passes through (7, 11).
Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.
THINK WRITE
1 As one point and the gradient are known, use the
formula y y
1
= m(x x
1
).
y y
1
= m(x x
1
)
2 List the given information. m =
3
4
(x
1
, y
1
)
(7, 11)
3 Substitute for all variables except x and y. y 11 =
3
4
(x 7)
4 Simplify, expressing in the form
ax + by + c = 0.
i 4y 44 = 3(x 7)
4y 44 = 3x 21
3x 4y + 23 = 0
y = mx + c.
ii 3x + 23 = 4y
y x
3
4
23
4
= +
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
Find the equation of the straight line containing the points (2,

5) and (

3, 1).
Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.
THINK WRITE
1 Write down the points so they match the
variables in the formula.
(x
1
, y
1
) (x
2
, y
2
)
(2,

5) (

3, 1)
2 As two points are known, frst use the
formula m
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
=

to fnd m.
m
y y
x x
1 5
3 2
6
5
2 1
2 1
6
5
=

=
=

3
Write the formula y y
1
= m(x x
1
). y y
1
= m(x x
1
)
4 Substitute the calculated gradient m
6
5
=

and
the frst point (x
1
, y
1
) = (2,

## 5). Leave x and y as they are.

=

y x 5 ( 2)
6
5
5 Simplify and express in the two forms required. + =

y x 5 ( 2)
6
5

5y 25 = 6(x 2)

5y 25 = 6x 12

5y = 6x + 13
i So 6x + 5y + 13 = 0, or
ii y x
6
5
13
5
=

Perpendicular lines
Perpendicular lines are lines that meet at right angles. The gradients of two perpendic ular lines, when
multiplied together, equal

1. Stated mathematically:
m
1
m
2
=

1
20 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
Another way to write this relationship is m
m
1
1
2
=

. This type of relationship is known as a negative
reciprocal. For example, the negative reciprocal of
2
3
is
3
2

## . So, two lines are perpendicular if their

Exercise 1F
Finding the equation of a straight line
1 Copy and complete the table below.
Equation 1
f
1
(x)
equation 1
(m
1
)
Equation 2
f
2
(x)
equation 2
(m
2
) m
1
m
2
a
y = 2x + 1 y =

1
2
x
b y = 3x 4
y =

1
3
x + 2
c y =
1
4
x + 6 y =

4x 9
d y =
2
5
x 3 y =

5
2
x + 4
e
y =

9
7
x y =
7
9
x + 1
2 Sketch f
1
(x) and f
2
(x) for part a above using a calculator or using graph paper with identical scales on
each axis to produce accurate graphs. What do you notice about the graphs?
3 Repeat question 2 for graphs b to e. Do you notice anything special about each pair of graphs?
4 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to another line that has a gradient of:
a 4 b

9
c
1
7
d
8
9

e
7
2
f 1.
5 Find the gradient of a line that is perpendicular to the line with equation:
a y =

5x + 2 b y = x 1 c y =
2
3
x + 1
d y x 2
7
6
=

e 2x + y = 5 f 3x 4y = 7.
6 WE17 Find the equation of a straight line having the gradient given and passing through the point
listed. Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.
c (3,

1
d (

1
2
7 WE18 Find the equation of the line containing each pair of points. Express your answers in the
forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.
a (5, 2) (3, 1) b (1, 1) (5, 5) c (6, 3) (8, 2) d (2,

2) (0, 1)
8 Find the equation of the line passing through (3,

## 3) that makes an angle of 45 with the positive x-axis.

9 Find the equation of the line containing (7,

## 2) that makes an angle of 71.565 with the positive x-axis.

10 Find the equation of the line (in y = mx + c form) that:
a is perpendicular to the line with equation y = 3x + 1, passing through (

3, 6)
b is parallel to the line with equation y =
2
5
x 9, passing through (4,

7)
c is parallel to the line with equation 3x + 6y = 8, passing through (2, 2)
d is perpendicular to the line with equation

## 6x + 7y 2 = 0, passing through (4, 0)

e has gradient 2, passing through the intersection of the lines with equations y = 3x 5 and y =

2x + 5
3
4

## , passing through the intersection of the lines with equations x + 4y =

14 and

5x + 2y = 4.
11 Find the equation of the line that passes through the point of intersection of the lines whose equations
are 7x 3y 19 = 0 and 3x + 2y + 5 = 0, given that the required line is parallel to the line with equation

5x 2y = 3.
12 Find the equation of a line containing the intersection of the lines with equations y =

3x + 4 and
5x 3y + 40 = 0 that:
6
7
b is perpendicular to the line with gradient
2
3
c passes through the point (

## 8, 5) and (0, 4).

DIGITAL DOC
doc-9703
SkillSHEET 1.2
Reciprocals and
negative reciprocals
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9704
Equation of a
straight line
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 21
13 A line passes through the points (

8,

5), (4,

## 3) and (a, 12). Find the value of a.

14 The points (2, 7) and (6, 9) lie on the same straight line. Does the point (4, 8) also lie on this line?
15 The height of a particular young pine tree is found to increase in a linear manner each month in the first
year after planting. Find an equation connecting height with time in months after planting, using the
information supplied in the diagram below.
34 cm
After 2 months
52 cm
After 5 months
1G
Distance between two points and
midpoint of a segment
The distance, d, between any two points on the Cartesian plane may be
found using Pythagoras theorem applied to a right-angled triangle as
shown at right.
Using Pythagoras theorem: c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
or
c a b
2 2
= +
and
replacing c with d, a with (x
2
x
1
) and b with (y
2
y
1
),
we have d x x y y ( ) ( )
2 1
2
2 1
2
= + .
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
Find the distance between the points (

3, 7) and (5,

2) correct to 3 decimal
places.
THINK WRITE
1
Match up (

3, 7) and (5,

2) with (x
1
, y
1
)
and (x
2
, y
2
).
(x
1
, y
1
) (x
2
, y
2
)
(

3, 7) (5,

2)
2 Substitute into the formula for d and
simplify.
= +
= +
= +
= +
=

d x x y y ( ) ( )
(5 3) ( 2 7)
(8) ( 9)
64 81
145
2 1
2
2 1
2
2 2
2 2
= 12.042, correct to 3 decimal places
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9705
WorkSHEET 1.2
INTERACTIVITY
int-0260
Distance between
two points and
midpoint of
a segment
y
2
y
1
d
x
1
x
2
y
x
(y
2

y
1
)
(x
2
, y
2
)
(x
2
x
1
)
(x
1
, y
1
)
TUTORIAL
eles-1405
Worked example 19
22 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
Midpoint of a segment
The middle or midpoint M (x
m
, y
m
) of a segment joining two general points A (x
1
, y
1
) and B (x
2
, y
2
) is
shown on the Cartesian plane below.
y
x
M (x
m
, y
m
)
y
2
y
m
x
2
x
m
y
m
y
1
x
m
x
1
A (x
1
, y
1
)
B (x
2
, y
2
)
E
D
C
Consider the triangles ACM and MEB.
MAC = BME (since AM and BM have the same slope)
CMA = EMB (since ACM and MEB are both 90)
AM = BM (given, as M is the midpoint)
Therefore ACM MEB.
Since the horizontal and vertical sides of the two triangles must be equal, we have:
x
m
x
1
= x
2
x
m
and y
m
y
1
= y
2
y
m
Simplifying these,
2x
m
= x
2
+ x
1
2y
m
= y
2
+ y
1

x
x x
2
m
2 1
=

y
y y
2
m
2 1
=
+
So the point M has coordinates
+ +

x x y y
2
,
2
1 2 1 2
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 20
Find the midpoint of the segment joining (5, 9) and (

3, 11).
THINK WRITE
1
Match (5, 9) and (

3, 11) with (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
). (x
1
, y
1
) (x
2
, y
2
)
(5, 9) (

3, 11)
2 Substitute values into the formula for M and simplify. =
+ +

=
+ +

x x y y
M
2
,
2
5 3
2
,
9 11
2
2
2
,
20
2
(1,10)
1 2 1 2
Exercise 1G
Distance between two points and
midpoint of a segment
1 WE19 Find the distance between each of the following pairs of points.
a (4, 5) and (1, 1) b (7, 14) and (15, 8) c (2, 4) and (2, 3) d (12, 8) and (10, 8)
2 Calculate the distance between each of the pairs of points below, accurate to 3 decimal places.
a (

## 14, 10) and (

8, 14) b (6,

7) and (13, 6) c (

## 11, 1) and (2, 2)

3 Find the distance between each of the following pairs of points in terms of the given variable(s).
a (a, 1), (2, 3) b (5, b), (0, 6) c (c, 2), (4, c) d (d, 2d), (1, 5)
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9706
Distance between
two points
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 23
4 Two hikers are about to hike from A to B (shown on the map below). How far is it from A to B as the
crow flies, that is, in a straight line?
N
Grid spacing : 1 km
S
E W
B (E7, N4)
Lake Phillios
100 m
200 m
50 m
A (W12, S5)
300 m
200 m
100 m
5 Using the coordinates shown
on the aerial photo of the golf
course, calculate (to the nearest
metre):
a the horizontal distance travelled
by the golf ball for the shot down
the fairway
b the horizontal distance that needs
to be covered in the next shot to
reach the point labelled A in the
bunker.
6 WE20 Find the midpoint of the segment joining each of the following pairs of points.
a (1, 3) and (3, 5) b (6, 4) and (4,

## 2) c (2, 3) and (12, 1) d (6, 3) and (10, 15)

7 Find the midpoint of the segment joining each of the following pairs of points.
a (7,

2) and (

6,

29) c (

15, 8) and (

4, 11) d (

## 3, 40) and (0,

27)
8 Find the coordinates of the midpoint of each of the following pairs of points, in terms of a variable or
variables where appropriate.
a (2a, a) and (6a, 5a) b (5, 3c) and (11, 3c) c (3f, 5) and (g,

1)
9 Find the value of a in each question below so that the point M is the midpoint of the segment joining
points A and B.
a A (

2, a), B (

6, 5), M (

## 4, 5) b A (a, 0), B (7, 3), M (8,

3
2
)
y (in metres)
x (in metres)
A (320, 148)
(225, 96)
(80, 64)
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9707
Midpoint of a segment
24 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
10 A fun-run course is drawn (not to scale) at right.
If drink stations D1, D2 and D3 are to be placed at
the middle of each straight section, give the map
coordinates of each drink station.
11 Find the equation of a line that has a gradient
of 5 and passes through the midpoint of the segment
joining (

1,

7) and (3, 3).
12 Find the equation of a line parallel to the line with
equation 9x 3y = 5 that passes through the midpoint
of the segment connecting (0,

4) and (

2, 10).
1H
Linear modelling
Many real-life applications, such as fees charged for services, cost of manufacturing or running a
business, patterns in nature, sporting records and so on, follow linear relation ships. These relationships
may take the form of a linear equation; for example, F = 50 + 30t may be used by a tradesperson to
calculate her fee (in dollars) for t hours of work.
Here, F is the fee in dollars, and t the time in hours. The 50 represents an initial fee for simply turning
up, while the 30t is the amount charged for the time spent on the job.
For example, if t = 2 hours, 30t = 60, so the total charge for the work would be \$(50 + 60) = \$110.
Equations like F = 50 + 30t are sometimes referred to as linear models, a common form of which is:
Total cost = Fixed cost + Cost per unit Number of units.
This is, of course, equivalent to y = mx + c. y = c + mx.
WORKED EXAMPLE 21
A generator company charges a \$200 delivery fee, and a rental fee of \$1500 per day.
a Find an expression relating total charge to the number of days for which the generator is hired.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship.
c What would be the charge for 4 weeks of rental?
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1 Defne convenient variables. a Let T = total charge (in dollars) and
n = number of days the generator is hired.
2 The fxed cost is \$200, and the cost per unit is
\$1500. (c = 200, m = 1500)
T = 200 + 1500n
b 1
Find the vertical intercept (when n = 0). b If n = 0, T = 200
2 The total cost rises \$1500 each day, so the
graph must show this.
1 2
3200
200
1700
T (\$)
n (Days)
c 1
After 4 weeks, n = 28. Substitute this
in the equation from part a.
c If n = 28
T = 200 + 1500 28
= 200 + 42 000
= 42 200
2 Write the answer in words. After 4 weeks, the total cost is \$42 200.
y
x
(

4.5, 5)
(1.5, 3.5)
(13,

8)
(3,

7)
(1.5,

2)
START/
FINISH
Offcial tent
D1
D2
D3
Coordinates
are in kilometres.
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 25
WORKED EXAMPLE 22
Rent-a-Chef provides food cooked and served by a qualifed chef at parties.
The company charges \$120 as a booking fee, and an additional \$30 per hour.
Another company, Greased Lightning, provides fast food served by two
students at a cost of \$65 per hour, with no booking fee. Under what conditions
would it be cheapest to hire Greased Lightning?
THINK WRITE
1 Defne convenient variables. Let C = cost (total) in dollars and t = time in hours.
2 Write an equation for the cost of hiring both
organisations.
Rent-a-Chef C = 120 + 30t 
Greased Lightning C = 65t 
3 Use simultaneous equations to fnd when the
cost is the same with each group.
Put  = 
120 + 30t = 65t
120 = 35t
t
120
35
=
= 3.4 hours
4 At 3.4 hours, the cost is the same. Since Greased
Lightning has the higher per hour cost, after
3.4hours, they would be more expensive.
It is cheaper to hire Greased Lightning for food
preparation and service of less than 3.4 hours
(3 hours and 26 minutes) duration.
Notes
1. 0.4 hours = 0.4 60 minutes = 24 minutes.
2. An alternative approach would be to use a CAS calculator and fnd the point at which the
two graphs crossed.
Exercise 1H
Linear modelling
1 WE21 The cost of hiring a floodlit
tennis court consists of a booking fee and
an hourly rate.
a Use the photo to write an equation
for the total hire cost in terms of the
hourly rate.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship.
c What would be the charge for
3 hours?
2 A singing telegram service charges a \$60
appearance fee, and \$8 per minute sung.
a Write an equation for the total cost
of a singing telegram in terms of the
number of minutes sung.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship.
c What would be the charge for a 5-minute singing telegram?
3 Colleen delivers junk mail and is paid \$32 to traverse a particular route, and a further 10 cents per
leaflet delivered.
a Write an equation for the total payment she receives.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship expressed in a.
c What would be Colleens pay if she delivers 1650 leafets along the route?
4 A pay-TV salesperson receives \$300 per week plus \$20 for every household he signs up to have pay-
TV connected. How much does the salesperson receive for a week in which he signs up 33 households?
5 WE22 A computer firm, SuperComputers Inc., offers a back-up plan covering the ongoing service and
troubleshooting of its systems after sale. The cost of signing up for the service plan is \$215, and there is an
TUTORIAL
eles-1406
Worked example 22
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9708
Simultaneous linear
equations
26 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
hourly rate of \$65 for the servicepersons time. Purchasers not signing up for the plan are charged a flat rate
of \$150 per hour for service. Would it be advisable to sign up for the service plan if you expected to need
3 hours of service assistance during the life of a computer purchased from Super Computers Inc?
6 Two amusement parks show the following information for school-age tourists in a promotional
brochure. After how many rides does an excursion to Fun World become the cheaper option for the
same number of rides?

A
q
u
a W
o
r
l
d

\$8.00 entry
\$2.50 per ride
\$12 entry
\$1.50 per ride
7 A telephone company, Opus, offers calls to Biddelonia for a connection fee of \$14, and thereafter
\$1 per minute. Its rival, Elstra, offers calls for \$2 per minute (no connection fee) to the same country.
a Compare the cost of a 10-minute call to Biddelonia using each company.
b At what point would it be cheaper to use Opus?
8 It costs you \$6 to get into a taxi (the flagfall), and \$1.50 per kilometre if you use PinkCabs, while
NoTop taxis charge \$8 flagfall, and \$1.20 per kilometre.
a How much would it cost with each company to travel 15 kilometres in one of its cabs?
b When would it cost the same to use both companies?
9 Medirank, a health insurance company, charges \$860 per year (for a single person) and requires
customers to pay the first \$100 of any hospital visit. HAB, on the other hand, charges an annual fee
of \$560 and requires its members to pay the first \$150 of any hospital visit. Determine the number of
hospital visits in a year for which the cost of health services is the same whichever company insures you.
10 Nifty is a car hire firm that charges insurance of \$135 and \$50 per day car hire. A competitor, Savus,
simply charges \$65 per day and offers free insurance. You are planning a holiday, and would prefer to
use Savus. Under what conditions (days hired) could you justify this choice?
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 27
Summary
Solving linear
equations and
inequations
Do the same to both sides and remember inverse operations + and , and , and
2
.
Aim to get a single variable by itself.
Solve inequations the same way as equations, keeping the original inequality sign at each step,
unless multiplying or dividing by a negative number.
Rearrangement and
substitution
Make x the subject means manipulate into the form x = .
Substitute means to replace a variable with a value.
line

m
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
=

m = tan ()
where is the angle the line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis.
Sketching linear
functions
The general equation for a straight line of gradient m and y-intercept c is y = mx + c.
Lines with the same gradient (m) are parallel.
To fnd the y-intercept, let x = 0 and fnd y.
To fnd the x-intercept, let y = 0 and fnd x.
If y = 0 when x = 0, substitute another x-value (for example x = 1) to fnd another point
on the line.
Join two points and/or intercepts with a straight line.
Simultaneous
equations
Simultaneous equations can be solved with a calculator.
For equations of the form y = ax + b, y = cx + d, consider using substitution.
For equations of the form ax + by = c, dx + ey = f, consider using elimination.
Finding the equation
of a straight line
Formulas for fnding the equation of a straight line:
y = (mx + c)
=

y y
y y
x x
x x ( )
1
2 1
2 1
1
y y
1
= m(x x
1
)
For perpendicular lines, m
1
m
2
=

1.
Distance between two
points and midpoint of
a segment

d x x y y ( ) ( )
2 1
2
2 1
2
= +
=
+ +

x x y y
M
2
,
2
1 2 1 2
Linear modelling Total cost (y) = fxed cost (c) + cost per unit (m) number of units (x)
y = c + mx
28 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
Chapter review
1 Solve the equation
x x 3(5 4)
7
6(4 3)
5

=
+
.
2 Find the value of x where
x
x 3
7 8
10
4 9
+

= .
3 Solve the inequality
x x 3( 4)
4
1
2
+

.
4 The following formula may be used to study planetary motion.
GmM
R
m R
T
4
2
2
2

=
Make T the subject of the equation.
5 Using Pythagoras theorem, find the length of the hypotenuse of the
a in surd form
b to 3 decimal places.
6 Calculate the gradient of each of the following lines.
a
y
x
6
8
b
x
y
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
54321 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
c
x
y
1 grid
square = 1 unit
d y
x
(4, 10)
(12, 3)
7 Find the gradient of the line joining (

## 7, 15) and (2,

6).
8 Find the gradient of the line shown.
y
x
77
9 State the gradient of the line below.
y
x 5
SHORT
6
9
c
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 29
10 State the gradient and y-intercept (in that order) for each of the following.
a y = 3x 7 b 5x + 3y = 30 c 2x 4y 8 = 0
11 Find the equation for a linear graph having gradient
2
5
and y-intercept

3.
12 Sketch graphs of the following, showing intercepts.
a y =

3x + 24 b

x + 8y = 40 c 9x 7y 63 = 0 d y + 6x = 0
13 Solve y = 3x + 10 and y =

2x 15 graphically.
a Sketch the solution on a set of axes. b State the solution (point of intersection).
14 Solve y =

## 3x, y = 6x 15 using substitution.

15 Use the method of elimination to solve 4x 7y = 21,

2x + y = 6.
16 A piggybank contains 67 coins. If there are only one- and two-dollar coins in the piggybank,
and there are 25 more one-dollar coins than two-dollar coins, how many of each type are there?
17 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to 3x 9y = 7.
18 Find the equation of the line containing (

## 4, 8) and (3, 1).

19 Find the equation of the line having gradient
6
7

## that passes through (1, 4).

20 Find the equation of the line perpendicular to y =
1
4
x 5 that passes through (

8, 6).
21 The distance between (2,

7) and (a,

## 2) is 41 units. Find the value of a if it is positive.

22 Show that the triangle with vertices (3, 7), (3, 3) and (6, 3) is a right-angled triangle.
23 The midpoint of the line joining (k, 2h) and (9k, 6h + 2) is (20,

## 11). Find k and h.

24 The washing machine repair company Washed out charges \$75 to come to your house, as well as an
hourly charge of \$65, calculated to the nearest half hour.
a Write an equation that may be used to calculate the cost of any service call if the
time taken by the repairer is known.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship between repair cost and time taken to do a repair.
c How much would it cost to have a repair done that takes 3
1
2
hours?
MULTIPLE
CHOICE
1 The first step in solving
x 7 23
3
99

= would be to:
A add 23 to both sides B divide both sides by 3
C divide both sides by 7 D multiply both sides by 3
E multiply both sides by 7
2 x = 5 is a solution to the equation:
A 3x + 7 =

8 B 2x 7 =

5 C
x 25
6
5
+
=
D 2(x + 3) = 10 E
x 5
9
45 =

3 The solution to
x
x
14
3
2( 2)
+
+ is:
A x 10 B x
2
5

C x
2
5
D x
2
5

E x
6
5

4 When c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
is rearranged to make a the subject, the equation becomes:
A c a b
2 2
= + B a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
C a c b
2 2 2
=
D a c b
2 2
= E a = b + c
5 Which values, when substituted into K mv
1
2
2
= , give a value for K of 4?
A m = 2, v = 4 B m = 4, v = 2 C m = 8, v =
1
2
D m = 8, v = 1 E m = 1, v = 16
6 Using the equation P = m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
, if P = 10, m
1
= 2, m
2
= 6 and v
1
= 4, v
2
would equal:
A
1
3
B
1
2
C 1 D 2 E 3
30 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
7 The line shown has a gradient of:
A

6
B

3
C

2
D 2
E
6
3
8 The gradient of the line shown at right is 3. The value of a must be:
A

2 B

1 C 5
D 7 E 11
9 The gradient of the line joining (

1, 0) and (4,

10) is:
A

4 B

2 C 2
D 4 E 5
10 Which of the graphs below has a gradient of
6
7
?
A
y
x
7
6
B
y
x
6
7
C
y
x
6
7
D y
x
7
6
E y
x
7
6
11 The gradient of the line with equation y x 1
6
7
= is:
A

1 B
6
7
C
7
6
D 6 E 7
12 The y-intercept of the line with equation y x 12
2
3
= + is:
A
2
3
B
3
2
C 2 D 3 E 12
13 The gradient and y-intercept (in that order) of the line with equation 2x 3y = 7 are:
A 2 and

3 B 2 and 7
C
2
3

and 7
D
and
2
3
7
3

E

3 and
7
2

## 14 Which of the following could be the graph of y = 2x + c?

A
y
x
c
B
y
x
c
C
y
x c
y
x
3
6
y
x
(2, 5)
(6, a)
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 31
D
y
x
c
E
y
x
c
15 The equation of the line shown at right is:
A 2x 5y = 1 B 2x y = 4
C 15x + 6y =

30 D 10y x =

2
E
x y
2 5
1 =
16 To solve the equations 2x + y = 5 and 3x 6y = 12 graphically on a calculator, you would enter the
equations in the function entry line as:
A f 1(x) = 2x + y and f 2(x) = 3x 6y
B f 1(x) = 5 and f 2(x) = 12
C f 1(x) = 5 2x and f 2(x) = 12 + 6y
D f 1(x) = 2x + 5 and f 2(x) = 3x + 12
E f 1(x) =

2x + 5 and f 2(x) =
x
2
2
17 Which of the following would be the most effective way to solve the following equations
simultaneously?
y = 2x 13 
y = 7x + 2 
A Multiply  by 2 and  by 13 and add the newly formed equations.
B Multiply  by 7 and put it equal to .
C Multiply  by 2 and put it equal to .
D Multiply  by 2 and  by 7 and subtract the newly formed equations.
E Put  equal to .
18 The gradient of a line perpendicular to a line with a gradient of 7 is:
A
1
7

7 C
7
1

D 7 E
7
1
19 The gradient of a line perpendicular to y
x 7 5
16
=
+

is:
A
1
7

B
1
7
C
16
7
D
5
16
E
7
16

2) and (2,

## 3) could be expressed as:

A y 2 = x 1 B y + 2 = 1 x C y + 3 = x 1
D x 2y =

3 E 3x 5y = 1
21 A line with equation y 7 = 5(x 1) has:

1,

7)

7)

## 1 and contains the point (5, 7)

22 The distance between (4, 3) and (

2, 1) is equal to:
A (

2 4)
2
+ (1 3)
2
B (4 3) ( 2 1)
2 2
+

C (4 3 ) ( 2 1 )
2 2 2 2
+

D (4 2) (3 1)
2 2
+ + E ( 2 4) (1 3)
2 2

y
x
5
2
32 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
23 The midpoint of the segment joining (11,

3) and (

5, 17) is:
A ( 5 , 1 )
1
2
1
2

B (3, 7) C (6, 14)
D ( 2 , 8 )
1
2
1
2

E (4, 6)
24 Bote lives 5 kilometres from the nearest post office. At noon one day he begins cycling (from home) at
20 kilometres per hour in a constant direction away from the post office. At t hours after Bote begins
cycling, the distance, D km, that he is from the post office is given by:
A D = 5t B D = 20t C D = 5t + 20
D D = 20t + 5 E D = 20t 5
25 The linear function f D R f x x : , ( ) 6 2 = has range [

## 4, 12]. The domain D is:

A [

3, 5] B [

5, 3] C R
D [

14, 18] E [

18, 14]
EXTENDED
RESPONSE
1 The graph at right is a rough sketch of three points on a section of
sheet metal that are to be drilled by a programmed robotic drilling
arm. Any deviation from a straight path, no matter how slight,
means the arm must be programmed for more than one direction.
The coordinates marked are correct. Will the robotic arm be able to
move in one direction only to drill all three holes?
2 Points A, B and C have the coordinates (1, 6), (0, 0) and (

2, 2).
Find the coordinates for a point D so that the four points form a
parallelogram.
3 Consider the points (

4,

## 2), (6, 2), (4,

1) and (0,

7).
a Find the coordinates of the midpoints of each side of the quadrilateral formed by the points.
b Show that the shape formed by the midpoints is a parallelogram.
c Repeat parts a and b for a different set of starting points.
4 The cost of a parachuting course consists of a charge of \$250, which covers equipment hire and tuition,
and a further expense of \$55 per jump.
a Express the total cost, C, as a function of j, the number of jumps.
b How many jumps could a person doing the course afford if she was prepared to spend up to
\$1000?
5 A physics student conducts an experiment to find out how much a spring stretches when various
weights are hung from it. Her results are shown in the table below.
Length of spring (cm) Force applied (N)
4 0
7 10
12 20
16.5 30
20.5 40
25 50
a What is the natural or unstretched length of the spring?
b Plot a graph of the students results.
c Draw a straight line through the points that best describes the data.
d Select two points on the line and use them to ft a linear equation to the line.
y
x
6
8 14 20
12
16
A
B
C
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 33
A second student conducts the same experiment on a similar
spring. His results are shown below.
Length of spring (cm) Force applied (N)
5 0
10 10
16 20
21 30
24 40
28 50
e On the same set of axes you used in part b, plot the results of
the second experiment and join the points with a line of best ft.
f Write an equation that describes the relationship between the
force applied and the length of the second spring.
The gradients of graphs such as the ones you have drawn give an
indication of the stiffness of a spring. The greater the gradient, the
harder it is to stretch the spring. The lower the gradient, the easier
it is to stretch the spring.
g Comment on the stiffness of the two springs investigated by the
students.
h Is it likely that these two springs will ever be the same length at
a given force; that is, is it likely that the intersection of the two
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9709
Test Yourself
Chapter 1
34 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
ICT activities
Chapter opener
DIGITAL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc-9695: Warm up with ten quick questions on
linear functions (page 1)
1A
Solving linear equations and inequations
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9696: Use trial and error to balance an equation and hence
solve for the unknown variable (page 3)
1B
Rearrangement and substitution
DIGITAL DOC
Career profile doc-9697: Learn how a vigneron uses substitution and
other areas of mathematics in his work (page 8)
1C
DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9698: Calculate the gradient between two given points (page 10)
SkillSHEET 1.1 doc-9699: Practise using the gradient to find the value
of a parameter (page 11)
1D
Sketching linear functions
DIGITAL DOCS
WorkSHEET 1.1 doc-9700: Solve linear equations, use substitution
and calculate gradients of straight line graphs (page 12)
doc-9701: Investigate the effect of changing the gradient and
y-intercept for a linear graph (page 14)
TUTORIAL
WE 12 eles-1404: Watch a tutorial on how to sketch a linear
graph by hand (page 13)
1E
Simultaneous equations
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9702: Use the graphical method to solve simultaneous linear
equations (page 17)
1F
Finding the equation of a straight line
DIGITAL DOCS
SkillSHEET 1.2 doc-9703: Practise writing positive and negative
reciprocals of rational numbers (page 20)
doc-9704: Investigate the equations of straight lines (page 20)
WorkSHEET 1.2 doc-9705: Sketch linear graphs, determine equations
of linear graphs and application problems (page 21)
1G
Distance between two points and midpoint of
a segment
INTERACTIVITY
Distance between two points and midpoint of a segment int-0260:
Consolidate your understanding of how to calculate the distance
between two points and the midpoint of a segment (page 21)
TUTORIAL
WE 19 eles-1405: Watch how to calculate the distance between
two points on a Cartesian plane (page 21)
DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9706: Investigate the distance between two points (page 22)
doc-9707: Investigate the midpoint of a segment (page 23)
1H
Linear modelling
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9708: Investigate simultaneous linear equations (page 25)
TUTORIAL
WE 22 eles-1406: Watch how to apply linear algebra skills to
determine the conditions for which it would be cheapest to hire a
catering company (page 25)
Chapter review
DIGITAL DOC
Test Yourself doc-9709: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress (page 33)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 35
LINEAR FUNCTIONS
Exercise 1A
Solving linear equations
and inequations
1 a 2 b

8 c
7
3

d 7 e

1 f 9
g

1 h 10 i

12
2 a 6 b 5 c

13
d
112
9
e 12 f

5
g

9 h
76
59
i 3
j

4 k

9 l

7
3 a
x
13
6
b
x
31
3

c x > 3
d x <

3 e x 11 f
x
3
2

Exercise 1B
Rearrangement and
substitution
1 a P = A L b l
A
w
=
c t
d
v
= d r
C
2
=
e
E
2

=

f
r
kQq
F
=
g
v
Fd mu
m
2
2
=
+
h
v
rT
2
=
i w
S lh
l h
2
2( )
=

+
j H
S r
r
2
2
2

=

2 a 0.267 b 350 c 7
d 13 100 e 2.498
3 a l A, 7.746 = b r
V 3
4
, 6.204
3

=
c =

a
v u
t
, 4.167 d

l g
T
2
, 3.972
2
e c
K (1 )
, 2622
2

=

4 a 42 cm
b w
P
l w
P l
2
or
2
2
= =

c 40 mm
5 a 240 m
2
b a
A
h
b a
A bh
h
2
or
2
= =

c 18 cm
6 a \$1123.60
b =

r
A
D
A D
D
100 1 100
c 41.4%
7 a f
uv
u v
=
+
b =

u
f v
v f
c 150 cm
8 b = 2
9 h
25

= cm
Exercise 1C
1 a 2
b
1
3

2 a 2 b 5 c

4 d
1
2
3 a 1.192 b 3.078 c 0.176
d

0.577 e

0.577 f 0
g 1 h 57.290
4 a 0.93 b 2.61
c

0.53 d

3.73
5 a D b C
c A d B
6 a B b E
7
2
17
8
17
300

9 a 4 b 31
c

5 d 3
10 a No b Yes c 224 cm
Exercise 1D
Sketching linear functions
1 ae
x
y
y = x
y = 2x
y = 2x
y = x
y = 3x
2 The higher the number, the steeper the
graph. Positive values make the graph
slope up when moving (or tracing) to the
right; negative values make the graph
slope down when moving to the right.
x
1
4
y
4
y = x 4
y = x + 1
y = x + 2
y = x + 3
x 0
1
6
5
7
y
1 1
y = 2x + 1
y = 2x 7
y = 3x 5
y = 3x + 6
5 The number is where the graph cuts the
y-axis (hence the name y-intercept).
6 a y = 2x + 7 b y =

3x + 1
c y = 5x 2 d y x
2
3
1
3
= +
e y x
3
4
1
2
=

f y =

2x + 12
7 a 4, 5 b 4,

8
c

3, 1 d

2, 4
e

7,

9 f 2, 5
g ,
2
11

6 h

,
8
3
2
3
i ,
1
6
5
2
j

,
5
2
7
2
8 a y = 4x + 2 b y =
5
2

x 5
c y x 2
4
3
= d y =
5
6

x + 5
e y = 2x 1 f y =

5x
9 a
y
x
3
18
b
y
x
21
7
c
y
x
3
3

2

d
y
x
10
2
e y
x
30

10

3
f y
x 8
16
10 a y
x
2
3
b
y
x
4
5
c y
x
3
6
36 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS
d
y
x
7
5
11 a
y
x
6
7
b
y
x
10
4
c y
x
4
16

3

d y
x 2
6
12 a y
x
(1, 1)
b y
x
(1, 1)
c y
x
(1, 2)
13 D 14 E 15 A
Exercise 1E
Simultaneous equations
1 a
x
1
1
y
1
1
y = 4x 6
(3, 6)
y = 2x
b
x
20
5
y
5 5
y = 20
y = 3x 5
25
3
( )
, 20
c
x
y
9
,
4
47
4
( )
y = 3x + 5
y = 7x 4
d
x
5
0
y
(3, 13)
y = 4 + 3x y = 6x + 5
e
x
5
5
y
5
y = 10x + 1
y =

6 2x
7
12
29
6
( )
,
f
x
14
y
y = 17 9x
y = 14 x
3
8
109
8
( )
17
9
,
17
2 a (1, 4) b (

4,

15)
c (

7,

5) d (
5
9
,
17
9
)
e (
23
14
,
20
7

) f (13,

3)
3 a (7, 9) b (6, 5)
c (1,

2) d (
1
2
,
19
2
)
e (
59
8
,
21
8
) f (
84
67
,
99
67
)
4 15 cents and 35 cents 5 22 and 19
6 16 emus, 41 sheep
7 Basketballs \$9.45, cricket balls \$3.05
8 Limousine \$225 (sedan \$75)
9 A 10 D
Exercise 1F
Finding the equation
of a straight line
1 a 2,
1
2

1 b 3,
1
3

1
c
1
4
,

4,

1 d
2
5
,
5
2

1
e
9
7

,
7
9
,

1
2 They are perpendicular.
3 They are perpendicular.
4 a
1
4

b
1
9
c

7
d
9
8
e
2
7

1
5 a
1
5
b

1 c
3
2

d
6
7
e
1
2
f
4
3

6 a i 3x y 1 = 0 ii y = 3x 1
b i 5x y 19 = 0 ii y = 5x 19
c i x + y 1 = 0 ii y =

x + 1
d i x 2y + 7 = 0 ii
y x
1
2
7
2
= +
7 a i x 2y 1 = 0 ii
y x
1
2
1
2
=
b i x y = 0 ii y = x
c i x + 2y 12 = 0 ii y =
1
2

x + 6
d i 3x + 2y 2 = 0 ii y =
3
2

x + 1
8 y = x 6 9 y = 3x 23
10 a y =
1
3

x + 5 b y x
2
5
43
5
=
c y =
1
2

x + 3 d
y x
7
6
14
3
= +

e y = 2x 3 f
y x
3
4
9
2
=

11 y x
5
2
3
2
=

12 a
y x
6
7
82
7
= +
b
y x 7
3
2
= +

c y =

x + 8 d = +

y
x
8
39
4
13 94 14 Yes
15 H = 22 + 6t
Exercise 1G
Distance between two
points and midpoint of a segment
1 a 5 b 10
c 1 d 2
2 a 7.211 b 14.765
c 13.038
3 a
a a 4 8
2
+
b
b b 12 61
2
+
c c c 2( 6 10)
2
+
d
d d 5 22 26
2
+
4 21.024 km
5 a 216 b 108
6 a (2, 4) b (5, 1)
c (7, 2) d (8, 9)
7 a (1 , 5 )
1
2
1
2
b
( 3, 3 )
1
2

c
( 9 , 9 )
1
2
1
2

d
( 1 , 6 )
1
2
1
2

c
f g 3
2
, 2
+

9 a 5 b 9
10 D1 (

1.5, 4.25), D2 (

## 1.5, 1.5), D3 (8,

7.5)
11 y = 5x 7 12 y = 3x + 6
CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 37
Exercise 1H
Linear modelling
1 a C = 25 + 5t
b
1 2
35
25
30
Cost (\$)
Time (h)
c \$40
2 a C = 60 + 8m
b
1 2
76
60
68
Cost (\$)
Time (min)
c \$100
3 a P = 32 + 0.1n
b
10 20
34
32
33
Payment (\$)
Number
of leafets
c \$197
4 \$960
5 Yes (\$410 compared to \$450)
6 After 4 rides
7 a Opus \$24, Elstra \$20
b After 14 minutes
8 a PinkCabs \$28.50, NoTop \$26
b After 6.7 km (6
2
3
km)
9 6 visits
10 Savus would be cheaper for up to 9 days
hire.
CHAPTER REVIEW
1

2
2 6
3 x

14
4 T
R
GM
R
R
GM
4
or 2
2 3

=
5 a
15
b 3.873
6 a
3
4
b
7
11

c
5
11
d
7
8

7
7
3

8 4.331
9 Undefned
10 a 3,

7 b
5
3

, 10
c
1
2
,

2
11
y x 3
2
5
=
12 a
y
x
24
8
b
y
x
40
5
c
y
x
9
7
d
y
x
(1, 6)
13 a
x
5
5
y
5
f (x) = 3x + 10
f (x) =

2x 15
(5, 5)
b (

5,

5)
14 ( , 5)
5
3

15 ( , )
63
10
33
5

16 21 two-dollar and 46 one-dollar coins
17

3
18 y =

x + 4
19 y x
6
7
34
7
= +

20 y =

4x 26 21 6
22 Teacher to check.
23 k = 4, h =

3
24 a C = 75 + 65t
b
1 2
205
75
140
C (\$)
t (h)
c \$302.50
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 D 2 A 3 C 4 D
5 D 6 A 7 C 8 D
9 B 10 B 11 B 12 A
13 D 14 B 15 E 16 E
17 E 18 A 19 C 20 B
21 C 22 D 23 B 24 D
25 A
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 No, the points are not collinear. This may
be shown by calculating gradients or
equations for lines joining different pairs
of points.
2 (

1, 8)
3 a Midpoints: (1, 0), (5,
1
2
), (2,

4), (

2,
9
2

)
d The midpoints of any quadrilateral form
a parallelogram.
4 a C = 250 + 55j
b 13 jumps
5 a 4 cm
b, c, e
60
50
40
30
20
10
Length of spring (cm)
F
o
r
c
e

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

t
o

s
p
r
i
n
g

(
N
)
Student 1
Student 2
5 10 15 20 25 30
0
is
y x
30
13
95
13
=
.
is y = 2x 10.
g The frst spring is stiffer than the second,
as the gradient of its graph is greater
than that of the second spring.
h The graphs intersect at the point
(

8.75,

## 27.5). It is not possible for the

springs to have a negative length, so this
point is not achievable.