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You are on page 1of 38

CHAPTER CONTENTS

1A Solving linear equations and inequations

1B Rearrangement and substitution

1C Gradient of a straight line

1D Sketching linear functions

1E Simultaneous equations

1F Finding the equation of a straight line

1G Distance between two points and midpoint of a segment

1H Linear modelling

CHAPTER 1

Linear functions

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9695

10 Quick Questions

1A

Solving linear equations

and inequations

A linear equation is one that involves a variable raised to the power of 1 only. Recall that x

1

is the same

as x, so a linear equation involving x would contain only xs, and not x

1

2

, x

2

, x

3

, x

1

, x

2

and so on. For

example, y = 7x 3, ax + by = c and

8

3

x + 1 = 9 are all linear equations.

Note that y =

1

x

is not a linear equation, as the

1

x

is really x

1

.

To isolate a particular variable known as making x (or whatever the variable is) the subject we

focus on the variable by undoing other terms and operations. Remember to do the same operation to both

sides of an equation, in the reverse order to that originally used to make up the equation.

Though the focus of this chapter is linear equations, some other types of equations will be included

for skills practice.

When there is only one variable involved in an equation, we may attempt to solve and fnd a numerical

value by rearranging to make the variable the subject.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1

Solve the following linear equations.

a 7x 4 = 17 b

+ =

x 3 2

4

5 1 c

=

x

2

4

5

1 6

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the equation. a = x 7 4 17

2 Add 4 to both sides. = x 7 21

3 Divide both sides by 7. =

=

x

x

21

7

3

b 1 Write the equation. b

+ =

x 3 2

4

5 1

2 Subtract 5 from both sides.

=

x 3 2

4

4

Contents

Linear functions 1

1A

Solving linear equations

and inequations 1

Exercise 1A

Solving linear equations and inequations

3

1B

Rearrangement and substitution 4

Exercise 1B

Rearrangement and substitution 6

1C

Gradient of a straight line 8

Exercise 1C

Gradient of a straight line 10

1D

Sketching linear functions 12

Exercise 1D

Sketching linear functions 14

1E

Simultaneous equations 15

Exercise 1E

Simultaneous equations 17

1F

Finding the equation of a straight

line 18

2 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

3 Multiply both sides by 4. =

x 3 2 16

4 Add 2 to both sides. =

x 3 14

5 Divide both sides by 3. =

x

14

3

c 1 Write the equation. c

=

x

2

4

5

1 6

2 Divide both sides by 2. =

x 4

5

1 3

3 Add 1 to both sides. =

x 4

5

4

4 Multiply both sides by 5. = x 4 20

5 Divide both sides by 4. =

=

x

x

20

4

5

When an equation has variables on both sides, at some stage they must be gathered together on the

same side of the equation.

WORKED EXAMPLE 2

Solve:

a 4x 3 = 3(6 x) b

+

=

+ x x 9 3

2

13 7

3

c

=

+

+

x x 3

4

9( 7)

10

1.

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the equation. a 4x 3 = 3(6 x)

2 Expand the right-hand side (RHS). 4x 3 = 18 3x

3 Collect xs on one side, for example, the side that results

in a positive x term, in this case, the left-hand side (LHS).

(That is, add 3x to both sides.)

7x 3 = 18

4 Add 3 to both sides. 7x = 21

5 Divide both sides by 7.

=

=

x

x

21

7

3

b 1 Write the equation. b

+

=

+ x x 9 3

2

13 7

3

2 Find the lowest common denominator for both terms. LCD = 6

3 Write all terms with the common denominator,

adjusting numerators accordingly (so that numerator and

denominator have been multiplied by the same amount).

+

=

+ x x 3(9 3)

6

2(13 7)

6

4 Now that all terms have the same denominator, the

numerators must be equal. (Multiply each side by 6.)

+ = + x x 3(9 3) 2(13 7)

5 Expand all brackets. + = + x x 27 9 26 14

6 Collect xs on the LHS and numbers on the RHS. = x x 27 26 14 9

7 Simplify and solve. x = 5

c 1 Write the equation. c

=

+

+

x x 3

4

9( 7)

10

1

2 Find the lowest common denominator for all three terms. LCD = 20

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 3

3 Write all terms with the common denominator,

adjusting numerators accordingly (so that numerator and

denominator have been multiplied by the same amount).

=

+

+

x x 5(3 )

20

2 9( 7)

20

20

20

4 Now that all terms have the same denominator, the

numerators must be equal. (Multiply each term by 20.)

5(3 x) = 18(x + 7) + 20

5 Expand all brackets. 15 5x = 18x + 126 + 20

6 Collect xs on the RHS and numbers on the LHS. = +

=

x x

x

15 126 20 18 5

131 23

7 Simplify and solve. =

x

131

23

=

x

131

23

There is only one solution to a linear equation. For example, the equation 3x + 2 = 8 has the solution

x = 2. The solution to a linear equation can be represented as a single point on a number line. If the

equals sign is replaced with an inequality sign, the solution is a portion of a number line. These

expressions are referred to as linear inequations (sometimes called inequalities).

WORKED EXAMPLE 3

Solve the following linear inequations.

a 6x 7 3x + 5 b

3m + 5 <

7

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the inequations. a 6x 7 3x + 5

2 Combine the variable terms by subtracting

3x from both sides.

3x 7 5

3 Add 7 to both sides. 3x 12

4 Divide both sides by 3. x 4

b 1 Write the inequations. b

3m + 5 <

7

2 Subtract 5 from both sides.

3m < 12

3

Divide both sides by

as you are dividing by a negative number.

m > 4

Exercise 1A

Solving linear equations and inequations

1 WE1 Solve the following linear equations.

a 3x 19 =

13 b 4x + 25 =

7 c 9x + 19 =

2

d

x 3 1

4

5

= e

x 12 3

3

5

= f

x 4 6

3

7 3

=

g

x 7 4

3

8 9

+

=

h

=

x

2

3

5

1 10 i

=

x

7 8

4

77

2 WE2 Solve the following linear equations.

a 2x 9 = 3(2x 11) b 7x 1 = 17(3x 13) c x + 11 = 2(x + 12) d 3x 7 = 3(35 2x)

e

x x 2

6

5

3

+

=

f

x x 11

3

2( 14)

9

+

=

+

g

x x 4 66

3

13 3

4

+

=

h

x x 10

9

2(7 3 )

5

+

=

i

x x 6 7

5

5 1

4

1

+

=

+

+ j

x x 2 29

3

44

8

2

+

=

+

+ k

x x 7 9

9

21

3

18

=

l

x x 17

2

49 2

5

5

=

+

+

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9696

Equation solvers

4 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

3 WE3 Solve the following linear inequations.

a 15 6x 2 b

x 11 3

7

6

c

x 19

4

3 1

+ >

x x 4

3

2( 1)

6

+

1B

Rearrangement and substitution

When there is more than one variable involved in an equation, we may rearrange the equation to make a

particular variable the subject using the same rules of equation solving described in the previous section.

WORKED EXAMPLE 4

Rearrange each of the following to make the variable in parentheses the subject.

a 6x + 8y 48 = 0 (y) b = + s ut at k

1

2

2

(u) c = T

m

k

k 2 (k)

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the equation. a 6x + 8y 48 = 0

2 Add 48 to both sides. 6x + 8y = 48

3 Subtract 6x from both sides. 8y = 48 6x

4 Divide both sides by 8.

=

y

x 48 6

8

5 Cancel if possible. Here, divide the numerator and

denominator by 2.

=

y

x 24 3

4

6 Other ways of representing the answer are shown

opposite.

=

=

= +

y x

x

x

or

24

4

3

4

6

3

4

3

4

6

b 1 Write the equation. b s ut at

1

2

2

= +

2 Subtract at

1

2

2

from both sides. s at ut

1

2

2

=

3 Multiply both sides by 2. = s at ut 2 2

2

4 Divide both sides by 2t.

=

s at

t

u

2

2

2

5 Write the equation with the desired variable on the left.

=

u

s at

t

2

2

2

c 1 Write the equation. c = T

m

k

2

2

Divide both sides by 2.

=

T m

k 2

3 Square both sides.

=

T m

k 4

2

2

4 Form the reciprocal of both sides to make k the

numerator.

=

T

k

m

4

2

2

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 5

5 Multiply both sides by m.

=

m

T

k

4

2

2

6 Write the equation with the desired variable on the left.

= k

m

T

4

2

2

Once a variable is isolated, we may substitute values of other variables to calculate various values of

the isolated variable. The following worked example illustrates some practical applications.

WORKED EXAMPLE 5

a The formula for converting temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (F) (which is the system used in

the USA) to degrees Celsius (C ) is C =

F 5( 32)

9

.

i Make F the subject.

ii What is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit when the temperature measured in degrees

Celsius is 21 C?

b The area (A) of a circle is given by A = r

2

, where r is the radius. Calculate the value of r correct

to 2 decimal places when A=20cm

2

.

THINK WRITE

a i 1 Write the equation. a i =

C

F 5( 32)

9

2 Multiply both sides by 9. = C F 9 5( 32)

3 Divide both sides by 5. =

C

F

9

5

32

4 Add 32 to both sides. + =

C

F

9

5

32

5 Write the equation with F frst. Sometimes it may be

appropriate to use a common denominator.

= +

=

+

F

C

F

C

9

5

32

or

9 160

5

ii 1

Replace C with 21. Note that 9C means 9 C. ii =

+ F

9 21

5

32

2 Evaluate F. F

F

F

189

5

32

37.8 32

69.8

= +

= +

=

so 21C = 69.8 F

b 1 Write the equation. Solve for r (make r the subject)

as follows.

b A = r

2

2

Divide both sides by .

=

A

r

2

3 Take the square root of both sides, and write r frst.

As r is the radius, we take the positive root only.

= r

A

4

Substitute A = 20 into the new formula. A

r

If 20,

20

=

=

5 Evaluate r. r = 2.52 cm, correct to 2 decimal

places

6 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

WORKED EXAMPLE 6

Note: In this example, m represents metres, m/s represents metres per second (velocity),

and m/s

2

represents metres per second per second (acceleration).

The fnal velocity, v m/s, of an object that begins with velocity u m/s and accelerates at

am/s

2

over a distance of s m is given by the equation = + v u as 2 .

2 2

a Find the value of v when u = 16, a = 2 and s = 36.

b Rearrange the given equation to make s the subject.

c Find the distance travelled by an object that begins with a velocity of 10 m/s and has a fnal

velocity of 4 m/s while accelerating at

1 m/s

2

.

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the given equation and then make v the subject

by fnding the square root of both sides.

a = +

= +

v u as

v u as

2

2

2 2

2

2

Substitute u = 15, a = 2 and s = 36. 16 2 2 36

256 144

400

20

2

= +

= +

=

=

The fnal velocity is 20 m/s.

3 Simplify and evaluate v.

b 1 Begin with the given equation. b = + v u as 2

2 2

2 Subtract u

2

from both sides. = v u as 2

2 2

3 Divide both sides by 2a.

=

v u

a

s

2

2 2

4 Reverse so that s is given on the left. =

s

v u

a 2

2 2

c 1 Match the variables with the given information. c =

=

=

u

v

a

10

4

1

2 Write the formula that has s as the subject

(see part b above).

=

s

v u

a 2

2 2

3 Substitute the values given in step 1.

=

4 10

2 1

2 2

4 Simplify and evaluate.

=

=

=

16 100

2

84

2

42

5 Explain the answer in words. The object travels 42 m in its initial

direction.

Exercise 1B

Rearrangement and substitution

1 WE4 Each of the following is a real equation used in business, mathematics, physics or another

area of science. Make the variable shown in parentheses the subject in each case.

a A = L + P (P) b A = lw (l)

c v

d

t

= (t) d C = 2r (r)

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 7

e E = +

2

() f F

kQq

r

2

= (r)

g Fd mv mu

1

2

1

2

2 2

= (v) h v rT = ()

i S = 2w(l + h) + 2lh (w)

j S = 2r

2

+ 2rH (H)

2 WE5 Calculate the value of the subject (the first mentioned variable), given the values of the other

variables.

a I

k

d

2

= k = 60, d = 15

b E = K + mgh K = 250, m = 2, g = 10, h = 5

c D n ( )

1

2

= n = 3, = 2.8

d E = hf

0

W h = 6.62, f

0

= 5000, W = 20 000

e v r y

2 2

= = 2, r = 1.6, y = 1

3 Make the variable in parentheses the subject and find its value using the given information.

a A = l

2

(l) A = 60

b V r

4

3

3

= (r) V = 1000

c v = u + at (a) v = 25, u = 0, t = 6

d T

l

g

2 = (l) T = 4, g = 9.8

e K

c

1

2

4 WE6 The perimeter, P, of a rectangle of length l and width w may be found using the equation

P = 2(l + w).

a Find the perimeter of a rectangle of length 16 cm and width 5 cm.

b Rearrange the equation to make w the subject.

c Find the width of a rectangle that has perimeter 560 mm and length 240 mm.

5 The area of a trapezium (Figure A) is given by A

a b

h

2

=

+

of the parallel sides and h is the height.

a Find the area of the trapezium shown in Figure B.

b Using Figure A, fnd an equation for determining side a in terms of the area A and side b.

c Find a in Figure C.

Figure A

a

h

b

Area

A

Figure C

62 cm

50 cm

a

Area = 2000 cm

2

9 m

16 m

21 m

Figure B

6 The size of a 2-year investment account with a particular bank is given by A D

r

1

100

2

= +

,

where A is the amount ($) in the account after two years, D is the initial deposit ($) and r is the

interest rate (%).

a Find the amount in such an account after two years if the initial deposit was $1000 and the

interest rate was 6%.

b Make r the subject of the equation.

c Find the rate required for an initial deposit of $1000 to grow to $2000 after 2 years.

8 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

7 The object and image positions for a lens of focal length f are related by

the formula

u v f

1 1 1

, + =

where u is the distance of the object from the lens

and v is the distance of the image from the lens.

a Make f the subject of the equation.

b Make u the subject of the equation.

c How far from the lens is the image when an object is

30cm in front of a lens of focal length 25 cm?

8 The length of a side of a right-angled triangle can be found using

Pythagoras theorem: c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

, where c is the length of the longest side, and a and b are the lengths

of the two shorter sides. Find the value of b in the triangle above.

9 The volume of a cone is given by the rule V =

1

3

r

2

h, where r is the radius of the widest

part of the cone and h is the vertical height of the cone. Given that the volume of a

cone is 100 cm

3

and its radius at the widest point is 12 cm, find the height of the

cone, expressing your answer in terms of .

1C

Gradient of a straight line

The gradient of a line describes its slope or steepness.

Positive

gradient

y

x

Negative

gradient

y

x

Zero

gradient

y

x

Infnite

gradient

y

x

The gradient may be calculated using the formula:

m =

rise

run

or m

y y

x x

2 1

2 1

=

Here are two examples of where gradient can affect our

everyday lives. Can you think of others?

A cliff face with

a steeper

gradient

provides a

greater

challenge for

climbers.

Scientists calculate the required gradient of solar

panels so that the maximum amount of energy is

absorbed.

3 2

b

4

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9697

Career profile

Rick Morris vigneron

r

h

cone

y

x

(x

1

, y

1

)

(x

2

, y

2

)

Run

Rise

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 9

WORKED EXAMPLE 7

Calculate the gradient of this linear graph using the intercepts shown.

THINK WRITE

1 Identify the rise and run.

Rise = 14, run = 2.

2 Calculate m =

rise

run

.

=

=

m

14

2

7

WORKED EXAMPLE 8

Calculate the gradient of the line passing through the points (3,

6) and (

1, 8).

THINK WRITE

1 Use the formula m

y y

x x

2 1

2 1

=

. =

m

y y

x x

2 1

2 1

2 Match up the terms in the formula with the values given.

(x

1

, y

1

) (x

2

, y

2

)

(3,

6) (

1, 8)

3 Substitute the given values. =

=

=

m

8 6

1 3

14

4

7

2

4 Simplify.

=

14

4

5 Cancel if possible.

=

7

2

If the angle a line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis is known, the gradient may be found

using trigonometry applied to the triangle shown below.

y

x

rise

run

tan

=

opposite

= =

m

adjacent

rise

run

( )

WORKED EXAMPLE 9

a Calculate the gradient (accurate to 3 decimal places) of a line making

an angle of 40 to the positive x-axis.

b Calculate the gradient of the line shown at right. Express your answer

to 2 decimal places.

THINK WRITE

a Since the angle the line makes with

the positive x-axis is given, the

formula m = tan () can be used.

a m = tan ()

= tan (40)

= 0.839, correct to

3 decimal places

y

x 2

14

y

x

60

y

x

40

10 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b 1 The angle given is not the one between

the graph and the positive direction of the

x-axis. Calculate the required angle .

b = 180 60

= 120

2

Use m = tan () to calculate m to

2 decimal places.

m = tan ()

= tan (120)

=

1.73

Exercise 1C

Gradient of a straight line

1 WE7 Calculate the gradient of each of the following linear graphs using the intercepts shown.

a

6

3

y

x

b

2

6

y

x

2 WE8 Without drawing a graph, calculate the gradient of the line passing through:

a (2, 4) and (10, 20) b (4, 4) and (6, 14)

c (10, 4) and (3, 32) d (5, 31) and (

7, 25).

3 WE9a Calculate the gradient (accurate to 3 decimal places) of a line making the angle

given with the positive x-axis.

a 50 b 72

c 10 d

30

e 150 f 0

g 45 h 89

4 WE9b Calculate the gradient of each line below. Give answers to 2 decimal places.

a

y

x

43

b

y

x

69

c y

x

28

d

y

x

15

5 Which of these lines has:

a a non-zero positive gradient?

b a negative gradient?

c a zero gradient?

d an undefned gradient?

y

x

60

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9698

Gradient of a

straight line

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

54321 1 2 3 4 5 0 x

y

A

C

B

D

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 11

6 MC

a Which of the following lines has a

gradient of

2?

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

54321 1 2 3 4 5 0 x

y

A C

E

B

D

b Which of the following lines has a

gradient of 3?

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

54321 1 2 3 4 5 0 x

y

A

C

E

B

D

7 Burghar plots the coordinates of a proposed driveway on a plan that is shown below. What is the

gradient of the proposed driveway?

D

riv

ew

ay

Garage

2m

17m

8 An assembly line is pictured below. What is the gradient of the sloping section? (Give your answer as a

fraction.)

0.85 m

15 m

BOFFO

Made in Australia

BOFFO

Made in Australia

BOFFO

Made in Australia

9 Determine the value of a in each case so the gradient joining the points is equal to the value given.

a (3, 0) and (5, a), gradient 2

b (2, 1) and (8, a), gradient 5

c (0, 4) and (a,

11), gradient 3

d (a, 5) and (5, 1), gradient

2

10 For safety considerations, wheelchair

ramps are constructed under regulated

specifications. One regulation requires

that the maximum gradient of a ramp

exceeding 1200 mm in length is

1

14

.

a Does a ramp 25 cm high with a

horizontal length of 210 cm meet

the requirements?

b Does a ramp with gradient

1

18

meet

the specifcations?

c A 16 cm high ramp needs to be

built. Find the horizontal length

of the ramp required to meet the

specifcations.

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9699

SkillSHEET 1.1

Using a gradient to

find the value of a

parameter

12 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1D

Sketching linear functions

The general form for linear equations is y = mx + c, where m is the gradient of the line and c is the

y-intercept.

y = mx + c

Gradient y-intercept

y

x

G

r

a

d

i

e

n

t

m

y-intercept

x-intercept

y

x

These lines have identical

gradients (equal m values).

To sketch a graph from a linear equation expressed in general form, follow these steps.

Step 1 Plot the y-intercept on a set of axes.

Step 2 Find and plot a second point on the line. Do this by substituting any value of x into the equation

and fnding the corresponding y-value.

Step 3 Join the two points.

Alternatively, you can use a CAS calculator or other graphing technology.

To fnd the equation of a line given the gradient and y-intercept, simply substitute the values of m and

c into y = mx + c.

Sketching linear graphs using intercepts

To draw a graph, only two points are needed. A line may then be drawn

through the two points, and will include all other points that follow the

given rule. The two points can be chosen at random; however, it is often

easier to sketch a graph using the points where the graph crosses the axes.

These points are called x- and y-intercepts. The x-intercept occurs when

y = 0, and the y-intercept occurs when x = 0.

WORKED EXAMPLE 10

Sketch the graph of y =

THINK WRITE/DRAW

1

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0). Substitute

x = 0 into the equation.

If x = 0: y =

1 0 + 6

y = 6 (0, 6)

2

Find the x-intercept (when y = 0).

Substitute y = 0 into the equation.

If y = 0: x

x

0 6

6 (6, 0)

= +

=

x

(0, 6)

(6, 0)

4 Join the intercepts with a straight line.

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9700

WorkSHEET 1.1

y

x

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 13

WORKED EXAMPLE 11

Sketch the graph of 3x 2y = 12.

THINK WRITE/DRAW

1

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0). Substitute

x = 0 into the equation.

If x = 0: 3 0 2y = 12

2y = 12

y

12

2

=

y =

6

2

Find the x-intercept (when y = 0). Substitute

y = 0 into the equation.

If y = 0: 3x 2 0 = 12

3x = 12

x = 4

3 Mark the intercepts on a set of axes.

y

x

6

4

4 Join the intercepts with a straight line.

The graphs of some equations do not have two intercepts, as they pass through the origin (0, 0). Such

equations are of the form y = k x or a x + by = 0.

To sketch graphs of such equations, we use (0, 0) and any other point, for example the point where

x = 1. (We could choose any other non-zero value.)

WORKED EXAMPLE 12

Sketch the graph for the equation 4 x 3y = 0.

THINK WRITE/DRAW

1 Try substituting x = 0 to fnd the y-intercept. If x = 0: 4 0 3y = 0

3y = 0

y = 0

2 Note that the graph passes through

(0, 0). There is no point substituting

y = 0, as we know well get x = 0.

(0, 0)

3 Substitute another x-value. In this example

we use x = 1.

If x = 1: 4 1 3y = 0

4 3y = 0

4 = 3y

y

4

3

=

(1, )

4

3

4 Plot the points (0, 0) and (1,

4

3

) on a set of

axes. Note that

4

3

is 1

1

3

, which is a little less

than 1

1

2

.

y

x

4

3

(1, )

(0, 0)

1

1

2

TUTORIAL

eles-1404

Worked example 12

14 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Exercise 1D

Sketching linear functions

1 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of axes.

a y = x b y = 2x c y = 3x d y =

x e y =

2x

2 In question 1, what is the effect on the graph of the number in front of the x (the x-coefficient or

gradient)?

3 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of axes.

a y = x + 1 b y = x + 2 c y = x + 3 d y = x 4

4 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of

axes.

a y = 2x + 1 b y = 2x 7 c y =

3x + 6 d y = 3x 5

5 In questions 3 and 4, what is the effect on the graph of the number at the end of the equation (the

y-intercept)?

6 Write the equation of a line having the following properties (where m = gradient and

c = y-intercept).

a m = 2, c = 7 b m =

3, c = 1 c m = 5, c =

2

d m =

2

3

, c =

1

3

e m =

3

4

, c =

1

2

2

7 Rearrange the following equations and state the gradient and y-intercept for each.

a 2y = 8x + 10 b 3y = 12x 24 c

y = 3x 1 d 16 4y = 8x

e 21x + 3y =

27 f

10x + 5y = 25 g

11y 2x = 66 h 8x + 3y 2 = 0

i 15 6y + x = 0 j 2y + 7 + 5x = 0

8 State the equation for each of the following graphs.

a

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

1

6

1 2 0 x

y

1

2

b

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

2 2 0 x

y

c

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

1 2 1 2 0 x

y d

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 x

y

e

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

1 1 2 3 4 0 x

y f

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

3 2 1 1 2 3 0 x

y

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9701

Linear graphs

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 15

9 WE10 Sketch graphs of the following linear equations, showing x- and y-intercepts.

a y = 6x + 18 b y = 3x 21

c y =

2x 3 d y = 10 5x

e y =

9x + 30 f y = 2(x 8)

10 WE11 Sketch graphs for each of the following equations.

a 2x + 3y = 6 b 4x + 5y = 20

c 6x 3y =

18 d 7x 5y = 35

11 Sketch the graph for each equation.

a 6x + 7y + 42 = 0 b 5x 2y + 20 = 0

c

3x + 4y 16 = 0 d y 3x + 6 = 0

12 WE12 Sketch the graph for each equation.

a x + y = 0 b x y = 0

c 2x + y = 0

13 MC Which of the following is in the form ax + by = c?

A 2x 3y 1 = 0 B 2x + 3y + 1 = 0

C 2x + 3y = x

D 2x + 3y = 1

E y =

2

3

x 1

14 MC The x- and y-intercepts for the equation 2y =

3x + 12 are (respectively):

A 2 and 3 B

3 and 12

C

4 and 6 D

4 and

6

E 4 and 6

15 MC Which of the following has a y-intercept of

3?

A y =

3x 3 B y =

3x + 3

C x + 3y = 9 D x 3y + 9 = 0

E 3x + y + 9 = 0

1E

Simultaneous equations

Simultaneous equations are groups of equations containing

two or more variables. In this section, we look at pairs of linear

equations involving the variables x and y. Each equation, as

we have learned in previous sections, may be represented by a

linear graph that is true for many x- and y-values. If the graphs

intersect (when wouldnt they?), the values of x and y at the

intersection are those that make both equations true.

Graphical solution

Finding the point of intersection of two straight lines can be done graphically; however, the accuracy of

the graph determines the accuracy of the solution.

Consequently, using a calculator to solve the equations graphically is more reliable than reading the

solution from a hand-drawn graph.

WORKED EXAMPLE 13

Use a CAS calculator to solve the following simultaneous equations graphically.

y =

3x + 5 4x 7y + 8 = 0

THINK WRITE

1 Using a CAS calculator, make y the subject of the

second equation.

Complete the entry line as:

solve (4x 7y + 8 = 0, y)

solve (4x 7y + 8 = 0, y)

Result: =

+

y

x 4( 2)

7

Both graphs have

the same x- and

y-values here.

y

x

16 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 On a Graphs page, complete the function entry

lines as:

f 1(x) =

3x + 5

f x

x

2( )

4 ( 2)

7

=

+

Use the calculator to fnd the intersection point.

f 1(x) =

3x + 5

f 2(x) =

+ x 4( 2)

7

3 Write the answer. Solving y =

3x + 5 and 4x 7y + 8 = 0

simultaneously produces the solution

(1.08, 1.76).

Algebraic solution

It is possible to solve simultaneous equations without graphs, that is, algebraically. The methods of

substitution and elimination taught in earlier years may be used.

WORKED EXAMPLE 14

Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneous equations.

y = 2 x + 5

x + 3y = 25

THINK WRITE

1 Write down and label the equations. y = 2x + 5 [1]

x + 3y = 25 [2]

2 Substitute [1] into [2] and label the resulting

equation [3].

x + 3(2x + 5) = 25 [3]

3 Solve [3] for x and label the solution as [4].

x + 6x + 15 = 25

5x + 15 = 25

5x = 10

x = 2 [4]

4 Use the solution to solve for y and label the

solution as [5].

Substitute [4] into [1].

y = 2(2) + 5

y = 4 + 5

y = 9 [5]

5 State the complete answer. Solution: (2, 9)

6 Optional check: substitute [4] and [5] into [2]

to check that these values for x and y make

[2] true.

Check in [2].

LHS =

x + 3y

=

2 + 3(9)

= 25

= RHS

WORKED EXAMPLE 15

Use the elimination method to solve these simultaneous equations.

2 x + 9y =

5

5 x 2y 12 = 0

THINK WRITE

1 Write down and label the equations. 2x + 9y =

5 [1]

5x 2y 12 = 0 [2]

2 Rearrange [2] so it is in a similar form to [1].

Call this [3]. Write down [1] again.

5x 2y = 12 [3]

2x + 9y =

5 [1]

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 17

3 Obtain 10x in both [1] and [3]. 2 [3] 10x 4y = 24 [4]

5 [1] 10x + 45y =

25 [5]

4 Eliminate x as shown. [5] [4]: 49y =

49

5 Solve for y.

=

y

49

49

y =

1 [6]

6 Substitute [6] into [1] to fnd x. Substitute [6] into [1].

2x + 9 (

1) =

5

2x 9 =

5

2x =

5 + 9

2x = 4

x = 2 [7]

7 State the solution. Solution: (2,

1)

8 Again, [6] and [7] may be checked in [2] if desired. Check in [2].

LHS = 5x 2y 12

= 5(2) 2(

1) 12

= 10 + 2 12

= 0

= RHS

WORKED EXAMPLE 16

Two shoppers buy the following at a fruit shop, paying the amounts given. What was the cost of

each apple and each banana?

Shopper 1: 4 apples and 3 bananas for $2.59

Shopper 2: 6 apples and 5 bananas for $4.11

THINK WRITE

1 Decide on variable names for the unknown

quantities.

Let a = cost of an apple (in cents).

Let b = cost of a banana (in cents).

2 Write equations involving these variables.

Work in terms of cents.

4a + 3b = 259 [1]

6a + 5b = 411 [2]

3 Choose a variable to eliminate, in this case b. 5 [1]: 20a + 15b = 1295 [3]

3 [2]: 18a + 15b = 1233 [4]

4

Find [3] [4] and solve for a. [3] [4]: 2a = 62

a = 31 [5]

5 Solve for b. Substitute [5] into [1].

4 31 + 3b = 259

124 + 3b = 259

3b = 135

b = 45 [6]

6 State the answer using [5] and [6] as a guide. The cost of an apple is 31 cents, and

the cost of a banana is 45 cents.

Exercise 1E

Simultaneous equations

1 WE13 Use a CAS calculator to solve the following simultaneous equations.

a y =

2x, y =

4x 6 b y = 3x 5, y = 20

c y = 3x + 5, y = 7x 4 d

3x + y =

4, y = 6x + 5

e y = 10x + 1, 2x + y =

6 f 9x + y = 17, x + y = 14

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9702

Simultaneous linear

equations

graphical method

18 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 WE14 Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneously.

a y = 3x + 1, y = 2x + 2 b y = 5x + 5, y =

x 19

c y = x + 2, 3x 4y =

1 d y =

2x + 3,

5x + 2y = 1

e

4x 3y = 2, y =

6x + 7 f y = 10 x, 2x + 7y = 5

3 WE15 Use the elimination method to solve these simultaneous equations.

a 9x + 10y = 153, 3x y = 12 b 7x 11y =

13, x + y = 11

c 6x 2y = 10, 2x + 5y =

8 d

3x + y = 8, 4x + 2y = 21

e 7y x = 11, x + y = 10 f x 11y =

15, y + 6x = 9

4 WE16 At the conclusion of a tour of Wonky Willys confectionery factory, Nutrina buys 10 choc

balls and 8 fizz wizzers for $4.30, and her friend purchases 6 choc balls and 9 fizz wizzers for $4.05.

Determine the cost of each type of lolly.

5 The sum of two whole numbers, x and y, is 41. The difference between them is 3. Write two equations

involving x and y and solve them to find the numbers.

6 A farmer counts emus and sheep in a paddock, and notes there are 57 animals and 196 feet. Assuming

no animal amputees, how many of each animal are there?

7 A sports store supplies 24 basketballs and 16 cricket balls to one school for $275.60, and delivers

12 basketballs and 32 cricket balls to another school for $211. If delivery is free, how much did the

supplier charge for each type of ball?

8 A businessperson hires a stretch limousine for 2 days and a sedan for 3 days while on an interstate trip.

If the total car hire cost of the trip was $675, and the limousine cost triple the price of the sedan, find

the cost per day of the limousine.

9 MC A manufacturing plant produces square and circular metal panels in fixed sizes. If the mass of a

square panel is 13 kg and that of a circular panel is 22 kg, how many of each panel are there in a truck

loaded with 65 panels of total mass 1205 kg?

The equations to solve are:

A 13s + 22c = 1205, s + c = 65 B 22s + 13c = 1205, s + c = 65

C 13s + 22c = 65, s + c = 1205 D 22s + 13c = 65, s + c = 1205

E 13s + 22c = 1205, s + c = 35

10 MC Which of the following is a solution of 11x + 2y =

222?

A (11, 2) B (

121,

9,

1F

Finding the equation of a straight line

Consider a general linear graph containing the particular points (x

1

, y

1

),

(x

2

, y

2

) and the general point (x, y) (which could be any point).

Using the frst two of these points in the formula for gra dient, we have

m

y y

x x

2 1

2 1

=

[1]

Using the frst point and the general point in the same formula yields

m

y y

x x

1

1

=

[2]

Putting [2] = [1] gives

y y

x x

y y

x x

1

1

2 1

2 1

=

y y

y y

x x

x x ( )

1

2 1

2 1

1

[3]

Since m

y y

x x

2 1

2 1

=

y y

1

= m(x x

1

) [4]

This last formula may be used to fnd the equation of a straight line when two points are given or

when the gradient and only one point are given. When two points are given, the gradient m may be found

frst using m

y y

x x

2 1

2 1

=

1

= m(x x

1

) along with one of the points.

y

x

(x

1

, y

1

)

(x

2

, y

2

)

(x, y)

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 19

WORKED EXAMPLE 17

Find the equation of the line having gradient

3

4

that passes through (7, 11).

Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.

THINK WRITE

1 As one point and the gradient are known, use the

formula y y

1

= m(x x

1

).

y y

1

= m(x x

1

)

2 List the given information. m =

3

4

(x

1

, y

1

)

(7, 11)

3 Substitute for all variables except x and y. y 11 =

3

4

(x 7)

4 Simplify, expressing in the form

ax + by + c = 0.

i 4y 44 = 3(x 7)

4y 44 = 3x 21

3x 4y + 23 = 0

5 Express your answer in the form

y = mx + c.

ii 3x + 23 = 4y

y x

3

4

23

4

= +

WORKED EXAMPLE 18

Find the equation of the straight line containing the points (2,

5) and (

3, 1).

Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.

THINK WRITE

1 Write down the points so they match the

variables in the formula.

(x

1

, y

1

) (x

2

, y

2

)

(2,

5) (

3, 1)

2 As two points are known, frst use the

formula m

y y

x x

2 1

2 1

=

to fnd m.

m

y y

x x

1 5

3 2

6

5

2 1

2 1

6

5

=

=

=

3

Write the formula y y

1

= m(x x

1

). y y

1

= m(x x

1

)

4 Substitute the calculated gradient m

6

5

=

and

the frst point (x

1

, y

1

) = (2,

=

y x 5 ( 2)

6

5

5 Simplify and express in the two forms required. + =

y x 5 ( 2)

6

5

5y 25 = 6(x 2)

5y 25 = 6x 12

5y = 6x + 13

i So 6x + 5y + 13 = 0, or

ii y x

6

5

13

5

=

Perpendicular lines

Perpendicular lines are lines that meet at right angles. The gradients of two perpendic ular lines, when

multiplied together, equal

1. Stated mathematically:

m

1

m

2

=

1

20 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Another way to write this relationship is m

m

1

1

2

=

. This type of relationship is known as a negative

reciprocal. For example, the negative reciprocal of

2

3

is

3

2

gradients are negative reciprocals.

Exercise 1F

Finding the equation of a straight line

1 Copy and complete the table below.

Equation 1

f

1

(x)

Gradient of

equation 1

(m

1

)

Equation 2

f

2

(x)

Gradient of

equation 2

(m

2

) m

1

m

2

a

y = 2x + 1 y =

1

2

x

b y = 3x 4

y =

1

3

x + 2

c y =

1

4

x + 6 y =

4x 9

d y =

2

5

x 3 y =

5

2

x + 4

e

y =

9

7

x y =

7

9

x + 1

2 Sketch f

1

(x) and f

2

(x) for part a above using a calculator or using graph paper with identical scales on

each axis to produce accurate graphs. What do you notice about the graphs?

3 Repeat question 2 for graphs b to e. Do you notice anything special about each pair of graphs?

4 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to another line that has a gradient of:

a 4 b

9

c

1

7

d

8

9

e

7

2

f 1.

5 Find the gradient of a line that is perpendicular to the line with equation:

a y =

5x + 2 b y = x 1 c y =

2

3

x + 1

d y x 2

7

6

=

e 2x + y = 5 f 3x 4y = 7.

6 WE17 Find the equation of a straight line having the gradient given and passing through the point

listed. Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.

a (1, 2) gradient 3 b (4, 1) gradient 5

c (3,

2) gradient

1

d (

3, 2) gradient

1

2

7 WE18 Find the equation of the line containing each pair of points. Express your answers in the

forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.

a (5, 2) (3, 1) b (1, 1) (5, 5) c (6, 3) (8, 2) d (2,

2) (0, 1)

8 Find the equation of the line passing through (3,

9 Find the equation of the line containing (7,

10 Find the equation of the line (in y = mx + c form) that:

a is perpendicular to the line with equation y = 3x + 1, passing through (

3, 6)

b is parallel to the line with equation y =

2

5

x 9, passing through (4,

7)

c is parallel to the line with equation 3x + 6y = 8, passing through (2, 2)

d is perpendicular to the line with equation

e has gradient 2, passing through the intersection of the lines with equations y = 3x 5 and y =

2x + 5

f has gradient

3

4

14 and

5x + 2y = 4.

11 Find the equation of the line that passes through the point of intersection of the lines whose equations

are 7x 3y 19 = 0 and 3x + 2y + 5 = 0, given that the required line is parallel to the line with equation

5x 2y = 3.

12 Find the equation of a line containing the intersection of the lines with equations y =

3x + 4 and

5x 3y + 40 = 0 that:

a has a gradient of

6

7

b is perpendicular to the line with gradient

2

3

c passes through the point (

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9703

SkillSHEET 1.2

Reciprocals and

negative reciprocals

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9704

Equation of a

straight line

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 21

13 A line passes through the points (

8,

5), (4,

14 The points (2, 7) and (6, 9) lie on the same straight line. Does the point (4, 8) also lie on this line?

15 The height of a particular young pine tree is found to increase in a linear manner each month in the first

year after planting. Find an equation connecting height with time in months after planting, using the

information supplied in the diagram below.

34 cm

After 2 months

52 cm

After 5 months

1G

Distance between two points and

midpoint of a segment

The distance, d, between any two points on the Cartesian plane may be

found using Pythagoras theorem applied to a right-angled triangle as

shown at right.

Using Pythagoras theorem: c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

or

c a b

2 2

= +

and

replacing c with d, a with (x

2

x

1

) and b with (y

2

y

1

),

we have d x x y y ( ) ( )

2 1

2

2 1

2

= + .

WORKED EXAMPLE 19

Find the distance between the points (

3, 7) and (5,

2) correct to 3 decimal

places.

THINK WRITE

1

Match up (

3, 7) and (5,

2) with (x

1

, y

1

)

and (x

2

, y

2

).

(x

1

, y

1

) (x

2

, y

2

)

(

3, 7) (5,

2)

2 Substitute into the formula for d and

simplify.

= +

= +

= +

= +

=

d x x y y ( ) ( )

(5 3) ( 2 7)

(8) ( 9)

64 81

145

2 1

2

2 1

2

2 2

2 2

= 12.042, correct to 3 decimal places

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9705

WorkSHEET 1.2

INTERACTIVITY

int-0260

Distance between

two points and

midpoint of

a segment

y

2

y

1

d

x

1

x

2

y

x

(y

2

y

1

)

(x

2

, y

2

)

(x

2

x

1

)

(x

1

, y

1

)

TUTORIAL

eles-1405

Worked example 19

22 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Midpoint of a segment

The middle or midpoint M (x

m

, y

m

) of a segment joining two general points A (x

1

, y

1

) and B (x

2

, y

2

) is

shown on the Cartesian plane below.

y

x

M (x

m

, y

m

)

y

2

y

m

x

2

x

m

y

m

y

1

x

m

x

1

A (x

1

, y

1

)

B (x

2

, y

2

)

E

D

C

Consider the triangles ACM and MEB.

MAC = BME (since AM and BM have the same slope)

CMA = EMB (since ACM and MEB are both 90)

AM = BM (given, as M is the midpoint)

Therefore ACM MEB.

Since the horizontal and vertical sides of the two triangles must be equal, we have:

x

m

x

1

= x

2

x

m

and y

m

y

1

= y

2

y

m

Simplifying these,

2x

m

= x

2

+ x

1

2y

m

= y

2

+ y

1

x

x x

2

m

2 1

=

y

y y

2

m

2 1

=

+

So the point M has coordinates

+ +

x x y y

2

,

2

1 2 1 2

.

WORKED EXAMPLE 20

Find the midpoint of the segment joining (5, 9) and (

3, 11).

THINK WRITE

1

Match (5, 9) and (

3, 11) with (x

1

, y

1

) and (x

2

, y

2

). (x

1

, y

1

) (x

2

, y

2

)

(5, 9) (

3, 11)

2 Substitute values into the formula for M and simplify. =

+ +

=

+ +

x x y y

M

2

,

2

5 3

2

,

9 11

2

2

2

,

20

2

(1,10)

1 2 1 2

Exercise 1G

Distance between two points and

midpoint of a segment

1 WE19 Find the distance between each of the following pairs of points.

a (4, 5) and (1, 1) b (7, 14) and (15, 8) c (2, 4) and (2, 3) d (12, 8) and (10, 8)

2 Calculate the distance between each of the pairs of points below, accurate to 3 decimal places.

a (

8, 14) b (6,

7) and (13, 6) c (

3 Find the distance between each of the following pairs of points in terms of the given variable(s).

a (a, 1), (2, 3) b (5, b), (0, 6) c (c, 2), (4, c) d (d, 2d), (1, 5)

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9706

Distance between

two points

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 23

4 Two hikers are about to hike from A to B (shown on the map below). How far is it from A to B as the

crow flies, that is, in a straight line?

N

Grid spacing : 1 km

S

E W

B (E7, N4)

Lake Phillios

100 m

200 m

50 m

A (W12, S5)

300 m

200 m

100 m

5 Using the coordinates shown

on the aerial photo of the golf

course, calculate (to the nearest

metre):

a the horizontal distance travelled

by the golf ball for the shot down

the fairway

b the horizontal distance that needs

to be covered in the next shot to

reach the point labelled A in the

bunker.

6 WE20 Find the midpoint of the segment joining each of the following pairs of points.

a (1, 3) and (3, 5) b (6, 4) and (4,

7 Find the midpoint of the segment joining each of the following pairs of points.

a (7,

2) and (

6,

29) c (

15, 8) and (

4, 11) d (

27)

8 Find the coordinates of the midpoint of each of the following pairs of points, in terms of a variable or

variables where appropriate.

a (2a, a) and (6a, 5a) b (5, 3c) and (11, 3c) c (3f, 5) and (g,

1)

9 Find the value of a in each question below so that the point M is the midpoint of the segment joining

points A and B.

a A (

2, a), B (

6, 5), M (

3

2

)

y (in metres)

x (in metres)

A (320, 148)

(225, 96)

(80, 64)

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9707

Midpoint of a segment

24 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

10 A fun-run course is drawn (not to scale) at right.

If drink stations D1, D2 and D3 are to be placed at

the middle of each straight section, give the map

coordinates of each drink station.

11 Find the equation of a line that has a gradient

of 5 and passes through the midpoint of the segment

joining (

1,

7) and (3, 3).

12 Find the equation of a line parallel to the line with

equation 9x 3y = 5 that passes through the midpoint

of the segment connecting (0,

4) and (

2, 10).

1H

Linear modelling

Many real-life applications, such as fees charged for services, cost of manufacturing or running a

business, patterns in nature, sporting records and so on, follow linear relation ships. These relationships

may take the form of a linear equation; for example, F = 50 + 30t may be used by a tradesperson to

calculate her fee (in dollars) for t hours of work.

Here, F is the fee in dollars, and t the time in hours. The 50 represents an initial fee for simply turning

up, while the 30t is the amount charged for the time spent on the job.

For example, if t = 2 hours, 30t = 60, so the total charge for the work would be $(50 + 60) = $110.

Equations like F = 50 + 30t are sometimes referred to as linear models, a common form of which is:

Total cost = Fixed cost + Cost per unit Number of units.

This is, of course, equivalent to y = mx + c. y = c + mx.

WORKED EXAMPLE 21

A generator company charges a $200 delivery fee, and a rental fee of $1500 per day.

a Find an expression relating total charge to the number of days for which the generator is hired.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship.

c What would be the charge for 4 weeks of rental?

THINK WRITE/DRAW

a 1 Defne convenient variables. a Let T = total charge (in dollars) and

n = number of days the generator is hired.

2 The fxed cost is $200, and the cost per unit is

$1500. (c = 200, m = 1500)

T = 200 + 1500n

b 1

Find the vertical intercept (when n = 0). b If n = 0, T = 200

2 The total cost rises $1500 each day, so the

graph must show this.

1 2

3200

200

1700

T ($)

n (Days)

c 1

After 4 weeks, n = 28. Substitute this

in the equation from part a.

c If n = 28

T = 200 + 1500 28

= 200 + 42 000

= 42 200

2 Write the answer in words. After 4 weeks, the total cost is $42 200.

y

x

(

4.5, 5)

(1.5, 3.5)

(13,

8)

(3,

7)

(1.5,

2)

START/

FINISH

Offcial tent

D1

D2

D3

Coordinates

are in kilometres.

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 25

WORKED EXAMPLE 22

Rent-a-Chef provides food cooked and served by a qualifed chef at parties.

The company charges $120 as a booking fee, and an additional $30 per hour.

Another company, Greased Lightning, provides fast food served by two

students at a cost of $65 per hour, with no booking fee. Under what conditions

would it be cheapest to hire Greased Lightning?

THINK WRITE

1 Defne convenient variables. Let C = cost (total) in dollars and t = time in hours.

2 Write an equation for the cost of hiring both

organisations.

Rent-a-Chef C = 120 + 30t [1]

Greased Lightning C = 65t [2]

3 Use simultaneous equations to fnd when the

cost is the same with each group.

Put [1] = [2]

120 + 30t = 65t

120 = 35t

t

120

35

=

= 3.4 hours

4 At 3.4 hours, the cost is the same. Since Greased

Lightning has the higher per hour cost, after

3.4hours, they would be more expensive.

It is cheaper to hire Greased Lightning for food

preparation and service of less than 3.4 hours

(3 hours and 26 minutes) duration.

Notes

1. 0.4 hours = 0.4 60 minutes = 24 minutes.

2. An alternative approach would be to use a CAS calculator and fnd the point at which the

two graphs crossed.

Exercise 1H

Linear modelling

1 WE21 The cost of hiring a floodlit

tennis court consists of a booking fee and

an hourly rate.

a Use the photo to write an equation

for the total hire cost in terms of the

hourly rate.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship.

c What would be the charge for

3 hours?

2 A singing telegram service charges a $60

appearance fee, and $8 per minute sung.

a Write an equation for the total cost

of a singing telegram in terms of the

number of minutes sung.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship.

c What would be the charge for a 5-minute singing telegram?

3 Colleen delivers junk mail and is paid $32 to traverse a particular route, and a further 10 cents per

leaflet delivered.

a Write an equation for the total payment she receives.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship expressed in a.

c What would be Colleens pay if she delivers 1650 leafets along the route?

4 A pay-TV salesperson receives $300 per week plus $20 for every household he signs up to have pay-

TV connected. How much does the salesperson receive for a week in which he signs up 33 households?

5 WE22 A computer firm, SuperComputers Inc., offers a back-up plan covering the ongoing service and

troubleshooting of its systems after sale. The cost of signing up for the service plan is $215, and there is an

TUTORIAL

eles-1406

Worked example 22

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9708

Simultaneous linear

equations

26 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

hourly rate of $65 for the servicepersons time. Purchasers not signing up for the plan are charged a flat rate

of $150 per hour for service. Would it be advisable to sign up for the service plan if you expected to need

3 hours of service assistance during the life of a computer purchased from Super Computers Inc?

6 Two amusement parks show the following information for school-age tourists in a promotional

brochure. After how many rides does an excursion to Fun World become the cheaper option for the

same number of rides?

A

q

u

a W

o

r

l

d

$8.00 entry

$2.50 per ride

$12 entry

$1.50 per ride

7 A telephone company, Opus, offers calls to Biddelonia for a connection fee of $14, and thereafter

$1 per minute. Its rival, Elstra, offers calls for $2 per minute (no connection fee) to the same country.

a Compare the cost of a 10-minute call to Biddelonia using each company.

b At what point would it be cheaper to use Opus?

8 It costs you $6 to get into a taxi (the flagfall), and $1.50 per kilometre if you use PinkCabs, while

NoTop taxis charge $8 flagfall, and $1.20 per kilometre.

a How much would it cost with each company to travel 15 kilometres in one of its cabs?

b When would it cost the same to use both companies?

9 Medirank, a health insurance company, charges $860 per year (for a single person) and requires

customers to pay the first $100 of any hospital visit. HAB, on the other hand, charges an annual fee

of $560 and requires its members to pay the first $150 of any hospital visit. Determine the number of

hospital visits in a year for which the cost of health services is the same whichever company insures you.

10 Nifty is a car hire firm that charges insurance of $135 and $50 per day car hire. A competitor, Savus,

simply charges $65 per day and offers free insurance. You are planning a holiday, and would prefer to

use Savus. Under what conditions (days hired) could you justify this choice?

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 27

Summary

Solving linear

equations and

inequations

Do the same to both sides and remember inverse operations + and , and , and

2

.

Aim to get a single variable by itself.

Solve inequations the same way as equations, keeping the original inequality sign at each step,

unless multiplying or dividing by a negative number.

Rearrangement and

substitution

Make x the subject means manipulate into the form x = .

Substitute means to replace a variable with a value.

Gradient of a straight

line

m

y y

x x

2 1

2 1

=

m = tan ()

where is the angle the line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis.

Sketching linear

functions

The general equation for a straight line of gradient m and y-intercept c is y = mx + c.

Lines with the same gradient (m) are parallel.

To fnd the y-intercept, let x = 0 and fnd y.

To fnd the x-intercept, let y = 0 and fnd x.

If y = 0 when x = 0, substitute another x-value (for example x = 1) to fnd another point

on the line.

Join two points and/or intercepts with a straight line.

Simultaneous

equations

Simultaneous equations can be solved with a calculator.

For equations of the form y = ax + b, y = cx + d, consider using substitution.

For equations of the form ax + by = c, dx + ey = f, consider using elimination.

Finding the equation

of a straight line

Formulas for fnding the equation of a straight line:

y = (mx + c)

=

y y

y y

x x

x x ( )

1

2 1

2 1

1

y y

1

= m(x x

1

)

For perpendicular lines, m

1

m

2

=

1.

Distance between two

points and midpoint of

a segment

d x x y y ( ) ( )

2 1

2

2 1

2

= +

=

+ +

x x y y

M

2

,

2

1 2 1 2

Linear modelling Total cost (y) = fxed cost (c) + cost per unit (m) number of units (x)

y = c + mx

28 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Chapter review

1 Solve the equation

x x 3(5 4)

7

6(4 3)

5

=

+

.

2 Find the value of x where

x

x 3

7 8

10

4 9

+

= .

3 Solve the inequality

x x 3( 4)

4

1

2

+

.

4 The following formula may be used to study planetary motion.

GmM

R

m R

T

4

2

2

2

=

Make T the subject of the equation.

5 Using Pythagoras theorem, find the length of the hypotenuse of the

triangle shown. Express your answer:

a in surd form

b to 3 decimal places.

6 Calculate the gradient of each of the following lines.

a

y

x

6

8

b

x

y

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

54321 1 2 3 4 5 6

0

c

x

y

1 grid

square = 1 unit

d y

x

(4, 10)

(12, 3)

7 Find the gradient of the line joining (

6).

8 Find the gradient of the line shown.

y

x

77

9 State the gradient of the line below.

y

x 5

SHORT

ANSWER

6

9

c

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 29

10 State the gradient and y-intercept (in that order) for each of the following.

a y = 3x 7 b 5x + 3y = 30 c 2x 4y 8 = 0

11 Find the equation for a linear graph having gradient

2

5

and y-intercept

3.

12 Sketch graphs of the following, showing intercepts.

a y =

3x + 24 b

x + 8y = 40 c 9x 7y 63 = 0 d y + 6x = 0

13 Solve y = 3x + 10 and y =

2x 15 graphically.

a Sketch the solution on a set of axes. b State the solution (point of intersection).

14 Solve y =

15 Use the method of elimination to solve 4x 7y = 21,

2x + y = 6.

16 A piggybank contains 67 coins. If there are only one- and two-dollar coins in the piggybank,

and there are 25 more one-dollar coins than two-dollar coins, how many of each type are there?

17 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to 3x 9y = 7.

18 Find the equation of the line containing (

19 Find the equation of the line having gradient

6

7

20 Find the equation of the line perpendicular to y =

1

4

x 5 that passes through (

8, 6).

21 The distance between (2,

7) and (a,

22 Show that the triangle with vertices (3, 7), (3, 3) and (6, 3) is a right-angled triangle.

23 The midpoint of the line joining (k, 2h) and (9k, 6h + 2) is (20,

24 The washing machine repair company Washed out charges $75 to come to your house, as well as an

hourly charge of $65, calculated to the nearest half hour.

a Write an equation that may be used to calculate the cost of any service call if the

time taken by the repairer is known.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship between repair cost and time taken to do a repair.

c How much would it cost to have a repair done that takes 3

1

2

hours?

MULTIPLE

CHOICE

1 The first step in solving

x 7 23

3

99

= would be to:

A add 23 to both sides B divide both sides by 3

C divide both sides by 7 D multiply both sides by 3

E multiply both sides by 7

2 x = 5 is a solution to the equation:

A 3x + 7 =

8 B 2x 7 =

5 C

x 25

6

5

+

=

D 2(x + 3) = 10 E

x 5

9

45 =

3 The solution to

x

x

14

3

2( 2)

+

+ is:

A x 10 B x

2

5

C x

2

5

D x

2

5

E x

6

5

4 When c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

is rearranged to make a the subject, the equation becomes:

A c a b

2 2

= + B a

2

= b

2

+ c

2

C a c b

2 2 2

=

D a c b

2 2

= E a = b + c

5 Which values, when substituted into K mv

1

2

2

= , give a value for K of 4?

A m = 2, v = 4 B m = 4, v = 2 C m = 8, v =

1

2

D m = 8, v = 1 E m = 1, v = 16

6 Using the equation P = m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

, if P = 10, m

1

= 2, m

2

= 6 and v

1

= 4, v

2

would equal:

A

1

3

B

1

2

C 1 D 2 E 3

30 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

7 The line shown has a gradient of:

A

6

B

3

C

2

D 2

E

6

3

8 The gradient of the line shown at right is 3. The value of a must be:

A

2 B

1 C 5

D 7 E 11

9 The gradient of the line joining (

1, 0) and (4,

10) is:

A

4 B

2 C 2

D 4 E 5

10 Which of the graphs below has a gradient of

6

7

?

A

y

x

7

6

B

y

x

6

7

C

y

x

6

7

D y

x

7

6

E y

x

7

6

11 The gradient of the line with equation y x 1

6

7

= is:

A

1 B

6

7

C

7

6

D 6 E 7

12 The y-intercept of the line with equation y x 12

2

3

= + is:

A

2

3

B

3

2

C 2 D 3 E 12

13 The gradient and y-intercept (in that order) of the line with equation 2x 3y = 7 are:

A 2 and

3 B 2 and 7

C

2

3

and 7

D

and

2

3

7

3

E

3 and

7

2

A

y

x

c

B

y

x

c

C

y

x c

y

x

3

6

y

x

(2, 5)

(6, a)

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 31

D

y

x

c

E

y

x

c

15 The equation of the line shown at right is:

A 2x 5y = 1 B 2x y = 4

C 15x + 6y =

30 D 10y x =

2

E

x y

2 5

1 =

16 To solve the equations 2x + y = 5 and 3x 6y = 12 graphically on a calculator, you would enter the

equations in the function entry line as:

A f 1(x) = 2x + y and f 2(x) = 3x 6y

B f 1(x) = 5 and f 2(x) = 12

C f 1(x) = 5 2x and f 2(x) = 12 + 6y

D f 1(x) = 2x + 5 and f 2(x) = 3x + 12

E f 1(x) =

2x + 5 and f 2(x) =

x

2

2

17 Which of the following would be the most effective way to solve the following equations

simultaneously?

y = 2x 13 [1]

y = 7x + 2 [2]

A Multiply [1] by 2 and [2] by 13 and add the newly formed equations.

B Multiply [1] by 7 and put it equal to [2].

C Multiply [2] by 2 and put it equal to [1].

D Multiply [1] by 2 and [2] by 7 and subtract the newly formed equations.

E Put [1] equal to [2].

18 The gradient of a line perpendicular to a line with a gradient of 7 is:

A

1

7

7 C

7

1

D 7 E

7

1

19 The gradient of a line perpendicular to y

x 7 5

16

=

+

is:

A

1

7

B

1

7

C

16

7

D

5

16

E

7

16

2) and (2,

A y 2 = x 1 B y + 2 = 1 x C y + 3 = x 1

D x 2y =

3 E 3x 5y = 1

21 A line with equation y 7 = 5(x 1) has:

A gradient 5 and contains the point (7, 1) B gradient

1,

7)

C gradient 5 and contains the point (1, 7) D gradient

7)

E gradient

22 The distance between (4, 3) and (

2, 1) is equal to:

A (

2 4)

2

+ (1 3)

2

B (4 3) ( 2 1)

2 2

+

C (4 3 ) ( 2 1 )

2 2 2 2

+

D (4 2) (3 1)

2 2

+ + E ( 2 4) (1 3)

2 2

y

x

5

2

32 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

23 The midpoint of the segment joining (11,

3) and (

5, 17) is:

A ( 5 , 1 )

1

2

1

2

B (3, 7) C (6, 14)

D ( 2 , 8 )

1

2

1

2

E (4, 6)

24 Bote lives 5 kilometres from the nearest post office. At noon one day he begins cycling (from home) at

20 kilometres per hour in a constant direction away from the post office. At t hours after Bote begins

cycling, the distance, D km, that he is from the post office is given by:

A D = 5t B D = 20t C D = 5t + 20

D D = 20t + 5 E D = 20t 5

25 The linear function f D R f x x : , ( ) 6 2 = has range [

A [

3, 5] B [

5, 3] C R

D [

14, 18] E [

18, 14]

EXTENDED

RESPONSE

1 The graph at right is a rough sketch of three points on a section of

sheet metal that are to be drilled by a programmed robotic drilling

arm. Any deviation from a straight path, no matter how slight,

means the arm must be programmed for more than one direction.

The coordinates marked are correct. Will the robotic arm be able to

move in one direction only to drill all three holes?

2 Points A, B and C have the coordinates (1, 6), (0, 0) and (

2, 2).

Find the coordinates for a point D so that the four points form a

parallelogram.

3 Consider the points (

4,

1) and (0,

7).

a Find the coordinates of the midpoints of each side of the quadrilateral formed by the points.

b Show that the shape formed by the midpoints is a parallelogram.

c Repeat parts a and b for a different set of starting points.

d What can you conjecture based on your answers?

4 The cost of a parachuting course consists of a charge of $250, which covers equipment hire and tuition,

and a further expense of $55 per jump.

a Express the total cost, C, as a function of j, the number of jumps.

b How many jumps could a person doing the course afford if she was prepared to spend up to

$1000?

5 A physics student conducts an experiment to find out how much a spring stretches when various

weights are hung from it. Her results are shown in the table below.

Length of spring (cm) Force applied (N)

4 0

7 10

12 20

16.5 30

20.5 40

25 50

a What is the natural or unstretched length of the spring?

b Plot a graph of the students results.

c Draw a straight line through the points that best describes the data.

d Select two points on the line and use them to ft a linear equation to the line.

y

x

6

8 14 20

12

16

A

B

C

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 33

A second student conducts the same experiment on a similar

spring. His results are shown below.

Length of spring (cm) Force applied (N)

5 0

10 10

16 20

21 30

24 40

28 50

e On the same set of axes you used in part b, plot the results of

the second experiment and join the points with a line of best ft.

f Write an equation that describes the relationship between the

force applied and the length of the second spring.

The gradients of graphs such as the ones you have drawn give an

indication of the stiffness of a spring. The greater the gradient, the

harder it is to stretch the spring. The lower the gradient, the easier

it is to stretch the spring.

g Comment on the stiffness of the two springs investigated by the

students.

h Is it likely that these two springs will ever be the same length at

a given force; that is, is it likely that the intersection of the two

graphs could ever really happen? Explain your answer.

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9709

Test Yourself

Chapter 1

34 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DIGITAL DOC

10 Quick Questions doc-9695: Warm up with ten quick questions on

linear functions (page 1)

1A

Solving linear equations and inequations

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9696: Use trial and error to balance an equation and hence

solve for the unknown variable (page 3)

1B

Rearrangement and substitution

DIGITAL DOC

Career profile doc-9697: Learn how a vigneron uses substitution and

other areas of mathematics in his work (page 8)

1C

Gradient of a straight line

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9698: Calculate the gradient between two given points (page 10)

SkillSHEET 1.1 doc-9699: Practise using the gradient to find the value

of a parameter (page 11)

1D

Sketching linear functions

DIGITAL DOCS

WorkSHEET 1.1 doc-9700: Solve linear equations, use substitution

and calculate gradients of straight line graphs (page 12)

doc-9701: Investigate the effect of changing the gradient and

y-intercept for a linear graph (page 14)

TUTORIAL

WE 12 eles-1404: Watch a tutorial on how to sketch a linear

graph by hand (page 13)

1E

Simultaneous equations

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9702: Use the graphical method to solve simultaneous linear

equations (page 17)

1F

Finding the equation of a straight line

DIGITAL DOCS

SkillSHEET 1.2 doc-9703: Practise writing positive and negative

reciprocals of rational numbers (page 20)

doc-9704: Investigate the equations of straight lines (page 20)

WorkSHEET 1.2 doc-9705: Sketch linear graphs, determine equations

of linear graphs and application problems (page 21)

1G

Distance between two points and midpoint of

a segment

INTERACTIVITY

Distance between two points and midpoint of a segment int-0260:

Consolidate your understanding of how to calculate the distance

between two points and the midpoint of a segment (page 21)

TUTORIAL

WE 19 eles-1405: Watch how to calculate the distance between

two points on a Cartesian plane (page 21)

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9706: Investigate the distance between two points (page 22)

doc-9707: Investigate the midpoint of a segment (page 23)

1H

Linear modelling

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9708: Investigate simultaneous linear equations (page 25)

TUTORIAL

WE 22 eles-1406: Watch how to apply linear algebra skills to

determine the conditions for which it would be cheapest to hire a

catering company (page 25)

Chapter review

DIGITAL DOC

Test Yourself doc-9709: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress (page 33)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 35

Answers CHAPTER 1

LINEAR FUNCTIONS

Exercise 1A

Solving linear equations

and inequations

1 a 2 b

8 c

7

3

d 7 e

1 f 9

g

1 h 10 i

12

2 a 6 b 5 c

13

d

112

9

e 12 f

5

g

9 h

76

59

i 3

j

4 k

9 l

7

3 a

x

13

6

b

x

31

3

c x > 3

d x <

3 e x 11 f

x

3

2

Exercise 1B

Rearrangement and

substitution

1 a P = A L b l

A

w

=

c t

d

v

= d r

C

2

=

e

E

2

=

f

r

kQq

F

=

g

v

Fd mu

m

2

2

=

+

h

v

rT

2

=

i w

S lh

l h

2

2( )

=

+

j H

S r

r

2

2

2

=

2 a 0.267 b 350 c 7

d 13 100 e 2.498

3 a l A, 7.746 = b r

V 3

4

, 6.204

3

=

c =

a

v u

t

, 4.167 d

l g

T

2

, 3.972

2

e c

K (1 )

, 2622

2

=

4 a 42 cm

b w

P

l w

P l

2

or

2

2

= =

c 40 mm

5 a 240 m

2

b a

A

h

b a

A bh

h

2

or

2

= =

c 18 cm

6 a $1123.60

b =

r

A

D

A D

D

100 1 100

c 41.4%

7 a f

uv

u v

=

+

b =

u

f v

v f

c 150 cm

8 b = 2

9 h

25

= cm

Exercise 1C

Gradient of a straight line

1 a 2

b

1

3

2 a 2 b 5 c

4 d

1

2

3 a 1.192 b 3.078 c 0.176

d

0.577 e

0.577 f 0

g 1 h 57.290

4 a 0.93 b 2.61

c

0.53 d

3.73

5 a D b C

c A d B

6 a B b E

7

2

17

8

17

300

9 a 4 b 31

c

5 d 3

10 a No b Yes c 224 cm

Exercise 1D

Sketching linear functions

1 ae

x

y

y = x

y = 2x

y = 2x

y = x

y = 3x

2 The higher the number, the steeper the

graph. Positive values make the graph

slope up when moving (or tracing) to the

right; negative values make the graph

slope down when moving to the right.

3 ad

x

1

4

y

4

y = x 4

y = x + 1

y = x + 2

y = x + 3

4 ad

x 0

1

6

5

7

y

1 1

y = 2x + 1

y = 2x 7

y = 3x 5

y = 3x + 6

5 The number is where the graph cuts the

y-axis (hence the name y-intercept).

6 a y = 2x + 7 b y =

3x + 1

c y = 5x 2 d y x

2

3

1

3

= +

e y x

3

4

1

2

=

f y =

2x + 12

7 a 4, 5 b 4,

8

c

3, 1 d

2, 4

e

7,

9 f 2, 5

g ,

2

11

6 h

,

8

3

2

3

i ,

1

6

5

2

j

,

5

2

7

2

8 a y = 4x + 2 b y =

5

2

x 5

c y x 2

4

3

= d y =

5

6

x + 5

e y = 2x 1 f y =

5x

9 a

y

x

3

18

b

y

x

21

7

c

y

x

3

3

2

d

y

x

10

2

e y

x

30

10

3

f y

x 8

16

10 a y

x

2

3

b

y

x

4

5

c y

x

3

6

36 Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

d

y

x

7

5

11 a

y

x

6

7

b

y

x

10

4

c y

x

4

16

3

d y

x 2

6

12 a y

x

(1, 1)

b y

x

(1, 1)

c y

x

(1, 2)

13 D 14 E 15 A

Exercise 1E

Simultaneous equations

1 a

x

1

1

y

1

1

y = 4x 6

(3, 6)

y = 2x

b

x

20

5

y

5 5

y = 20

y = 3x 5

25

3

( )

, 20

c

x

y

9

,

4

47

4

( )

y = 3x + 5

y = 7x 4

d

x

5

0

y

(3, 13)

y = 4 + 3x y = 6x + 5

e

x

5

5

y

5

y = 10x + 1

y =

6 2x

7

12

29

6

( )

,

f

x

14

y

y = 17 9x

y = 14 x

3

8

109

8

( )

17

9

,

17

2 a (1, 4) b (

4,

15)

c (

7,

5) d (

5

9

,

17

9

)

e (

23

14

,

20

7

) f (13,

3)

3 a (7, 9) b (6, 5)

c (1,

2) d (

1

2

,

19

2

)

e (

59

8

,

21

8

) f (

84

67

,

99

67

)

4 15 cents and 35 cents 5 22 and 19

6 16 emus, 41 sheep

7 Basketballs $9.45, cricket balls $3.05

8 Limousine $225 (sedan $75)

9 A 10 D

Exercise 1F

Finding the equation

of a straight line

1 a 2,

1

2

1 b 3,

1

3

1

c

1

4

,

4,

1 d

2

5

,

5

2

1

e

9

7

,

7

9

,

1

2 They are perpendicular.

3 They are perpendicular.

4 a

1

4

b

1

9

c

7

d

9

8

e

2

7

1

5 a

1

5

b

1 c

3

2

d

6

7

e

1

2

f

4

3

6 a i 3x y 1 = 0 ii y = 3x 1

b i 5x y 19 = 0 ii y = 5x 19

c i x + y 1 = 0 ii y =

x + 1

d i x 2y + 7 = 0 ii

y x

1

2

7

2

= +

7 a i x 2y 1 = 0 ii

y x

1

2

1

2

=

b i x y = 0 ii y = x

c i x + 2y 12 = 0 ii y =

1

2

x + 6

d i 3x + 2y 2 = 0 ii y =

3

2

x + 1

8 y = x 6 9 y = 3x 23

10 a y =

1

3

x + 5 b y x

2

5

43

5

=

c y =

1

2

x + 3 d

y x

7

6

14

3

= +

e y = 2x 3 f

y x

3

4

9

2

=

11 y x

5

2

3

2

=

12 a

y x

6

7

82

7

= +

b

y x 7

3

2

= +

c y =

x + 8 d = +

y

x

8

39

4

13 94 14 Yes

15 H = 22 + 6t

Exercise 1G

Distance between two

points and midpoint of a segment

1 a 5 b 10

c 1 d 2

2 a 7.211 b 14.765

c 13.038

3 a

a a 4 8

2

+

b

b b 12 61

2

+

c c c 2( 6 10)

2

+

d

d d 5 22 26

2

+

4 21.024 km

5 a 216 b 108

6 a (2, 4) b (5, 1)

c (7, 2) d (8, 9)

7 a (1 , 5 )

1

2

1

2

b

( 3, 3 )

1

2

c

( 9 , 9 )

1

2

1

2

d

( 1 , 6 )

1

2

1

2

c

f g 3

2

, 2

+

9 a 5 b 9

10 D1 (

1.5, 4.25), D2 (

7.5)

11 y = 5x 7 12 y = 3x + 6

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions 37

Exercise 1H

Linear modelling

1 a C = 25 + 5t

b

1 2

35

25

30

Cost ($)

Time (h)

c $40

2 a C = 60 + 8m

b

1 2

76

60

68

Cost ($)

Time (min)

c $100

3 a P = 32 + 0.1n

b

10 20

34

32

33

Payment ($)

Number

of leafets

c $197

4 $960

5 Yes ($410 compared to $450)

6 After 4 rides

7 a Opus $24, Elstra $20

b After 14 minutes

8 a PinkCabs $28.50, NoTop $26

b After 6.7 km (6

2

3

km)

9 6 visits

10 Savus would be cheaper for up to 9 days

hire.

CHAPTER REVIEW

SHORT ANSWER

1

2

2 6

3 x

14

4 T

R

GM

R

R

GM

4

or 2

2 3

=

5 a

15

b 3.873

6 a

3

4

b

7

11

c

5

11

d

7

8

7

7

3

8 4.331

9 Undefned

10 a 3,

7 b

5

3

, 10

c

1

2

,

2

11

y x 3

2

5

=

12 a

y

x

24

8

b

y

x

40

5

c

y

x

9

7

d

y

x

(1, 6)

13 a

x

5

5

y

5

f (x) = 3x + 10

f (x) =

2x 15

(5, 5)

b (

5,

5)

14 ( , 5)

5

3

15 ( , )

63

10

33

5

16 21 two-dollar and 46 one-dollar coins

17

3

18 y =

x + 4

19 y x

6

7

34

7

= +

20 y =

4x 26 21 6

22 Teacher to check.

23 k = 4, h =

3

24 a C = 75 + 65t

b

1 2

205

75

140

C ($)

t (h)

c $302.50

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1 D 2 A 3 C 4 D

5 D 6 A 7 C 8 D

9 B 10 B 11 B 12 A

13 D 14 B 15 E 16 E

17 E 18 A 19 C 20 B

21 C 22 D 23 B 24 D

25 A

EXTENDED RESPONSE

1 No, the points are not collinear. This may

be shown by calculating gradients or

equations for lines joining different pairs

of points.

2 (

1, 8)

3 a Midpoints: (1, 0), (5,

1

2

), (2,

4), (

2,

9

2

)

d The midpoints of any quadrilateral form

a parallelogram.

4 a C = 250 + 55j

b 13 jumps

5 a 4 cm

b, c, e

60

50

40

30

20

10

Length of spring (cm)

F

o

r

c

e

a

p

p

l

i

e

d

t

o

s

p

r

i

n

g

(

N

)

Student 1

Student 2

5 10 15 20 25 30

0

d Answers will vary. One possible answer

is

y x

30

13

95

13

=

.

f Answers will vary. One possible answer

is y = 2x 10.

g The frst spring is stiffer than the second,

as the gradient of its graph is greater

than that of the second spring.

h The graphs intersect at the point

(

8.75,

springs to have a negative length, so this

point is not achievable.

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