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You are on page 1of 4

Glenn Cyril D. Omayan

cptjnayamo@gmail.com

Abstract

Ohms Law has been an important principle in Physics. However, this said law does have limitations where the use

of Ohms Law is not recommended. This happens when a conductor does not have a definite ratio between the

voltage and the amount of current in the system. Instead of having a linear graph, these conductors show a non-

linear graph. In our experiment, we used incandescent lamps to measure the current given some voltage values

that is then plotted to a log-log graphing paper where we can see the non-linear relationship of the two values.

From the gathered data from our experiment, we found out that the incandescent lamp follows an exponential

relationship from the amount of current to the voltage of the system. Therefore as the amount of current increases,

the voltage increases by a specific power.

I. Introduction

Resistance, defined on the Ohms Law, on conductors is R = V

ab

/ I. However, this principle

states that the electrical systems resistance must be uniform otherwise the law is not applicable. In our

experiment, we used incandescent lamps. Filament lamps, like incandescent lamps, have their resistance

increased as the amount of current input is increased. This process must be done to the lamp to prevent

from breakage due to high temperature. Because the incandescent lamps follow an exponential V - I graph,

an applicable formula is the power relation of current and voltage given as

V = C * I

n

where C and n are constants. C is the y-intercept when current is at 1.0A and n is the gradient or the slope

of line. Since we are graphing the data in a log-log graphing paper, we applied the logarithmic functions

to both sides of the equation thus yielding us to an equation of

log V = n log C + log I

Figure 1: A rough graph of the relationship between Potential

Difference (V) and the amount of Current (I) on filament lamps

This experiment will show the characteristics of the relationship of the voltage and current in a

non-constant resistance.

II. Methodology

For this experiment, the materials used were the power supply unit (PSU), an incandescent lamp,

a couple of wires and a lamp socket.

As for the experimental procedures to be done systematically, the power supply unit (PSU) was

first set to 0V. After the incandescent lamp was connected to the PSU, the PSU is then set to the rating of

the used lamp. The current reading and the voltage is then read and recorded from the output display of

the PSU. From the maximum rating, the voltage is then decremented by 1.0V by adjusting the knob in the

PSU. This process was then repeated until the filament of the lamp no longer lit up. Current and voltage

readings are to be recorded for every step.

III. Results and Discussions

Based from the data that was gathered, the relationship is positive. Therefore increase in current

increases the voltage. Furthermore, since it is a filament lamp which does not obey Ohms Law due to

non-constant resistance, the graph is not linear but rather exponential. From the log-log graph, shown on

the next page, the slope obtained is n = 2.37 and the y-intercept is C = 29.62 giving us a line equation of

log V = 2.37log I + log 29.62 or V = 29.62I

2.37

. The table below shows recorded values for both voltage

and current readings.

Current (A) Voltage (V)

0.7 12.0V

0.67 11.0V

0.64 10.0V

0.61 9.0V

0.57 8.0V

0.54 7.0V

0.5 6.0V

0.46 5.0V

0.42 4.0V

0.37 3.0V

0.32 2.0V

0.25 1.0V

Table 1: Recorded Values for Voltage and Current Readings

IV. Conclusions

From the gathered current and voltage readings, after the graph was plotted in a log-log paper, we

can tell that it follows a relatively straight line. Therefore, the relationship between the voltage and the

amount of current is exponential thus an increase of current yields an exponential growth of the voltage

value which implies that the instantaneous resistance of the lamp increases when the current is increased

because of the very high instantaneous voltage value

V. Acknowledgments

I would like to show my deepest gratitude to the following people who helped or inspired me in

making this lab report:

To our Phys42SNL teacher, Prof. Harold Bulanon, for giving us a task to make a lab report and

also for checking the abstract part of my lab report forehand. Also for being a good facilitator in the lab,

who helps us if we did not get the instructions.

To Kendricke George Andre Ong, my laboratory partner, for being always there, helping me if I

needed any help.

To Nescafe Philippines for making good quality coffee that kept me awake during the past few

days while is I was working on this lab report.

And to all people, who were not mentioned, who helped, inspired and annoyed me in the process

of planning and making this lab report.

VI. Bibliography

http://physicsnet.co.uk/gcse-physics/non-ohmic-devices/. Graphs for Non-ohmic Device, 2010

The Physics Teacher, Dec. 1999. Vol. 37, Basic Physics of the Incandescent Lamp, pp. 520-

525

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