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BALIKPAPAN 16 JUNE 2014

LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIP STORATIVITY INTERPOROSITY FLOW
COEFFICIENT AND RATIO WITH THE RECOVERY FACTOR DURING THE
PERIOD OF PLATEAU RATE ON NATURAL FRACTURING RESERVOIR

Ayu Utaya Ryandhita
1)
, Rizky Kurniawan Putra
2)
,Rizky Rosdiana
3)

Petroleum Engineering, Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi, Balikpapan, Indonesia



ABSTRACT

natural fracturing reservoir is accompanied by
the presence of fissures formed naturally and exert
influence on the flow of fluid that occurs in the
reservoir. The breach affected the mechanism of
production of oil and gas in the reservoir.
Reservoir fracturing naturally have a very
important parameter to be able to estimate the
performance of the reservoir the storativity
interporosity flow coefficient and ratio. This
scientific paper describing the relationship
between the ratio and storativity interporosity
flow coefficient for a recovery factor during the
period of plateau rate on oil reservoirs with
vertical wells and horizontal wells in gas
reservoir.

In conducting this study, the author does a
Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) and natural
fracturing reservoir modeling so that we can see
the behavior of the reservoir, then from this author
does model sensitivity to price ratio and
storativity interporosity flow coefficient to
observe what impact recovery factor during the
period of plateau rate on reservoir fracturing
naturally.

Sensitivity analysis on the results of oil and gas
reservoir, found that the bigger the price storativiy
ratio then the recovery factor during the plateau
rate of getting bigger. As for the sensitivity of the
interporosity flow coefficient obtained results
which do not affect significantly the price
recovery factor for oil reservoir. On the contrary
the result of sensitivity in reservoir gas giving
significant influence, in which the greater the
coefficient of flow then the interporosity price
recovery factor during the plateau rate will be
getting smaller. Thus generate an equation has
been on the recovery factor during the period of
plateau rate as a function of the price ratio and
storativity interporosity flow coefficient for
fracturing natural reservoir.

Keywords: storativity interporosity flow ratio,
coefficient, reservoir fracturing natural.

INTRODUCTION

The Reservoir is a reservoir natural fracturing
has a rock matrix system characterisitics and
fissures in it. The matrix and the fissures have
different rock properties, thus fracturing natural
reservoirs are often referred to with the dual
porosity reservoir. It is this that distinguishes
natural fracturing reservoir with plain reservoir in
General (single reservoir porosity). The difference
is the difference in behaviour gives the production
a fluid reservoirnya. This type of deployment
could almost be found worldwide, including in
Indonesia. An interest in reservoir fracturing
naturally start increasing in the last few years, this
is because the effect of the breach found in
reservoirs play an important role in the acquisition
of oil and gas produced. In 1956 Knebel and
Rodriques% u2013 Eraso1 reported that 41% of
ultimate recovery found to date was conceived in
this type of reservoir. McNaughton fine and then
Garb2 estimates that in 1975 the ultimate recovery
from a reservoir can produce oil exceeds 40
billion STB, certainly now that these figures may
have been speeding.

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Study of reservoir fracturing naturally
concerned about two important parameters,
namely the strorativity ratio and interporosity flow
coefficient. Storativity is the ratio of fluid storage
capacity both gas and oil within the clefts whereas
interporosity flow coefficient is a measure of the
ease of fluid flows from the rock matrix system to
the fracture. The first thing behind their studies on
paper this hypothesis is that the initial value of
storativity ratio comparable to the recovery factor
of reservoir oil production during the late period
of plateau rate, as shown in Figure 1 (field
Klamono, Reservoir Fracturing natural) 3. This
initial hypothesis will be examined further in this
paper.

The study in this paper will be examined two
models that use a gas phase model with horizontal
wells and oil phase with vertical wells.

Based on the above reasons, the scope of the
study stressed to search new equation that can be
used to determine the recovery factor during the
final period of plateau rate of reservoir fracturing
in nature. The equation must have regard to the
nature, fracturing two parameters namely
storativity interporosity flow coefficient and ratio,
is also expected to provide results accurate to
predict oil and gas flow rate you want to use.
Therefore, the equation will be discussed in this
paper are expected to help study the development
of oil and gas field is a natural for fracturing in the
future.

INTERPOROSITY FLOW COEFFICIENT

Interporosity flow coefficient is the parameter
that describes the ability of a fluid to flow from
the breach into the matrix 4. Warren and Root
defines the interporosity flow coefficient, , the
following equation 5:

=r

..( 1 )

Interporosity flow coefficient was also shows
the size of the fluid flowing from the ease of the
matrix to the fracture.

Reservoir fracturing model for different natural
interporosity flow equation coefficient difference
can be divided into four model 6 is as follows:



STORATIVITY RATIO

Storativity is the ratio of the size of the storage
capacity of the fluid within the fracture. Warren
and storativity ratio, defines the Root in the
following equation 7 :


From the above equations, it can be analyzed
that the smaller the value of , then the smaller
storage capacity of fluid (oil and gas) in the
fracture, but inside the matrix, the storage
capacity is fluidanya good. Instead, the greater the
the storage reservoir fracturing fluid nature
there is more in the breach.

three types of reservoir fracturing naturally
based on the value of storativity ratio we can
kelompokan in three tipe2, which are:
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a. type A: Storage capacity on high matrix if
compared with storage capacity on clefts
b. Type B: Storage capacity on the matrix and the
breach is almost the same size of
c. C Type : Storage capacity more in the breach.

PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

Warren and Root equation solution delivers
flow in reservoir fracturing natural as follows 5:



Can be analyzed that there are three regions of
the flow in reservoir fracturing natural. In the first,
or occurs when the initial stages of production, the
production of fluid flow comes from within a
system fracture. When the value of Ei, this
function is very small, so the equation 7 can be
changed to 5:



In the second, or often referred to as transition,
where the curve against time pressure in the
fracture tend to be constant. This shows the early
stages of the supply of the fluid matrix system
towards a system fracture. The existence and
duration of this period is shown in the parameter
and .

In the three regions, in which production has
been a very long time, then the period of quasi
steady-state flow is achieved, i.e. the production
of fluid comes from the matrix and also from
fracture. The equations used in the three periods
was 5:



If counted more, the above equation will give
the second slope value of 1.15/cycle. In the form
of log curves, dual porosity reservoir has the
characteristic shape of the valley at the end of the
transitional period. Fast slow onset is affected by
the current value of the interporosity flow
coefficient, while at its stripes were influenced by
the value of storativity ratio.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The first step is to find the equation of the
recovery factor during the period plateurate is to
do a reservoir modeling using software. The
Software used was CMG (Computer Modelling
Group) 2005 with IMEX simulator. Data used in
the model the reservoir is using the data field and
the hipotetik.

The next step is to validate the model used to
study testing the well (well testing analysis). This
procedure is necessary in order for the model
(base case) used to perform the sensitivity studies
is a valid model and can represent the actual state
of the reservoir fracturing nature.

The last step is to conduct a sensitivity study,
i.e., make changes in the parameters of fracture of
Storativity Interporosity Flow Coefficient and
Ratio and flow rate so that it will obtain a varied
behavior of the recovery factor during the final
period of plateau rate. The result was this
sensitivity that was used to create the equation or
the desired correlation.

RESERVOIR SIMULATION

A. RESERVOIR GAS

Gas reservoir models have directions x, y, and
z where the amount of the total grid as much as
9000 (50 * 30 * 6). Data on physical properties of
reservoir rock and fluid for the base case are
shown in table 1. Initial Gas In Place (IGIP) Bond
Expert petroleum engineering Indonesia IATMI
09-003 4 in this model is $ 98 BSCF. Based on
that data, too, can be calculated the value of =
0.5 and = 5.4 E-7. These values are considered
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as and base case. The dominant reservoir
Model used is the driving force of gas cap drive
only. On the model of wells and perforation,
modeling is done using horizontal wells along the
2,000 ft with perforation is carried out at the
height of the reservoir.

B. RESERVOIR OIL

This study uses a radial-shaped reservoir model
of two-dimensional and cylindrical coordinate
system (r z uDFE0). A scale model is a grid of
blocks 20 * 1 * 20 = 400 blocks. The Data used to
create this model is the data from the well-X
which is the well on the oil reservoir fracturing
natural. from the results of analysis of a pressure
analysis of the well-X obtained Initial Oil in Place
(IOIP) estimated at 4.02 x106 STB and storativity
price ratio obtained by 17.7% and interporisty
flow coefficient of 3.284 x

price parameters.
The value of this value and base case. As for
the full set of data will be in use seen in table 2.

VALIDATION OF THE MODEL

A. RESERVOIR GAS

Model validation is carried out by means of
analytical testing of the well (well testing) the
result is shown in Figure 2. Pressure build up test
results are shown in Figure 2 gives the results not
much different with reservoir fracturing
parameters input natural in the simulator, i.e. =
0.18% and = 1,080 E-7. Those results showed
a comparison matrix permeability of the fracture
is equal to the input data in the simulator. In the
picture it looks horizontal wells characteristics are
shown with a long line at a pressure derivative
after time wellbore storage is expected to have
finished. Another reason that the factors
supporting horizontal wells was dominant in this
model is the value of the skin (S) are negative,
because horizontal wells tend to give the effect of
reservoir merekahkan.

Considering the above reasons, then the base
case model is considered valid to do further
studies.

B. RESERVOIR OIL

Validation of the model in use is done with
history graph matching the price pressure on the
bottom of the well (Pwf) with respect to time of
the Drill data Steam test (DST) and the results can
be seen in Figure 3.

From the results of this validation may be
stated that the reservoir model that has been
created is reliable so that it could proceed with the
analysis of the behavior of the reservoir fracturing
naturally variable sensitivity analysis for different
reservoir fracturing nature.

C. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

is the analysis of the results of observation of
the recovery factor in reservoir fracturing
naturally with some parameters that are changed.
The parameters that play a role in the
determination of recovery factor during the final
plateau rate of reservoir physical parameter is a
natural fracturing itself, namely the storativity
interporosity flow coefficient and ratio and
parameter constraints flow rate of the well.
Further sensitivity analysis is carried out by
changing parameters of the well flow rate against
the constraints worth interporosity flow
coefficient and storativity ratio that varies as well.
These three parameters are expected to be able to
give accurate predictions in the determination of
recovery factor during the final plateau rate in
reservoir fracturing naturally.

The main assumptions used in the analysis of
this sensitivity is the spread of fissures in the
reservoir. Other assumptions used are when
conducting sensitivity storativity ratio, then the
parameters are considered constant coefficient
interporosity flow, and vice versa.
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RESULT AND DISCUSSION

RESERVOIR GAS

A. SENSITIVITY STORATIVITY
RATIO

In this study, made eleven changes to the values
of porosity and fracture kompresibilitas clefts
whereas other parameter values are considered to
be fixed. Results sensitivity storativity ratio
against the recovery factor during the final plateau
rate shown in Figure 4. Based on this correlation
then obtained a temporary observation that the
value recovery factor during the final plateau rate
of 1.5 in relation to the value of storativity
rationya. Things that need to be further assessed
that the greater value of storativity rationya then
the capacity of the shelter in fluid fracture will be
even greater, so the reservoir's ability to provide a
plateau rate will take longer than the reservoir has
a capacity of fluid on fracture shelter fewer.
Relationship with recovery ratio factor storativity
as late plateau rate can be divided into two regions
storativity ratio as in Figure 5 the equation as
follows:

B. SENSITIVITY COEFFICIENT
INTERPOROSITY FLOW

To see the influence of the interporosity flow
coefficient factor sensitivity against the recovery
factor during the final period of plateau rate, made
changes to the value of fracture permeability,
because these factors are more uncertain than the
permeability of the matrix. Results of the
sensitivity of the interporosity flow coefficient of
recovery factor of gas at the end of a period of
plateau rate shown in Figure 6. The picture tells us
that the greater the value of the interporosity flow
coefficient, which means that the smaller the ratio
of permeability between the matrix and fracture,
then the rate will plateau is getting short. This is
in accordance with the understanding of that
supply flow rate at the time of the plateau rate
derived from fracture. Based on the results of the
simulations, that factor interporosity flow
coefficient for both the storativity ratio has the
price of the same regression. Results of the
regression coefficient sensitivity of the
interporosity flow shown in Figure 7. Relationship
coefficient of flow with interporosity recovery
factor during the final plateau rate are as follows:



C. SENSITIVITY OF THE GAS FLOW
RATE CONSTRAINTS

To create an equation that can apply to many
more conditions and reduce assumptions
assumptions used% u2013 the parameters forming
the equations shall represent more and more and
more conditions. Therefore, the sensitivity of the
gas flow rate constraints should also be taken into
account with respect to the factors that will affect
the value of the recovery factor during the final
period of plateau rate. Another reason that it is
strengthening that the purpose of this study is to
help the right flow rate prediction for
development of a fracturing natural gas field,
especially for the new field to be manufactured.

The assumptions used in conducting sensitivity
to gas flow rate is applicable for the lapse rate
flow rate 10 - 50 MMScfd with a value of the
interporosity flow coefficient was fixed.

Results sensitivity to both the storativity ratio
shown in Figure 8, 9 and 10. This picture shows
the results that the larger the value of the
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maximum gas flow rate constraints are given, then
the brief plateau rate of his progress. It is also
influential to the price recovery factor during the
final period of plateau rate that is getting smaller.
Relationship constraints gas flow rate with the
recovery factor during the final plateau rate are as
follows:


RESERVOIR OIL

A. SENSITIVITY STORATIVITY
RATIO

Sensitivity analysis of this effect see storativity
ratio price recovery factor during the plateau rate.
Parameters that are changed only the parameter
kompresibilitas the breach, while other parameters
are considered to be fixed. This is the
parameterparameter of storativity karenakan ratio
has a high uncertainty is the price of
kompresibilitas fissures. Figure 11 is a result of
the analysis of sensitivity of storativity ratio.
From the results of this analysis we can see on
Figure 12 that with the greater price of sorativity
ratio then the greater the recovery factor of price
as well as the plateau rate. This is due to the
greater price of storativity ratio then the shelter
will be more fluid in fracturing and so with this
condition the system from this reservoir will have
a capacity of larger flow rate fracturing oil
saturation so prices left the less. For the
relationship between the price of storativity ratio
with the recovery factor during the plateau rate
following the equation below:




B. SENSITIVITY COEFFICIENT
INTERPOROSITY FLOW

Sensitivity of the interporosity flow coefficient
is the same that we do when we perform
sensitivity storativity ratio that we want to see the
influence of the interporosity flow coefficient on
price period of plateau rate, and recovery factor
during the plateau rate. When we do this it is
assumed that the sensitivity of parameters in
addition to the parameters of the interporosity
flow coefficient is fixed.

From the results of this analysis are shown in
Figure 13, of this image indicate that with
increasing price interporosity flow coefficient was
then the price of recovery factor during the
plateau rate does not give significant effects. This
is because interporosity flow coefficient does not
change the shape of the geometry of the fluidanya
this parameter so that the storage is not very
significant in influencing the price of the period
and rate of recovery rates plateau factor.

C. SENSITIVITY OF THE OIL FLOW
RATE CONSTRAINTS

The results of the sensitivity of the oil flow
rate contrain showed with the greater oil flow rate
contrain showed the smaller the price recovery
factor during the final period of the plate as shown
in Figure 14 and 15. from the results of this
sensitivity analysis equation is obtained as
follows:



THE RECOVERY FACTOR DURING
THE FINAL EQUATION PLATEU RATE

To make the recovery factor equations in
reservoir fracturing experience when the end of a
period of plateau rate, is to combine the results of
three such sensitivity by using the pi theorm (pi
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theorem), that parallels the final plateau time
factor recovery rate following the link below:


To get the value of a, b, c, and C (constant),
the logarithmic approach is required in accordance
with the pi theorem itself. For example, to get the
value of the coefficient "a" then the value , Q,
and C is considered constant.

The calculation result of the coefficients gives
the fourth equation suggestion for mengestimasi
recovery factor during the final plateau rate on gas
reservoir with horizontal well fracturing oil and
natural with vertical wells, but the equation is as
follows:


VALIDATION AND LIMITS THE
CORRELATION

A. RESERVOIR GAS

To test whether the proposed equations valid to
apply further is to discuss the proposal of equation
with the validation analysis of error between the
reservoir simulation results with equation.
Example of validation of equation is as follows:

Example i:
Field-X with parameters:
= 0.35
= 5.4 E-7
Constrain Q maks = 30 MMScfd
(RF
plateu rate
) korelasi = 71.69 % (RF
plateu rate
) simulasi = 70.55 % Error =
1.58 %

Example ii:
Field-Y with parameters:
= 0.7
= 5.4 E-7
Constrain Q maks = 25 MMScfd
(RF
plateu rate
) korelasi = 88.64 % (RF
plateu rate
)
simulasi = 87.84 % Error = 0.9 %

The complete results of the recovery factor
equation validation when the end of the period the
plateau rate fracturing natural gas manufactured
with horizontal wells, can be shown in table 3.
Based on the values listed in table 3, it can be
proved that the equation equation 18 and 19 has a
high degree of accuracy. In order that this
equation holds true with high accuracy, so please
note the following restriction:

1. Prices are fissures in the sensitvitas storativity
porosity ratio should not be more than the value of
0.1.
2. Reservoir fluid-gas phase dried (dry gas). 3.
minimum bottomhole Pressure in the simulation is
250 psi.
4. Layout of horizontal wells is at the top of the
reservoir.
5. Driving Mechanism that applies is the gas cap
drive only.

B. RESERVOIR OIL

Equation (20) we condition on the validation by
Wells-X with parameters:

= 0.177
= 3.284x10
-7

Constrain oil flow rate = 858 Stb/day
(RF
plateu rate
) well-X = 28.4% (RF
plateu rate
) korelasi = 28.43 % Error =
0.105 %

The complete results of the recovery factor
equation validation when the end of the period the
plateau rate on oil reservoir fracturing naturally
manufactured with vertical wells, can be shown in
table 4.
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As for the limitations that this equation is
applicable are as follows:
1. Distribution of homogeneous fissures around
the reservoir.
2. Reservoir fluid is Black Oil
3. Driving Mechanism in force is the Solution gas
drive only.

CONCLUSION

1. The value of storativity ratio for oil and gas
reservoir in proportion to the value of the
recovery factor during the end period rate
plateu.
2. Results of the interporosity flow coefficient
sensitivity for gas reservoir gives significant
influence with the inversely proportional to the
recovery factor during the end period rate
while for plateu oil reservoir is not significant.
3. Constraints Results flow rate of gas and oil to
give an inversely proportional to influence
recovery factor during the end period rate
plateu.
4. Proposal of Equation for estimation of gas
reservoir with horizontal wells and wells with
vertical oil reservoir provides a high accuracy
in determining the recovery factor during the
final period of plateau rate on reservoir
fracturing natural.

SUGGESTION

1. Need to do further studies on the influence of
fracture and matrix permeability change
spacing to the value of the recovery factor
during the final period of plateau rate.
2. The analysis needs to be done to the maximum
gas flow rate outside the hose testing equation.
3. The model has yet to be known whether Warren
and Root with other natural fracturing reservoir
model (Gilman and Kazemi, Baker, De Swaan)
have the same factor in recovery results during
the late period of plateau rate, therefore needs
to be done further studies would be this.
4. The need for the development of the recovery
factor equation of gas natural fracturing when
the end of a period of plateau rate with the
parameters of other gases.
5. Further studies need to be done about the
sensitivity analysis of the interporosity flow
coefficient for oil reservoir.
6. Development of analysis needs to be done to
the oil reservoir parameters between the breach
of storativity interporosity flow coefficient and
ratio with the recovery factor on horizontal
wellbore conditions.

REFERENCES

1. Yasutra, Amega: Inflow Performance
Relationship Pada Reservoir Rekah Alami
Bertenaga Dorong Gas Terlarut, Tesis,
Departemen Teknik Perminyakan-ITB,
Bandung, 2006
2. Aguilera, Robert: Naturally Fractured
Reservoir. Pennwell Publishing Company,
Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1995.
3. Ariadji, Tutuka: Pembuatan Pengembangan
Lanjut (POFD) Lapangan Minyak DOH
dengan Metode Injeksi Air (Klamono Field,
Carbonate, Naturally Fractures Reservoir).
4. Ahmed, Tarek: Advanced Reservoir
Engineering, Elsiever Inc, Texas, 2005.
5. Van Golf-Racht, T.D.: Fundamentals of
Fractured Reservoir Engineering. Elsevier
Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam,
1982.
6. Tiab, Djebbar and Erle C. Donaldson:
Petrophysic: Theory and Practice of Measuring
Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport. Gulf
Professional Publishing, Houston, 2004.
7. Warren, J.E. Root, P.J: The Behavior of
Naturally Fractured Reservoir, SPE Journal.
September, 1963, pp. 245 255.





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Tabel-1 Propherties Data of Rock And Reservoir Data For Gas Reservoir


Properties unit

Value


Interval Zone Ft 7500 -7560
Temperature
o
F 180
Pressure Psia 3500
Gas Flow Rate MMScfd 30
Spesific Grafity Gas 0.6
Fracture Spasing, lm ft 100
FVF Gas
bbl/cuft

0.00076


(Bg)






Gas Viscosity (g) cp 0.02625
Gas Compressibility (Cg) 1/psi 2.38E-04
Water Compressibility (C
w
) 1/Psia 2.97E-06
Matriks Compressibility (Cm) 1/Psia 3.00E-06
Fracture Compressibility (Cf) 1/Psia 1.50E-05
Well Radius (r
w
) ft 0.255
Thickness ft 60
Fracture porosity % 5
Matrix Porosity % 25
Matrix Permeability (km) md 10
Fracture Permeability (kf) md 10000
Well length horizontal, L ft 2000
S
w
% 70
Sg % 30













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Tabel-2. Reservoir Data Of Well-X for Oil Reservoir


Properti Unit

Value

Thick perforated ft 1017
Temperature o
F
321
Pressure Psia 4745
Oil Flow Rate STB/D 858
Pwf Psia 4552
API 38.6
Spesific Grafity Gas 0.8104
GOR scf/STB 1297
Well Head Temperature
o
F 120
Well Head Pressure Psia 2500
Separator Temperature o
F
99
Separator Pressure Psia 190
Oil FVF (Bo) RB/STB 1.682
Oil Viscosity (o) cp 0.2216
Oil Compressibility (Co) 1/psi 1.77e-05

Water Compressibility
(Cw) 1/Psia 3.98e-06
Rocks Compressibility (Cr) 1/Psia 4.862e-06
Total Compressibility (Ct) 1/Psia 1.296e-5
Well Radius (rw) ft 0.255
ID Tubing in 2.875
Thickness ft 1017
Porosity % 10
Sw % 70
So % 30







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Figure-1 Field Klamono, Reservoir Fracturing
Natural











Figure-2 Log Plot a Pressure Build Up Test Gas
Reservoir













Figure-3 History Matching pressure (Oil
Reservoir Model Validation)














Figure-4 Plateu Rate for Storativity Sensitivity
Ratio (Gas Reservoir)


Figure-5. The Gas Gain factor to the end of the
period when the Ratio of Storativity Plateau Rate













Figure-6 time for the Rate Sensitivity Plateu
Interporosity Flow Coefficient (Gas Reservoir)

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Figure-7 Gas Gain Factor of the Interporosity
Flow Coefficient at the end of a period of Plateau
Rate

Figure-8. Plateu Sensitivity Rate for Gas flow rate
Constraints on the Base Case Model

Figure-9. Gas Earnings factor when Plateu Rate
against the Constraints of Gas flow rate in Region
I.

Figure-10 Gas Acquisition Factor when Plateu
Rate of Gas flow rate on the Constraints of the
Region II


Figure-11. Plateau Rate for Storativity Sensitivity
Ratio (Oil Reservoir)


Figure-12. Recovery Factor during the period of
Plateau Rate of Storativity Ratio (Oil Reservoir)


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Figure-13. Plateau Interporosity Flow Rate for the
Sensitivity Coefficient (Oil Reservoir)


Figure-14. Plateu Sensitivity Rate for Oil flow
rate Constraints

Figure-14. Plateu Sensitivity Rate for Oil flow
rate Constraints