You are on page 1of 5

GIKPKC7 94107 Co-ordinate Geometry Page 1

Introduction
4/3/98
Axis:
z-axis
y-axis

x-axis

 Number Plane (x, y)


 3D Plane (x, y, z)

Terms:
Co-linear Points on the same line
Concurrent Points that go through the same point
Normal Perpendicular to
Locus Set off points
Equidistant Same distance

Every Line has Two Forms:


Gradient Intercept Form
Equation: y = m.x + b
m = Gradient (slope)
b = y-intercept

General Form
Equation: a.x + b.y + c = 0
Where, a > 0 and a integer (whole number)

For Co-cordinate Geometry Equations For a Graphs See Relations & Functions

Luke Cole Page 1


GIKPKC7 94107 Co-ordinate Geometry Page 2

Gradient Slope of a Line:


m2 m1 = ‘+’ slope
m2 = ‘–’ slope

m1

y 2  y1 Rise
Equation: m m
x 2  x1 Run
m = Gradient
(x1, y1) = 1st point
(x2, y2) = 2nd point

Distance Formula:

d   x 2  x1    y 2  y1 
2 2
Equation:
d = Distance
(x1, y1) = 1st point
(x2, y2) = 2nd point

Mid-point Formula:
 x  x2 y1  y 2 
Equation: M  1 , 
 2 2 
M = Mid-point
(x1, y1) = 1st point
(x2, y2) = 2nd point

Point Gradient Formula:


Equation: Y – y1 = m(X – x1)
(x1, y1) = Point
m = Gradient

Angle Formed with the x-axis:


 +ve x-axis direction
Equation: tan  = m
m = Gradient
 = Angle

Luke Cole Page 2


GIKPKC7 94107 Co-ordinate Geometry Page 3

Two Lines are Parallel when:


Equation: m1 = m2
m1 = 1st gradient
m2 = 2nd gradient

Two Lines are Perpendicular when:


 Lines parallel to the x-axis have m = 0 Note: x-axis has y = 0
 Lines parallel to the y-axis have m =  Note: y-axis has x = 0
1
Equation: m1 
m2
m1 = 1st gradient
m2 = 2nd gradient

Equation of a Line from a Point and the Intersection of Two


other Lines:
 Two lines will always intersect unless parallel.
 Solve Simultaneously Or
Equation: (a1.x + b1.y + c1) + k(a2.x + b2.y + c2) = 0
(x, y) = Point
a1.x + b1.y + c1 = 1st line
a2.x + b2.y + c2 = 2nd line
k = Constant

Perpendicular Distance:
a .x 1  b . y 1  c
Equation: d
a 2  b2
d = Distance
a.x1 + b.y1 + c = Line
(x1, y1) = Point

Angle between Two Lines:


 Acute angle between two straight lines.
m1  m2
Equation: tan  
1  m 1 .m 2
 = Angle
m1 = 1st gradient
m2 = 2nd gradient

Luke Cole Page 3


GIKPKC7 94107 Co-ordinate Geometry Page 4

To Divide Two Points (One Line) into a Certain Ratio:


 Internally means that the ratio is positive (E.g. m:n).
 Externally means that the ratio is negitive (E.g. – m:n).
m .x 2  n .x 1 m .y2  n.y1
Equation: x y
mn mn
(x, y) = Point
(x1, y1) = 1st point
(x2, y2) = 2nd point
m:n = Ratio

Luke Cole Page 4


GIKPKC7 94107 Co-ordinate Geometry Page 5

Graphing Absolute Values


 If unsure draw a table of x & y values.
 Answer if not a absolute value.
 Answer.

E.g. (1) y = x

E.g. (2) y = x + 1

1

E.g. (3) y = x  2

2 2

2

Luke Cole Page 5