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You are on page 1of 10

11/11/98

To See How To Differentiate See Differentiation

The point on the curve is decreasing when f’(x) < 0

The point on the curve is stationary when f’(x) = 0

f’(x) = 0

Local Minimum Point

x LHS MIN RH

S

f’(x) <0 0 >0

x LHS MA RHS

X

f’(x) >0 0 <0

(1) (2)

x LHS PT RHS

1 f’(x) <0 0 <0

2 f’(x) >0 0 >0

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 2

E.g. (1) Find all ‘x’ values for which the curve f(x) = x2 – 4.x + 1 is decreasing

A f(x) = x2 – 4.x + 1

f’(x) = 2.x – 4

So, 2.x – 4 < 0 for a decreasing point

x<2

dy

A 3.x 2 48

dx

So, 3.x2 – 48 = 0 for stationary points

x=4

Subbing x = 4 into equation

(4, 135) & ( 4, 121)

dy

A 3.x 2 0 for stationary points

dx

x=0

So, x 0 0 0+

dy + 0 +

dx

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 3

12/11/98

The curve is concave down when f’’(x) < 0

There is a point of inflection when f’’(x) = 0 and concavity changes

f’’(x) > 0

Local Minimum Point

x LHS MIN RH

S

f’(x) <0 0 >0

or

f’’(x) > 0

x LHS MA RHS

X

f’(x) >0 0 <0

or

f’’(x) < 0

Point of Inflection

(1) x LHS PT RH (2)

S

1 f’’(x) <0 0 >0

2 f’’(x) >0 0 <0

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 4

E.g. (1) If f(x) = 2.x3 7.x2 5.x + 4, find where f(x) is concave down

f’’(x) = 12.x – 14

So, 12.x – 4 < 0 for concave down curves

x < 7/6

7

/6

dy

A 3.x 2 12.x 5

dx

d2y

2

6.x 12.x 2 0 for points of inflection

dx

So, x=2&y=3

And, x 2 2 2+

d2y 0 +

Concavity Changes

dx 2

(2, 3) is a point of inflection

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 5

dy

A 4.x 3 0 for stationary points

dx

So, x=0

d2y

2

12.x 2

dx

d2y

At, x=0 0

dx 2

And, x 0 0 0+

d2y + 0 +

Concavity doesn’t change

dx 2

Since f’(x) = 0 & f’’(x) = 0 but doesn’t change concavity, no point of

inflection so:

dy

From, 4.x 3

dx

x 0 0 0+

dy 0 +

dx

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 6

Curve Sketching

16/11/98

Sketching Curves Involves:

Stationary points

Points of inflection

‘x’ and ‘y’ intercepts

Domain and Range

Asymptotes and limits

Establish if odd or even

If needed draw a table of values

dy

6.x 2 6.x 12 0 for stationary points

dx

x=2 & x=1

y=7 y = 20

x 2 2+ x 1 1 1+

2 dy 0 +

dy + 0 dx

dx

( 2, 7) maximum & (1, 20) minimum

d2y

12.x 6 0 for points of inflection

dx 2

x=½

y = 6½

x 6½ 6½+

6½

dy 0 +

dx

( ½, 6½) is a point of inflection

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 7

Let, x = 0 for y-intercepts:

y = 13

Let, y = 0 for x-intercepts:

0 = 2.x3 + 3.x2 12.x 13

Since, 2x2 + x 13 is divisible by x + 1:

i.e. (x+ 1)(2.x2 + x 13) = 0

x=1 & x 2.3, 2.8

So, 2.x3 + 3.x2 12.x 13 All Real:

Domain = All Real

Since, y = 2.x3 + 3.x2 12.x 13:

Range = All Real

Since domain and range are all real there is on limits or asymptotes

Sketch

( 2, 7) y

(1, 20)

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 8

When asked to find the maximum (not local max) it’s the greatest value for ‘y’

When asked to find the minimum (not local min) it’s the smallest value for ‘y’

E.g. Find the max and min values for the function y = x4 2.x2 + 1 for 2 x 3

A …

…

Sketch in the domain 2 x 3

MAX

So, MAX y = 64

MIN y = 0

MIN

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 9

E.g. The council wishes to make a rectangular swimming area at the beach using a

straight cliff on one side and a length of 300m of shark pool netting for the other

3 sides what are the dimensions of the rectangle that encloses the greatest area?

A Perimeter

P = 2.x + y = 300 …(1)

Area

A = x.y …(2)

(1) y = 300 2.x …(3)

Now sub (2) into (3) x

A = x(300 2.x)

= 300.x 2.x2

Max area y

dA

300 4.x 0 for stationary points

dx

x = 75

x 75 75 75+

dA + 0

dx

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 10

Primitive Functions

Primitive functions is finding f(x) knowing f’(x)

x n 1

If, f’(x) = xn When, f x C

n1

C = Constant

x 6 4.x 4

So, f x C

6 4

= 1 6 .x 6 x 4 C

E.g. (2) If f’’(x) = 6.x + 2 and f’(1) = 0 and f( 2) = 0 find f(3)

Since, f’(1) = 0 = 3(1)2 + 2(1) + C

C=5

So, f’(x) = 3.x2 + 2.x 5

Now, f(x) = x3 + x2 5.x + C

Since, f( 2) = 0 = ( 2)3 + ( 2)2 5( 2) + C

C=6

f(x) = x3 + x2 5.x 6

f(3) = 15

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