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Mr.Lali Mathew M.A.Eng.Lit.M.

Ed
lalimathew@yahoo.co.inc.
9810312549 27492907
FINITES AND NON-FINITES
Finite Verb is one which can show number, person and tense. It has a subject.
. I Sing, He sings, They sing.
I am a teacher, He is a good student, They are sisters.
He sings, He sang
Non-Finite Verb has no subject.
He likes singing.
They want to sing
The verb forms singing and to sing have no subject and such forms do not have
subjects.
Kinds of Non-finites:
1. INFINITIVE WITH OR WITHOUT TO
The root form of the verb is called Infinitive. It is not limited by the Number and Person
of the subject.
Kinds of Infinitives:
1. Bare Infinitive: The root form of the verb without ‘to’ is called the bare
infinitive.
I saw her weep I made her sing
2. To – infinitive: The root form of the verb preceded by to is called the To
infinitive
I want to go now We have to pay taxes.
The following groups of words are followed by bare-infinitives:
1. Auxiliary verbs:
2. Transitive verbs: Make. let, bid, feel, hear, see, watch, notice, observe
3. Phrases with ‘had’ and ‘would’: had better, would rather, had sooner
4. The conjunction ‘than’ and the preposition’ but’
I would rather walk than ride your scooter
He did nothing but laugh.
To-infinitives are used in the following cases:
1. ‘Ought and have’ are followed by a to-infinitive if these words are used to
express some obligation or duty:
You ought to respect your elders.
I have to support my family.
2. The to-infinitive is used to express some reason or purpose:
I came here to consult you
I went to Delhi to meet my brother.
3. The following verbs are followed by a to-infinitive if they are used to express
some intention, desire, or readiness.
I want to go now. She decided to marry him I forgot to answer this Q.
4. The following transitive verbs are followed by an Object with a to-infinitive :
ask, advise, allow, bet, compel, encourage, force, instruct, invite, oblige, order
permit, persuade, request , tell, teach…
I begged him to help me. The teacher allowed him to go.

2.THE GERUND
Reading is his favourite pastime.
The word reading is formed from the verb read, by adding ing.
It is also used as the Subject of a verb, and hence does the work of Noun.
A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in –ing and has the force of noun
and a verb.

Uses of Gerund:
Subject to verb: Swimming improves your health. Smoking causes cancer
Object to a verb: I dislike smoking I love singing
Object to a preposition He is fond of playing I have no idea of going there
Compliment to a verb His only aim was cheating
In apposition to a pronoun It is no use crying It is foolish saying that

The following verbs can take a to-infinitive as well as a Gerund: Advise, allow,
attempt , begin, continue . hate, intend , learn , like, love, propose, regret…..
He intends to live here He intends living here
I propose to leave soon I propose leaving soon.
The following verbs of sensation can take a bare-infinitive as well as a gerund:
Feel, hear, notice, observe, see, watch, etc.
I heard her come in I heard her coming in
I noticed him sit with her I noticed him sitting with her.
The following verbs must be used with the Gerund only:
Avoid, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, dread , enjoy, excuse, finish, forget, imagine,
The Gerund is used with the following expression:
Be worth, be no use, be no good, can’t bear, can’t stand, can’t help
This table is worth buying It is no use of crying over spilt milk
If a Noun or Pronoun is used before a Gerund , it must be in the Possessive case:
I dislike Mohn’s coming late daily
I forbade his coming here.

3.PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
Hearing the noise , the boy woke up.
The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an Adjective does. It is formed from
the Verb hear, and governs an object. The word hearing therefore partakes of the
nature of both a Verb and an adjective.
A participle is a word which is partly a Verb and partly an Adjective
NOTE: 1. A Participle is a verb Adjective
2. Like a verb it may be govern noun or pronoun:
Hearing the noise , the boy woke up.
3. Like a verb it be modified by an adverb:
Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.
4. Like an adjective it may qualify a noun or a pronoun.
Having rested , the men continued their journey.
5. Like an adjective it may be compared.

4.PAST PARTICIPLE

Past participle can be used as an adjective:


The broken window was repaired
The police recovered the stolen goods
It can be used with have+ object. To have something done means’to cause something to
be done .
He had a house built. I must have my clothes pressed.
Passive voice is formed from the past participle with the tense of the verb be:
I am loved I was loved.

Combine each of the following sentences using the –ing:


1. The boy saw the dog. Hee ran away. Seeing the dog, the boy ran away
3. The boys saw the headmaster. They kept quiet.
4. He switched off the light. He went to sleep
5. I heard the noise. I trembled with fear.
6. We crossed the river. We reached the village.
7. She finished the work. She went home.
8. He took the bag. He went to the office
9. The boy fell down fron the bicycle. He hurt his leg.
10. The hunter took out his gun. He went out to shoot the tiger.

Pick out the finite and non-finites and classify the non-finites:
1. I stopped there to get some petrol.
2. She is coming here to see you.
3. Don’t wake the sleeping child.
4. He always forgets to pay.
5. They played a loosing game.
6. I saw him open the box.
7. We went to see the ezhibition.
8. I enjoy watching the T.V.
9. If there are no taxies we will have to walk.
10. I was tired of waiting.