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EN BANC

[G.R. Nos. 115008-09. July 24, 1996]


PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINE, plaintiff-appellee, vs. !"NIEL #$IJ"!"
% &IR&$L"!O, accused-appellant.
! E & I I O N
!"'I!E, JR., J.(
Accused-appellant Daniel Quijada appeals from the decision of 30 Septemer !""3
of Branch ! of the #e$ional %rial Court &#%C' of Bohol convictin$ him of the t(o
offenses separatel) char$ed in t(o informations* vi+,* murder under Article -./ of the
#evised 0enal Code and ille$al possession of firearm in its a$$ravated form under 0,D,
No, !/11* and imposin$ upon him the penalt) of reclusion perpetua for the first crime
and an indeterminate penalt) ran$in$ from seventeen )ears* four months* and one da)*
as minimum* to t(ent) )ears and one da)* as ma2imum* for the second crime,
3!4
%he appeal (as ori$inall) assi$ned to the %hird Division of the Court ut (as later
referred to the Court en anc in vie( of the prolematical issue of (hether to sustain the
trial court5s jud$ment in conformit) (ith the doctrine laid do(n in 0eople vs. %ac-an,
3-4
0eople vs. %io+on,
334
0eople vs. Calin$,
3.4
0eople vs. Jumamo),
364
0eople vs. Deunida,
314

0eople vs. %ion$co,
374
0eople vs. 8ernande+,
3/4
and 0eople vs, Somooc*
3"4
or to modif)
the jud$ment and convict the appellant onl) of ille$al possession of firearm in its
a$$ravated form pursuant to 0eople vs. Barros,
3!04
(hich this Court &Second Division'
decided on -7 June !""6,
%he informations read as follo(s9
CRIMINAL CASE NO. 8178
That on or about the 30th day of Dee!ber" 1##$" %n the !un%%&a'%ty of Dau%("
&ro)%ne of *oho'" +h%'%&&%ne(" and ,%th%n the -ur%(d%t%on of th%( .onorab'e Court"
the abo)ena!ed au(ed" ,%th %ntent to /%'' and ,%thout any -u(t%f%ab'e !ot%)e" ,%th
treahery and abu(e of (u&er%or (tren0th" the au(ed be%n0 then ar!ed ,%th a .38 a'.
re)o')er" ,h%'e the )%t%! ,a( unar!ed" (udden'y atta/ed the )%t%! ,%thout 0%)%n0
the 'atter the o&&ortun%ty to defend h%!(e'f" and ,%th e)%dent &re!ed%tat%on" the
au(ed ha)%n0 harbored a 0rud0e a0a%n(t the )%t%! a ,ee/ &r%or to the %n%dent of
!urder" d%d then and there ,%''fu''y" un'a,fu''y and fe'on%ou('y atta/" a((au't and
(hoot D%o(dado Iroy y Ne(nea ,%th the u(e of the (a%d f%rear!" h%tt%n0 the 'atter on h%(
head and au(%n0 (er%ou( %n-ur%e( ,h%h re(u'ted to h%( death1 to the da!a0e and
&re-ud%e of the he%r( of the deea(ed.
At( o!!%tted ontrary to the &ro)%(%on of Art. $28 of the Re)%(ed +ena' Code" ,%th
a00ra)at%n0 %ru!(tane of n%0htt%!e be%n0 &ur&o(e'y (ou0ht for or ta/en ad)anta0e of by the
au(ed to fa%'%tate the o!!%((%on of the r%!e.
3114
CRIMINAL CASE NO. 817#
That on or about the 30th day of Dee!ber" 1##$" %n the !un%%&a'%ty of Dau%("
&ro)%ne of *oho'" +h%'%&&%ne(" and ,%th%n the -ur%(d%t%on of th%( .onorab'e Court"
the abo)ena!ed au(ed" d%d then and there ,%''fu''y" un'a,fu''y and fe'on%ou('y
/ee&" arry and ha)e %n h%( &o((e((%on" u(tody and ontro' a f%rear! 5hand 0un6 ,%th
a!!un%t%on" ,%thout f%r(t obta%n%n0 the nee((ary &er!%t or '%en(e to &o((e(( the (a%d
f%rear! fro! o!&etent author%t%e( ,h%h f%rear! ,a( arr%ed by the (a%d au(ed
out(%de of h%( re(%dene and ,a( u(ed by h%! %n o!!%tt%n0 the r%!e of Murder ,%th
D%o(dado Iroy y Ne(nea a( the )%t%!1 to the da!a0e and &re-ud%e of the Re&ub'% of
the +h%'%&&%ne(.
Acts committed contrar) to the provisions of 0,D, No, !/11,
3!-4
:avin$ arisen from the same incident* the cases (ere consolidated* and joint
hearin$s (ere had, %he (itnesses presented ) the prosecution (ere S0;. 8elipe
Ni$paranon &Actin$ Chief of 0olice of Dauis* Bohol'* S0; <ondalino =nte* Dr, <re$
Julius Sodusta* #osita =ro)* and %eodula >atalinis, %he defense presented as
(itnesses Alfred Aran+ado* Ed(in Nistal* Julius Bonao* Saturnino >a$lupa)* and the
appellant himself,
%he evidence for the prosecution is summari+ed ) the ;ffice of the Solicitor
<eneral in the Brief for the Appellee as follo(s9
;n -6 Decemer !""-* a enefit dance (as held at the Bas?etall Court of
Baran$a) %ina$o* Dauis* Bohol, ;n this occasion* a fist fi$ht occurred et(een
Diosdado =ro) and appellant Daniel Quijada as the latter (as constantl) anno)in$ and
pesterin$ the former5s sister, #osita =ro) &%SN* Crim, Cases /!7/ @ /!7"* June
/* !""3* pp, 3--36A Au$ust 6* !""3* pp, !.-!6',
=n the evenin$ of 30 Decemer !""-* another enefit danceBdisco (as held in the
same place, %his enefit dance (as attended v #osita =ro)* Ariel Dano* %eodora
Bada)os* Ado Aran+ado* Car$o =ro) and Diosdado =ro),
Dhile #osita =ro) and others (ere enjo)in$ themselves inside the dancin$ area*
Diosdado =ro)* Eu$ene Nesnea and Car$o =ro)* (ho (ere then sittin$ at the pla+a &the
area (here the) positioned themselves (as dul) li$hted and (as appro2imatel) four
meters from the dancin$ hall'* decided to just (atch the activities in the dance hall
directl) from the pla+a,
After dancin$* #osita =ro) decided to leave and (ent outside the $ate of the dance
area, SuseEuentl)* or around !!930 of the same ni$ht* (hile facin$ the direction of
Diosdado =ro)* #osita lro) sa( appellant surreptitiousl) approach her rother Diosdado
=ro) from ehind, Suddenl)* appellant fired his revolver at Diosdado =ro)* hittin$ the
latter at the ac? portion of the head, %his caused #osita =ro) to spontaneousl) shout
that appellant shot her rotherA (hile appellant* after shootin$ Diosdado =ro)* ran
to(ards the cornfield,
Diosdado =ro) (as immediatel) rushed ) Elmer Ni$paranon and Car$o =ro) to the
hospital ut the injur) sustained (as fatal, =n the meantime* #osita =ro) (ent home and
rela)ed to her parents the unfortunate incident &%SN* Crim Case Nos, /!7/ @ /!7"*
June /* !""3* pp, "---* inclusive of the precedin$ para$raphs',
At around midni$ht* the incident (as reported to then Actin$ Chief of 0olice 8elipe
Ni$paranon ) >rs, Alejandra =ro) and her dau$hter %eodula >atalinis, %he police
officer made entries in the police lotter re$ardin$ the shootin$ and correspondin$l)*
ordered his men to pic? up the appellant, But the) (ere unale to locate appellant on
that occasion &%SN* Crim, Case Nos, /!7/ @ /!7"* June "* !""3* pp, --1',
=n the afternoon of 3! Decemer !""-* appellant* to$ether (ith his father %eo$enes
Quijada (ent to the police station at Dauis* Bohol, %here and then* appellant (as
pinpointed ) Elenito Nistal and #osita =ro) as the person (ho shot Diosdado
=ro), %hese facts (ere entered in the police lotter as Entr) No, !!6! &%SN* Crim, Case
Nos, /!7/ @ /!7"* iid. p, !.* June !.* !""3* pp, .-1',
3!34
%he slu$ (as emedded at the midrain,
3!.4
Diosdado =ro) died of Cardiorespirator)
arrest* secondar) to tonsillar herniation* secondar) to massive intracranial hemorrha$e*
secondar) to $unshot (ound* ! cm, left occipital area* transactin$ cereellum up to
midrain,
3!64
%he firearm used ) the appellant in shootin$ Diosdado =ro) (as not licensed, 0er
certifications issued on -1 April !""3* the appellant (as not a dul) licensed firearm
holder as verified from a consolidated list of licensed firearm holders in the
province
3!14
and (as not authori+ed to carr) a firearm outside his residence,
3!74
%he appellant interposed the defense of alii* (hich the trial court rejected ecause
he (as positivel) identified ) prosecution (itness #osita =ro), =t summari+ed his
testimon) in this (ise9
Daniel Quijada ) Circulado* the accused in the instant cases* declared that in the
afternoon of Decemer 30* !""- he (as in their house At 1900 o5cloc? in the afternoon
he (ent to %a$ilaran Cit) to$ether (ith Julius Bonao in a tric)cle No, -60 to solicit
passen$ers, %he) transported passen$ers until !0930 o5cloc? in the evenin$, %he)
then proceeded to the %a$ilaran (harf (aitin$ for the passen$er oat %rans Asia
%ai(an, Before the arrival of %rans Asia %ai(an the) had a tal? (ith Saturnino
>a$lopa), %he) (ere ale to pic? up t(o passen$ers for <raham Avenue near Ca
#oca :otel, %he) then returned to the %a$ilaran (harf for the arrival of >F Ceu Cit)
that doc?ed at !-9!0 past midni$ht, %he) had a tal? (ith Saturnino >a$lopa) (ho (as
(aitin$ for his aunties scheduled to arrive aoard >F Ceu Cit), %he) (ere not ale to
pic? up passen$ers (hich* as a conseEuence* the) (ent home, %he) had on their (a)
home passen$ers for the A$ora 0ulic >ar?et, %he) arrived at the house of Julian
Bonao at Bil-isan* 0an$lao* Bohol at 3900 o5cloc? in the mornin$ of Decemer 3!* !""-
(here he passed the ni$ht, :e (ent home to >ariveles* Dauis* Bohol at "900 o5cloc? in
the mornin$,
3!/4
%he trial court $ave full faith and credit to the version of the prosecution and found
the appellant $uilt) e)ond reasonale dout of the crimes char$ed and sentenced him
accordin$l), =t appreciated the presence of the Eualif)in$ circumstance of treacher)
considerin$ that the appellant shot the victim at the ac? of the head (hile the latter (as
(atchin$ the dance, %he dispositive portion of the decision dated 30 Septemer !""3
reads as follo(s9
0#E>=SES C;NS=DE#ED* in Criminal Case No, /!7/* the court finds the accused
Daniel Quijada $uilt) of the crime of murder punished under Article -./ of the #evised
0enal Code and here) sentences him to suffer an imprisonment
of #eclusion 0erpetua, (ith the accessories of the la( and to pa) the cost,
=n Criminal Case No, /!7"* the Court finds the accused Daniel Quijada $uilt) of the
crime of Qualified =lle$al 0ossession of 8irearm and Ammunition punished under Sec, !
of #,A, No, !/11 as amended* and here) sentences him to suffer an indeterminate
sentence from Seventeen &!7' )ears 8our &.' months and ;ne &!' da)* as minimum* to
%(ent) &-0' )ears and ;ne &!' da)* as ma2imum* (ith the accessories of the la( and to
pa) the cost,
%he slu$ or ullet (hich (as e2tracted from the rain at the ac? portion of the head
of the victim Diosdado =ro) is here) ordered forfeited in favor of the $overnment,
=t appearin$ that the accused Daniel Quijada has under$one preventive
imprisonment he is entitled to the full time he has under$one preventive imprisonment
to e deducted from the term of sentence if he has e2ecuted a (aiver other(ise he (ill
onl) e entitled to .B6 of the time he has under$one preventive imprisonment to e
deducted from his term of sentence if he has not e2ecuted a (aiver,
3!"4
;n -" ;ctoer !""3* after discoverin$ that it had inadvertentl) omitted in the
decision an a(ard of civil indemnit) and other dama$es in Criminal Case No, /!7/* the
trial court issued an order directin$ the appellant to pa) the parents of the victim the
amount of 060*000,00 as indemnit) for the death of their son and 0!0*000,00 for funeral
e2penses,
3-04
%he order (as to form an inte$ral part of the decision,
%he decision (as promul$ated on -" ;ctoer !""3,
3-!4
%he appellant forth(ith interposed the present appeal* and in his Brief* he contends
that the trial court erred
I
. . . IN CON7ICTIN8 ACC9SED:A++ELLANT AND 8I7IN8 CREDENCE TO
T.E TESTIMON; O< +ROSEC9TION =ITNESSES ROSITA IRO; AND
<ELI+E NI8+ARANON.
II
. . . IN NOT CONSIDERIN8 T.E TESTIMONIES O< DE<ENSE =ITNESSES
ED=IN NISTAL AND AL<RED ARAN>ADO" AND IN DISRE8ARDIN8 T.E
+ICTORIAL E?.I*ITS O< T.E ACC9SED:A++ELLANT +ARTIC9LARL;
T.E RELATI7E +OSITIONS O< DIOSDADO IRO;" ROSITA IRO;" ED=IN
NISTAL" AND AL<RED ARAN>ADO.
III
. . . IN <AILIN8 TO CONSIDER T.AT +ROSEC9TION =ITNESSES ROSITA IRO; AND
S+02 <ELI+E NI8+ARANON .AD MOTI7ES IN <ALSEL; TESTI<;IN8 A8AINST
ACC9SED:A++ELLANT.
3$$4
%he appellant then sumits that the issue in this case oils do(n to the identit) of
the ?iller of Diosdado =ro), %o support his stand that the ?iller (as not identified* he
attac?s the crediilit) of prosecution (itnesses #osita =ro) and S00. 8elipe
Ni$paranon, :e claims that the former had a motive Gto put him in a ad li$htG and calls
our attention to her direct testimon) that her rother Diosdado* the victim* o2ed him on
the ni$ht of -6 Decemer !""- ecause he alle$edl) Gothered her,G :e further asserts
that #osita could not have seen the person (ho shot Diosdado considerin$ their
respective positions* particularl) #osita (ho* accordin$ to defense (itnesses Nistal and
Aran+ado* (as still inside the dancin$ area and ran to(ards the crime scene onl) after
Diosdado (as shot, And* the appellant considers it as suppression of evidence (hen
the prosecution did not present as (itnesses Diosdado5s companions (ho (ere
alle$edl) seated (ith Diosdado (hen he (as shot,
As to S0;. Ni$paranon* the appellant intimates improper motives in that the said
(itness is a nei$hor of the =ro)s* and (hen he testified* a case for aritrar) detention
had alread) een filed a$ainst him ) the appellant, %he appellant further claims of
alle$ed omissions and une2plained entries in the police lotter,
8inall)* the appellant (ants us to favoral) consider his defense of alii (hich*
accordin$ to him* $ained stren$th ecause of the lac? of evidence on the identit) of the
?iller, 8urthermore* he stresses that his conduct in voluntaril) $oin$ to the police station
after havin$ een informed that he* amon$ man) others* (as summoned ) the police
is hardl) the actuation of the perpetrator of the ?illin$ of Diosdado =ro) -- speciall) so if
#osita =ro)5s claim is to e elieved that moments after the shootin$ she shouted that
Daniel Quijada shot Diosdado =ro),
=n its Appellee5s Brief* the 0eople refutes ever) ar$ument raised ) the appellant
and recommends that (e affirm in toto the challen$ed decision,
After a careful scrutin) of the records and evaluation of the evidence adduced )
the parties* (e find this appeal to e asolutel) (ithout merit,
%he imputation of ill-motive on the part of #osita =ro) and the asis therefor hardl)
persuade, %he appellant (as the one (ho (as o2ed ) and lost to Diosdado =ro) in
their fi$ht on the ni$ht of -6 Decemer !""-, =t is then lo$ical and consistent (ith
human e2perience that it (ould e the appellant (ho (ould have forth(ith entertained a
$rud$e* if not hatred* a$ainst Diosdado, No convincin$ evidence (as sho(n that #osita
had an) reason to falsel) implicate the appellant in the death of her rother Diosdado,
%he claim that #osita could not have seen (ho shot her rother Diosdado ecause*
as testified to ) defense (itnesses Nistal and Aran+ado* she (as inside the dancin$
hall and rushed to her rother onl) after the latter (as shot is eEuall) aseless, %he
follo(in$ testimon) of #osita sho(s e)ond cavil that she sa( the assailant9
Q Hou said that )ou (ere initiall) dancin$ inside the dancin$ place and )ou (ent out*
aout (hat time did )ou $et outI
A !!900 o5cloc?,
Q And )ou (ere standin$ aout t(o &-' meters from Diosdado =ro) until !!930 (hen the
incident happenedI
A Hes* = (as standin$,
Q And (here did )ou face* )ou (ere facin$ Diosdado =ro) or the dancin$ areaI
A = (as intendin$ to $o near m) rother, = (as approachin$ and $ettin$ near
$oin$ to m) rother Diosdado =ro) and (hile in the process = sa( Daniel
Quijada shot m) rother Diosdado =ro),
3-34
222 222 222
Q And in )our estimate* ho( far (as )our rother Diosdado =ro) (hile he (as sittin$ at
the pla+a to the dancin$ placeI
A >ore or less four &.' meters distance,
C;J#%9
8rom the dancin$ hallI
A Hes* )our honor,
Q And in )our oservation* (as the place (here Diosdado =ro) (as sittin$ li$hted or
illuminatedI
A Hes* sir,
Q Dhat ?ind of li$ht illuminated the placeI
A = do not ?no( (hat ?ind of li$ht ut it (as li$hted,
Q Das it an electric li$htI
A =t is electric li$ht comin$ from a ul,
Q Dhere is that electric ul that illuminated the place locatedI
A =t (as placed at the $ate of the dancin$ place and the li$ht from the house,
Q Hou said $ate of the dancin$ place* )ou mean the dancin$ place (as enclosed at that
time and there (as a $ate* an openin$I
A Hes* sir,
Q Dhat material (as used to enclose the dancin$ placeI
A Bamoo,
Q And ho( far (as the ul (hich (as placed near the entrance of the dancin$ place to
the place (here Diosdado =ro) (as sittin$I
A 8ive &6' meters,
Q Hou mentioned also that there (as a li$ht comin$ from the house* no( (hose house
(as thatI
A %he house of spouses 8e and Berto* = do not ?no( the famil) name,
Q Das the li$ht comin$ from the house of spouses 8e and Berto an electric li$htI
A Hes sir,
Q And in )our estimate* ho( far (as the source of li$ht of the house of 8e and Berto to
the place (here Diosdado =ro) (as sittin$I
A Aout si2 &1' meters distance,
3-.4
222 222 222
Q Dhat (as the color of the electric ul in the $ate of the dancin$ placeI
A %he (hite ul,
3-64
%he trial court diselieved the testimon) of Nistal and Aran+ado, =t e2plicitl)
declared9
The fatua' f%nd%n0( of the Court %n the %n(tant a(e %( anhored &r%n%&a''y %n @. . .
ob(er)%n0 the att%tude and de&ort!ent of ,%tne((e( ,h%'e '%(ten%n0 to the!
(&ea/(+eo&'e )(. Ma0a'una, $0A" SCRA $BB6.
there) indicatin$ that on the asis of the (itnesses5 deportment and manner of
testif)in$* the declarations of Nistal and Aran+ado failed to convince the trial court that
the) (ere tellin$ the truth, Settled is the rule that the factual findin$s of the trial court*
especiall) on the crediilit) of (itnesses* are accorded $reat (ei$ht and respect, 8or*
the trial court has the advanta$e of oservin$ the (itnesses throu$h the different
indicators of truthfulness or falsehood* such as the an$r) flush of an insisted assertion
or the sudden pallor of a discovered lie or the tremulous mutter of a reluctant ans(er or
the forthri$ht tone of a read) repl)A
3-14
or the furtive $lance* the lush of conscious
shame* the hesitation* the sincere or the flippant or sneerin$ tone* the heat* the
calmness* the )a(n* the si$h* the candor or lac? of it* the scant or full reali+ation of the
solemnit) of an oath* the carria$e and mien,
3-74
%he appellant has miseral) failed to
convince us that (e must depart from this rule,
Neither are (e persuaded ) the claimed suppression of evidence occasioned )
the non-presentation as prosecution (itnesses an) of the companions of Diosdado (ho
(ere seated (ith him (hen he (as shot, =n the first place* the said companions could
not have seen from their ac? the person (ho suddenl) shot Diosdado, =n the second
place* the testimon) of the companions (ould* at the most* onl) corroorate that of
#osita =ro), Besides* there is no su$$estion at all that the said companions (ere not
availale to the appellant, =t is settled that the presumption in Section 3 &e'* #ule !3! of
the #ules of Court that evidence (illfull) suppressed (ould e adverse if produced does
not appl) (hen the testimon) of the (itness is merel) corroorative or (here the
(itness is availale to the accused,
3-/4
%he alle$ed improper motive on the part of S00. Ni$paranon simpl) ecause he is
a nei$hor of the =ro)A remains purel) speculative* as no evidence (as offered to
estalish that such a relationship affected S00. Ni$paranon5s ojectivit), As a police
officer* he enjo)ed in his favor the presumption of re$ularit) in the performance of his
official dut),
3-"4
As to the alle$ed omissions and une2plained entries in the police lotter*
the same (ere sufficientl) clarified ) S00. Ni$paranon,
%he defense of alii interposed ) the appellant deserves scant consideration, :e
(as positivel) identified ) a credile (itness, =t is a fundamental judicial dictum that
the defense of alii cannot prevail over the positive identification of the accused,
3304
Besides* for that defense to prosper it is not enou$h to prove that the accused (as
some(here else (hen the crime (as committedA he must also demonstrate that it (as
ph)sicall) impossile for him to have een at the scene of the crime at the time of its
commission,
33!4
As testified to ) defense (itness Julian Bonao* the %a$ilaran (harf*
(here the appellant said he (as* is onl) aout ei$ht to nine ?ilometers a(a) from the
crime scene and it (ould ta?e onl) aout thirt) minutes to traverse the distance (ith the
use of a tric)cle,
33-4
=t (as* therefore* not ph)sicall) impossile for the appellant to have
een at the scene of the crime at the time of its commission,
8inall)* the appellant asserts that if he (ere the ?iller of Diosdado =ro)* he (ould not
have voluntaril) proceeded to the police station, %his ar$ument is plain sophistr), %he
la( does not find unusual the voluntar) surrender of offendersA it even considers such
act as a miti$atin$ circumstance,
3334
>oreover* non-fli$ht is not conclusive proof of
innocence,
33.4
%he evidence for the prosecution further estalished (ith moral certaint) that the
appellant had no license to possess or carr) a firearm, %he firearm then that he used in
shootin$ Diosdado =ro) (as unlicensed, :e* therefore* committed the crime of
a$$ravated ille$al possession of firearm under the second para$raph of Section ! of
0,D, No, !/11* (hich reads9
SEC.
1. 9n'a,fu' Manufature, Sa'e, ACu%(%t%on, D%(&o(%t%on or +o((e((%on of <%rear!(,
A!!un%t%on or In(tru!ent( 9(ed or Intended to be 9(ed %n theManufature of <%rear
!( or A!!un%t%on -- The &ena'ty of re'u(%on te!&ora' %n %t( !aD%!u! &er%od
to re'u(%on &er&etua (ha'' be %!&o(ed u&on any &er(on ,ho (ha'' un'a,fu''y
!anufature" dea' %n" aCu%re" d%(&o(e or &o((e(( any f%rear!" &art of f%rear!"
a!!un%t%on or !ah%nery" too' or %n(tru!ent u(ed or %ntended to be u(ed %n the
!anufature of any f%rear! or a!!un%t%on.
=f homicide or murder is committed (ith the use of an unlicensed firearm* the
penalt) of death shall e imposed,
=n li$ht of the doctrine enunciated in 0eople vs. %ac-an,
3364
and reiterated
in 0eople vs. %io+on,
3314
0eople vs. Calin$,
3374
0eople vs.Jumamo),
33/4
0eople vs. Deunid
a,
33"4
0eople vs. %ion$co,
3.04
0eople vs. 8ernande+,
3.!4
and 0eople vs. Somooc*
3.-4
that
one (ho ?ills another (ith the use of an unlicensed firearm commits t(o separate
offenses of &!' either homicide or murder under the #evised 0enal Code* and &-'
a$$ravated ille$al possession of firearm under the second para$raph of Section ! of
0,D, No, !/11* (e sustain the decision of the trial court findin$ the appellant $uilt) of
t(o separate offenses of murder in Criminal Case No, /!7/ and of a$$ravated ille$al
possession of firearm in Criminal Case No, /!7",
Althou$h %ac-an and %io+on relate more to the issue of (hether there is a violation
of the constitutional proscription a$ainst doule jeopard) if an accused is prosecuted for
homicide or murder and for a$$ravated ille$al possession of firearm* the) at the same
time laid do(n the rule that these are separate offenses* (ith the first punished under
the #evised 0enal Code and the second under a special la(A hence* the constitutional
ar a$ainst doule jeopard) (ill not appl), De oserved in %ac-an9
It %( e'e!entary that the on(t%tut%ona' r%0ht a0a%n(t doub'e -eo&ardy &rotet( one
a0a%n(t a (eond or 'ater &ro(eut%on for the (a!e offen(e, and that ,hen the
(ub(eCuent %nfor!at%on har0e( another and d%fferent offen(e" a'thou0h ar%(%n0 fro!
the (a!e at or (et of at(" there %( no &roh%b%ted doub'e -eo&ardy. In the a(e at bar" %t
a&&ear( to u( Cu%te 'ear that the offen(e har0ed %n Cr%!%na' Ca(e No. 2007 %( that of
un'a,fu' &o((e((%on of an un'%en(ed f%rear! &ena'%Eed under a (&e%a' (tatute" ,h%'e
the offen(e har0ed %n Cr%!%na' Ca(e No. 201$ ,a( that of !urder &un%(hed under the
Re)%(ed +ena' Code. It ,ou'd a&&ear (e'f:e)%dent that the(e t,o 5$6 offen(e( %n
the!(e')e( are Cu%te d%fferent one fro! the other" (uh that %n &r%n%&'e" the
(ub(eCuent f%'%n0 of Cr%!%na' Ca(e No. 201$ %( not to be re0arded a( ha)%n0 &'aed
a&&e''ant %n a &roh%b%ted (eond -eo&ardy.
And (e stressed that the use of the unlicensed firearm cannot serve to increase the
penalt) for homicide or murderA ho(ever* the ?illin$ of a person (ith the use of an
unlicensed firearm* ) e2press provision of 0,D, No, !/11* shall increase the penalt) for
ille$al possession of firearm,
In T%oEon, ,e (tatedF
It !ay be 'oo(e'y (a%d that ho!%%de or !urder Cua'%f%e( the offen(e &ena'%Eed %n (a%d
Set%on 1 beau(e %t %( a %ru!(tane ,h%h %nrea(e( the &ena'ty. It doe( not"
ho,e)er" fo''o, that the ho!%%de or !urder %( ab(orbed %n the offen(e1 other,%(e" an
ano!a'ou( ab(urd%ty re(u't( ,hereby a !ore (er%ou( r%!e def%ned and &ena'%Eed %n
the Re)%(ed +ena' Code %( ab(orbed by a (tatutory offen(e" ,h%h %( -u(t
a !a'u! &roh%b%tu!. The rat%ona'e for the Cua'%f%at%on" a( %!&'%ed fro! the
eDord%u! of the deree" %( to effet%)e'y deter )%o'at%on( of the 'a,( on f%rear!( and to
(to& the @u&(ur0e of r%!e( )%ta''y affet%n0 &ub'% order and (afety due to the
&ro'%ferat%on of %''e0a''y &o((e((ed and !anufatured f%rear!(" D D D.@ In f%ne then" the
/%''%n0 of a &er(on ,%th the u(e of an un'%en(ed f%rear! !ay 0%)e r%(e to (e&arate
&ro(eut%on( for 5a6 )%o'at%on of Set%on 1 of +.D. No. 18BB and 5b6 )%o'at%on of e%ther
Art%'e $28 5Murder6 or Art%'e $2# 5.o!%%de6 of the Re)%(ed +ena' Code. The
au(ed annot &'ead one a( a bar to the other1 or" (tated other,%(e" the ru'e a0a%n(t
doub'e -eo&ardy annot be %n)o/ed beau(e the f%r(t %( &un%(hed by a (&e%a' 'a,
,h%'e the (eond" ho!%%de or !urder" %( &un%(hed by the Re)%(ed +ena' Code.
In +eo&'e )(. Dor%0ueE, 3$2 SCRA 1B3" 1714" =e he'dF
It %( a ard%na' ru'e that the &rotet%on a0a%n(t doub'e -eo&ardy !ay be %n)o/ed on'y
for the (a!e offen(e or %dent%a' offen(e(. A (%!&'e at !ay offend a0a%n(t t,o 5or
!ore6 ent%re'y d%(t%nt and unre'ated &ro)%(%on( of 'a," and %f one &ro)%(%on reCu%re(
&roof of an add%t%ona' fat or e'e!ent ,h%h the other doe( not" an aCu%tta' or
on)%t%on or a d%(!%((a' of the %nfor!at%on under one doe( not bar &ro(eut%on under
the other. +hra(ed e'(e,%(e" ,here t,o d%fferent 'a,( 5or art%'e( of the (a!e ode6
def%ne( t,o r%!e(" &r%or -eo&ardy a( to one of the! %( not ob(ta'e to a &ro(eut%on of
the other" a'thou0h both offen(e( ar%(e fro! the (a!e fat" %f eah r%!e %n)o')e(
(o!e %!&ortant at ,h%h %( not an e((ent%a' e'e!ent of the other.
In +eo&'e )(. *ao'od 38# +h%'. B$14" fro! the at of f%r%n0 a (hot fro! a (ub:!ah%ne
0un ,h%h au(ed &ub'% &an% a!on0 the &eo&'e &re(ent and &hy(%a' %n-ur%e( to one"
%nfor!at%on( of &hy(%a' %n-ur%e( throu0h re/'e(( %!&rudene and for (er%ou( &ub'%
d%(turbane ,ere f%'ed. Au(ed &'eaded 0u%'ty and ,a( on)%ted %n the f%r(t and he
(ou0ht to d%(!%(( the (eond on the 0round of doub'e -eo&ardy. =e ru'edF
The &rotet%on a0a%n(t doub'e -eo&ardy %( on'y for the (a!e offen(e. A (%!&'e at
!ay be an offen(e a0a%n(t t,o d%fferent &ro)%(%on( of 'a, and %f one &ro)%(%on
reCu%re( &roof of an add%t%ona' fat ,h%h the other doe( not" an aCu%tta' or
on)%t%on under one doe( not bar &ro(eut%on under the other.
S%ne the %nfor!at%on( ,ere for (e&arate offen(e3(4 :: the f%r(t a0a%n(t a &er(on and the
(eond a0a%n(t &ub'% &eae and order :: one annot be &'eaded a( a bar to the other
under the ru'e on doub'e -eo&ardy.
=n Calin$, (e e2plicitl) opined that a person char$ed (ith a$$ravated ille$al
possession of firearm under the second para$raph of Section ! of 0,D, No, !/11 can
also e separatel) char$ed (ith and convicted of homicide or murder under the #evised
0enal Code and punished accordin$l), %hus9
It (ee!( that the Court a Cuo d%d %ndeed err %n be'%e)%n0 that there %( (uh a th%n0 a(
@the (&e%a' o!&'eD r%!e of I''e0a' +o((e((%on of 9n'%en(ed <%rear! 9(ed %n
.o!%%de a( &ro)%ded for and def%ned under the $nd &ara0ra&h of Se. 1 of +.D. 18BB
a( a!ended"@ and de'ar%n0 Ca'%n0 0u%'ty thereof. The 'e0a' &ro)%(%on %n)o/ed" @Se.
1 of +.D. 18BB" a( a!ended"@ read( a( fo''o,(F
@SECTION 1. 9n'a,fu' Manufature" Sa'e" ACu%(%t%on" D%(&o(%t%on or +o((e((%on of
<%rear!( 3or4 A!!un%t%on or In(tru!ent( 9(ed or Intended to be 9(ed %n the
Manufature of <%rear!( or A!!un%t%on. : The &ena'ty of re'u(%on te!&ora' %n %t(
!aD%!u! &er%od to re'u(%on &er&etua (ha'' be %!&o(ed u&on any &er(on ,ho (ha''
un'a,fu''y !anufature" dea' %n" aCu%re" d%(&o(e" or &o((e(( any f%rear!" &art of
f%rear!" a!!un%t%on or !ah%nery" too' or %n(tru!ent u(ed or %ntended to be u(ed %n
the !anufature of any f%rear! or a!!un%t%on.
If ho!%%de or !urder %( o!!%tted ,%th the u(e of an un'%en(ed f%rear!" the &ena'ty
of death (ha'' be %!&o(ed.@
=hat %( &ena'%Eed %n the f%r(t &ara0ra&h" %n(ofar a( !ater%a' to the &re(ent a(e %( the
(o'e" (%!&'e at of a &er(on ,ho (ha''" a!on0 other(" @un'a,fu''y &o((e(( any f%rear!
D D D 5or6 a!!un%t%on D D D.@ Ob)%ou('y" &o((e((%on of any f%rear! %( un'a,fu' %f the
nee((ary &er!%t andGor '%en(e therefor %( not f%r(t obta%ned. To that at %( attahed
the &ena'ty of re'u(%on te!&ora', !aD%!u!" to re'u(%on &er&etua. No," %f @,%th the
u(e of 5(uh6 an un'%en(ed f%rear!" a @ho!%%de or !urder %( o!!%tted"@ the r%!e %(
a00ra)ated and %( !ore hea)%'y &un%(hed" ,%th the a&%ta' &un%(h!ent.
The 0ra)a!en of the offen(e %n %t( (%!&'e(t for! %(" ba(%a''y" the fat of &o((e((%on of
a f%rear! ,%thout '%en(e. The r%!e !ay be deno!%nated (%!&'e %''e0a'&o((e((%on" to
d%(t%n0u%(h %t fro! %t( a00ra)ated for!. It %( A00ra)ated %f the un'%en(ed f%rear! %( u
(ed %n the o!!%((%on of a ho!%%de or !urder under the Re)%(ed+ena' Code. *ut the
ho!%%de or !urder %( not ab(orbed %n the r%!e of &o((e((%on of an un'%en(ed f%rear
!1 ne%ther %( the 'atter ab(orbed %n the for!er. There aret,o d%(t%nt r%!e( that are h
ere (&o/en of. One %( un'a,fu' &o((e((%on of a f%rear!" ,h%h !ay be e%ther (%!&'e o
r a00ra)ated" def%ned and &un%(hed re(&et%)e'y bythe f%r(t and (eond &ara0ra&h( of
Set%on 1 of +D 18BB. The other %( ho!%%de or !urder" o!!%tted ,%th the u(e of an
un'%en(ed f%rear!. The !ere &o((e((%onof a f%rear! ,%thout 'e0a' author%ty on(u!
!ate( the r%!e under +.D. 18BB" and the '%ab%'%ty for %''e0a' &o((e((%on %( !ade hea)%
er by the f%rear!H( u(e %n a /%''%n0. The /%''%n0" ,hether ho!%%de or !urder" %( ob)%ou
('y d%(t%nt fro! the at of &o((e((%on" and %( (e&arate'y &un%(hed and def%ned under th
e Re)%(ed +ena' Code.5e!&ha(%( (u&&'%ed6
=n Jumamo), (e reiterated Calin$ and amplified the rationale on (h) an accused
(ho ?ills another (ith an unlicensed firearm can e prosecuted and punished for the
t(o separate offenses of violation of the second para$raph of Section ! of 0,D, No,
!/11 and for homicide or murder under the #evised 0enal Code, %hus9
Co!%n0 to the har0e of %''e0a' &o((e((%on of f%rear!(" Set%on 1 of +.D. No. 18BB
&ena'%Ee(" %nter a'%a, the un'a,fu' &o((e((%on of f%rear!( or a!!un%t%on
,%thre'u(%on te!&ora' %n %t( !aD%!u! &er%od to re'u(%on &er&etua. .o,e)er" under
the (eond &ara0ra&h thereof" the &ena'ty %( %nrea(ed to death %f ho!%%de or !urder
%( o!!%tted ,%th the u(e of an un'%en(ed
f%rear!. It !ay thu( be 'oo(e'y (a%d that ho!%%de or !urder Cua'%f%e( the offen(e be
au(e both are %ru!(tane(,h%h %nrea(e the &ena'ty. It doe( not" ho,e)er" fo''o, t
hat the ho!%%de or !urder %( ab(orbed %n the offen(e. If the(e ,ere to be (o" an ano!
a'ou( ab(urd%ty,ou'd re(u't ,hereby a !ore (er%ou( r%!e def%ned and &ena'%Eed unde
r the Re)%(ed +ena' Code ,%'' be ab(orbed by a (tatutory offen(e" one ,h%h %( !ere'y
!a'u!&roh%b%tu!. .ene" the /%''%n0 of a &er(on ,%th the u(e of an un'%en(ed f%rear
! !ay 0%)e r%(e to (e&arate &ro(eut%on( for 5a6 the )%o'at%on of Set%on 1 of +.D. No.
18BB and 5b6 the )%o'at%on of e%ther Art%'e $28 5Murder6 or Art%'e $2# 5.o!%%de6 of
the Re)%(ed +ena' Code. The au(ed annot &'ead one to bar the other1 (tated
other,%(e" the ru'e a0a%n(t doub'e -eo&ardy annot be %n)o/ed a( the f%r(t %( &un%(hed
by a (&e%a' 'a, ,h%'e the (eond : Murder or .o!%%de : %( &un%(hed by the Re)%(ed
+ena' Code. 3%t%n0 +eo&'e )(. T%oEon" 1#8 SCRA 3B8" 37# 51##161 +eo&'e )(.
Dor%0ueE" $2 SCRA 1B3 51#B864. Con(%der%n0" ho,e)er" that the %!&o(%t%on of the
death &ena'ty %( &roh%b%ted by the Con(t%tut%on" the &ro&er %!&o(ab'e &ena'ty ,ou'd be
the &ena'ty neDt 'o,er %n de0ree" or re'u(%on &er&etua. 5e!&ha(%( (u&&'%ed6
=n Deunida* in discussin$ the propriet) of the <overnment5s action in (ithdra(in$ an
information for murder and pursuin$ onl) the information for GQualified =lle$al
0ossession of 8irearm*G this Court cate$oricall) declared9
At the out(et" %t !u(t be (tre((ed that" ontrary to the &ro(eut%onH( 'e0a' &o(%t%on %n
,%thdra,%n0 the %nfor!at%on for !urder" the offen(e def%ned %n the (eond &ara0ra&h
of Set%on 1 of +.D. No. 18BB doe( not ab(orb the r%!e of ho!%%de or !urder under
the Re)%(ed +ena' Code and" therefore" doe( not bar the (%!u'taneou( or (ub(eCuent
&ro(eut%on of the 'atter r%!e. The 1#8$ de%(%on %n LaEaro )(. +eo&'e, %n)o')%n0 the
)%o'at%on of +.D. No. #" ,h%h the %n)e(t%0at%n0 &ro(eutor %n)o/e( to -u(t%fy the
,%thdra,a'" %( no 'on0er ontro''%n0 %n )%e, of our de%(%on( %n +eo&'e )(. Ta-
an, +eo&'e )(. T%oEon, and +eo&'e )(. Ca'%n0.
=n Somooc, (e once more ruled9
The offen(e har0ed by the Infor!at%on %( 'ear enou0h fro! the ter!( of that
dou!ent" a'thou0h both the Infor!at%on and the de%(%on of the tr%a' ourt u(ed the
ter! @I''e0a' +o((e((%on of <%rear! ,%th .o!%%de"@ a &hra(e ,h%h ha( (o!et%!e(
been (u&&o(ed to onnote a @o!&'eD r%!eI a( u(ed %n the Re)%(ed +ena' Code. Suh
no!en'ature %(" ho,e)er" a( ,e ha)e ru'ed %n +eo&'e )(. Ca'%n0, a !%(no!er (%ne
there %( no o!&'eD r%!e of %''e0a' &o((e((%on of f%rear! ,%th ho!%%de. The
0ra)a!en of the offen(e &ena'%Eed %n +.D. No. 18BB %( the fat of &o((e((%on of a
f%rear! ,%thout a '%en(e or author%ty for (uh &o((e((%on. Th%( offen(e %( a00ra)ated
and the %!&o(ab'e &ena'ty u&0raded %f the un'%en(ed f%rear! %( (ho,n to ha)e been
u(ed %n the o!!%((%on of ho!%%de or !urder" offen(e( &ena'%Eed under the Re)%(ed
+ena' Code. The /%''%n0 of a hu!an be%n0" ,hether harater%Eed a( ho!%%de or
!urder" %( &atent'y d%(t%nt fro! the at of &o((e((%on of an un'%en(ed f%rear! and %(
(e&arate'y &un%(hed under the &ro)%(%on( of the Re)%(ed +ena' Code.
%he fore$oin$ doctrine suffered a setac? (hen in our decision of -7 June !""6
in 0eople vs. Barros,
3.34
(e set aside that portion of the appealed decision convictin$ the
appellant of the offense of murder and affirmed that portion convictin$ him of ille$al
possession of firearm in its a$$ravated form, De therein made the follo(in$ statement9
3A4&&e''ant !ay not %n the &re!%(e( be on)%ted of t,o (e&arate offen(e( 3of %''e0a'
&o((e((%on of f%rear! %n %t( a00ra)ated for! and of !urder4" but on'y that of %''e0a'
&o((e((%on of f%rear! %n %t( a00ra)ated for!" %n '%0ht of the 'e0a' &r%n%&'e( and
&ro&o(%t%on( (et forth %n the (e&arate o&%n%on of Mr. Ju(t%e <'orenE D. Re0a'ado" to
,h%h the Me!ber( of the D%)%(%on" the &onente %n'uded" (ub(r%be.
%he pertinent portions of the separate opinion of >r, Justice 8loren+ D, #e$alado
referred to therein read as follo(s9
Th%( &re!%(e aord%n0'y br%n0( u& the (eond Cuery a( to ,hether or not the r%!e
(hou'd &ro&er'y be the a00ra)ated %''e0a' &o((e((%on of an un'%en(ed f%rear! throu0h
the u(e of ,h%h a ho!%%de or !urder %( o!!%tted. It %( (ub!%tted that an au(ed
(o (%tuated (hou'd be '%ab'e on'y for the 0ra)er offen(e of a00ra)ated %''e0a'
&o((e((%on of the f%rear! &un%(hed by death under the (eond &ara0ra&h of Set%on 1"
+re(%dent%a' Deree No. 18BB" and %t %( on th%( &o%nt that the ,r%ter d%((ent( fro! the
ho'd%n0 ,h%h ,ou'd %!&o(e a (e&arate &ena'ty for the ho!%%de %n add%t%on to that for
the %''e0a' &o((e((%on of the f%rear! u(ed to o!!%t the for!er.
If the &o((e((%on of the un'%en(ed f%rear! %( the on'y offen(e %!&utab'e to the
au(ed" the Court ha( orret'y he'd that to be the (%!&'e &o((e((%on &un%(hed
,%thre'u(%on te!&ora' %n %t( !aD%!u! &er%od to re'u(%on &er&etua %n the f%r(t
&ara0ra&h of Set%on 1. =here" o!&'e!entar%'y" the un'%en(ed f%rear! %( u(ed to
o!!%t ho!%%de or !urder" then e%ther of the(e fe'on%e( ,%'' on)ert the er(t,h%'e
(%!&'e %''e0a' &o((e((%on %nto the 0ra)er offen(e of a00ra)ated %''e0a' &o((e((%on. In
other ,ord(" the ho!%%de or !urder on(t%tute( the e((ent%a' e'e!ent for %nte0rat%n0
%nto eD%(tene the a&%ta' offen(e of the a00ra)ated for! of %''e0a' &o((e((%on of a
f%rear!. Le0a''y" therefore" %t ,ou'd be %''o0%a' and un-u(t%f%ab'e to u(e the )ery
(a!e offen(e( of ho!%%de or !urder a( %nte0ra' e'e!ent( of and to reate the (a%d
a&%ta' offen(e" and then treat the for!er a'' o)er a0a%n a( %nde&endent offen(e( to be
(e&arate'y &un%(hed further" ,%th &ena't%e( %!!ed%ate'y fo''o,%n0 the death &ena'ty to
boot.
The (%tuat%on onte!&'ated %n the (eond Cuery %(" fro! the &un%t%)e (tand&o%nt"
)%rtua''y of the nature of the (o:a''ed" K(&e%a' o!&'eD r%!e("@ ,h%h (hou'd !ore
a&&ro&r%ate'y be a''ed o!&o(%te r%!e(" &un%(hed %n Art%'e $#2" Art%'e $#7 and
Art%'e 33A. They are ne%ther of the (a!e 'e0a' ba(%( a( nor (ub-et to the ru'e( on
o!&'eD r%!e( %n Art%'e 28" (%ne they do not on(%(t of a (%n0'e at 0%)%n0 r%(e to
t,o or !ore 0ra)e or 'e(( 0ra)e fe'on%e( nor do they %n)o')e an offen(e be%n0 a
nee((ary !ean( to o!!%t another. .o,e)er" -u(t '%/e the re0u'ar o!&'eD r%!e(
and the &re(ent a(e of a00ra)ated %''e0a' &o((e((%on of f%rear!(" on'y a (%n0'e &ena'ty
%( %!&o(ed for eah of (uh o!&o(%te r%!e( a'thou0h o!&o(ed of t,o or !ore
offen(e(.
On the other hand" e)en %f t,o fe'on%e( ,ou'd other,%(e ha)e been o)ered by the
one&tua' def%n%t%on of a o!&'eD r%!e under Art%'e 28" but the Code %!&o(e( a
(%n0'e def%n%te &ena'ty therefor" %t annot a'(o be &un%(hed a( a o!&'eD r%!e" !uh
'e(( a( (e&arate offen(e" but ,%th on'y the (%n0'e &ena'ty &re(r%bed by 'a,. Thu("
e)en ,here a (%n0'e at re(u't( %n t,o 'e(( 0ra)e fe'on%e( of (er%ou( &hy(%a' %n-ur%e(
and (er%ou( ('ander by deed" the offen(e ,%'' not be &un%(hed a(
a de'%too!&ue(to under Art%'e 28 but a( 'e(( (er%ou( &hy(%a' %n-ur%e( ,%th %0no!%ny
under the (eond &ara0ra&h of Art%'e $BA. The (er%ou( ('ander by deed %( %nte0rated
%nto and &rodue( a 0ra)er offen(e" and the for!er %( no 'on0er (e&arate'y &un%(hed.
=hat %(" therefore" (ou0ht to be (tre((ed by (uh a'ternat%)e %''u(trat%on" a( ,e'' a( the
d%(u((%on on o!&'eD and o!&o(%te r%!e(" %( that ,hen an offen(e beo!e( a
o!&onent of another" the re(u'tant r%!e be%n0 orre(&ond%n0'y &un%(hed a( thu(
a00ra)ated by the %nte0rat%on of the other" the for!er %( not to be further (e&arate'y
&un%(hed a( the !a-or%ty ,ou'd ,ant to do ,%th the ho!%%de %n)o')ed %n the a(e at
bar.
=%th the fore0o%n0 an(,er( to the (eond Cue(t%on" the th%rd %nCu%ry %( !ore of a
Cue(t%on of 'a((%f%at%on for &ur&o(e( of the other &ro)%(%on( of the Code. The theory
%n Ta-an that the &r%n%&a' offen(e %( the a00ra)ated for! of %''e0a' &o((e((%on of
f%rear! and the /%''%n0 (ha'' !ere'y be %n'uded %n the &art%u'ar( or" better (t%''" a( an
e'e!ent of the &r%n%&a' offen(e" !ay be oneded. After a''" the &'ura'%ty of r%!e(
here %( atua''y (oure fro! the )ery &ro)%(%on( of +re(%dent%a' Deree No. 18BB
,h%h (ou0ht to @on(o'%date" od%fy and %nte0rate@ the )ar%ou( 'a,( and &re(%dent%a'
deree( to har!on%Ee the%r &ro)%(%on@ ,h%h K!u(t be u&dated and re)%(ed %n order to
!ore effet%)e'y deter )%o'ator(I of (a%d 'a,(.
Th%( ,ou'd be a/%n to the 'e0%('at%)e %ntend!ent under'y%n0 the &ro)%(%on( of the
Ant%:Carna&&%n0 At of 1#7$" ,here%n the &r%n%&a' r%!e to be har0ed %( (t%''
arna&&%n0" a'thou0h the &ena'ty therefore %( %nrea(ed ,hen the o,ner" dr%)er or
ou&ant of the arna&&ed )eh%'e %( /%''ed. The (a!e (%tuat%on" ,%th e(a'at%n0
&un%t%)e &ro)%(%on( ,hen attended by a /%''%n0" are found %n the Ant%:+%ray and Ant%:
.%0h,ay Robbery La, of 1#72 and the Ant%:Catt'e Ru(t'%n0 La, of 1#72" ,here%n
the &r%n%&a' r%!e( (t%'' are &%ray" h%0h,ay robbery and att'e ru(t'%n0. A'(o" %n the
!atter of de(trut%)e ar(on" the &r%n%&a' offen(e ,hen" %nter a'%a, death re(u't( a( a
on(eCuene of the o!!%((%on of any of the at( &un%(hed under (a%d art%'e of the
Code.
In the &re(ent a(e" the aade!% )a'ue of (&e%fy%n0 ,hether %t %( a a(e of %''e0a'
&o((e((%on of f%rear! re(u't%n0 %n ho!%%de or !urder" or" on)er(e'y" ho!%%de or
!urder throu0h the %''e0a' &o((e((%on and u(e of an un'%en(ed f%rear!" ,ou'd '%e %n
the &o((%b'e a&&'%at%on of the &ro)%(%on on re%d%)%(!. E((ent%a''y" %t ,ou'd be %n the
theoret%a' rea'! (%ne" ta/en e%ther ,ay" the &ena'ty for a00ra)ated %''e0a' &o((e((%on
of a f%rear! %( the (%n0'e %nd%)%(%b'e &ena'ty of death" %n ,h%h a(e the &ro)%(%on on
re%d%)%(! ,ou'd not a&&'y. If" ho,e)er" the %''e0a' &o((e((%on %( not e(tab'%(hed but
e%ther ho!%%de or !urder %( &ro)ed" then the !atter of re%d%)%(! !ay ha)e (o!e
(%0n%f%ane %n the (en(e that" for &ur&o(e( thereof" the au(ed ,a( on)%ted of a
r%!e a0a%n(t &er(on( and he beo!e( a re%d%)%(t u&on on)%t%on of another r%!e
under the (a!e t%t'e of the Code.
La(t'y" on the !atter of the offen(e or offen(e( to be on(%dered and the &ena'ty to be
%!&o(ed ,hen the un'a,fu' /%''%n0 and the %''e0a' &o((e((%on are har0ed %n (e&arate
%nfor!at%on(" fro! ,hat ha( been (a%d the a&&ro&r%ate our(e of at%on ,ou'd be to
on(o'%date the a(e( and render a -o%nt de%(%on thereon" %!&o(%n0 a (%n0'e &ena'ty for
a00ra)ated %''e0a' &o((e((%on of f%rear! %f (uh &o((e((%on and the un'a,fu' ta/%n0 of
'%fe (ha'' ha)e been &ro)ed" or for on'y the &ro)en offen(e ,h%h !ay be e%ther (%!&'e
%''e0a' &o((e((%on" ho!%%de or !urder &er (e. The (a!e &roedura' ru'e and
(ub(tant%)e d%(&o(%t%on (hou'd be ado&ted %f one %nfor!at%on for eah offen(e ,a(
dra,n u& and the(e %nfor!at%on( ,ere %nd%)%dua''y a((%0ned to d%fferent ourt( or
branhe( of the (a!e ourt.
Indeed" the &rat%e of har0%n0 the offen(e of %''e0a' &o((e((%on (e&arate'y fro! the
ho!%%de or !urder ou'd be (u(e&t%b'e of abu(e (%ne %t enta%'( undue onentrat%on
of &ro(eutor%a' &o,er( and d%(ret%on. +refator%'y" the fat that the /%''%n0 ,a(
o!!%tted ,%th a f%rear! ,%'' nee((ar%'y be /no,n to the &o'%e or &ro(eutor%a'
a0en%e(" the on'y &robab'e &rob'e! be%n0 the deter!%nat%on and obtent%on of
e)%dene to (ho, that the f%rear! %( un'%en(ed.
No," %f a (e&arate %nfor!at%on for ho!%%de or !urder %( f%'ed ,%thout a''e0%n0 there%n
that the (a!e ,a( o!!%tted by !ean( of an un'%en(ed f%rear!" the a(e ,ou'd not
fa'' under +re(%dent%a' Deree No. 18BB. E)en %f the u(e of a f%rear! %( a''e0ed
there%n" but ,%thout a''e0%n0 the 'a/ of a '%en(e therefor a( ,here that fat ha( not
yet been )er%f%ed" the !ere u(e of a f%rear! by %t(e'f" e)en %f &ro)ed %n that a(e"
,ou'd not affet the au(ed e%ther (%ne %t %( not an a00ra)at%n0 or Cua'%fy%n0
%ru!(tane.
Con)er(e'y" %f the %nfor!at%on %( on'y for %''e0a' &o((e((%on" ,%th the &ro(eut%on
%ntend%n0 to f%'e thereafter the har0e for ho!%%de or !urder but the (a!e %(
%neD&'%ab'y de'ayed or %( not on(o'%dated ,%th the %nfor!at%on for %''e0a' &o((e((%on"
then any on)%t%on that !ay re(u't fro! the for!er ,ou'd on'y be for (%!&'e %''e0a'
&o((e((%on. If" on the other hand" the (e&arate and (ub(eCuent &ro(eut%on for
ho!%%de or !urder &ro(&er(" the ob-et%)e of +re(%dent%a' Deree No. 18BB annot be
ah%e)ed (%ne the &ena'ty %!&o(ab'e %n that (eond &ro(eut%on ,%'' on'y be for the
un'a,fu' /%''%n0 and further (ub-et to (uh !od%fy%n0 %ru!(tane( a( !ay be
&ro)ed.
In any e)ent" the fore0o%n0 ont%n0en%e( ,ou'd run ounter to the &ro&o(%t%on that the
rea' offen(e o!!%tted by the au(ed" and for ,h%h (o'e offen(e he (hou'd be
&un%(hed" %( the a00ra)ated for! of %''e0a' &o((e((%on of a f%rear!. <urther" %t %( the
,r%terH( &o(%t%on that the &o((%b'e &rob'e!( &ro-eted here%n !ay be !%n%!%Eed or
ob)%ated %f both offen(e( %n)o')ed are har0ed %n on'y one %nfor!at%on or that the tr%a'
thereof" %f (e&arate'y har0ed" be %n)ar%ab'y on(o'%dated for -o%nt
de%(%on. Con-o%nt'y" th%( %( the our(e nee((ar%'y %nd%ated (%ne on'y a (%n0'e
o!&o(%te r%!e %( atua''y %n)o')ed and %t %( &a'&ab'e error to dea' there,%th and
d%(&o(e thereof by (e0re0ated &art( %n &%ee!ea' fa(h%on.
=f (e follo( Barros, the conviction of the appellant for murder in Criminal Case No,
/!7/ must have to e set aside, :e should onl) suffer the penalt) for the a$$ravated
ille$al possession of firearm in Criminal Case No, /!7",
%he Court en anc finds in this appeal an opportunit) to ree2amine the e2istin$
conflictin$ doctrines applicale to prosecutions for murder or homicide and for
a$$ravated ille$al possession of firearm in instances (here an unlicensed firearm is
used in the ?illin$ of a person, After a len$th) delieration thereon* the
Court en anc arrived at the conclusion that the rule laid do(n in %ac-an, reiterated
in %io+on, Calin$, Jumamo),Deunida, %ion$co, 8ernande+, and Somooc is the etter
rule* for it applies the la(s concerned accordin$ to their letter and spirit* there)
steerin$ this Court a(a) from a dan$erous course (hich could have irretrieval) led it
to an ine2cusale reach of the doctrine of separation of po(ers throu$h Judicial
le$islation, %hat rule upholds and enhances the la(ma?er5s intent or purpose
in a$$ravatin$ the crime of ille$al possession of firearm (hen an unlicensed firearm is
used in the commission of murder or homicide, Contrar) to the vie( of our esteemed
rother* >r, Justice 8loren+ D, #e$alado* in his Concurrin$ and Dissentin$ ;pinion in
the case under consideration* %ac-an did not enunciate an Kunfortunate doctrineL or a
Gspeciousl) camoufla$ed theor)G (hich Gconstitutes an affront on doctrinal concepts of
penal la( and assails even the ordinar) notions of common sense,G
=f %ac-an did in fact enunciate such an Gunfortunate doctrine*G (hich this Court has
reiterated in a convincin$ numer of cases and for a convincin$ numer of )ears* so
must the same verdict e made in our decision in 0eople vs. De <racia*
3..4
(hich (as
promul$ated on 1 Jul) !""., =n the latter case* (e held that unla(ful possession of an
unlicensed firearm in furtherance of reellion ma) $ive rise to separate prosecutions for
a violation of Section ! of 0,D, No, !/11 and also for a violation of Articles !3. and !36
of the #evised 0enal Code on reellion, A distinction et(een that situation and the
case (here an unlicensed firearm is used in homicide or murder (ould have no asis at
all, =n De <racia, this Court* spea?in$ throu$h >r, Justice 8loren+ D, #e$alado* made
the follo(in$ authoritative pronouncements9
III. A( ear'%er (tated" %t ,a( (t%&u'ated and ad!%tted by both &art%e( that fro!
No)e!ber 30" 1#8# u& to and unt%' Dee!ber #" 1#8#" there ,a( a
rebe''%on. Er0o,our neDt %nCu%ry %( ,hether or not a&&e''antH( &o((e((%on of the
f%rear!(" eD&'o(%)e( and a!!un%t%on (e%Eed and reo)ered fro! h%! ,a( for the
&ur&o(e and %n furtherane of rebe''%on.
The tr%a' ourt found au(ed 0u%'ty of %''e0a' &o((e((%on of f%rear!( %n furtherane of
rebe''%on &ur(uant to &ara0ra&h $ of Art%'e 13A of the Re)%(ed +ena' Code ,h%h
(tate( that @any &er(on !ere'y &art%%&at%n0 or eDeut%n0 the o!!and of other( %n a
rebe''%on (ha'' (uffer the &ena'ty of &r%(%on !ayor %n %t( !%n%!u! &er%od.@ The ourt
be'o, he'd that a&&e''ant De 8ra%a" ,ho had been (er)%%n0 the &er(ona' need( of
Co'. Mat%''ano 5,ho(e at%)e ar!ed o&&o(%t%on a0a%n(t the 8o)ern!ent" &art%u'ar'y
at the Ca!e'ot .ote'" ,a( ,e'' /no,n6" %( 0u%'ty of the at of 0uard%n0 the eD&'o(%)e(
and "!o'oto) bo!b( for and %n beha'f of the 'atter. =e ae&t th%( f%nd%n0 of the
'o,er ourt.
The abo)e &ro)%(%on of the 'a, ,a(" ho,e)er" erroneou('y and %!&ro&er'y u(ed by the
ourt be'o, a( a ba(%( %n deter!%n%n0 the de0ree of '%ab%'%ty of a&&e''ant and the
&ena'ty to be %!&o(ed on
h%!. It !u(t be !ade 'ear that a&&e''ant %( har0ed ,%th the Cua'%f%ed offen(e of %''e0
a' &o((e((%on of f%rear!( %n furtherane of rebe''%onunder +re(%dent%a' Deree No. 18B
B ,h%h" %n 'a," %( d%(t%nt fro! the r%!e of rebe''%on &un%(hed under Art%'e 132 and
13A of the Re)%(ed +ena' Code. There aret,o (e&arate (tatute( &ena'%E%n0 d%fferent of
fen(e( ,%th d%(rete &ena't%e(. The Re)%(ed +ena' Code treat( rebe''%on a( a r%!e a&a
rt fro! !urder" ho!%%de" ar(on" orother offen(e(" (uh a( %''e0a' &o((e((%on of f%rear
!(" that !%0ht one%)ab'y be o!!%tted %n the our(e of a rebe''%on. +re(%dent%a' De
ree No. 18BB def%ne( and&un%(he(" a( a (&e%f% offen(e" the r%!e of %''e0a' &o((e((%
on of f%rear!( o!!%tted %n the our(e or a( &art of a rebe''%on.
A( a !atter of fat" %n one a(e %n)o')%n0 the on(t%tut%ona'%ty of Set%on 1 of +re(%den
t%a' Deree No. 18BB" the Court ha( eD&'a%ned that (a%d &ro)%(%on of the 'a, ,%''not be
%n)a'%dated by the !ere fat that the (a!e at %( &ena'%Eed under t,o d%fferent (tatute(
,%th d%fferent &ena't%e(" e)en %f on(%dered h%0h'y ad)anta0eou( to the&ro(eut%on and
onerou( to the au(ed. It fo''o,( that" (ub-et to the &re(ene of reCu%(%te e'e!ent( %n
eah a(e" un'a,fu' &o((e((%on of an un'%en(ed f%rear! %nfurtherane of rebe''%on !a
y 0%)e r%(e to (e&arate &ro(eut%on( for a )%o'at%on of Set%on 1 of +re(%dent%a' Deree
No. 18BB" and a'(o a )%o'at%on of Art%'e( 132 and13A of the Re)%(ed +ena' Code on re
be''%on. Doub'e -eo&ardy %n th%( a(e annot be %n)o/ed beau(e the f%r(t %( an offen(e
&un%(hed by a (&e%a' 'a, ,h%'e the(eond %( a fe'ony &un%(hed by the Re)%(ed +ena'
Code ,%th )ar%ant e'e!ent(.
De cannot justif) (hat (e did in De <racia (ith a claim that the virtue of fidelit) to a
controllin$ doctrine* i.e., of %ac-an, had compelled us to do so, =ndeed* if %ac-
an enunciated an Gunfortunate doctrineG (hich is Gan affront on doctrinal concepts of
penal la( and assails even the ordinar) notions of common sense*G
then De <racia should have la+ed the trail of a ne( enli$htenment and forth(ith set
aside the Gunfortunate doctrineG (ithout an) dela) to camoufla$e a judicial fau2 pas or a
doctrinal Euir?, De <racia provided an e2cellent vehicle for an honorale departure
from %ac-an ecause no attac? on the latter (as necessar) as the former merel)
involved other crimes to (hich the doctrine in %ac-anmi$ht onl) e applied )
analo$), De <racia did not even intimate the need to ree2amine %ac-an; on the
contrar)* it adapted the latter to another cate$or) of ille$al possession of firearm
Eualified ) reellion precisel) ecause the same le$al principle and le$islative purpose
(ere involved* and not ecause De <racia (anted to perpetuate an Gunfortunate
doctrineG or to emellish Gthe e2pandin$ frame(or? of our criminal la( from arnacled
ideas (hich have not $ro(n apace (ith conceptual chan$es over time*G as the
concurrin$ and dissentin$ opinion char$es,
%he majorit) no( reiterates the doctrine in %ac-an and the suseEuent cases not
ecause it has ecome hosta$e to the Ginertia of time 3(hich4 has al(a)s een the
ostacle to the virtues of chan$e*G as the concurrin$ and dissentin$ opinion finds it to
e* ut rather ecause it honestl) elieves that %ac-an laid do(n the correct doctrine, =f
0,D, No, !/11 as applied in %ac-an is an Gaffront on doctrinal concepts of penal la(s
and assails even the ordinar) notions of common sense*G the lame must not e laid at
the doorsteps of this Court* ut on the la(ma?er5s, All that the Court did in %ac-an (as
to appl) the la(* for there (as nothin$ in that case that (arranted an interpretation or
the application of the niceties of le$al hermeneutics, =t did not for$et that its dut) is
merel) to appl) the la( in such a (a) that shall not usurp le$islative po(ers ) judicial
le$islation and that in the course of such application or construction it should not ma?e
or supervise le$islation* or under the $uise of interpretation modif)* revise* amend*
distort* remodel* or re(rite the la(* or $ive the la( a construction (hich is repu$nant to
its terms,
3.64
>urder and homicide are defined and penali+ed ) the #evised 0enal Code
3.14
as
crimes a$ainst persons, %he) are mala in se ecause malice or dolo is a necessar)
in$redient therefor,
3.74
;n the other hand* the offense of ille$al possession of firearm is
defined and punished ) a special penal la(*
3./4
0,D, No, !/11, =t is
a malum prohiitum
3."4
(hich the la(ma?er* then 0resident 8erdinand E, >arcos* in the
e2ercise of his martial la( po(ers* so condemned not onl) ecause of its nature ut
also ecause of the lar$er polic) consideration of containin$ or reducin$* if not
eliminatin$* the upsur$e of crimes vitall) affectin$ pulic order and safet) due to the
proliferation of ille$all) possessed and manufactured firearms* ammunition* and
e2plosives, =f intent to commit the crime (ere reEuired* enforcement of the decree and
its polic) or purpose (ould e difficult to achieve, :ence* there is conceded (isdom in
punishin$ ille$al possession of firearm (ithout ta?in$ into account the criminal intent of
the possessor, All that is needed
is intent to perpetrate the act prohiited ) la(, coupled* of course*
) animus possidendi. :o(ever* it must e clearl) understood that
this animus possidendi is (ithout re$ard to an) other criminal or felonious intent (hich
an accused ma) have harored in possessin$ the firearm,
3604
A lon$ discourse then on the concepts of malum in se and malum prohiilum and
their distinctions is an e2ercise in futilit),
De disa$ree for lac? of asis the follo(in$ statements of >r, Justice #e$alado in
his Concurrin$ and Dissentin$ ;pinion* to (it9
The (eond &ara0ra&h of the afore(tated Set%on 1 eD&re(('y and uneCu%)oa''y
&ro)%de( for (uh %''e0a' &o((e((%on and re(u'tant /%''%n0 a( a (%n0'e %nte0rated offen(e
,h%h %( &un%(hed a( (uh. The !a-or%ty not on'y reated t,o offen(e( by d%)%d%n0 a
(%n0'e offen(e %nto t,o but" ,or(e" %t re(orted to the un&reedented and %n)a'%d at of
treat%n0 the or%0%na' offen(e a( a (%n0'e %nte0rated r%!e and then reat%n0 another
offen(e by u(%n0 a o!&onent r%!e ,h%h %( a'(o an e'e!ent of the for!er.
It ,ou'd a'ready ha)e been a 'ear a(e of -ud%%a' 'e0%('at%on %f the %''e0a' &o((e((%on
,%th !urder &un%(hed ,%th a (%n0'e &ena'ty ha)e been d%)%ded %nto t,o (e&arate
offen(e( of %''e0a' &o((e((%on and !urder ,%th d%(t%nt &ena't%e(. It %( on(eCuent'y a
o!&ounded %nfr%n0e!ent of 'e0%('at%)e &o,er( for th%( Court to no," a( %t ha( done"
treat that (%n0'e offen(e a( (&e%f%a''y de(r%bed by the 'a, and
%!&o(e re'u(%on &er&etua therefor 5(%ne the death &ena'ty for that offen(e %( (t%''
&ro(r%bed6" but then &roeed further by &'u/%n0 out therefro! the r%!e of !urder %n
order to be ab'e to %!&o(e the death (entene. <or %ndeed" on th%( (ore" %t %( beyond
a)%' that %n the a00ra)ated for! of %''e0a' &o((e((%on" the on(eCuent%a' !urder 5or
ho!%%de6 %( an %nte0rated e'e!ent or %nte0ra' o!&onent (%ne ,%thout the
ao!&any%n0 death" the r%!e ,ou'd !ere'y be (%!&'e %''e0a' &o((e((%on of a f%rear!
under the f%r(t &ara0ra&h of Set%on 1.
%he second para$raph of Section ! of 0,D, No, !/11 does not (arrant and support
a conclusion that it intended to treat Gille$al possession and resultant ?illin$G &emphasis
supplied' Gas a sin$le and inte$rated offenseG of ille$al possession (ith homicide or
murder, =t does not use the clause as a result or on the occasion of to evince an
intention to create a sin$le inte$rated crime, B) its uneEuivocal and e2plicit lan$ua$e*
(hich (e Euote to e clearl) understood9
If ho!%%de or !urder %( o!!%tted ,%th the u(e of an un'%en(ed f%rear!, the &ena'ty
of death (ha'' be %!&o(ed. 5e!&ha(%( (u&&'%ed6
the crime of either homicide or murder is committed N;% AS A #ESJC% ;# ;N
%:E ;CCAS=;N of the violation of Section !* ut D=%: %:E JSE of an unlicensed
firearm* (hose possession is penali+ed therein, %here is a (orld of difference* (hich is
too ovious* et(een &a' the commission of homicide or
murder as a result or on the occasion of the violation of Section !* and &' the
commission of homicide or murder(ith the use of an unlicensed firearm, =n the first*
homicide or murder is not the ori$inal purpose or primar) ojective of the offender* ut a
secondar) event or circumstance either resultin$ from or perpetrated on the occasion of
the commission of that ori$inall) or primaril) intended, =n the second* the ?illin$* (hich
reEuires a mens rea, )s the primar) purpose* and to carr) that out effectivel) the
offender uses an unlicensed firearm,
As to the Euestion then of >r, Justice #e$alado of (hether this Court should also
appl) the rule enunciated here to 0,D, No, 63- &Anti-0irac) and Anti-:i$h(a) #oer)
Ca( of !"7.'* 0,D, No, 633 &Anti-Cattle #ustlin$ Ca( of !"7.'* and 0,D, No, 63.
&Definin$ =lle$al 8ishin$ and 0rescriin$ Stiffer 0enalties %herefor'* the ans(er is
resoundin$l) in the ne$ative, =n those cases* the la(ma?er clearl) intended a sin$le
inte$rated offense or a special comple2 offense ecause the death therein occurs
as a result or on the occasion of the commission of the offenses therein penali+ed or
(as not the primar) purpose of the offender* unli?e in the second para$raph of Section
! of 0,D, No, !/11, %hus* &a' Section 3 of 0,D, No, 63- provides9
SEC. 3. Penalties. -- Any &er(on ,ho o!!%t( &%ray or h%0h,ay robberyGbr%0anda0e
a( here%n def%ned" (ha''" u&on on)%t%on by o!&etent ourt be &un%(hed byF
a. Piracy. - The &ena'ty of reclusion temporal %n %t( !ed%u! and !aD%!u! &er%od(
(ha'' be %!&o(ed. If &hy(%a' %n-ur%e( or other r%!e( are o!!%tted a( a re(u't or on
the oa(%on thereof" the &ena'ty of re'u(%on &er&etua (ha'' be %!&o(ed. If
ra&e" !urder or ho!%%de %( o!!%tted a( a re(u't or on the oa(%on of &%ray, or
,hen the offender( abandoned the )%t%!( ,%thout !ean( of (a)%n0 the!(e')e(" or
,hen the (e%Eure %( ao!&'%(hed by f%r%n0 u&on or board%n0 a )e((e'" the !andatory
&ena'ty of death (ha'' be %!&o(ed.
b. Highway Robbery/Brigandage.-- The &ena'ty of reclusion temporal %n %t(
!%n%!u! &er%od (ha'' be %!&o(ed. If &hy(%a' %n-ur%e( or other r%!e( are o!!%tted
dur%n0 or on the oa(%on of the o!!%((%on of robbery or br%0anda0e" the &ena'ty
of reclusion temporal %n %t( !ed%u! and !aD%!u! &er%od( (ha'' be
%!&o(ed. If/%dna&&%n0 for ran(o! or eDtort%on" or !urder or ho!%%de, or
ra&e %( o!!%tted a( a re(u't or on the oa(%on thereof, the &ena'ty of death (ha'' be
%!&o(ed. 5e!&ha(%( (u&&'%ed6
5b6 Set%on 8 of +.D. No. A33 read( %n &art a( fo''o,(F
SEC. 8. Penal proisions. -- Any &er(on on)%ted of att'e ru(t'%n0 a( here%n def%ned
(ha''" %rre(&et%)e of the )a'ue of the 'ar0e att'e %n)o')ed" be &un%(hed
by&r%(%on !ayor %n %t( !aD%!u! &er%od to re'u(%on te!&ora' %n %t( !ed%u! &er%od %f
the offen(e %( o!!%tted ,%thout )%o'ene a0a%n(t or %nt%!%dat%on of &er(on( or fore
u&on th%n0(. If the offen(e %( o!!%tted ,%th )%o'ene a0a%n(t or %nt%!%dat%on of
&er(on( or fore u&on th%n0(" the &ena'ty of re'u(%on te!&ora' %n %t( !aD%!u! &er%od
to re'u(%on &er&etua (ha'' be %!&o(ed. If a &er(on %( (er%ou('y %n-ured
or /%''ed a( a re(u't or on the oa(%on of the o!!%((%on of att'e ru(t'%n0, the &ena'ty
ofre'u(%on &er&etua to death (ha'' be %!&o(ed. 5e!&ha(%( (u&&'%ed6
and 56 Set%on 3 of +.D. No. A32 read( a( fo''o,(F
SECTION. 3. Penalties.-- 7%o'at%on( of th%( Deree and the ru'e( and re0u'at%on(
!ent%oned %n &ara0ra&h 5f6 of Set%on 1 hereof (ha'' be &un%(hed a( fo''o,(F
a. by %!&r%(on!ent fro! 10 to 1$ year(" %f eD&'o(%)e( are
u(edF Proided, that %f the eD&'o(%on re(u't( 516 %n &hy(%a' %n-ury to &er(on" the
&ena'ty (ha'' be %!&r%(on!ent fro! 1$ to $0 year(" or
5$6 %n the 'o(( of hu!an '%fe, then the &ena'ty (ha'' be %!&r%(on!ent fro! !" year( to '
%fe, or death#
b. by %!&r%(on!ent fro! 8 to 10 year(" %f obnoD%ou( or &o%(onou( (ub(tane( are
u(edF Proided, that %f the u(e of (uh (ub(tane( re(u't( 516 %n &hy(%a' %n-ury to any
&er(on" the &ena'ty (ha'' be %!&r%(on!ent fro! 10 to 1$ year(" or
5$6 %n the 'o(( of hu!an '%fe, then the &ena'ty (ha'' be %!&r%(on!ent fro! !" year( to '
%fe, ordeath# D D D 5e!&ha(%( (u&&'%ed6
%he uneEuivocal intent of the second para$raph of Section ! of 0,D, No, !/11 is to
respect and preserve homicide or murder as a distinct offense penali+ed under the
#evised 0enal Code and to increase the penalt) for ille$al possession of firearm (here
such a firearm is used in ?illin$ a person, =ts clear lan$ua$e )ields no intention of the
la(ma?er to repeal or modif)* pro tanto, Articles -./ and -." of the #evised 0enal
Code* in such a (a) that if an unlicensed firearm is used in the commission of homicide
or murder* either of these crimes* as the case ma) e* (ould onl) serve to a$$ravate
the offense of ille$al possession of firearm and (ould not an)more e separatel)
punished, =ndeed* the (ords of the suject provision are palpal) clear to e2clude an)
su$$estion that either of the crimes of homicide and murder* as crimes mala in se under
the #evised 0enal Code* is oliterated as such and reduced as a mere a$$ravatin$
circumstance in ille$al possession of firearm (henever the unlicensed firearm is used in
?illin$ a person, %he onl) purpose of the provision is to increase the penalt) prescried
in the first para$raph of Section ! -- reclusion temporal in its ma2imum period
to reclusion perpetua -- to death, seemin$l) ecause of the accused5s manifest arro$ant
defiance and contempt of the la( in usin$ an unlicensed (eapon to ?ill another* ut
never* at the same time* to asolve the accused from an) criminal liailit) for the death
of the victim,
Neither is the second para$raph of Section ! meant to punish homicide or murder
(ith death if either crime is committed (ith the use of an unlicensed firearm* i.e,* to
consider such use merel) as a Eualif)in$ circumstance and not as an offense, %hat
could not have een the intention of the la(ma?er ecause the term Gpenalt)G in the
suject provision is oviousl) meant to e the penalt) for ille$al possession of firearm
and not the penalt) for homicide or murder, De e2plicitl) stated in %ac-an:
There %( no 'a, ,h%h render( the u(e of an un'%en(ed f%rear! a( an a00ra)at%n0
%ru!(tane %n ho!%%de or !urder. 9nder an %nfor!at%on har0%n0 ho!%%de or
!urder" the fat that the death ,ea&on ,a( an un'%en(ed f%rear! annot be u(ed to
%nrea(e the &ena'ty for the (eond offen(e of ho!%%de or !urder to death .... The
e((ent%a' &o%nt %( that the un'%en(ed harater or ond%t%on of the %n(tru!ent u(ed %n
de(troy%n0 hu!an '%fe or o!!%tt%n0 (o!e other r%!e" %( not %n'uded %n the
%n)entory of a00ra)at%n0 %ru!(tane( (et out %n Art%'e 12 of the Re)%(ed +ena'
Code.
A la( ma)* of course* e enacted ma?in$ the use of an unlicensed firearm as a
Eualif)in$ circumstance, %his (ould not e (ithout precedent, B) analo$)* (e can cite
Section !7 of B,0, Bl$, !7"* (hich amended the Dan$erous Dru$s Act of !"7- &#,A,
No, 1.-6', %he said section provides that (hen an offender commits a crime under a
state of addiction* such a state shall e considered as a Eualif)in$ a$$ravatin$
circumstance in the definition of the crime and the application of the penalt) under the
#evised 0enal Code,
=n short* there is nothin$ in 0,D, No, !/11 that manifests* even va$uel)* a le$islative
intent to decriminali+e homicide or murder if either crime is committed (ith the use of an
unlicensed firearm* or to convert the offense of ille$al possession of firearm as a
Eualif)in$ circumstance if the firearm so ille$all) possessed is used in the commission
of homicide or murder, %o char$e the la(ma?er (ith that intent is to impute an
asurdit) that (ould defeat the clear intent to preserve the la( on homicide and murder
and impose a hi$her penalt) for ille$al possession of firearm if such firearm is used in
the commission of homicide or murder,
Evidentl)* the majorit) did not* as char$ed in the concurrin$ and dissentin$ opinion*
create t(o offenses ) dividin$ a sin$le offense into t(o, Neither did it resort to the
Gunprecedented and invalid act of treatin$ the ori$inal offense as a sin$le inte$rated
crime and then creatin$ another offense ) usin$ a component crime (hich is also an
element of the former,G %he majorit) has al(a)s maintained that
the ?illin$ of a person (iththe use of an ille$all) possessed firearm $ives rise to t(o
separate offenses of &a' homicide or murder under the #evised 0enal Code* and &'
ille$al possession of firearm in its a$$ravated form,
Dhat then (ould e a clear case of judicial le$islation is an interpretation of the
second para$raph of Section ! of 0,D, No, !/11 that (ould ma?e it define and punish a
sin$le inte$rated offense and $ive to the (ords D=%: %:E JSE ;8 a similar meanin$
as the (ords AS A #ESJC% ;# ;N %:E ;CCAS=;N ;8* a meanin$ (hich is neither
orn out ) the letter of the la( nor supported ) its intent, Dorth notin$ is the rule in
statutor) construction that if a statute is clear* plain* and free from ami$uit)* it must e
$iven its literal meanin$ and applied (ithout attempted interpretation*
36!4
leavin$ the
court no room for an) e2tended ratiocination or rationali+ation of the la(,
36-4
0ere$rinations into the field of penolo$) such as on the concept of a sin$le
inte$rated crime or composite crimes* or into the philosophical domain of inte$ration of
the essential elements of one crime to that of another (ould then e unnecessar) in
li$ht of the clear lan$ua$e and induitale purpose and intent of the second para$raph
of Section ! of 0,D, No, !/11, %he realm of penolo$)* the determination of (hat should
e criminali+ed* the definition of crimes* and the prescription of penalties are the
e2clusive prero$atives of the le$islature, As its (isdom ma) dictate* the le$islature ma)
even create from a sin$le act or transaction various offenses for different purposes
suject onl) to the limitations set forth ) the Constitution, %his Court cannot dictate
upon the le$islature to respect the orthodo2 vie( concernin$ a sin$le inte$rated crime
or composite crimes,
%he onl) apparent ostacle to the imposition of cumulative penalties for various acts
is the rule on doule jeopard), %his rin$s us to the proposition in the dissentin$
opinion of >r, Justice #e$alado that the majorit) vie( offends the constitutional ar
a$ainst doule jeopard) under the Gsame-evidenceG test enunciated in People vs. Diaz.
3634
:e then concludes9
In the a(e( no, before u(" %t %( d%ff%u't to a((u!e that the e)%dene for the !urder %n
the f%r(t har0e of a00ra)ated %''e0a' &o((e((%on of f%rear! ,%th !urder ,ou'd be
d%fferent fro! the e)%dene to be addued %n the (ub(eCuent har0e for !urder
a'one. In the (eond har0e" the %''e0a' &o((e((%on %( not %n %((ue" eDe&t &er%&hera''y
and %non(eCuent%a''y (%ne %t %( not an e'e!ent or !od%fy%n0 %ru!(tane %n the
(eond har0e" hene the e)%dene therefor %( %!!ater%a'. *ut" %n both &ro(eut%on("
the e)%dene on !urder %( e((ent%a'" %n the f%r(t har0e beau(e ,%thout %t the r%!e %(
on'y (%!&'e %''e0a' &o((e((%on" and" %n the (eond har0e" beau(e !urder %( the )ery
(ub-et of the &ro(eut%on. A((u!%n0 that a'' the other reCu%re!ent( under Set%on 7"
Ru'e 117 are &re(ent" an %t be doubted that doub'e -eo&ardy %( nee((ar%'y &re(ent and
an be )a'%d'y ra%(ed to bar the (eond &ro(eut%on for !urderL
In fat" ,e an eDtra&o'ate the on(t%tut%ona' and re0'e!entary ob-et%on to the a(e(
of the other o!&o(%te r%!e( for ,h%h a (%n0'e &ena'ty %( %!&o(ed" (uh a( the
o!&'eD" o!&ound and (o:a''ed (&e%a' o!&'eD r%!e(. 7er%'y" I annot one%)e
of ho, a &er(on on)%ted of e(tafa throu0h fa'(%f%at%on under Art%'e 28 an be
)a'%d'y &ro(euted ane, for the (a!e offen(e or e%ther e(tafa or fa'(%f%at%on1 or ho,
the au(ed on)%ted of robbery ,%th ho!%%de under Art%'e $#2 an be 'e0a''y
har0ed a0a%n ,%th e%ther of the (a!e o!&onent r%!e( of robbery or ho!%%de1 or
ho, the on)%t ,ho ,a( found 0u%'ty of ra&e ,%th ho!%%de under Art%'e 33A an be
du'y ha'ed before the ourt a0a%n to fae har0e( of e%ther the (a!e ra&e or
ho!%%de. =hy" then" do ,e no, (ant%on a (eond &ro(eut%on for !urder %n the
a(e( at bar (%ne the )ery (a!e offen(e ,a( an %nd%(&en(ab'e o!&onent for the other
o!&o(%te offen(e of %''e0a' &o((e((%on of f%rear! ,%th !urderL =hy ,ou'd the
ob-et%on of non b%( %n %d%! a( a bar to a (eond -eo&ardy '%e %n the &reed%n0
eDa!&'e( and not a&&'y to the a(e( no, before u(L
De are unale to a$ree to the proposition, 8or one* the issue of doule jeopard) is
not raised in this case, 8or another* the so-called Gsame-evidenceG test is not a
conclusive* much less e2clusive* test in doule jeopard) cases of the first cate$or)
under the Doule Jeopard) Clause (hich is covered ) Section -!* Article === of the
Constitution and (hich reads as follo(s9
No &er(on (ha'' be t,%e &ut %n -eo&ardy of &un%(h!ent for the (a!e offen(e. If an at
%( &un%(hed by a 'a, and an ord%nane" on)%t%on or aCu%tta' under e%ther (ha''
on(t%tute a bar to another &ro(eut%on for the (a!e at.
Note that the first cate$or) spea?s of the same offense. %he second refers to
the same act. %his (as e2plicitl) distin$uished in Yap vs. Lutero,
36.4
from (here People
vs. Relova
3664
Euotes the follo(in$9
Th%rd'y" our *%'' of R%0ht( dea'( ,%th t,o 5$6 /%nd( of doub'e -eo&ardy. The f%r(t
(entene of 'au(e $0" Set%on 1" Art%'e III of the Con(t%tut%on" orda%n( that @no
&er(on (ha'' be t,%e &ut %n -eo&ardy of &un%(h!ent for the (a!e offen(e." 5%ta'%( %n
the or%0%na'6 The (eond (entene of (a%d 'au(e &ro)%de( that @%f an at %( &un%(hab'e
by a 'a, and an ord%nane" on)%t%on or aCu%tta' under e%ther (ha'' on(t%tute a bar to
another &ro(eut%on for the (a!e at.@ Thu(" the f%r(t (entene &roh%b%t( doub'e
-eo&ardy of &un%(h!ent for the (a!e offen(e ,herea(" the (eond onte!&'ate( doub'e
-eo&ardy of &un%(h!ent for the (a!e at. 9nder the f%r(t (entene" one !ay be t,%e
&ut %n -eo&ardy of &un%(h!ent of the (a!e at" &ro)%ded that he %( har0ed ,%th
d%fferent offen(e(" or the offen(e har0ed %n one a(e %( not %n'uded %n" or doe( not
%n'ude" the r%!e har0ed %n the other a(e. The (eond (entene a&&'%e(" e)en %f the
offen(e( har0ed are not the (a!e" o,%n0 to the fat that one on(t%tute( a )%o'at%on of
an ord%nane and the other a )%o'at%on of a (tatute. If the t,o har0e( are ba(ed on one
and the (a!e at" on)%t%on or aCu%tta' under e%ther the 'a, or the ord%nane (ha''
bar a &ro(eut%on under the other. In%denta''y" (uh on)%t%on or aCu%tta' %( not
%nd%(&en(ab'e to (u(ta%n the &'ea of doub'e -eo&ardy of &un%(h!ent for the (a!e
offen(e. So 'on0 a( -eo&ardy ha( been attahed under one of the %nfor!at%on(
har0%n0 (a%d offen(e" the defen(e !ay be a)a%'ed of %n the other a(e %n)o')%n0 the
(a!e offen(e" e)en %f there ha( been ne%ther on)%t%on nor aCu%tta' %n e%ther a(e.
Else(ise stated* (here the offenses char$ed are penali+ed either ) different sections
of the same statute or ) different statutes* the important inEuir) relates to
the identit) of offenses char$ed. %he constitutional protection a$ainst doule jeopard)
is availale onl) (here an identit) is sho(n to e2ist et(een the earlier and the
suseEuent offenses char$ed,
3614
%he Euestion of identit) or lac? of identit) of offenses is
addressed ) e2aminin$ the essential elements of each of the t(o offenses char$ed* as
such elements are set out in the respective le$islative definitions of the offenses
involved,
3674
=t ma) e noted that to determine the Ksame offenseL under the Doule Jeopard)
Clause of the 8ifth Amendment of the Constitution of the Jnited States of America
(hich reads9
3N4or (ha'' any &er(on be (ub-et for the (a!e offen(e to be t,%e &ut %n -eo&ardy of
'%fe or '%!b . . . .
the rule applicale is the follo(in$9 G(here the same act or transaction constitutes a
violation of t(o distinct statutor) provisions* the test to e applied to determine (hether
there are t(o offenses or onl) one* is (hether each provision reEuires proof of an
additional fact (hich the other does not,G
36/4
%he Doule Jeopard) Clause of the Constitution of the Jnited States of America
(as rou$ht to the 0hilippines throu$h the 0hilippine Bill of ! Jul) !"0-* (hose Section
6 provided* inter alia:
3N4o &er(on for the (a!e offen(e (ha'' be t,%e &ut %n -eo&ardy of &un%(h!ent . . . .
%his provision (as carried over in identical (ords in Section 3 of the Jones Ca( of -"
Au$ust !"!1,
36"4
%hen under the !"36 Constitution* the Jones Ca( provision (as recast
(ith the addition of a provision referrin$ to the same act. %hus* para$raph -0* Section
!* Article === thereof provided as follo(s9
No &er(on (ha'' be t,%e &ut %n -eo&ardy of &un%(h!ent for the (a!e offen(e. If an at
%( &un%(hed by a 'a, and an ord%nane" on)%t%on or aCu%tta' under e%ther (ha''
on(t%tute a bar to another &ro(eut%on for the (a!e at.
%his (as adopted veratim in Section --* Article =F of the !"73 Constitution and in
Section -!* Article === of the present Constitution,
%his additional-element test in Cutero and #elova and in Bloc?ur$er* <ore* and
>issouri (ould safel) rin$ the second para$raph of Section ! of 0,D, No, !/11 out of
the proscried doule jeopard) principle, 8or* undenial)* the elements of ille$al
possession of firearm in its a$$ravated form are different from the elements of homicide
or murder* let alone the fact that these crimes are defined and penali+ed under different
la(s and the former is malum prohiitum* (hile oth the latter are mala in se, :ence*
the fear that the majorit)5s construction of the suject provision (ould violate the
constitutional ar a$ainst doule jeopard) is unfounded,
%he penalt) (hich the trial court imposed in Criminal Case No, /!7" for ille$al
possession of firearm in its a$$ravated form must* ho(ever* e modified, %he penalt)
prescried ) 0,D, No, !/11 is death. Since Section !"&!'* Article === of the Constitution
prohiits the imposition of the death penalt)A the penalt) ne2t lo(er in de$ree* reclusion
perpetual must e imposed,
*HEREFORE, the instant appeal is D=S>=SSED* and the challen$ed decision of 30
Septemer !""3 of Branch ! of the #e$ional %rial Court of Bohol findin$ accused-
appellant DAN=EC QJ=JADA ) C=#CJCAD; $uilt) e)ond reasonale dout of the
crime of murder in Criminal Case No, /!7/ and of ille$al possession of firearm in its
a$$ravated form in Criminal Case No, /!7" is A88=#>ED, %he penalt) imposed in the
first case* as amended ) the ;rder of -" ;ctoer !""3* is sustainedA ho(ever* the
penalt) imposed in the second case is chan$ed to Reclusion Perpetua from the
indeterminate penalt) ran$in$ from Seventeen &!7' )ears* 8our &.' months* and ;ne &!'
da)* as minimum* to %(ent) &-0' )ears and ;ne &!' da)* as ma2imum,
Costs de oficio,
O OR!ERE!.