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Accounting Information Systems, 12e (Romney/Steinbart)

Chapter 18 Implementing an REA Model in a Relational Database


1) Integrating separate REA diagrams developed for individual transaction cycles into a single,
comprehensive enterprise-wide data model
A) is possible.
) re!uires understanding what the cardinalities in each separate diagram reveal about the organi"ation#s
business policies and activities.
$) provides a single comprehensive enterprise-wide model of the organi"ation.
%) All of the above are true.
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)) /he primary 0ey for a .ales-Inventory table that consists of the .ales Invoice 1umber and the
Inventory Item 1umber, is 0nown as a
A) concatenated 0ey.
) condensed 0ey.
$) double 0ey.
%) dual 0ey.
Answer& A
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2) 3hen using an REA diagram to develop a database, many-to-many relationships must be
A) bro0en into multiple one-to-one relationships.
) combined into a single one-to-one relationship.
$) combined into a one-to-many relationship.
%) bro0en into multiple one-to-many relationships.
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5) /he type of relationship between two entities is determined by
A) ma6imum cardinalities only.
) minimum cardinalities only.
$) minimum and ma6imum cardinalities.
%) median cardinalities.
Answer& A
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() 3hich of the following is not one of the steps in implementing an REA diagram in a relational
database9
A) implement many-to-many relationships with foreign 0eys
) create tables for entities
$) assign attributes to tables and identify primary 0eys
%) implement one-to-many relationships with foreign 0eys
Answer& A
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:) An integrated REA diagram merges multiple copies of ;;;;;;;; and ;;;;;;;; entities but retains
multiple copies of ;;;;;;;; entities.
A) resource< event< agent
) event< agent< resource
$) resource< agent< event
%) 1one of the above. An integrated REA diagram merges multiple copies of all entities.
Answer& A
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>) An integrated REA diagram could contain multiple copies of
A) customers.
) sales.
$) inventory.
%) sales-inventory.
Answer& A
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=) An integrated REA diagram merges multiple copies of some entities in order to
A) minimi"e the repetition of agent entities.
) ma6imi"e the legibility of the diagram by avoiding the need to have relationship lines cross one
another.
$) oth A and are true.
%) oth A and are false.
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?) $ombining REA diagrams for individual transaction cycles into a single, enterprise-wide model adds
two more rules to the three basic principles for drawing REA diagrams. 3hich of the following is not
one of those two new rules9
A) Every resource must be lin0ed to at least one event that increments that resource and to at least one
event that decrements that resource.
) If a specific event can be lin0ed to more than one other type of event, but cannot be lin0ed
simultaneously to all of those other events, then the minimum cardinality between that event and every
other event with which it may be associated must be 4.
$) If a specific event can be lin0ed to more than one other type of event, but cannot be lin0ed
simultaneously to all of those other events, then the ma6imum cardinality between that event and every
other event with which it may be associated must be 4.
%) All of the above are new rules for drawing integrated REA diagrams.
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14) $oncerning a correctly drawn enterprise-wide REA diagram, which of the following statements is
not true9
A) Every event must be lin0ed to at least one resource.
) -erging two transaction cycles on a common event may affect the minimum cardinalities between
the merged event and the other events.
$) Events can only be merged if they share the same resources and events.
%) $reating a set of tables from an REA diagram automatically results in a well-structured relational
database.
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11) 3hich of the following is not one of the three steps to implementing an REA diagram in a relational
database9
A) Assign attributes to appropriate tables.
) $reate a table for each distinct entity in the diagram and for each many-to-many relationship.
$) Every event must be lin0ed to at least one resource.
%) @se foreign 0eys to implement one-to-one and one-to-many relationships.
Answer& $
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1)) REA diagrams for different organi"ations may be similar, but will li0ely result in different
relationship cardinalities because of
A) differences in business policies.
) different designers of REA diagrams.
$) different methods of drawing REA diagrams.
%) errors in drawing REA diagrams.
Answer& A
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12) 3hat is the first step to implementing an REA diagram in a relational database9
A) Assign attributes to appropriate tables.
) $reate a table for each distinct entity in the diagram and for each many-to-many relationship.
$) Identify cardinalities.
%) @se foreign 0eys to implement one-to-one and one-to-many relationships.
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15) $oncerning REA diagrams and relational databases, which of the following is true9
A) A well-designed relational database is the starting point for creating an REA diagram.
) A well-designed REA diagram minimi"es update, insert or delete anomaly problem when the diagram
is implemented into a relational database.
$) REA diagrams and database design are generic across organi"ations.
%) /he design of a relational database is specific to the organi"ation being modeled.
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1() $oncerning the creation of tables from an REA diagram, which of the following is false9
A) A properly designed relational database has a table for each distinct entity in an REA diagram.
) A properly designed relational database has a table for each many-to-many relationship in an REA
diagram.
$) /o reduce confusion, table names should not duplicate REA diagram entities# names.
%) -any-to-many relationships will be shown in tables with hyphenated concatenations of the entities#
names.
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1:) 3hen assigning attributes to each table,
A) the database designer must interview users to identify which facts should be included in the database.
) the database designer must interview management to identify which facts should be included in the
database.
$) the database designer must use the REA diagram to help determine in which tables those facts
belong.
%) the database designer must do all of the above.
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1>) /he primary 0ey for -&1 relationship tables
A) is a single attribute.
) always consists of two attributes.
$) is the primary 0ey of the most important entity lin0ed to that relationship.
%) does not e6ist. -any-to-many relationship tables only use foreign 0eys.
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1=) Attributes other than the primary 0ey are
A) included to satisfy transaction processing re!uirements.
) included to meet management#s information needs.
$) both A and
%) none of the above
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1?) $oncerning tables for -&1 relationships, which of the following statements is false9
A) 1on-0ey attributes may be included.
) -ultiple attribute primary 0eys are used.
$) .ingle attribute primary 0eys may be used.
%) $oncatenated 0eys are used.
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)4) 1onfinancial information should be collected because
A) it may indicate events that may affect resources.
) it can be used to plan other activities.
$) it can be used in transaction processing.
%) both A and
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)1) $oncerning the creation of tables from an REA diagram, which of the following is false9
A) -&1 relationships must be implemented as separate tables.
) 1&1 relationships are implemented with the primary 0ey of the 1 side becoming a foreign 0ey on the
1 side.
$) 1&1 relationships are implemented with the primary 0ey of either entity included as a foreign 0ey in
the table representing the other entity.
%) All of the above are true.
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))) 3hich of the following is not part of a Afinal accuracy chec0A when creating relational tables from
an REA diagram9
A) Every attribute in every table is single-valued Bi.e., each table is a flat file).
) Every event must be lin0ed to at least one resource.
$) Every table must have a primary 0ey.
%) *ther non-0ey attributes in each table must be either a fact about the thing designated by the primary
0ey or foreign 0eys used to lin0 that table to another table.
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)2) 3hen comparing REA diagrams used to design an AI. with a traditionally designed AI.,
A) traditional AI. information, such as +ournals and ledgers no longer e6ist.
) similar information is present as in a traditional AI., but stored in a different format.
$) !ueries are used to input data into the AI..
%) an REA designed AI. cannot recreate a traditional +ournal.
Answer&
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)5) $oncerning the use of REA diagrams to retrieve information from a database
A) although neither +ournals nor ledgers appear e6plicitly in an REA diagram, each can be created
through appropriate !ueries.
) the information normally found in a +ournal is contained in the tables used to record data about
events.
$) much of the information about an organi"ation#s assets that is traditionally recorded in ledgers is
stored in resource tables in an REA-based relational database.
%) all of the above
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)() -uch of the information about an organi"ation#s assets that is traditionally recorded in ledgers is
stored in ;;;;;;;; tables in an REA-based relational database.
A) Account
) Agent
$) Event
%) Resource
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):) In an REA-based relational database, the information normally found in a ;;;;;;;; is contained in
the tables used to record data about ;;;;;;;;.
A) +ournal, events
) +ournal, resources
$) ledger, events
%) ledger, resources
Answer& A
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)>) $oncerning REA models, which of the following is false9
A) -any financial statement accounts are represented as resources in the REA model.
) Accounts such as Accounts Receivable show up as entities in the REA model.
$) .ome accounts represent an imbalance between two related events in the REA model.
%) -uch of the information about an organi"ation#s assets that is traditionally recorded in ledgers is
stored in resource tables in an REA-based relational database.
Answer&
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)=) ecause information about temporal imbalances between two ;;;;;;;;, such as accounts
receivable and accounts payable, is needed so fre!uently, such calculated values are sometimes stored as
;;;;;;;; in the appropriate tables.
A) events, agents
) events, attributes
$) resources, agents
%) resources, attributes
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)?) $oncerning the generation of financial statements from an REA-based relational database, which of
the following is false9
A) It is possible to use a completed REA diagram to guide the writing of !ueries to produce the
information that would be included in financial statements.
) -any financial statement items can be displayed by !uerying a single table.
$) It is unnecessary to understand the REA data model to 0now which tables need to be included in each
!uery to generate the correct answers to financial statement !uestions.
%) A ma+or advantage of the REA data model is that it integrates non-financial and financial data.
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24) In comparing the REA model to the traditional AI., which of the following is false9
A) /raditional AI.s contain only data about the financial aspects of transactions.
) A ma+or advantage of the REA data model is that it integrates non-financial and financial data in the
AI. and ma0es both types of data easily accessible to management.
$) In the REA model, many financial statement items can be displayed by !uerying a single table.
%) Accounts in the traditional AI. are analogous to resources in the REA-based relational database.
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21) /he ma+or benefits of using the REA model as the basis for designing an AI. include all of the
following except
A) the REA data model integrates non-financial and financial data in the AI..
) the REA data model ma0es both non-financial and financial data easily accessible to management.
$) the REA data model provides the basis for building the 0ind of fle6ible AI. that is responsive to
management#s changing information needs.
%) the REA data model reduces the need for accountants to understand the underlying accounting
+ournals and ledgers.
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2)) $oncerning REA diagrams for individual transaction cycles, which of the following is false9
A) /hey depict basic give-to-get economic duality relationships.
) /hey usually provide only a partial view of resources.
$) /hey need to be combined in order to provide a comprehensive enterprise-wide data model.
%) /hey show both how resources are ac!uired and how they are used.
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22) $oncerning enterprise-wide REA diagrams, which of the following is false9
A) -erging two or more REA diagrams that contain the same resource entity does not re!uire any
changes to the cardinality pairs in the individual diagrams.
) -erging two or more diagrams that contain a common event entity, however, often re!uires changing
the minimum cardinalities associated with the other events to 4, to reflect the fact that the merged event
may be connected to any one of several different events, but not to all of them simultaneously.
$) /he minimum cardinalities associated with agents may also have to be changed to 4.
%) All of the above are true.
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25) $oncatenated 0eys are
A) only needed when combining two or more REA diagrams.
) foreign 0eys used to implement 1&1 or 1&1 relationships.
$) multiple attribute 0eys used to implement 1&1 relationships.
%) re!uired to implement -&1 relationships.
Answer& %
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2() 8ow many tables are needed to implement an REA data model that has si6 distinct entities, three
-&1 relationships and four 1&1 relationships in a relational database9
A) :
) ?
$) 11
%) 12
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2:) 8ow many tables are needed to implement an REA data model that has five distinct entities, two
-&1 relationships and three 1&1 relationships in a relational database9
A) (
) >
$) =
%) 14
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2>) 3hen combining two REA diagrams by merging common entities, changes in the cardinality of the
merged entity is needed when it is aBn)
A) agent.
) event.
$) relationship.
%) resource.
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2=) Information traditionally found in +ournals are stored where in an REA database9
A) Event entity
) Agent entity
$) Relationship
%) Resource entity
Answer& A
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2?) 3hich table is most li0ely to have a concatenated 0ey9
A) customer
) sales
$) customer-sales
%) accounts receivable
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54) Integrating separate REA diagrams into a single comprehensive enterprise-wide model of the
organi"ation re!uires understanding what the ;;;;;;;; in each separate diagram reveal about the
organi"ation#s business policies and activities.
A) cardinalities
) data
$) events
%) transactions
Answer& A
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51) 3hen integrating separate REA diagrams,
A) common resources are placed between the events that affect them.
) each resource is connected to two agents.
$) resources are duplicated to show the give and get of economic duality relationships.
%) resources are merged if both events in the stoc0flow relationship are modeled.
Answer& A
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5)) In which of the following cases is the number of tables re!uired to represent the relationship e!ual to
three9
A)
)
$)
%)
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52) 3hich entity is li0ely to be part of both the revenue cycle and the e6penditure cycle9
A) Receive Coods
) $ustomer
$) Receive $ash
%) Inventory
Answer& %
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1)
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55) In which of the following cases is the relationship between entities not implemented by foreign
0eys9
A)
)
$)
%)
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5() 3hich entity is li0ely to be part of both the payroll cycle and the e6penditure cycle9
A) Receive Coods
) $ustomer
$) %isburse $ash
%) Inventory
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5:) 3hich entity is li0ely to be part of both the payroll cycle and the revenue cycle9
A) $ash
) $ustomer
$) Receive Coods
%) Inventory
Answer& A
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5>) 3hich entity is li0ely to be part of the payroll cycle, e6penditure cycle, and the revenue cycle9
A) $ustomer
) $ash
$) .upplier
%) Inventory
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5=) 3hich of the following is a redundant entity that would be merged when two cycles are combined9
A) $ustomer
) Employee
$) Dendor
%) Inventory
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5?) In an integrated REA diagram, every event must be lin0ed to
A) at least two resources.
) at least two agents.
$) at least one other event.
%) at least two other events.
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(4) In an integrated REA diagram, every resource must be must be lin0ed to
A) at least two events.
) at least two agents.
$) at least one other resource.
%) at least two other resources.
Answer& A
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(1) In an integrated REA diagram, every agent must be must be lin0ed to
A) at least one resource.
) at least two resources.
$) at least one event.
%) at least two events.
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()) In a relational database, which of the following attributes would typically be included in the table
that stores data about the $ustomer entity9
A) Invoice number
) $redit limit
$) 'roduct code
%) ac0order
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(2) In a relational database, which of the following attributes would typically be included in the table
that stores data about the Dendor entity9
A) Invoice number
) *utstanding balance
$) 'roduct code
%) Inventory
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(5) In a relational database, which of the following attributes would typically be represented by a
foreign 0ey in the table that stores data about a Receive Inventory entity9
A) 'urchase order number
) 'ayment terms
$) 'roduct code
%) %ate
Answer& A
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$opyright 7 )41) 'earson Education, Inc. publishing as 'rentice 8all
(() In a relational database, which of the following attributes would typically be represented by a
foreign 0ey in the table that stores data about a %isburse $ash entity9
A) Amount
) %ate
$) Dendor number
%) 'roduct number
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(:) A !uery that e6tracts, for a given time period, the total amount of all sales events for which there is
no corresponding receive cash event will yield
A) a cash account ledger.
) a credit sales +ournal.
$) an accounts receivable ledger.
%) an accounts payable +ournal.
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(>) A !uery that e6tracts, for a given time period, all sales events for which there is no corresponding
receive cash event on the date of the sales event will yield
A) a cash account ledger.
) a credit sales +ournal.
$) an accounts receivable ledger.
%) an accounts payable +ournal.
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(=) A !uery that e6tracts, for a given time period, all purchases for which there is no corresponding
disburse cash event will yield
A) a cash account ledger.
) a credit sales +ournal.
$) an accounts receivable ledger.
%) an accounts payable +ournal.
Answer& %
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(?) Implementation of this REA diagram into a relational database would re!uire how many tables9
A) 1)
) 12
$) =
%) ?
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$opyright 7 )41) 'earson Education, Inc. publishing as 'rentice 8all
:4) 3hich of the following would be true when implementing this REA diagram into a relational
database9
A) /he primary 0ey for Employee would be a foreign 0ey for $ash Receipts.
) /he primary 0ey for $ash Receipts would be a foreign 0ey for $ash.
$) /he primary 0ey for 'arts would be a foreign 0ey for .ervice Re!uest.
%) /he primary 0ey for .ales would be a foreign 0ey for .ervice Re!uest.
Answer& A
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:1) $osgrove Art E Anti!ues sells uni!ue art and anti!ues e6clusively at anti!ue shows. $osgrove
purchases inventory from individuals and other dealers at garage sales, flea mar0ets, anti!ue malls, and
estate sales. Each time $osgrove ma0es a purchase, she records the person#s name, address, date,
specific items purchased and price paid, and total amount spent. ,ater at home, $osgrove cleans,
researches and prices the inventory items. .he assigns an inventory number to each item and records the
Aas0ingA price. $osgrove buys price tags and display supplies from a company that sells at flea mar0et
and anti!ue shows. All inventory and supplies purchases are paid immediately with cash, or with chec0s
from a ban0 account in the business# name, to which sales are also deposited. .everal times a year
$osgrove rents a booth at an anti!ue show. A deposit is always re!uired, with the balance due at the start
of the show. $osgrove records the deposit and final payment, along with the show organi"er#s name and
address, in the same wor0sheet on which purchases of inventory and supplies are recorded.
3hich of the following would not be an attribute in the 'urchases table9
A) Address of place purchase was made
) 'erson#s name from whom the purchase was made.
$) %ate of purchase
%) /otal amount of purchase
Answer& A
'age Ref& (2)
*b+ective& ,earning *b+ective )
%ifficulty & %ifficult
AA$.& Reflective /hin0ing
1=
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:)) $osgrove Art E Anti!ues sells uni!ue art and anti!ues e6clusively at anti!ue shows. $osgrove
purchases inventory from individuals and other dealers at garage sales, flea mar0ets, anti!ue malls, and
estate sales. Each time $osgrove ma0es a purchase, she records the person#s name, address, date,
specific items purchased and price paid, and total amount spent. ,ater at home, $osgrove cleans,
researches and prices the inventory items. .he assigns an inventory number to each item and records the
Aas0ingA price. $osgrove buys price tags and display supplies from a company that sells at flea mar0et
and anti!ue shows. All inventory and supplies purchases are paid immediately with cash, or with chec0s
from a ban0 account in the business# name, to which sales are also deposited. .everal times a year
$osgrove rents a booth at an anti!ue show. A deposit is always re!uired, with the balance due at the start
of the show. $osgrove records the deposit and final payment, along with the show organi"er#s name and
address, in the same wor0sheet on which purchases of inventory and supplies are recorded.
3hich of the following would not be an attribute in the Inventory table9
A) /otal amount of purchase
) 'rice paid
$) As0ing price
%) Inventory number
Answer& A
'age Ref& (2)
*b+ective& ,earning *b+ective )
%ifficulty & %ifficult
AA$.& Reflective /hin0ing
:2) $osgrove Art E Anti!ues sells uni!ue art and anti!ues e6clusively at anti!ue shows. $osgrove
purchases inventory from individuals and other dealers at garage sales, flea mar0ets, anti!ue malls, and
estate sales. Each time $osgrove ma0es a purchase, she records the person#s name, address, date,
specific items purchased and price paid, and total amount spent. ,ater at home, $osgrove cleans,
researches and prices the inventory items. .he assigns an inventory number to each item and records the
Aas0ingA price. $osgrove buys price tags and display supplies from a company that sells at flea mar0et
and anti!ue shows. All inventory and supplies purchases are paid immediately with cash, or with chec0s
from a ban0 account in the business# name, to which sales are also deposited. .everal times a year
$osgrove rents a booth at an anti!ue show. A deposit is always re!uired, with the balance due at the start
of the show. $osgrove records the deposit and final payment, along with the show organi"er#s name and
address, in the same wor0sheet on which purchases of inventory and supplies are recorded.
3hich of the following would be an attribute in the table for booth rental9
A) *rgani"er#s name
) %eposit paid
$) alance paid
%) *rgani"er#s address
Answer& A
'age Ref& (2)
*b+ective& ,earning *b+ective )
%ifficulty & %ifficult
AA$.& Reflective /hin0ing
1?
$opyright 7 )41) 'earson Education, Inc. publishing as 'rentice 8all
:5) E6plain the five rules for drawing integrated REA diagrams.
Answer& Every event must be lin0ed to at least one resource. Every event must be lin0ed to two agents
who participate in that event. Every event that involves the disposition of a resource must be lin0ed to an
event that involves the ac!uisition of a resource. B/his reflects the economic duality underlying Agive-to-
getA economic e6changes.) Every resource must be lin0ed to at least one event that increments that
resource and to at least one event that decrements that resource. If a specific event, referred to as the
focal event, can be lin0ed to more than one other type of event, but cannot be lin0ed simultaneously to
all of those other events, then the minimum cardinality between that focal event and every other event
with which it may be associated must be 4.
'age Ref& (24
*b+ective& ,earning *b+ective 1
%ifficulty & -oderate
AA$.& Analytic
:() E6plain a completeness chec0.
Answer& /he list of attributes that users and management want included in the database provides a
means to chec0 and validate the implementation process. Every attribute in that list should appear in at
least one table, as either a primary 0ey or AotherA attribute. $hec0ing this list against the table column
names may reveal not only the fact that a particular attribute has not been assigned to the appropriate
table in the database but may even indicate the need to modify the REA diagram itself.
'age Ref& (25
*b+ective& ,earning *b+ective )
%ifficulty & -oderate
AA$.& Analytic
::) E6plain where in the REA model you can find the information normally found in a ledger.
Answer& In traditional AI.s, ledgers are master files that contain cumulative information about specific
accounts. In a relational database designed according to the REA data model, resource and agent entities
contain permanent information that is carried over from one fiscal year to the ne6t. /hus, much of the
information about an organi"ation#s assets that is traditionally recorded in ledgers is stored in resource
tables in an REA-based relational database.
'age Ref& (2:
*b+ective& ,earning *b+ective 2
%ifficulty & %ifficult
AA$.& Analytic
:>) E6plain where in the REA model you can find the information normally found in a +ournal.
Answer& In traditional AI.s, +ournals provide a chronological listing of transactions. In a relational
database designed according to the REA data model, event entities store information about transactions.
/hus, the information normally found in a +ournal is contained in the tables used to record data about
events. For e6ample, each row in the .ales event table contains information about a particular sales
transaction. /hus, a sales +ournal can be produced by writing a !uery that displays the appropriate entries
in the sales table for a given period. In a similar manner, !ueries of the *rder Inventory event and $ash
%isbursements event tables can be used to generate purchases and cash disbursements +ournals.
'age Ref& (2(
*b+ective& ,earning *b+ective 2
%ifficulty & %ifficult
AA$.& Analytic
)4
$opyright 7 )41) 'earson Education, Inc. publishing as 'rentice 8all
:=) 3hat are the advantages of the REA data model over the traditional AI. model9
Answer& A ma+or advantage of the REA data model is that it integrates non-financial and financial data
in the AI. and ma0es both types of data easily accessible to management. In contrast to the REA data
model, the general ledger in traditionally designed AI.s uses the chart of accounts to store and organi"e
data based on the structure of financial statements. $onse!uently, traditional AI.s contain only data
about the financial aspects of transactions. *ther information that may be of use to management, such as
the time of day a sale occurred or the reason why a customer was purchasing a specific item, would have
to be stored in a separate database or information system. /he e6istence of separate systems ma0es it
more difficult for management to easily and !uic0ly access the information it needs. It also provides
opportunities for data entry errors to create inconsistencies between systems, thereby reducing the utility
of any reports that are generated. /hus, a ma+or benefit of using the REA model as the basis for
designing an AI. is the ability to easily integrate information that traditionally appears in financial
statements with other, non-financial information necessary to effectively manage operations and
evaluate performance. It is vitally important that an organi"ation#s AI. be capable of storing both
traditional financial measures and other operational performance measures.
'age Ref& (2:
*b+ective& ,earning *b+ective 2
%ifficulty & -oderate
AA$.& Analytic
)1
$opyright 7 )41) 'earson Education, Inc. publishing as 'rentice 8all