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# Observations and discussion

## Part 5.1 50 MW Installation

Figure 1 Longest stable fault clearance time-0.12s

Figure 2 Shortest unstable fault clearance time- 0.13s
This particular system is stable only if the fault clearance time is 0.12 seconds or less. Therefore
this design is not appropriate since the criteria specify a minimum fault clearance time of
100ms.

Part 5.2 60 MW Installation

Figure 3 Longest unstable fault clearance time- 0.14s
The system is stable only if the fault clearance time is 0.14 seconds or less as shown below.
Therefore this design is not suitable since the criteria states a minimum fault clearance time of
100ms.
Figure 4 Shortest unstable fault clearance time- 0.15s

During the two stables states, the system still absorbs the excess energy and consequently, the
rotor angle decreases, whilst keeping synchronization between the generators. Amidst unstable
conditions, the system fails to absorb the excess energy, the rotor angle continuously increases.
This happens 1ms later than longest stable condition.
A shift of power from 50MW to 60MW causes the minimum fault clearance time before the
system becomes transiently unstable to be increased.
According to the power angle relationship, if in a case where one line is out of service, it has a
greater reactance and a lower electrical power capability. Therefore, a system with both lines
in service could not be loaded to a level larger than the maximum power of one line out of
service in case of a line outage. For the unstable states, the maximum power with both lines in
service exceeded the maximum power for one line out of service.

According to the relationship illustrated by the diagram below, A
1
is proportional to the
accelerating kinetic energy which is positive and A
2
is proportional to the decelerating kinetic
energy which is denoted as negative. Equal area criteria dictates that area A
1
must be equal
to area A
2
for the system to be transiently stable, that is, the system must have zero net
acceleration energy. This was satisfied only up to a certain point for the system setups above.
Reducing fault clearance time, reduces the accelerating energy, increasing the stability margin.
So increasing fault clearance time decreased the stability margin, causing the system to become
unstable.

Part 5.3 - 60MW Generation and Additional line

Figure 5. 60MW Generation and additional line 100ms clearance time condition
The system is stable for a fault clearance time of 100ms with an additional line. With an added
shorted line, the deceleration kinetic energy is increased. This increases the stability margin to
increase power transfer. The system is said to have increased stability.

Part 5.4 - 60MW Generation and Series Capacitors

Figure 6 . 60MW Generation and Series Capacitors 100ms clearance time condition

The system is stable for a fault clearance time of 100ms when a capacitor is added in series. The
capacitor reduces the reactance and consequently impedance. This causes a higher post fault
clearance power angle curve. Together with the fact that the area, A
2
in the previous power
angle curve diagrams were higher, it can be concluded that the decelerating energy and the
stability margin has increased. Thus increasing the power transfer.