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TecktnologvAssessmentProgram

for
Face
NU Standard-0104.02
SupersedesWIJ Standard-0104.01datedAugust1980
AVoluntaryNationalStandardPromulgatedbythe
Nationali n s b t e of Justice
Qctober 1984
U.S. Department of Justice
NationalInstituteofJustice
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
Nationall Ilnstitute of Justice
James K. Stewart, Director
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This standard was formulated by the Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards under the
direction of Lawrence K. Eliason, Chief of LESL. The technical research was performed by Nicholas J. Calvano of the Automated
Production Technology Division. The standard has been reviewed and approved by the Technology Assessment Program Advisory
Council (TAPAC) and adopted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) as an IACP standard.
FOREWORD
This document, NIJ Standard-0104.02, Riot Helmets and Face Shields, is an equipment standard
developed by the Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards. It is
produced as part of the Technology Assessment Program of the National Institute of Justice. A brief
description of the program appears on the inside front cover.
This standard is a technical document that specifies performance and other requirements equipment
should meet t o satisfy the needs of criminal justice agencies for high quality service. Purchasers can use t he
test methods described in this standard themselves to determine whether a particular piece of equipment
meets the essential requirements, or they may have the tests conducted on their behalf by a qualified testing
laboratory. Procurement officials may also refer to this standard in their purchasing documents and require
that equipment offered for purchase meet the requirements. Compliance with the requirements of t he
standard may be attested to by an independent laboratory or guaranteed by the vendor.
Because this NIJ standard is designed as a procurement aid, it is necessarily highly technical. For those
who seek general guidance concerning the selection and application of law enforcement equipment, user
guides have also been published. The guides explain in nontechnical language how to select equipment
capable of the performance required by an agency.
NIJ standards are subjected to continuing review. Technical comments and recommended revisions are
welcome. Please send suggestions to the Program Manager for Standards, National Institute of Justice, U.S.
Department of Justice, Washington, DC 2053 1.
Before citing this or any other NIJ standard in a contract document, users should verify that the most
recent edition of the standard is used. Write to: Chief, Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory, National
Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC! 20234.
Lester D. Shubin
Program Manager for Standards
National Institute of Justice
NIJ STANDARD
FOR
RIOT HELMETS AND FACE SHlEhDS
CONTENTS
Page
Foreword
..............................................................................................................................................
..
1.
Purpose and Scope .......................................................................................................................
2. Classification.................................................................................................................................
3. Definitions.....................................................................................................................................
4. Requirements ................................................................................................................................
4.1 Riot Helmet Requirements .................................................................................................
4.1.1 Sampling for Test ..................................................................................................
4.1.2 User Information ...................................................................................................
4.1.3 Labeling .................................................................................................................
4.1.4 Construction ..........................................................................................................
4.1.5 Peripheral Vision ...................................................................................................
4.1.6 Impact Attenuation ...............................................................................................
4.1.7 Penetration Resistance ..........................................................................................
4.1.8 Retention System ..................................................................................................
4.2 Face Shield Requirements .................................................................................................
4.2.1 Sampling for Test ..................................................................................................
4.2.2 Light Transmission ................................................................................................
4.2.3 Prismatic Power ....................................................................................................
4.2.4 Refractive Power ..................................................................................................
4.2.5 Resolving Power ...................................................................................................
4.2.6 Impact Protection .................................................................................................
4.2.7 Fastening System ...................................................................................................
5. Test Methods ................................................................................................................................
5.1 Riot Helmet Test Methods ................................................................................................
5.1.1 Pretest Inspection ..................................................................................................
5.1.2 Test Sequence ..............................................................,.........................................
5.1.3 Peripheral Vision Test ..........................................................................................
5.1.4 Impact Attenuation Test .......................................................................................
5.1.5 Penetration Resistance Test ..................................................................................
5.1.6 Retention System Test ..........................................................................................
5.2 Face Shield Test Methods .................................................................................................
5.2.1 Light Transmission Test .......................................................................................
5.2.2 Prismatic Power Test ............................................................................................
5.2.3 Refractive Power and Resolving Power Test ....................................................
5.2.4 Impact Protection and Fastening System Test ...................................................
Appendix A-References ....................................................................................................................
Precedingpage blank
- - - - - - - - - - - -
NIJ Standard-0104.02
NlJ STANDARD
FOR
RIOT HELMETS AND FACE SHIELDS
1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of this standard is to establish requirements and methods of test for helmets and face
shields to be worn by law enforcement officers during civil disturbances, riots, or other situations that pose
a threat of injury from blows to the head. This standard is a revision of and supersedes NIJ Standard-
0104.01 dated August 1980. This revision of the standard changes the impact attenuation requirement,
deletes the requirement for wet testing of helmets, modifies the requirement and test method for peripheral
vision limits, and clarifies test methods and test equipment requirements. The scope of the standard is
limited to riot helmets and face shields. It should be noted that they are not designed to offer protection
against gunfire. Ballistic helmets and crash helmets are covered by other NIJ standards [1,2].*
2. CLASSIFICATION
2.1 FaceShields
Face shields covered by this standard are of one class.
2.2 RiotHelmets
Riot helmets covered by this standard are of one class.
3. DEFINITIONS
3.1 BasicPlane
The plane through the centers of the external ear openings and the lower edges of the eye sockets (see
fig. 1).
REFERENCEPLANE G1
I SIDEVI EWI \ //' \
FIGURE Head planes. 1.
* Numbers in brackets refer to the references in appendix A.
3.2 CoronalPlane
The plane, perpendicular to the basic and midsagittal planes, which passes through the centers of t he
external ear openings (see fig. 1).
3.3 Edging
The edge, rim, or rim trim around a helmet.
A test device that simulates the configuration of the human head.
3.5 impactAttenuation
A measure of the extent to which impact energy delivered to a helmeted head is reduced by the helmet
intervention. For the purpose of this standard, impact attenuation is evaluated through the measurement of
the peak acceleration of a headform secured within a helmet when subjected to an impact energy of 108 J
(80 lbf-ft) at a velocity of 6.6 m/s (21.7 ft/s). The peak acceleration of the headform decreases with
increasing impact attenuation.
The plane, perpendicular to the basic and coronal planes, which symmetrically bisects the head (see fig.
1).
3.7 PrimaryVisualArea
The face shield area that is bounded at the top by a line 12 mm inside the top edge of the face shield, is
85 mm from top to bottom, and is bounded at the sides by the arcs of a circle of 90 mm radius with its
center located at the intersection of the midsagittal plane, the front surface of the face shield, and the plane
that is 15 mm above and parallel to the basic plane (see fig. 2).
ARC LENGTH 35 cm MIM.
I N.
FIGURE Face shield cot~figuration. The primary visual area is outlined with dashed lines. 2.
3.8 Reference Plane
The plane 6 0 f 1 mm above and parallel to the basic plane.
3.9 Retention System
The complete assembly by which the helmet is retained in position on the head.
4.1 Riot Helmet Requirements
4.1.1 Sampling for Test
Four riot helmets, size 7-1/4 or medium and selected at random, shall constitute a test sample. Three
helmets from the test sample shall be used as test specimens to determine compliance with the requirements
of sections 4.1.5 through 4.1.8. The fourth helmet shall be reserved for retest if required in accordance with
section 4.1.6.
4.1.2 User Information
The information supplied to the user with each helmet shall include the following: (a) recommended
cleaning agents, paints, adhesives, etc., which can be applied to the helmet without damaging the shell and
impairing its function; and (b) a warning that a helmet that has been subjected to a severe blow may
thereafter offer decreased protection to the wearer.
4.1.3 Labeling
Each helmet shall be permanently and legibly labeled in a manner such that the label can be easily read
without removing padding or any other permanent part, and shall include the following information:
(a) name or designation of manufacturer; (b) model designation; (c) size; (d) month and year of
manufacture; and (e) lot number. Items (d) and (e) may be incorporated into a single number such as a serial
number.
4.1.4 Construction
The helmets shall be free from dents, blisters, cracks, crazing, chipped or sharp corners, and other
evidence of inferior workmanship. They shall have no slits, holes, or other openings above the reference
plane and shall have no incompressible projections that protrude more than 2.5 mm inside the shell or more
than 5.0 mm outside the shell.
4.1.5 Peripheral Vision
The helmets shall provide peripheral visual clearance of at least 105" to each side of the midsagittal
plane when measured in accordance with section 5.1.3.
4.1.6 Impact Attenuation
Three helmet test specimens shall be tested for impact attenuation in accordance with section 5.1.4,
each of which has been conditioned to one of three different temperatures in accordance with section
5.1.4.2. A total of 12 impact tests is required for the three helmet test specimens (four impact sites on each
helmet).
The measured peak acceleration shall not exceed 320 times the standard acceleration of free fall (320
g,*) for any two of the 12 required impact tests and shall not exceed 300 g,, for the other 10 impact tests.
Should a single measured peak acceleration exceed 320 g,, and the helmet would otherwise comply with
the above requirements a retest is permitted. The retest shall be conducted with a new specimen and shall
be at the same impact site and temperature. If the peak acceleration measured during retest does not exceed
320 g,,,the helmet meets the impact attenuation requirements of this standard.
* g,=9.81 meters per second per second.
4.1.7 Penetration Resistance
Each of the three helmet test specimens, conditioned as required in section 4.1.6, shall be tested f or
penetration resistance in accordance with section 5.1.5, without any demonstrable electrical contact being
made between the penetration test striker and the test headform.
4.1.8 Retention System
Each of the helmet test specimens, conditioned as required in section 4.1.6, shall be tested for retention
system static strength in accordance with section 5.1.6, without any break occurring and without any
resulting slip or stretch of more than 25 mm.
4.2 Face Shield Requirements
4.%.4 Sampling for Test
Three face shields, selected at random, shall constitute a test sample.
4.2.2 Light Transmission
Each face shield specimen shall be tested for light transmission in accordance with section 5.2.1. The
light transmission at every part of the primary visual area shall be no less than 75 percent.
4.2.3 Prismatic Pswer
Each face shield specimen shall be tested for prismatic power in accordance with section 5.2.2. The
center of the primary visual area shall be free of any distortion that would cause the intersection of the
telescope crosshairs to fall outside the inner circle of the test target. The entire primary visual area shall be
free of any distortion that would cause the crosshairs to fall outside the outer circle of the test target.
4.2.4 Refractive Power
Each face shield specimen shall be tested for refractive power in accordance with section 5.2.3. The
refractive power shall be between -1/8 and +1/8 diopter.
4.2.5 Resolving Power
Each face shield specimen shall be tested for resolving power in accordance with section 5.2.3. The
resolving power shall be such that the series of lines marked "34" on the NBS Resolution Test Chart 1952
[3] is clearly resolved.
4.2.6 Impact Protection
Each face shield shall be tested for impact protection in accordance with section 5.2.4 without any
demonstrable electrical contact being made between the face shield and either of the two test headform
contact sensors.
4.2.7' Fastening System
Each face shield shall remain attached to the helmet by all of its fastening devices after subjection to
the impact protection test described in section 5.2.4.
5. E S T METHODS
5.1 Riot Helmet Test Methods
5.1.1 Pretest Inspection
Inspect the user information proyided with the helmets and the helmet labels to determine compliance
with sections 4.1.2 and 4. 1.3,.;espectively. Also examine the helmet construction and measure the distance
that any incompressible projection protrudes inside and outside of the helmet shell to determine compliance
with section 4.1.4, and verify that the helmets are size 7-1/4 or medium.
5.1.2 Test Sequence
The helmets shall be tested for compliance with the requirements of sections 4.1.5, 4.1.6, 4.1.7, and
4.1.8, in that sequence.
5.1.3 Peripheral Vision Test
5.1.3.1 Test Headform
The test headform shall be size 7-1/4 (see fig. 4). The measurement of peripheral vision is facilitated by
two symmetrical slots that define a 125" angle lying in the basic plane, with the apex at the point of
intersection of the midsagittal and basic planes and the front surface of the headform, as shown in figure 3.
5.1.3.2 Test Procedure
Place the helmet squarely on the headform so that the midsagittal plane of the helmet coincides with
the midsagittal plane of the headform and fasten the chin strap securely. The angle of peripheral vision is
shown in figure 3. It is measured as the angle lying in the basic plane with its apex at the surface of the
headform, one leg tangent to the edge of the helmet, and the other the midsagittal plane. Measure the
- ,
peripheral vision angle of each of the four helmet samples three times using any method accurate to lo.
Report the average of the 12 measurements as the angle of peripheral vision.
/MIDSAGITTAL PLANE
NOTE: Section through basic plane
FIGURE3. Peripheral vision test.
5.1.4 Impact Attenuation Test
5.1.4.1 Test Equipment
I I. 4. I . I Test Headform
The test headform shall be size 7-1/4 and shall exhibit no resonance frequencies below 3000 Hz; it may
be made of any nonresilient material. For the purpose of this test, nonresilient is defined as a modulus of
elasticity (flexural) greater than 5 X 10' psi. Its dimensions are given in figure 4.
I37.2.-4
CONTOURATREFERENCE PLANE CONTOUR AT BASIC PLANE CONTOUR AT E
- 1 2 7 . 0 1
- 4 2 1 3 7 .
CONTOUR AT PLANE A-A CONTOUR AT PLANE B-B
4. FIGURE Size 7-1/4 test headform, dimensions in millimeters.
5.1.4.1.2 Drop Assembly
The drop assembly, consisting of the test headform, the accelerometer, and the supporting arm, shall
have a total mass of 5.1k0.1 kg. The center of mass of the assembly shall lie within a cone of 10" included
angle about the vertical, with its apex at the point of impact.
5.1.4.1.3 Test Anvil
The test anvil shall be made of steel and have a hemispherical striking surface with a 48 mm radius of
curvature. The anvil shall be firmly mounted on a steel plate 2 5 0 ~2 5 0 x 2 5 mm minimum, backed with a
solid mass of at least 140 kg.
5.1.4.1.4 Acceleration Measurement System
The accelerometer should be able to withstand shocks up to 2000 g,,. The acceleration data channel,
including all instrumentation which may alter the frequency content of the test data and all recording and
analysis procedures, shall comply with SAE Recommended Practice J211b requirements for channel class
1000 [4]. The time duration of acceleration shall be measurable within k0. 1 ms.
5.1.4.1.5 Reference Anvil
When the bare drop assembly is dropped on the reference anvil from an appropriate height, it shall
produce a peak acceleration of 400f 20 g, and accelerations above 200 g, of at least 1-ms duration. The
reference anvil may be made of any material that will reproducibly yield these results with a precision of
fO.l ms. A reference anvil found to be suitable is a 1-in Open Blue Modular Elastomer Programmer,
available from United States Testing Company, Inc., Instrument Marketing Division, 1415 Park Avenue,
Hoboken, NJ 07030.
5.1.4.1.6 Environmental Chambers
The environmental chamber or chambers shall be capable of providing ambient temperatures of
-10f2 OC (14+3 OF) and 50+2 "C ( 122f 3 OF), and of holding those temperatures for at least 24 h.
5.1.4.2 Conditioning for Testing
5.1.4.2.1 Room Temperature
Condition one helmet at a temperature of 20 to 28 "C (68 to 82 OF) for at least 4 h.
5.1.4.2.2 Low Temperature
Condition a second helmet by placing it in an environmental chamber at a temperature of - 10f 2 "C
(14+3 OF) for not less than 4 h nor more than 24 h.
5.1.4.2.3 High Temperature
Condition a third helmet by placing it in an environmental chamber at a temperature of 50+2 "C
(122f3 OF) for not less than 4 h nor more than 24 h.
5.1.4.3 Test Procedure
Set up the test equipment as shown in figure 5. Mount the accelerometer at the center of mass of the
drop assembly with the sensitive axis aligned to within 5" of the vertical. Throughout the calibration and
testing, maintain the ambient temperature at 20 to 28 "C (68 to 82 O F ) and the relative humidity at 30 to 70
percent.
Prior to testing, allow all electronic equipment to warm up for 30 min or until stability is achieved,
whichever time is greater. Check the instrumentation before and after each period of testing by dropping
the bare instrumented drop assembly onto the reference anvil three times from the height which experience
has shown will produce a peak acceleration of 4003Z20 g,, and an acceleration above 200 g, of at least 1-ms
duration. Should the average acceleration-time history obtained prior to testing differ from this, adjust the
equipment as necessary. Should the post-test average differ from the pretest average by more than 40 g,,
discard the entire test series.
Precondition one each of the three helmets comprising the test sample to room temperature, low
temperature, and high temperature, in accordance with section 5.1.4.2. Begin testing immediately after a
helmet is removed from the conditioning environment. After 5 min of testing return the helmet to the
conditioning environment for at least 15 min, and continue this alternation until the testing is completed.
Position the helmet squarely on the test headform and secure it by its chin strap or other means that
will not interfere with the test. Adjust the vertical drop height to provide an impact velocity of 6.63Z0.3
m/s. Impact each helmet once at each of four sites: front, side, back, and top, as follows.
Impact the front of each helmet in the area bounded by the reference plane, the plane parallel to and 50
mm above the reference plane, and the planes parallel to and 50 mm to either side of the midsagittal plane.
Impact the side of each helmet in the area bounded by the reference plane, the plane parallel to and 50
mm above the reference plane, and the planes parallel to and 50 mm to either side of the coronal plane.
Impact the back of each helmet in the area bounded by the reference plane, the plane parallel to and 50
mm above the reference plane, and the planes parallel to and 50 mm to either side of the midsagittal plane.
Impact the top of each helmet at a point within 50 mm of the intersection of the midsagittal plane, the
coronal plane, and the outer surface of the helmet.
Record the acceleration-time history of each impact and continue this procedure until each of the three
conditioned helmets has been tested. Following the test, inspect the data for compliance with the
requirements of section 4.1.6. If necessary, condition the fourth helmet as appropriate and impact it once at
the retest impact location.
FIGURE5 . Impact attenuation rcst setup.
5.1.5 Penetration Resistance Test
5.1.5.1 Test Equipment
5.I. 5.1.1 Test Headform
The test headform shall be size 7-1/4 and, above the reference plane, shall have an electrically-
conductive surface which is electrically connected to the contact indicator (sec. 5.1.5.1.3). While the
material used for the electrically-conductive surface is not critical, aluminum foil is not suitable for this
purpose.
5.1.5.1.2 Penetration Striker
The penetration striker shall be electrically conductive and have a mass of 3000-l-45-0 g. The point of
the striker shall be a cone with an included angle of 60+0.5", a height of 38 mm, and a tip radius of 0.5k0.1
mm. The hardness of the striking tip shall be Rockwell scale-C 60. The penetration striker shall be
electrically connected t o the contact indicator (sec. 5.1.5.1.3).
5.1.5.1.3 Contact Indicator
The contact indicator shall indicate when electrical contact of 1-ms duration or longer has been made
between the penetration striker and the conductive surface of the test headform.
5.1.5.2 Test Procedure
Set up the test equipment as shown in figure 6. Again condition each of the three helmets that had been
subjected to the impact attenuation test in the same environment in which it had been conditioned for that
test, as described in section 5.1.4.2.
FIGURE6. Penetration test setup.
Place the conditioned helmet on the test headform and secure it by its chin strap or by other means that
will not interfere with the test. Adjust the helmet in the same manner as a person would adjust it to his or
her head. Drop the penetration striker in guided fall onto the outer surface of the helmet anywhere above
the reference plane and at least 75 mm from the center of a previous impact site or penetration site. Drop
the striker from a height of 3.00+0.01-0 m, as measured from the striker point to the point of the impact on
the outer surface of the helmet. Subject each of the three helmets to at least two penetration blows.
Following each test, remove the helmet from the headform and touch the electrically-conductive surface
with the penetration striker at the point of impact to verify the continuity of contact indicator circuit.
5.1.6 Retention System Test
5.1.6.1 Test Headform
The test headform shall be size 7-1/4 and capable of supporting the helmet when a load of 1500 N (337
lbf) is applied to the retention system.
5.1.6.2 Test Procedure
Again condition each of the three helmets that had been subjected to the impact attenuation and
penetration resistance tests in the same environment in which it had been conditioned for those tests, as
described in section 5.1.4.2.
Place the conditioned helmet on the rigidly-mounted test headform in such a manner that it will not
move during the application of the test loads and fasten the chin strap to the loading device, as shown in
figure 7. Take care that the points of attachment of the chin strap to the helmet as well as the chin st rap
itself will be subjected to the test.
Apply the test loads perpendicular to the basic plane of the headform and symmetrically with respect
t o the helmet retention system.
Statically ioad the retention system with 225 N (50.6 lbf) for at least 30 s and then measure t he
maximum distance between the chin strap and the apex of the helmet. Do not remove the load.
Apply an additional 1230 N (276.5 lbf) to the retention system for at least 3 min and again measure t he
maximum distance between the chin strap and the apex of the helmet.
Record any break in the retention system and the static load at the time of failure. Record any slip or
stretch as the difference between the two distance measurements. Continue this test until each of the three
conditioned helmets has been tested.
7. FIGURE Retention system test setup.
5.2 Face Shield Test Methods
5.2.1 Light Transmission Test
5.2.1.1 Test Equipment
5.2.1.1.1 Light Source
The light source shall consist of a quartz-halogen lamp mounted inside a box with matte white inner
surfaces for maximum diffusion. Centered on one face of the box shall be an 8 X 8-cm window fitted with a
flashed opal glass diffuser mounted inside the box with its flashed side facing away from the lamp. The lamp
shall be operated so that its color temperature is 2856 "Kas viewed through the diffuser.
5.2.1.1.2 Photometer
The photometer shall be equipped with a photodetector whose spectral response is corrected to
approximate the CI E photopic curve [5]. The photometer's maximum sensitivity shall be at 550225 nm and
it shall not respond to wavelengths below 4252~25 nm or above 7003~25 nm. Its field of view shall be
between 2" and 8".
--
5.2.1.2 Test Procedure
Set up the test equipment as shown in figure 8, with the photometer 30 cm from the light source
diffuser. Align the optic axis of the photometer with the light bulb and the center of the luminous area,
perpendicular to the surface of the light source diffuser.
With no test specimen in the light path, adjust the photometer sensitivity so that the photometer reads
close to full scale and record the photometer reading as I,.
Clean the face shield thoroughly and place it in the light path so that its convex face is perpendicular to
and no more than 6 mm in front of the diffuser and its concave face is toward the photometer. Record the
resulting photometer reading as Iand calculate the light transmission as 100 I/Io.
PHOTOMETER
SI GHT
4 6rnm MAX.
30 cm
FIGURE Light transmission test setup. 8.
5.2.2 PrismaticPowerTest
5.2.2.1 Test Equipmen2
5.2.2.1.1 Telescope
The telescope shall have a magnifying power of 8 to 10 diam and shall be equipped with crosshairs. It
shall have an effective aperture of 19 to 25 mm.
5.2.2.1.2 Test Target
The test target shall consist of two concentric circles having diameters of 10 mm and 25 mm,
respectively, with their center marked with an "X". The target shall be drawn in black on a white
background and illuminated so that it is clearly visible when viewed through the telescope from a distance
of 6 m.
5.2.2.2 Test Procedure
Set up the test equipment as shown in figure 9, with the target located 6 m from the objective lens of
the rigidly mounted telescope. With no test specimen in the line of sight, focus the telescope on the test
target and adjust their positions so that the intersection of the telescope crosshairs is centered over the "X"
at the center of the test target.
Then position the face shield so that its concave side faces the telescope and the center of its primary
viewing area is 8 cm in front of the telescope and normal to the line of sight. Refocus the telescope on the
test target and observe whether the intersection of the telescope crosshairs falls within the image of the
inner circle of the test target.
Test the entire primary visual area of the face shield by moving it through the line of sight of the
telescope, taking care to assure that the part of the face shield in the line of sight is perpendicular to the line
of sight, and observe whether the intersection of the telescope crosshairs stays withiti the image of the outer
circle of the test target.
- -------- -
TARGET
LINE OF SIGHT
F ACE SHI ELD
FIGURE
Setup for the prismatic power, refractive power, and resolving power tests.
9.
5.2.3 RefractivePowerandResolvingPowerTest
Use the test setup shown in figure 9, but replace the prismatic power test target with an NBS
Resolution Test Chart 1952 [3]. With no test specimen in the line of sight, place a standard +1/8 diopter
lens immediately in front of the objective lens of the telescope, focus the telescope on the test chart and
mark a line on the draw tube to indicate the position of best focus. Replace the +1/8 diopter lens with a
-1/8 diopter lens and again focus the telescope and mark the position of best focus on the draw tube. The
two lines on the draw tube mark the limits of acceptable refractive power (-1/8 to +1/8 diopter).
Remove the -1/8 diopter lens and position the face shield so that the center of its primary visual area is
normal to the line of sight. Focus the telescope and observe whether the portion of best focus falls between
the two marks on the draw tube; if it does, the face shield passes the refractive power test. Also observe
whether the series of lines marked "34" are resolved as separate lines; if they are, the face shield passes the
resolving power test.
5.2.4 impactProtectionandFasteningSystemTest
5.2.4.1 Test Equipment
5.2.4.1.1 Test Headform
-
The test headform shall be size 7-1/4, made of a rigid material such as epoxy, have the dimensions
shown in figure 10, and be fitted with two contact sensors as shown in details A and B.
5.2.4.1.2 Contact Indicator
J
The contact indicator shall indicate when electrical contact of 1-ms duration or longer has been made
between the conductive surface of the face shield and either one of the test headform contact sensors.
5.2.4.1.3 Impactor
The impactor shall be a steel cylinder 45 mm in diameter with a hemispherical surface on one end. The
mass of the impactor shall be 1000+45-0 g.
GOHIOUR
AT REFERENCE
PLANE
CONTOUR
AT BASIC
PLANE
\ / G~DED TI P
DETAIL A DETAIL 4~z~, ~
10. FIGURE Impact protection and fastening system test headform, dimensions in millimeters.
5.2.4.2 Test Procedure
Set up the test equipment as shown in figure 11. Line the concave surface of each face shield with a
conductive material such as heavy-duty aluminum foil, attach the face shield to a helmet in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions, and leave it attached throughout the preconditioning and testing.
Precondition one each of the three face shields comprising the test sample to room temperature, low
temperature, and high temperature, respectively, in accordance with section 5.1.4.2. Begin testing
immediately after removing the face shield from the conditioning environment. After 5 min of testing return
the face shield to the conditioning environment for at least 15 min, and continue this alternation until the
testing is completed.
Position a helmet, with one of the three preconditioned face shields attached, squarely on the test
headform, and fasten the chin strap securely. Electrically connect the face shield liner, through the contact
indicator, to each of the two test headform contact sensors. Position the helmeted test headform face up,
with its coronal plane horizontal and its midsagittal plane vertical, and support it firmly. Suspend the
impactor inside the vertical drop tube 80+ 1-0 cm above the face shield, with its hemispherical end facing
down, directly above the contact sensor on the nose of the headform. Impact the face shield by releasing
the impactor and allowing it to fall freely. Observe whether or not the contact indicator indicates that the
face shield had made electrical contact with the headform contact sensor.
Reposition the face shield if necessary and impact it a second time in the same area. Repeat the above
procedure for the remaining two face shield specimens.
Reposition the helmeted test headform side up and head tilted down, with its coronal plane vertical, its
midsagittal plane at an angle of 30" with the horizontal and the side contact sensor directly under the
impactor. Repeat the testing as described above.
Observe whether or not each face shield remained attached to the helmet by all of its fasteners after
each of the impacts delivered during this test.
FIGURE Impact protection and fastening system test setup. 11.
APPENDIX A-REFERENCES
[I] Crash helmets. NIJ Standard-0105.01. National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice,
Washington, DC20531.
[2] Ballistichelmets. NIJ Standard-0106.01; 1981December.National Institute ofJustice, U.S. Department
ofJustice,Washington, DC20531.
[3] Washer, E.; Gardner, I. C. NBS resolution test chart 1952,presented in Method for determining the
resolving power of photographic lenses. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 374; 1973 June.
Available from the Superintendentof Documents,U.S.Government Printing Office, Washington,
DC20402; StockNo.0303-01061.
[4]
Recommended practice for instrumentation for impact tests. SAEJ211b; 1974December. Society of
AutomotiveEngineers, Inc., NewYork,NY 10001.
[5] Principlesoflight measurements. CIENo. 18(E- 1.2); 1970.Commission Internationale deL'Eclairage,
4,Ave. duRecteur Poincare, 75-Paris16,France.
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