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CL 251: Chemical Engineering Lab I

Experiment-03
Two Dimensional Heat Conduction

Sagar Chawla
12110081

Abstract:-
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the relation between Reynolds number and
friction face through rectangular pipe and annular pipe for different flow rates of water in
turbulent flow regime. Flow rate of water is controlled by voltage regulator. Pressure drop
through the pipes is measured by mercury manometer. Pressure drop is increases as flow rate of
water increases. A graph is plotted between
obs
versus N
re
and f
theo
versus N
re
on log-log scale.
A large difference between theoretical value and observed value is obtained in final result.
Rectangular pip has more friction factor than annulus pipe because of their lower equivalent
diameter term.
Introduction:-
Annulus is a space between a two concentric objects where fluid can flow. Annulus pipe is very
useful at industry level. The cross sectional area of flow will be the cross sectional area of the
larger pipe calculated using the inner pipe diameter minus the cross sectional area of the smaller
pipe calculated using the outer pipe diameter. The wetted perimeter will be the inner
circumference of the larger pipe plus the outer circumference of the smaller pipe.
When fluid flow through pipes, shear stress is present in boundary layers. Shear stress is worked
in opposite to the direction flow. Shear stress at the wall due to pressure gradient expressed by
following formula


When fluid flow through a non circular one then it is necessary to determine the characteristic
length and it is four times the hydraulic radius. Hydraulic radius is defined as ratio of cross
sectional area of the conduit perpendicular to the direction of flow and the perimeter of the
conduit wetted by the fluid. The pressure drop increases and friction factor as the flow rate of
liquid is increased through pipes.
For flow through annulus the equivalent diameter will be

{(

)}


For flow through rectangular pipe the equivalent diameter will be








Procedure:-
Reservoir is filled with 90% of its capacity. Power supply of pump is switched on and flow rate
of water is adjusted with the help of voltage regulator. If any air bubbles are present in tube are
removed. Mercury Manometer is used to measure the pressure through the both pipes. Valve of
tube connected with rectangular pipe is closed. Time is noticed to raise water from bottom mark
to desire mark by closing the ball valve. Mercury manometers reading for 4-5 different flow rates
are taken. Same procedures are followed for annulus pipe.
Result:-
Table I: - Data for rectangular pipe
Obs.
no.
Manometer
Reading
(Cm)
Time required
for water level to
rise between two
marks t(sec)
Volumetric flow
rate of water (Q)
(cm3/sec) (x10
2
)
Frictional
Pressure
(gm /Cm s
2
)
(x10
5
)
1 16.0 15 3.20 2.13
2 12.7 18 2.66 1.69
3 9.1 21 2.28 1.21
4 6.0 26 1.84 0.79
5 5.0 30 1.60 0.66
6 4.0 33 1.45 0.53

Table II: - Data for annulus pipe
Obs.
no.
Manometer
Reading
(Cm)
Time required
for water level to
rise between two
marks t(sec)
Volumetric flow
rate of water (Q)
(cm3/sec) (x10
2
)
Frictional
Pressure
(gm /Cm s
2
)
(x10
5
)
1 6.2 28 3.50 0.82
2 5.0 31 3.16 0.66
3 4.0 36 2.72 0.53










Table III: - Data for rectangular pipe


Obs.
No
Average
velocity of
water
through
pipe U
(cm/sec)(x10^2)
Reynolds
no.
Frictional
factor
(observed)
Frictional
factor
(theoretical)
1 2.12 18054.19 0.021 0.0064
2 1.77 15073.54 0.024 0.0067
3 1.52 12944.51 0.023 0.0069
4 1.22 10389.67 0.023 0.0073
5 1.06 9027.09 0.026 0.0074
6 0.96 8175.48 0.025 0.0075






Table IV: - Data for annulus pipe
Obs.
No
Average
velocity of
water
through
pipe U
(cm/sec)(x10^2)
Reynolds
no.
Frictional
factor
(observed)
(x10^
-3
)
Frictional
factor
(theoretical)
(x10^
-3
)
1 4.04 39996.00 2.62 5.52
2 3.65 36135.00 2.55 5.63
3 3.14 31086.00 2.80 5.81

Graph:-

Reynolds number On X-Axis


Friction factor (observed) On Y-Axis (Blue line)


Friction factor (theoretical) On Y-Axis (Red line)








1. For Rectangular pipe


Fig.1 f
obs
versus N
Re
and f
theo
versus N
Re
on log-log scale








0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 5000 10000 15000 20000
2.For annulus pipe


Fig.2 f
obs
versus N
Re
and f
theo
versus N
Re
on log-log scale


Discussion & Conclusion:-
Since large difference is obtained between observed value and theoretical value of friction factor.
The most probably reason of this difference is human error or accuracy of apparatus is not quite
high. This experiment help us to characteristic of annulus and rectangular pipe and also the
relation between Reynolds number and friction factor for different flow rates of water and we
conclude that Observed value of friction factor is higher for rectangular pipe than annulus pipe;
because of this reason annulus pipe is used for industrial process. One of the main advantages of
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000
obs
ftheo
annulus pipe is that it is very convenient for heat exchanger at industrial level because of their
space between two concentric objects. Pressure drop and average velocity decreases as flow rate
decreases and hence the friction factor decreases with the increment in Reynolds number.
Appendix:-
Inside diameter of the outer pipe (D2) = 1.6 Cm
Diameter of the rod (D1) = 0.8 Cm
Average temperature of the water during run = 23
0
C
Viscosity of water at average temperature = 0.933 Centipoise
Volume of Calibrated tank use to measure flow rate = 9810 CC
Cross-section area of annulus pipe (A) =


= /4*({1.6}2- {0.8}2)
= 1.51 Cm
2
Volumetric flow rate of water (Q) = (V/t) = 4800/28.22 = 3.20*10^Cm
3
/Sec
Average velocity of water through pipe (U) = (Q/A) = 3.20*10^2/1.50 = 2.12x10^2 Cm/Sec
Frictional pressure drop across the test section (P) = = 16.0*13.6*980 =
2.13x10^5 gm/Cm2
Reynolds number (Re) = = 0.8*2.12*100*0.99/0.00933 = 18054.19
Friction Factor (observed) = =
2.13*0.8*10*/(2*2.12*90*0.99) = 0.021
Friction factor (Theoretical) =

for

> 2100