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FORMULAS TO REMEMBER

Area: [units = inch


2
]
Area of a Rectangle = b d
Area of a Circle = r
2
Area of a Triangle = 1 b h
2
Area of a Bolt, = d
2


[where d = diameter]
Cable, Tube, Bar 4
Equilibrium:

M
= !
V
= !
H
=
Force: "units = kips & pounds#
$ = % [$orce = %oment ]
d distance
RETAININ !A"" #E$IN "units = kips & pounds#
$ = w h
2
[$orce e&erted on the = 'fluid (ressure (ro)ided* + 'height*
2
]
2 Retaining ,all 2
Remember: pcf = psf [pounds per cubic feet = pounds per square foot]
ft one foot width of wall
$HEAR #IARAM $HEAR F%R&E "units = kips & pounds#
R = - = w l [.hear Resisting $orce= 'uniform load (er ft* + 'distance*]
2 2
'EARIN T()E $HEAR &%NNE&TI%N$ "units = kips & pounds#
R = $
*
A
bol+s

[Resistance = 'allow/shear stress* + 'A of bolt cross sections/ Remember
to .hear $ailure to multiply A by total # of bolts*]
Remember: Stress = P Therefore P = Stress ! Area
A
Momen+: "units = 'k ,+-. /lb ,+-. 'k in-. /lb in-#
TA0IN M%MENT$ A'%1T A )%INT T% FIN# E21I"I'RI1M
% = $d [%oment = force + distance]
1NIF%RM "%A# 3uni+s 4 /k ,+-. /lb ,+-. /lb in-5
% = w 0
2
[%oment = uniform load + 'length*
2
]
1 1
)%INT6&%N&ENTRATE# "%A# AT THE &ENTER %F A MEM'ER
% = 2 0 [%oment = 2oint 0oad + length]
4 4
Remember: w l
2
" P # when Point $ %niform loads combine&
' (
)atch out: There are *arious types of Point loads&
E&&ENTRI& "%A# "units = 'k ,+-. /lb ,+-. /lb in-#
% = 2e [%oment = force + eccentricit3] ".ame as %=$d#
$ec+ion Modulus: [units = inch
7
]
. = b d
2
in
7
[.ection %odulus]
4
. = % [.ection %odulus = %oment in 5nches
$
b
Bending .tress]
)atch out: +oth ,oment $ Stress should be in # or -ips&
Remember: .or a Roof +eam . = %
$
b
+ 1/26
. = 5 [.ection %odulus = %oment of 5nertia
c /0ust -now this1 'dist/ from e&treme fiber to nuetral a&is*]
%nderstand that S contains ,oment of 2nertia and c&
Momen+ o, Iner+ia: [units = inch
8
]
Remember: ,oment of 2nertia occurs by default about the 3entroidal a4is&
5 = b d
7
in
8
[%oment of 5nertia]
12
5 = b d
7
in
8
[%oment of 5nertia of a rectan5le about its base]
7
5
base
= 5 8 A 3
2
in
8
[5 9 Base = 5 8 Area + 'dist/ from centroid to base*
2
]
&en+er o, Area:
:se the formula M 4 A d deri)ed from %=$d to find + and ;
A = .um of Areas of A00 members
$+ress: 3uni+s 4 ksi or psi5
'EN#IN 6 F"E91RA" $TRE$$ "units = ksi or psi #
Remember: ,a4& +endin5 stress occurs at the e4treme fibers&
f
b
= % [Bending .tress = %oment
. .ection %odulus]
f
b
= % c [Bending .tress = %oment + 'dist/ from e&treme fiber to <=A* ]
5 %oment of 5nertia
Remember: 6reater the c 5reater is the +endin5 Stress&
A9IA" $TRE$$ "units = ksi or psi #
Remember: ,a4& A4ial stress occurs alon5 the entire cross7section&
f
a
= 2 [A&ial Tension or = A&ial Tension $orce in lbs or >i(s]
A Com(ression .tress Area in in
2
Remember: A4ial Stress is the same at both Tension $ 3ompression
$HEAR $TRE$$ "units = ksi or psi #
Remember: ,a4& Shear stress occurs at the 8uetral A4is
Remember: Shear Stress is the same at both 9ertical $ :ori;ontal a4is&
f
v
= 1/6 - [Actual .hear .tress = 1/6 + .hear $orce]
A Area
0ust understand the fol& < formulas& 8o need to memori;e:
f
v
= - ?
5 b /.tatical moment about the
[.hear .tress = '.hear force* + nuetral a&is of the area abo)e the (lane*]
'%oment of 5nertia* + 'width of beam*
= = /section Area1 ! /dist& from centroid of rect& to the centroid of section
abo*e neutral a4is1
f
v
= 1/6 - = 7 -
A 2 b d
No+chin: on Tension side o, a !ood 'eam
f
v
= 1/6 - + d [d = o)erall d of beam]
b d@ d@ [d@ = d of the beam that is notched]
%se Actual dimensions of the b and d 8>T 8ominal dimensions
$hor+ hea*il; loaded 'eams & 'eams <i+h lar:e loads a+ suppor+s
f
v
= - [Actual .hear .tress = .hear $orce
dt 'de(th of beam* + 'thic>ness of beam*]
#e,lec+ion: 3 uni+s 4 inches 5
$H%RTENIN %F A &%"= %R E"%NATI%N %F A H%RI>= MEM'ER
= 2 0
A A
[.hortening = Alongation = $orce + 0ength
A of crossBsection of member + %odulus of Alasticit3]
Remember: Stress = P
A
for chan5e in len5th ,ultiply Stress by #en5th
,odulus of ?lasticity
#EF"E&TI%N %F A 'EAM
= 6 w 0
8

714 A 5
[Ceflection = 6 + 'w in (ounds* + '0ength in feet +12D*
8

'714* + 12D + %odulus of Alasticit3 + %oment of 5nertia]
Remember: w # = w #
ft @<A
#en5th in inches = #en5th in feet ! @<A
$+rain:
= [strain = Ceflection
0 Eriginal 0ength]

Modulus o, Elas+ici+;:
A = f [%odulus of Alasticit3 = .tress
.train]
Thermal e,,ec+s on s+ruc+ures: 3uni+s 4 inches 5
$H%RTENIN %R E"%NATI%N #1E T% &HANE IN TEM)ERAT1RE
= e 0
+
[Thermal Alongation = 'Coeff/of thermal linear e&(ansion* + 'Erig/0ength*
+ 'Tem( Change*]
THERMA" $TRENTH IN A RE$TRAINE# MEM'ER
f
+
= A e
+
[Thermal .tress = A + Coeff/ of linear e&(ansion + Change in Tem(]
in a Restrained member
$lenderness Ra+io /"oadin: &apaci+;-: 3uni+s 4 inches 5
$TEE" &%"1MN
-l is the effecti*e len5th in feet&
.R = > l [.lenderness Ratio = 'end cond/* + :nbraced length in inches]
r Radius of g3ration
Remember: Slenderness Ratio should be <BB for a steel column&
!%%# &%"1MN
.R = > l [.lenderness Ratio = '> =1* + ':nbraced 0ength in inches*
b 'crossBsection width of rectangle*]
Remember: Slenderness Ratio should be CB for a wood column&
r = 5 [Radius of F3ration = %oment of 5nertia]
A Area
Re+ainin: !all
$ = w h
2
[$orce e&erted on = 'fluid (ressure at to( of soil* + 'height*
2
]
2 the Retaining ,all 2
R
M
= 1/6 %
%T
[C0 Resisting %oment = 1/6 'E)erturning %oment of the Retaining ,all*]
.actor of Safety /.S1 for the Resistin5 ,oment requires it &
$. = R
M
[$actor of .afet3 = Resisting %oment
%
%T
E)erturning %oment]
Remember: .S

@&C
$"I#IN %F RETAININ !A""
$. against .liding = .liding Resistance 'G*
$orce causing tendenc3 to .liding 'G*
.liding Resistance = 'Total -ert/ 0oad in G on $tg* + 'Coeff/ of $riction*
$orce causing .liding = 'Aarth (ressure in G 9 Base of $tg* + 'h in ft*
'2* ft
%= '$* h [Bending %oment = $orce + 'ht at resultant force*
7
Remember: +endin5 ,oment occurs at @DE
rd
the hei5ht of the retainin5
wall where resultant force occurs&
!eld: 3uni+s 4 inches 5
Throat of ,eld = ,eld .iHe + '/II* [/II = 2 ]
2
Ca(acit3 of ,eld = 'Allow/ .tress*'Throat*',eld .iHe*'Total ,eld 0ength*
Allow& Stress = @' -si for ?FB electrode weld for AST, A7EF base plate&
<@ -si for ?GB electrode weld for AST, A7EF base plate&
f
+
= 2

[.tress in the = 'Com(ressi)e=Tensile $orce of the ,eld*
A

throat of the weld '/II* + ',eld .iHe* + 'Total ,eld 0ength*]
1l+ima+e $+ren:+h #esi:n ,or &oncre+e:
: = 1/4C0 8 1/I00 [:ltimate 0oad = 1/4'Cead 0oad* 8 1/I'0i)e 0oad*]
%
1
= 1/4 %
#"
8 1/I %
""
[:ltimate %oment = 1/4'Cead 0oad %oment* 8 1/I'0i)e 0oad %oment*]
%
1
= A
s
f
;
'd J a *
2
Remember: A
s
is a*ailable in a table HAST, STI R?28.>R3286 +ARSA
[%oment = 'strength reduction factor = /K* 'crossBsectional area of tensile
reinforcemnt* 's(ecific 3ield strength of reinforcemt* "'dist/ from e&treme
com(ression fiber to centroid of tensile reinforcement* J 'de(th of
rectangular stress bloc>* = 2#]
= A
$
[2ercentage of steel to = 'area of tensile reinforcemnt*]
bd achie)e a Balanced Cesign 'beam width* + 'd*

min
= 2
min
should be E f @
c
f
;
f
;
"i*e "oad Reduc+ions:
R = r 'A J 16*
[0i)e 0oad Reduction = 'rate of reduction* + "'Tributar3 Area* J 16#
Remember: rate of reduction = B&B' for .loors
See table @F73 Roofs
R
ma?
= 4L for single le)el floors
R
ma?
= 4L for multiBle)el floors
R = 27/1 '1 8 C0*
00
Remember: Io all E chec-s and then select the lowest *alue as your final
li*e load reduction&
Thrus+ in a 7 hin:ed Arch:
Thrust = w 0
2
[Thrust in a 7 hinged arch = uniform load + 'length*
2
]
1 h 1 + height