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EXPERIMENT NO 06

ACTIVE FILTERS
Name :D.P.Wijayarupa.
Batch :Applied Electronics ,Saturday
Index numer :!"#$%AE%$&
Partner :'r.Saran(an
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#).Introduction.
!).Butter*orth +esponse
$).Bessel response
,).- .heyshe/ +esponse
&).0orth order Butter*orth response
1)..omparison o2 2ilters
3). .omments and discussion
4). +e2erences
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INTRODUCTION
Active filters are filters constructed using operational amplifiers as active devices. Operational
amplifiers are used to simulate inductors by configuring them as either negativeimpedance
converters or gyrators. Although it is possible to build filters with resistors and capacitors only,
the use of inductors and capacitors together produce very sharp frequency response curves.
However, at low frequencies (eg: audio frequencies) the sie of required inductors becomes very
large, ma!ing it inconvenient to build "# filters. $herefore, the possibility of simulating them
using operational amplifiers becomes very useful at such frequencies. $here are many different
types of active filters including high pass, low pass, band re%ect and there are numerous
responses including multiple feedbac! band pass (&'()), dualamplifier band pass (*A())
and,
state variable biquad all pole circuits. All !nown filter responses such as (utterworth and
#hebyshev may be synthesised.
#HA+A#$,+-.$-#. O' '-"$,+.
$he most useful characteristic of a filter is its gain versus frequency curve. $he passband of a
filter is the region where the attenuation is relatively low. /ormally, it is defined as the region
where attenuation is less than 0 d(. However, within the passband, the gain may show variations
called ripples. $he end of the pass band is called the cutoff frequency. (eyond the passband, the
gain falls with frequency. $he rate of fall is normally specified in d( per octave or d( per
decade. -n addition to the gain response, the variation of the phase shift with frequency is
important. A frequency dependent phase shift affects the shape of the output signal. An ideal
filter should produce a constant time delay for all frequencies. $his happens only if the phase
shift increases linearly with frequency. $herefore, an ideal filter should be a linearphase filter.
Another way of loo!ing at filters is to observe their transient response when a pulse of a step is
applied. +ise time, settling time, overshoots and ringing are important parameters that describe
transient response.
'-"$,+ $1),.
An ideal filter must have a constant gain within the passband. $hen it must ma!e a sharp
transition to the stopband. However, in practice, gain is not constant within the pass band and the
transition to the stopband is gradual. $he gain variations within the passband and the sharpness
of the transition varies from one filter type to another. $hree popular filter response types are
called Butterworth, Chebyhe! and Bee". $hey are all available in lowpass, highpass and
bandpass versions.
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Se#o$%&Or%er Low&P' F("ter
$here are two topologies for a second2order low2pass filter, the .allen23ey and the &ultiple
'eedbac! (&'() topology. .allen 4!ey is one of the main topologies that is used to observe the
characteristics of the second order low pass filters.
S'""e$&)ey To*o"o+y
$he general .allen2 !ey topology in the following figure shows that the gain via A5 6 78+9:+0.
However, the unity2gain topology in the figure is usually applied in filter designs with high gain
accuracy, unity gain, and low ;s (; < 0).
$ransfer function of the above filter can be written down as given below.
-f A5 67, then
$he coefficient comparison between this transfer function and ,quation gives us,
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=iven #7 and #>, the resistor values for +7 and +> are calculated through
Theory
.allen 4!ey topology is often used to ma!e out the behavior of the low pass filters along
with the following response types.
Butterworth
Bee".
Chebyhe!
$he above three response types can be achieved by using Ad%ustable .econd2Order "ow2
)ass 'ilter as given below.
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A special case of the general .allen23ey topology is the application of equal resistor
values and equal capacitor values: +7 6 +> 6 + and #7 6 #> 6 #.
$he general transfer function changes to:
?ith
$he coefficient comparison with equation above,
=iven # and solving for + and A5 results in:
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And
$hus, A5 depends solely on the pole quality ; and vice versa@ ;, and with it the filter type,
is determined by the gain setting of A5:
'or different types of responses, the coefficients a7 and b7have constant values according to their
orders of operations.
Butterworth Re*o$e
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$he above set up is used to observe the
(utterworth response. -t is then connected to
the input of the #+O. 'requency of the
signal generator is changed and the
corresponding voltage output is measured
on the #+O with the uncertainty.
+9:+0 65.ABB
-f +0 67!C and +9 6ABBC
+ 6 7:>Df# 67:(>DE955E#) 67:(>DE955E5.7E75
2B
)
?here f 6955H and # 65.7u'
+ 60FG5.GFC
+ 69!C
.ince + 69!C ,+0 6 7!C and +9 6 ABBC are chosen
Hin 67H (A55mH:*iv).
$he following table shows the data obtained in the eIperiment for (utterworth response.
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$he following graph is plotted frequency against the decibel level of the gain with the
corresponding error bars.
Tr'$(e$t re*o$e o, the Butterworth ,("ter
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Bee"
Re*o$e
$he above set up is used to observe the
(essel response. -t is then connected to the input of the #+O. 'requency of the signal generator
is changed and the corresponding voltage output is measured on the #+O with the uncertainty.
+9:+0 65.>BG
-f +0 67!C and +9 6 >BGC
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+ 6 7:>Df# 67:(>DE955E#) 67:(>DE955E5.7E75
2B
)
?here f 6955H and # 65.7u'
+ 607>F.9FC
+ 60!C
.ince + 60!C ,+0 6 7!C and +9 6 >BGC are chosen
Hin 67H (A55mH:*iv)
$he following table shows the data obtained in the eIperiment for (esselJs response.
$he following graph is plotted frequency against the decibel level of the gain with the
corresponding error bars.
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T#heby#he,, Re*o$e
$he above set up is used to observe the
$schebyscheff response. -t is then
connected to the input of the #+O.
'requency of the signal generator is
changed and the corresponding voltage
output is measured on the #+O with the
uncertainty.
+9:+0 65.>09
-f +0 67!C and +9 6 >09C
+ 6 7:>Df# 67:(>DE955E#) 67:(>DE955E5.7E75
2B
)
?here f 6955H and # 65.7u'
+ 6AA07.79C
+ 6A.A !C
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.ince + 6A.A !C ,+0 6 7!C and +9 6 >09C are chosen
Hin 67H (A55mH:*iv)
$he following table shows the data obtained in the eIperiment for $schebyscheff response.
$he following graph is plotted frequency against the decibel level of the gain with the
corresponding error bars.
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Fourth&or%er "ow&*' Butterworth ,("ter
A
fourth2order low2pass (utterworth filter is illustrated in figure. -t is formed by cascading two
second2order low2pass filters. -f Af, of 7.AGB is used for both sections, the voltage gain will be
down B db at the cut2off frequency. (y using different gain for each section, we can stri!e a
compromise that produces a maIimally flat response. An advanced derivation shows that we
need to use Af 6 7.7A> for the first section and Af = >.>0A for the second section.
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Also, the overall filter gain is equal to the product of the individual voltage gains of the filter
sections. Hence, the overall gain of a fourth2order filter is 7.7A> I >.>0A 6 >.AKA.
-n all our (utterworth designs, the cut2off frequency is given as 7 : >D+#
As with the first2 and second2order filters, the third2 and fourth2order high2pass filters are formed
by simply interchanging the positions of the frequency determining resistors and capacitors in
the corresponding low2pass filters. $he high2order filters can be designed by following the
procedures outlined for the first2 and second2order filters.
=enerally, the minimum2order filter required depends on the application specifications. Although
a high2order filter than necessary provides a better stopband response, the high2order filter is
more compleI, occupies more space and is more eIpensive.
-t is worth mentioning here that in all filters, the same resistance and capacitance values are used
in the bypass or +2# networ!s, a definite convenience in selection of components and ease of
construction. $his fiIes the overall gain of the high2order filters. 'urthermore, the 02db cut2off
frequency is always the same and is equal to 7:>D+#
$he above set up is used to observe the fourth2order low2pass (utterworth response. -t is then
connected to the input of the #+O. 'requency of the signal generator is changed and the
corresponding voltage output is measured on the #+O with the uncertainty.
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For the -
t
#(r#u(t.
+7 6 L ( b7) :(>Df#) where b7 67
6 7: (>EDE955E5.7E75
2B
)
6 0FG5C
6 9!C
+0 67 !C and +76+> 69!C
+9 6 (>2a7:Lb7)+0
.ince a7 67.G9KG and b7 67,
+9 6 (> 27.G9KG:7)7555
6 7A> C
For the /
$%
#(r#u(t.
+> 6 L ( b>) :(>Df#) where b> 67
6 7: (>EDE955E5.7E75
2B
)
6 0FG5C
6 9!C
+B 67 !C and +76+> 69!C
+G 6 (>2a>:Lb>)+B
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.ince a> 65.KBA9 and b> 67,
+G 6 (> 25.KBA9:7)7555
6 7>09 C
6 7!C
$he following table shows the data obtained in the eIperiment for fourth2order low2pass
(utterworth response.
$he following graph is plotted frequency against the decibel level of the gain with the
corresponding error bars.
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Butterworth ,("ter '$% Chebyhe! ,("ter 0 A #o1*'r(o$
-n digital signal processing, we come across digital filters which are to be designed using analog
filters. 'rom these analog filters, (utterworth and #hebyshev filters are the most popular one.
M'+$(tu%e re*o$e ! ,re2ue$#y #ur!e3 $he magnitude response MH(%w)M of the butterworth
filter decreases with increase in frequency from 5 to infinity, while the magnitude response of
the #hebyshev filter fluctuates or show ripples in the passband and stopband depending on the
type of the filter.
4(%th o, Tr'$(t(o$ b'$%3 $he width of the transition band is more in (utterworth filter
compared to the #hebyshev filter.
Lo#'t(o$ o, the *o"e3 $he poles of a (utterworth filter lies only on a circle while that of
the #hebyshev filter lies on an ellipse, which can be easily concluded on loo!ing at the poles
formula for both types of filters.
No. O, Co1*o$e$t re2u(re% ,or (1*"e1e$t($+ the ,("ter3 $he number of poles in (utterworth
filter is more compared to that of the #hebyshev filter of same specifications, this means that the
order of (utterworth filter is more than that of a #hebyshev filter. $his fact can be used for
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practical implementation, since the number of components required to construct a filter of same
specification can be reduced significantly.
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Co11e$t '$% %(#u(o$
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-n the above three filter eIperiments, the results obtained are slightly different than their
theoretical values. $his happened of course the devices might not at their corresponding
operation temperatures. $he fluctuation of the mains supplyJs frequency also caused the valued
to change from their originals. $he resistors calculated were slightly changed so that the final
curves are not in the correct shapes. $he resistor boIes used were not ideal@ their impedances
also caused these values to be changed.
Re,ere$#e
http:::www.7>0mylist.com:>57>:50:butterworth2filter2and2chebyshev2filter.html
http:::boo!s.google.l!:boo!sN
id61"tdiv##=g-#Opg6)A059Olpg6)A059Odq6advantages8and8disadvantages8of8bessel8b
utterworthOsource6blOots6r7*(="GFPpOsig6*ehb5m";se?#1=;/3QnRaArIRK5Ohl6en
Osa6SOei6hq*KQu)n*B)eigebG1HoAwOved65#Ho;BA,w#;Tv6onepageOq6advantages
U>5andU>5disadvantagesU>5ofU>5besselU>5butterworthOf6false
http:::www.circuitstoday.com:higher2order2filters
www.wikipedia.com
www.yahooanswer.com
http://www.ece.uic.edu/!morisak/"#p$.htm#
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