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( Entomology)

(=, =) -

(Arthropod) , ,
;

(Antenna) , :


1
2
3 (Netting insects)
4 (Beneficial insects)
5
6

(Parasitic and predaceous Insects)


7
8
9
10
11 ( Metamorphosis)
12


13 ( Moulting)
14
o 14.1 (Tropism)
o 14.2


o 14.3 ( Intelligence)
15
16 (Parasites)
17 (, Parasitoids)
18
19


20

(Gall)
21 (Boring)
22 (Subterranean)
23 (Aquatic)
24 (Case-making)
25




, (Carbonniferous)

1930 0 10,400 (Fossil)



(Species) 6,40,000


20,00,000

4,000

40,000 50,000
5,00,000 ,

15,000

(Parthenogenesis)
(Cecidomyidae)

(Paedogenesis)
,
(Erebus agrippina) (Moth)

, (Economic)


,
, ,

(appreciation) 6,40,000 10,000


:

, : ,
, ;

(host)

, (Protozoa),

(Nematodas)

(Viruses)
()

(Bacillus pestis)

( Flea),

1914 . 1,98,875

(Tapaworm)

(Sleeping sickness) (Tsetse)


(Elephantisis)

:
: (Baldfaced hornet) (Yellow
Jacket)


(Solenopsis geminata)


( ) ( )

(Pangonia longirostris)



(Netting insects)


(Beneficial insects)
:
;
. ;
.

;
. (Pollination)
.


(Ericerus pele) , [Lacifer
(Tachardia) lacca] ,
, (San Jos Scale)

(Woolly aphis)
,


, (Coccus manifera) (, Flaky)
(Coccus cacti)

( , Caterpillar)
(larva)
(Bombyx mori)

(Insects gall) , ,

(Blister beetle)
(Cantharidin)
,

(Mylabris cichorii)

(Apis)

(Wolfahrtia) (Maggot)

(Blister beetle)

(Parasitic and predaceous


Insects)


26 18
(Hymenoptera) (Diptera) (Hemiptera)
(Coleoptera)

(Neuroptera)


(Blastophaga)

, , , ,


:
(Sauba) (
Attacephalotes)


(Corixa femorata)

(Goliath beetle)

()
(Prionus californicus) -



, ,
?
( sonification), (stridulation)
( phonation) (Cicada)

(Crickets)


(Morphos)

(Jivaros)

(Burprestid beetles) , , ,
(Elytra)


(Scarah)

,
(Khepera)


: (inros),

(netsukes-

),
, ( jade), ,

: --
( Metamorphosis)


,
1. , 2-6. (Nymphal) , 7
,


(Instars) ,


(Moult) ,


: ()

-
(Lepidoetra)
,

( nectar)


(Hymenoptera)

, ,


( Moulting)

( Nymph)

(Cuticula)

moulting fluid) ,


(Ecdysis)

, , (


Exuviae) (Stadium)

: ,



, (1) (Tropism), (2)

(Instinct) (3)
(Intelligence) :
(Tropism)

(Tropotaxes),
:
(Chemotropism), (, Thigmotropism),
(, Rheotropism), (
Hydotropism),

(, Anemotropism),

(, Geotropism), (),
( Thermotropism)

( , Coordinated
reflexes),

(Pieris brassiace)

( )

,


( Intelligence)

:



,

,
() -

,
:


() -,

, , , ,
( Estivation) ( Hibernation),
,
,

( gregarious),
() -

, ,
( ,

Ceratomegilla maculata),
,


(Congregation)
()

( Protective aggregation)-

(Whirligig beetle)


(Lepidoptera) 1. (Butterfly) 2. : (Moth) (Diptera)
3. (House fly) 4. (Mosquito) (Siphoneptera) 5.


(flea) (Hymenoptera)

: 6. , 7. 8.


9. (Wasp) 10.
()

(Migrating aggregation)-


(Cnetho campa (Bombyx) processione) ,

(Oak)

,

()

( Swarming aggregation)-

,

()

( Sleeping aggregation)-


( Milk wed)

()

( Dissociation)-


, (Pentatomidae)

(Reduviidae)
(Phymatidae)


,
()

,
:

, , ,
: , , (
trophallaxis), -

: , ,


Bumble bees) ( Paper Wasps)

, (Isoptera) (Dermoptera) ,
(Embiidiena) (Scarabaeidae)



() ( Solitary Insects) -


,
()

( Saprophagous Insects)- ,

, ,

(Thysanura), (Collembola),
(Blattidae) (Coleoptera) (Diptera)

() ( Predators)-


- (Orthoptera)
(Mantidae) ,

(Newroptera) (Odonata)
(Plecoptera),

(Heteroptera) (Hymenoptera)

(Parasites)