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Title

Location based services

Author: Mita Sinha


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1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................................3
2 What is Location? .........................................................................................................................................4
3 Positioning.....................................................................................................................................................4
3.1 Network-based Mobile Positioning Technology...................................................................................5
3.1.1 SS7 and Mobile Positioning............................................................................................................5
3.1.2 Network based PDE........................................................................................................................5
3.1.3 Angle of Arrival Method.................................................................................................................5
3.1.4 Time of Arrival Method...................................................................................................................6
3.1.5 Radio Propagation Techniques........................................................................................................6
3.1.6 Hybrid Methods..............................................................................................................................6
3.2 Handset-based Mobile Positioning Technology....................................................................................6
3.2.1 SIM Toolkit....................................................................................................................................6
3.2.2 Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD)..............................................................................6
3.2.3 GPS..................................................................................................................................................6
3.2.4 Mobile IN Technologies for Positioning.........................................................................................7
4 The Importance of LBS Middle-ware............................................................................................................7
5 Geographic Information Systems..................................................................................................................7
6 Location Management Function...................................................................................................................8
7 J2ME and Location-Based Services..............................................................................................................8
7.1 Determining the Device's Location........................................................................................................8
7.1.1 Using the mobile phone network.....................................................................................................8
7.1.2 Using satellites................................................................................................................................9
7.2 The Location API for J2ME...................................................................................................................9
7.2.1 Landmarks....................................................................................................................................10
7.2.2 Security and Privacy......................................................................................................................10
7.2.3 Guidelines......................................................................................................................................10
7.2.4 Summary........................................................................................................................................11
8 Application Scenarios..................................................................................................................................11
8.1 Business Initiatives...............................................................................................................................11
8.1.1 Enquiry and Information Services................................................................................................11
8.1.2 Community Services......................................................................................................................12
8.1.3 Traffic Telematics..........................................................................................................................12
8.1.4 Fleet Management and Logistics...................................................................................................13
8.1.5 Mobile Marketing..........................................................................................................................13
8.1.6 Mobile Gaming..............................................................................................................................14
8.1.7 Value-added Services....................................................................................................................14
8.1.8 Location based billing....................................................................................................................14
8.2 Public Initiatives...................................................................................................................................14
8.2.1 Emergency Services.......................................................................................................................15
9 The Future of Mobile Positioning................................................................................................................15
10 Advantages for the operators:....................................................................................................................16
11 Some of the third party products based on LBS:.......................................................................................16
11.1 Whereis Navigator..............................................................................................................................16
11.2 Wizi....................................................................................................................................................17
11.3 XORA GPS Time track for workers...................................................................................................17
11.4 WEBRASKA.....................................................................................................................................18
11.5 Spotigo's WiFi-based Positioning Technology...................................................................................19
12 Summary....................................................................................................................................................19
13 References..................................................................................................................................................20
14 About Wipro Technologies........................................................................................................................21

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1 Introduction
In this age of significant telecommunications competition, mobile network operators continuously
seek new and innovative ways to create differentiation and increase profits. One of the best ways
to accomplish this is through the delivery of highly personalized services. One of the most
powerful ways to personalize mobile services is based on location. Basis of LBS - location
technology.

Location-based Services (LBS) are mobile services for providing information that has been
created, compiled, selected or filtered under consideration of the users' current locations or those
of other persons or mobile devices. A location-based service (LBS) is actually an information
and entertainment service, accessible with mobile devices through the mobile network and
utilizing the ability to make use of the geographical position of the mobile device.

LBS services can be used in a variety of contexts, such as health, work, personal life, etc. LBS
services include services to identify a location of a person or object, such as discovering the
nearest banking cash machine or the whereabouts of a friend or employee. LBS services include
parcel tracking and vehicle tracking services. LBS can include mobile commerce when taking the
form of coupons or advertising directed at customers based on their current location. They
include personalized weather services and even location-based games.

Typical examples are restaurant finders, buddy trackers, navigation services or applications in the
areas of mobile marketing, emergency services, and car navigation system, tracking services,
tourist tour planning or yellow maps (combination of yellow pages and maps) information
delivery and mobile gaming. The attractiveness of LBS Technology is due to the fact that users
are not required to enter location information manually but are automatically pinpointed and
tracked.

Definition of LBS by GSM Association:


The GSM Association, which is a consortium of 600 GSM network operators, simply
defines LBS as services that use the location of the target for adding value to the service,
where the target is the “entity” to be located (and this entity is not necessarily the user of the
service).

Definition of LBS by 3GPP:

Another similarly abstract definition of LBS is given by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project
(3GPP), which is an international federation of many national standardization authorities aiming
at providing the specification for GSM and UMTS: an LBS is a service provided by a service
provider that utilizes the available location information of the terminal (3GPP TS 23.271).
Following these definitions, most of today’s LBS are realized as data or messaging services, for
example, based on the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), the General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS), or the Short Message Service (SMS)

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2 What is Location?
When dealing with LBS it is first important to be clear about the meaning of the term “location”.
Although most people would claim that they are very familiar with the concept of location, as it,
besides time, is one of the major quantities determining our everyday life, it is useful to have a
closer look at it and to distinguish between different categories of location information. The main
focus is on one spatial location that appears to the developers and users of LBS in the form of
coordinates

3 Positioning

The terms mobile positioning and mobile location are sometimes used interchangeably in
conversation, but they are really two different things. Mobile positioning refers to determining the
position of the mobile device. Mobile location refers to the location estimate derived from the
mobile positioning operation.

There are various means of mobile positioning, which can be divided into two major categories -
network based and handset based positioning. The purpose of positioning the mobile is to provide
location-based services (LBS), including wireless emergency services.

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Positioning System

Terminal Based
Network Based

A-GPS GPS E-TOD CGI-TA TOA

3.1 Network-based Mobile Positioning Technology

This category is referred to as "network based" because the mobile network, in conjunction with
network-based position determination equipment (PDE) is used to position the mobile device.

3.1.1 SS7 and Mobile Positioning

One of the easiest means of positioning the mobile user is to leverage the SS7 network to derive
location. When a user invokes a service that requires the MSC to launch a message to a LBS
residing on a SCP, the MSC may launch a SS7 message contain the cell of origin (COO) or cell
ID (of the corresponding cell site currently serving the user). While potentially covering a large
area, the COO may be used by LBS to approximate the location of the user. This type of
positioning therefore has a large degree of uncertainty that should be taken into account by the
LBS application in term of required quality of service (QOS).

3.1.2 Network based PDE

COO is not always available (for example: via SS7 with non-GSM WAP based services) nor does
it always meet the QOS requirements of the LBS application. Therefore, network-based (or
handset based) PDE must be employed.

3.1.3 Angle of Arrival Method

This method involves analysis of the angle of arrival (AOA) of a signal between the mobile
phone and the cellular antenna. AOA PDE is used to capture AOA information to make
calculations to determine an estimate of the mobile device position.

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3.1.4 Time of Arrival Method

This method uses the time of arrival (TOA) of signals between the mobile phone and the cellular
antenna. TOA PDE is used to capture time difference of arrival (TDOA) information to make
calculations to determine an estimate of the mobile device position.

3.1.5 Radio Propagation Techniques

These techniques utilize a previously determined mapping of the radio frequency (RF)
characteristics to determine an estimate of the mobile device position.

3.1.6 Hybrid Methods

Some hybrid methods of AngleOfArrival and TimeOfArrival exist that use the best of both to
provide improved positioning.

3.2 Handset-based Mobile Positioning Technology

This category is referred to as "handset based" because the handset itself is the primary means of
positioning the user, although the network can be used to provide assistance in acquiring the mobile device
and/or making position estimate determinations based on measurement data and handset based position
determination algorithms.

3.2.1 SIM Toolkit

The SIM Toolkit (STK), as an API between the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) of a GSM/UMTS
mobile phone and an application, provides the means of positioning a mobile unit. Positioning information
may be as approximate as COO or more precise through additional means such as use of the mobile
network operation called timing advance (TA) or a procedure called network measurement report (NMR).
In all cases, the STK allows for communication between the SIM (which may contain additional algorithms
for positioning) and a location server application (which may contain additional algorithms to assist in
mobile positioning). STK is a good technique to obtain position information while the mobile device is in
the idle state.

3.2.2 Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD)

This is what is also referred to as reversed TOA or handset based TOA. The basic method is
employed as with TOA, only the handset is much more actively involved in the positioning
process. Specially equipped handsets are required.

3.2.3 GPS

Perhaps the best known or recognized handset based PDE is based on the Global Positioning
System (GPS). By itself, GPS can be the most accurate (when satellites are acquired/available),
but this technology is often enhanced by the network. Assisted GPS (A-GPS) refers to a PDE
system that makes use of additional network equipment that is deployed to help acquire the

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mobile device (much faster than non-assisted GPS) and provide positioning when the A-GPS
system is unsuccessful in acquiring any/enough satellites.

3.2.4 Mobile IN Technologies for Positioning

Mobile IN can also be deployed to assist in the positioning process. GSM and ANSI-41 based
networks may employ the use of the GSM MAP Any Time Interrogation (ATI) and Position
Request (PosReq) messages respectively for positioning.

These mobile IN procedures entail a LBS application middle-ware as a Service Control Function
(SCF) launching a message (MAP ATI or PosReq) to the HLR for position information. The
HLR may respond with approximate information (such as the COO) or more precise information
(such as TA or NMR as in the case with GSM).

The value of mobile IN is to leverage the SS7 and IN network to obtain location, especially for
mid-call/session position updates. Mobile IN may also be quite valuable for idle call positioning,
but requires integration on the mobile network side to ensure current position information is made
available.

4 The Importance of LBS Middle-ware


LBS middle-ware can be best defined as the application that do not provide the services
themselves, but rather enable location based services.

One of the best examples of LBS middle-ware, that is required for all robust LBS
implementations, is the location manager function. Among other things, the location manager
function may be employed to convert positioning information into useful location information
and make it available for LBS applications. One of the key value aspects of the location manager
function is to enable the use of various positioning technologies in conjunction with various LBS
applications. This functional element thus acts as a gateway or hub for location.

Another important role of the location manager function is to perform the SCF function for
mobile IN positioning technologies.

New network entities called the Mobile Positioning Center (MPC) and the Gateway Mobile
Location Center (GMLC) are being standardized to provide for the location management function
for ANSI-41 and GSM networks respectively.

5 Geographic Information Systems


Geographic data is an important aspect of any location system. Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) provide the tools to provision and administer base map data such as man made structures
(streets, buildings) and terrain (mountains, rivers). GIS is also used to manage point-of-interest
data such as location of gas stations, restaurants, nightclubs, etc. Finally, GIS information also
includes information about the radio frequency characteristics of the mobile network. This allows
the system to determine the serving cell site of the user.

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6 Location Management Function


It is not enough to be able to position the mobile user and know the map data around that
position. There must be a location management function to process positioning and GIS data on
behalf of LBS applications. The location management function acts as a gateway and mediator
between positioning equipment and LBS infrastructure.

7 J2ME and Location-Based Services


What Location-Based Services Do?
Location-based services answer three questions: Where am I? What's around me? How do I get
there? They determine the location of the user by using one of several technologies for
determining position, and then use the location and other information to provide personalized
applications and services. As an example, consider a wireless 911 emergency service that
determines the caller's location automatically. Such a service would be extremely useful,
especially to users who are far from home and don't know local landmarks. Traffic advisories,
navigation help including maps and directions, and roadside assistance are natural location-based
services. Other services can combine present location with information about personal
preferences to help users find food, lodging, and entertainment to fit their tastes and pocketbooks.

There are two basic approaches to implementing location-based services:


• Process location data in a server and deliver results to the device.
• Obtain location data for a device-based application that uses it directly.

The following content focuses on device-based location services.

7.1 Determining the Device's Location


To discover the location of the device, LBS must use real-time positioning methods. Accuracy
depends on the method used.

Locations can be expressed in spatial terms or as text descriptions. A spatial location can be
expressed in the widely used latitude-longitude-altitude coordinate system. Latitude is expressed
as 0-90 degrees north or south of the equator and longitude as 0-180 degrees east or west of the
prime meridian, which passes through Greenwich, England. Altitude is expressed in meters above
sea level. A text description is usually expressed as a street address, including city, postal code,
and so on. Applications can call on any of several types of positioning methods.

7.1.1 Using the mobile phone network

The current cell ID can be used to identify the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) that the device is
communicating with and the location of that BTS. Clearly, the accuracy of this method depends
on the size of the cell, and can be quite inaccurate. A GSM cell may be anywhere from 2 to 20
kilometers in diameter. Other techniques used along with cell ID can achieve accuracy within 150
meters.

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7.1.2 Using satellites


The Global Positioning System (GPS), controlled by the US Department of Defense, uses a
constellation of 24 satellites orbiting the earth. GPS determines the device's position by
calculating differences in the times signals from different satellites take to reach the receiver.
GPS signals are encoded, so the mobile device must be equipped with a GPS receiver. GPS is
potentially the most accurate method (between 4 and 40 meters if the GPS receiver has a clear
view of the sky), but it has some drawbacks: The extra hardware can be costly, consumes battery
while in use, and requires some warm-up after a cold start to get an initial fix on visible satellites.
It also suffers from "canyon effects" in cities, where satellite visibility is intermittent.
Using short-range positioning beacons: In relatively small areas, such as a single building, a local
area network can provide locations along with other services. For example, appropriately
equipped devices can use Bluetooth for short-range positioning.
In addition, location methods can connect to a mobile position center that provides an interface to
query for the position of the mobile subscriber. The API to the mobile position center is XML-
based. While applications can be fully self-contained on the device, it's clear that a wider array of
services is possible when a server-side application is part of the overall service.

Some applications don't need high accuracy, but others will be useless if the location isn't
accurate enough. Its okay for the location of a tourist walking around town to be off by 30 meters,
but other applications and services may demand higher accuracy.

7.2 The Location API for J2ME


The Location API for J2ME specification defines an optional package,
javax.microedition.location, that enables developers to write wireless location-based applications
and services for resource-limited devices like mobile phones, and can be implemented with any
common location method. The compact and generic J2ME location APIs provide mobile
applications with information about the device's present physical location and orientation
(compass direction), and support the creation and use of databases of known landmarks, stored in
the device.

JSR 179 requires the Connected Device Configuration (CDC) or version 1.1 of the Connected
Limited Device Configuration (CLDC). CLDC 1.0 isn't adequate because it doesn't support
floating-point numbers, which the API uses to represent coordinates and other measurements.
The Location API doesn't depend on any particular profile -- it can be used with MIDP or the
Personal Profile.

The hardware platform determines which location methods are supported. If it doesn't support at
least one location provider, LBS won't be possible. Applications can request providers with
particular characteristics, such as a minimum degree of accuracy. Some location methods may be
free; others may entail service fees. The application should warn the user before any charges are
incurred.

It is up to the application to determine the criteria for selecting the location method. Criteria fields
include: accuracy, response time, need for altitude, and speed. Once the application obtains a
Location Provider instance that meets the criteria, it can use that object to obtain the location, in
either of two ways:

Invoke a method synchronously to get a single location.


Register a listener and get periodic updates at application-defined intervals.

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The Location class abstracts the location results. Its object contains coordinates; speed if
available, textual address if available and a time stamp that indicates when the location
measurements were made.

Coordinates are represented by either of two classes:

A Coordinates object represents a point's latitude and longitude in degrees, and altitude in meters.
A Qualified Coordinates object contains latitude, longitude, and altitude, and also an indication of
their accuracy, represented as the radius of an area.

7.2.1 Landmarks
A landmark is a location associated with a name and a description. Landmarks can be stored in a
device-based database, where they can be shared among all J2ME applications. Landmarks can
store frequently used locations: home, office, favorite restaurants, and so on. Each is represented
by a Landmark instance, and the database by a Landmark Store. User can create multiple named
Landmark Stores to group locations into categories such as cinemas, museums, or customer sites.

If the device includes a compass, the application may be able to determine not only its location
but its orientation, which is useful in navigational applications. The Orientation class represents
the device's azimuth as an angle from due north, which the application can easily convert to a
compass direction.

7.2.2 Security and Privacy


Many users consider location information to be highly sensitive, and are concerned about a
number of privacy issues, including:
Target marketing: Mobile users' locations can be used to classify customers for focused
marketing efforts.
Embarrassment: One customer's knowledge of another's location may lead to embarrassing
situations.
Harassment: Location information can be used to harass or attack a user.
Service denial: A health insurance firm might deny a claim if it learned that a user visited a high-
risk area.
Legal restrictions: Some countries regulate the use of personal data.
For these and other reasons, users must know when their location is given to an application.

7.2.3 Guidelines
The following guidelines should be kept in mind when designing location-based services:

Handle unavailability of services gracefully. The user's location may not always be available, for
any of several reasons.
The device is cut off from any of the location methods it supports, in a tunnel or on an airplane
for example.
The user withholds permission to release the information.
No location provider that the device supports is available.
Depending on the method used, determining the location may take a long time. The delay may be
so long that the end result isn't useful in, for example, a navigation application. Keep the user
informed.

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Location service fees, typical of network-assisted location methods, can add up quickly, so don't
overuse fee-based services.
Be sensitive to privacy concerns.
Tell customers about the information being collected on them and how it will be used.
Offer customers the choice of what location information to disclose, and when appropriate an
option not to participate.
Allow customers to review their permission profiles so that they know what they are permitting.
Protect location information so that it cannot be accessed by unauthorized persons.
The full advantage of the MIDP 2.0 security framework can be taken, which restricts the
application's access to location data to cases in which the user explicitly confirms permission.

7.2.4 Summary
Through the Location API for J2ME, the information about the user's position can be used to
build new kinds of applications and services for mobile devices such as cell phones and PDAs,
and to enhance existing services. JSR 179 specifies a generic API for obtaining locations, and
thus makes porting LBS applications to a wide range of devices much easier. The critical issue
that LBS developers must address is the privacy of the customer. To ensure privacy, follow sound
programming guidelines and use the security framework in MIDP 2.0.

8 Application Scenarios

The scenarios presented here are subdivided into economical initiatives, which are carried
out by operators and providers to raise the attractiveness of their networks and data services
and thus to increase the average revenue per user, and public initiatives, which are
introduced by governments for supporting or fulfilling sovereign or administrative tasks.

8.1 Business Initiatives


The main motivation for offering LBS is to gain revenue by increasing the average
airtime per user, selling location information to third parties, and offering services tailored
to the special needs of mobile users. A provider may either realize and offer LBS
on its own initiative or it may enter into business relationships with other actors, for
example, from trade and commerce or the automobile industry, and realize and offer services
on behalf of them. These relationships are defined by more or less complex business
models, which are the subject of intensive research in the areas of business sciences.
Some of the classical examples of LBS, which result from such business initiatives, are listed below:

8.1.1 Enquiry and Information Services


The simplest and so far the most widespread type of LBS are enquiry and information
services, which provide the mobile user with nearby points of interest such as restaurants,
automated teller machines or filling stations. Upon request, the user is either automatically
located by the mobile network or, if appropriate positioning technology is missing, he must
explicitly enter his current location. Furthermore, he must specify the points of interest, for
example, whether he would like to receive a list of all nearby restaurants or filling stations,
and the desired maximum distance between his current position and the points of interest.
The request is then passed to a service provider, which assembles a list of appropriate points
of interest and returns it to the user. Thus, this type of service is basically an extension of
the Yellow Pages for showing only entries of local relevance. In today’s networks, these

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services are usually accessed over SMS, WAP, or I-mode. In some cases, they are combined
with navigation facilities for guiding the user to the points of interest of his choice along
the shortest route.

8.1.2 Community Services


Community services enable users that share common interests to join together in a closed
user group (community) and to interact among each other via chat, whiteboards, or messaging
services. In the recent years, the WWW has created various occurrences of these
services supporting a broad and heterogeneous range of communities in such areas as
cooking, traveling, family, computer, and eroticism. What is common to most of them?
is that users have to fix their nicknames, age, gender, domiciles, and other personal data
in profiles that are matched against each other in order to support the mutual detection
of users with similar interests. A very popular category is the so-called Instant Messaging,
where users can assemble a buddy list of their favorite acquaintances. If a user is
registered with the service, he can observe which of his buddies is also on line and can
immediately enter into contact with him. This feature is commonly referred to as the
presence feature.
Like for many mobile services, a breakthrough in mobile community services has not
yet taken place, the reason for which is certainly the lack of convenient user interfaces
for mobile devices. However, their extension with location-based features represents an
obvious way to make them popular in mobile networks too. Typical functions are to show
a user the current location of his buddies or to alert him if one of his buddies stays close
by. Location-based community services are much more sophisticated and more difficult
to realize than, for example, the enquiry and information services presented earlier. They
require a permanent tracking of their members and sophisticated mechanisms for saving
their privacy.

8.1.3 Traffic Telematics


The area of traffic telematics aims to support car drivers with a set of manifold services
relating to their vehicles. It includes but is not limited to navigation, the automatic configuration
of appliances and added features within the vehicle, diagnostics of malfunctions,
or the dissemination of warning messages. The most widespread application so far has
been navigation, which is enabled by On-Board Units (OBU) installed in the cars. On the
basis of the current location, which is derived via GPS (Global Positioning System), the
OBU guides the driver to the desired target by giving either vocal instructions or displaying
the route graphically. The guidance is based on map material that is loaded from a local
CD/DVD-ROM inside the OBU. More sophisticated versions of these systems are equipped
with GSM/GPRS units and can thus keep the driver up-to-date with information from a
remote server, including information on, for example, the latest traffic jams, weather conditions,
and road works. On the basis of this information, it becomes possible to recommend
alternative routes.
A hot topic in research is the wireless intervehicle communication, which relies on
short-range communication technologies like WLAN or Bluetooth and which enables the
exchange of warning messages, local traffic situations, or the position of filling stations in
an adhoc manner. The content of the messages originates from different sources, above all
from sensor technology inside the vehicles. Data delivered by these sensors is subsumed
under the term floating car data and comprises such parameters as the vehicle’s speed, direction,
and position. To derive high-level information, for example, like the aforementioned
traffic situation, the floating car data must be refined in several steps and maybe even combined
with the data received from other vehicles, before disseminating it to nearby vehicles.

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Intervehicle communication is a complex matter, which poses a number of strong requirements


on the systems’ reliability, security mechanisms, routing protocols, and positioning
technologies. It is usually not considered to be classical LBS, but adopts a number of
similar technologies and mechanisms.

8.1.4 Fleet Management and Logistics


While traffic telematics is concerned with supporting single, autonomous vehicles, fleet
management deals with the control and coordination of entire fleets of vehicles by a central
office. Typical target groups are freight services, public transportation, and emergency
services. Location-based systems for fleet management are able to request the position of
vehicles, display it on a map, determine the distance between different vehicles of a fleet
as well as between a vehicle and its destination, and so on. On the basis of this information,
the central office can dynamically delegate new orders and predict the arrival time of
deliveries at the destination.
LBS can also serve to support each form of logistics. The distribution of goods is no longer about
moving cargo from A to B, but a complex process including sorting, planning, and consolidation
of goods along a supply chain, which is usually composed of a sequence of different means of
transportation. With the technologies of LBS, it becomes possible to support faster transportation,
different transportation
modes, and the development of fallback scenarios in case of failures.

8.1.5 Mobile Marketing


Mobile marketing is a new kind of sales approach that helps manufacturers and service
agencies to promote their products and services by interacting with consumers through their
mobile devices. The contact with a consumer is usually established by using technologies
such as SMS, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), or WAP, where the first one is
the most popular “media channel” till date. Unlike conventional campaigns in television,
newspapers, and journals, mobile marketing enables to select the target group of certain
product or service very accurately by evaluating the user profiles that reflect a customer’s
interests in products and services and possibly even his buying patterns in the past. In
addition, it enables a high degree of interactivity between consumers and the agencies
carrying out a campaign.
The consequent step forward is to make mobile marketing location-based in that the
consumer is provided with information about products and services of local relevance. For
example, a consumer might be informed about the special offers of a shop by sending a
message to his mobile device just at the moment he is passing the shop. This message might
contain information about products or services available on the spot as well as additional
benefits like coupons or allowances. However, it must be stressed that mobile marketing in
general and the location-based version in particular will only gain acceptance if consumers
do not feel harassed by incoming advertisement messages, which turns out to be a very
serious problem with the E-mail service in the Internet. Advertisement messages should
be delivered to a consumer only if they are in accordance with his interest profile, and it
must be possible to conveniently cancel a subscription either permanently or temporarily.
For advertisement messages that are delivered depending on the user’s location, it must
also be guaranteed that they do not distract the user while carrying out activities that need
concentration such as car driving, for which appropriate mechanisms, either in the network
or in the mobile devices, are yet to be developed.

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8.1.6 Mobile Gaming


In recent years, mobile devices have developed from rudimentary mobile phones to sophisticated
mobile computers with high-resolution multicolor displays, high-speed processors,
and several MBs or GBs of storage. Hence, devices with these capabilities can not only be
used for making phone calls, but they are also very attractive to be used as mobile consoles
for playing games, which are either preinstalled or which can be dynamically loaded Over
the Air from a service provider against a fee. A very popular application is the interactive
games that allow remote users to share the same session and to enter into a real-time
competition, for example, in a football game or a race. The games are accessed via the
mobile device and the data needed to organize and maintain a distributed game session are
communicated over a cellular network.
Another occurrence is the location-based mobile games, where the virtual and real
worlds merge and the current locations of users become an essential aspect of the play.
An example is Can you see me now?, where on-line players have to catch professional
players who run through real city streets, and the on-line players are equipped with a
mobile device for tracking the runner and communicating with the game server.
In Japan, another popular game is Mogi, where players have to cruise the
streets of a city to collect virtually hidden treasures. The mobile device indicates the hiding
places of treasures on a map, and the players have to move to this place in the real world
as fast as possible before the treasure is collected by another player.

8.1.7 Value-added Services

Value-added or supplementary services are terms originating from the traditional


telecommunications
domain and refer to enhancements of basic services, especially speech telephony
More prominent examples are call forwarding, freephone, split charging, and televoting.
Actually, positioning capabilities of a network can also be seen as a value-added service as they
are, in many cases, offered as enhancements to other services. However, they can also serve to
enable a more intelligent and flexible use of conventional supplementary services.

8.1.8 Location based billing

The ability to have preferential billing is provided by this type of application. Through location based
billing, the user can establish personal zones such as a home zone or work zone. Through arrangements
with the serving wireless carrier, the user could perhaps enjoy flat-rate calling while in the home area and
special rates while in other defined zones. This type of application can be especially useful when use in
conjunction with other mobile applications such as prepaid wireless.
For example, location-based call forwarding (or selective routing) means that incoming calls
addressed to a user’s mobile device are automatically rerouted to a nearby fixed terminal. Some
operators have also implemented location-dependent charging and allow their customers to
determine a so-called homezone, that is, a certain geographic area of some size from where they
can make calls at special tariffs or even free of charge. Location-based supplementary services
like these are predominantly based on proprietary solutions developed by the operators for
marketing purposes.

8.2 Public Initiatives


In many countries of the world, governments and authorities have recognized the potentials

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of some of the strongest communication systems such as the Internet and use them for supporting
and fulfilling sovereign and administrative tasks. Obviously, the new technical possibilities
for tracking and locating people by mobile communication systems have inspired
many governments to think of new services for various national purposes, ranging from
fighting against crime and emergency services to collecting tolls. While some of these
initiatives go along with legal mandates that require network operators to implement the
required functions, others may be realized through the so-called public-private partnerships,
that is, contracts between the government and operators, which have been negotiated
according to the rules of free market economy. Although these initiatives do not
fall into the category of conventional LBS (and, in most cases, are hardly experienced
by the citizens as such), the underlying mechanisms are nevertheless the same as those
used for LBS. Therefore, public initiatives in the aforementioned areas turned out to
be very important driving forces for a broad commercial introduction of LBS.

In the following section, the most important examples of national activities in this field are
reflected:

8.2.1 Emergency Services

Emergency services represent a very obvious and reasonable application area where the
deployment of location technology makes sense. In many cases, persons calling a so-called
emergency response agency (e.g., police, fire, ambulance) are unable to communicate their
current
location or they simply do not know it. While in many cases the address of a caller can be
easily determined when the emergency call is made over the fixed telephone network, rescue
workers are faced with serious problems when locating callers from mobile networks. This
is worse as these days mobile phones are used more than the fixed lines, hence more than 50% of
all emergency calls are increasingly made from mobile phones.

Wireless Emergency Services (WES) refers to the use of mobile positioning technology to pinpoint mobile
users for purposes of providing enhanced wireless emergency dispatch services (including fire, ambulance,
and police) to mobile phone users.

While WES is a type of location-based service (LBS), it is a mandate in the United States where 911 is the
official dialing pattern for fixed and mobile network access to emergency services.

To cope with this problem, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the
United States passed a mandate in 1996 that obligated mobile operators to locate the
callers of emergency services and to deliver their geographic position to the so-called
Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), the office where emergency calls arrive. According
to the emergency number 911 in the United States, this mandate is known as Enhanced
911 (E-911). The mandate also defines an accuracy standard that goes far beyond what
is possible with the standard mechanisms of location management in cellular networks
and therefore requires enhancement of existing network infrastructures

9 The Future of Mobile Positioning


There is a bright future for mobile positioning as the key technology for enabling LBS
applications, which themselves will become increasingly important as a key enabler of value
added services. Mobile positioning technologies are also crucial for wireless emergency services.

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10 Advantages for the operators:

• Operators can offer their subscribers new and attractive services.


• Increase in revenue since subscribers are willing to pay for these services.
• Operators can save by optimizing their network.

11 Some of the third party products based on LBS:

11.1 Whereis Navigator


Whereis® Navigator provides real time navigation throughout Australia.

Whereis® Navigator provides low-cost wireless GPS navigation on compatible mobile handsets. The user
receives real-time, turn-by turn vehicle navigation and access to regularly updated maps and points of
interest. So long as the user has mobile coverage, they’ll always know where they are and which way
they're going
Sensis has developed an interactive mapping application containing a database of
digitized geographic data. This application can be used to generate maps to appear in
WWW Pages which identify, by means of an icon, the location of specified addresses and
are accessible on the WWW via the Whereis™ Location server.
Whereis® Navigator is like having a portable GPS (Global Positioning System) satellite
navigation system on user’s(compatible) mobile or smartphone. It uses GPS satellites to work out
his location and gives a visual and spoken turn-by-turn directions to the destination.

How it works:

Whereis® Mobile uses mobile phone towers and Whereis® map technology to locate the user and
provide maps and directions to addresses and points of interest. Whereis® Navigator uses
satellites within the GPS to continuously determine user’s location and deliver turn-by-turn visual
and spoken directions just as the user needs them.

Whereis® Navigator has many of the features such as:

• directions

• mapping

• points of interest

What makes it unique is how well it works with the technology in new mobile devices to direct
the user, step-by-step, all the way to the desired destination.
Key features
• Voice, icon and map-based navigation
• Location of most fixed speed and red light cameras
• Regular map and points-of-interest updates
• Access to addresses in mobile contact list
• Automatic re-routing when the user stray off route
• Intelligent address searching

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• Pedestrian navigation
• Intelligent address matching (Navigator can lookup any address in user’s phone’s contacts list as
well.)
• Estimated time-to-destination or estimated arrival time display
• Faster time or shorter distance navigation modes
• No need for complicated map loading or memory card
• Navigate routes with or without tolls
• Up-to-date Whereis® map data every time user request a route

11.2 Wizi
WIZI is an application which uses LBS developed by a Portugal company, during early 2008.
Wizi is a free mobile navigation application that allows users to instantly share their location with
whom they want, whenever they want to. This can happen between Wizi users or with an email or
sms. Privacy is a key feature and visibility is totally controlled by the user: he can, at any time,
become invisible to his friends or disable the link to a map of his location.

Wizi SMS with Location also allows users to attach an image map to the message as MMS so
anyone can see the map even if there is no internet connection, currently applicable for Android
devices only

Wizi is a location sharing and free traffic network that will allows users to keep track of their
friends; family and co-workers in a secure and controlled way using their GPS enabled cell
phones

Wizi also recommends the best routes when driving in the city using traffic data collected in real
time by its community, helping to save time and the environment.

11.3 XORA GPS Time track for workers

XORA Time track is a wireless business tool that enables enterprises to manage remote workers
productivity. With XORA Timetrack, businesses can gather information from the field in near
real time, speeding the flow of vital information, Plus they can track the worker’s location so they
can dispatch jobs more efficiently

Xora™ TimeTrack automates job dispatch and tracking; helps reduce paperwork and eliminate
manual data entry, while improving job costing processes. In addition, user gain real-time
visibility of user’s field force using the location based services and select GPS-enabled handsets.
Back at the office, this information can be viewed through maps and reports via a web interface,
giving the user powerful insight into field activity.

How it works

With the push of a button, mobile workers indicate when they are starting or ending shifts or jobs.
Supervisors receive powerful web-based maps and reports showing where mobile workers are
and what they are doing. Payroll or job-cost data can then be electronically transferred into
QuickBooks, ADP and other applications. Alerts supervisor when an employee is headed for
overtime.

Key Benefits

More Productivity — Companies that have implemented Xora GPS TimeTrack complete, on
average, one additional job per day per technician! Furthermore, users can see where their workers are

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at any time, making it easier to make informed decisions - such as which worker should be sent to a new
job.
No More Paperwork — User can spend more time on tasks and no need to spend time manually
entering data or tracking down timesheets.
Improved Cash Flow — Xora provides job data in real-time, allowing companies to trigger the
billing process as soon as a job is completed.
Higher Customer Satisfaction — With Xora, companies can relay real-time information in
response to customer inquiries, improving customer satisfaction and retention
Informative: Companies can utilize XoraTime Track to gather information from the field in near real-
time, speeding the flow of critical information.

Business solutions offered:


• Xora Time Track Lite: Location
• Xora Time Track: Location+ time+ Job
• Xora Time Track Biz Plus: Location+ Time+ Job + More

Feature summary:

Core Feature Time Track Lite Time Track Time Track Biz Plus

Location Tracking Yes Yes Yes

Time Sheet Tracking Yes Yes

Job Tracking Yes Yes

Job Data (Flex Fields) Yes

Job dispatching Yes

Data Integration Yes

11.4 WEBRASKA

Webraska Inuk is a powerful and flexible platform enabling service operators, content providers,
business users and end-users to dynamically integrate, location-enable, manage, update, and
distribute large data bases of content-rich data.
Webraska Inuk is ideally suited for:
• Telecom operators, Directory Assistance, Internet portals and other service providers
owning large content data bases that require daily dynamic update and automatic
maintenance.
• Content providers such as tourist or city guides providers or event organizers who wish to
share their content with all users of Webraska Navigation, Orange Navigation, Orange
SatNav, Vodafone Navigator, WhereIs Navigator, or other Internet or mobile
applications.

• Business users who need to update and share locations and addresses at any time with all
their mobile employees, exclusively.

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• Consumer service operators such as Mobile Operators wishing to offer rich content,
location-enabled advertisement and Web 2.0 services around GPS navigation and other
location-based services.

11.5 Spotigo's WiFi-based Positioning Technology

German software and service provider Spotigo developed a real-time location tracking
application that can be installed on any WiFi-enabled device. Spotigo's WiFi-based positioning
technology identifies the user's position on the basis of the received WiFi signal patterns. It is the
perfect complement to GPS since it compensates the limitations of satellite-based positioning:
especially in urban areas with high buildings and narrow streets, WiPS usually generates a faster
fix, more reliable and more accurate results than GPS. Another important advantage of this new
technology is the indoor and 3D functionality. Since it also works perfectly as a standalone
positioning solution, Spotigo's WiPS now makes it possible to offer location-aware content on all
mobile devices without GPS module. As a B2B company, Spotigo offers WiPS to companies,
municipalities and organizations interested in offering high quality location-based services or
location-based advertising. Spotigo’s core product is the WiFi-based Positioning Solution
(“WiPS”), which works independently from any GPS-hardware or GSM-operators. Another core
product is a WiFi SmartClient, a software solution that enables internet users to find and log on to
WiFi hotspots automatically.
.

12 Summary
Location is a strategic asset of wireless carriers. Leveraging this information enables the user to
experience value-added services and the mobile network operator to offer differentiation and
incremental profitability.

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13 References

http://www.wikipedia.org/
http://www.telstra.com.au
http://www.sensis.com.au
http://www.wiki.org
http://www.xora.com
http://www.webraska.com
http://www.spotigo.com

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14 About Wipro Technologies

Wipro is the first PCMM Level 5 and SEI CMMi Level 5 certified IT Services Company
globally. Wipro provides comprehensive IT solutions and services (including systems
integration, IS outsourcing, package implementation, software application development
and maintenance) and Research & Development services (hardware and software design,
development and implementation) to corporations globally.

Wipro's unique value proposition is further delivered through our pioneering Offshore
Outsourcing Model and stringent Quality Processes of SEI and Six Sigma.

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retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without express written permission from Wipro Technologies. Specifications subject to change without
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change without notice.

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