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Code No: R22041

II B.Tech II Semester, Regular Examinations, April 2012
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics and Communications Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75

Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry Equal Marks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1. a) Explain the generation of AM by switching modulation technique (8M+7M)
b) Explain the working of envelope detector with a neat circuit diagram

2. a) Explain the generation of DSB-SC signal using balanced modulator with a neat block
diagram
b) Explain about COSTAS loop with a neat block diagram. (8M+7M)

3. a) Draw the block diagram of phase cancellation SSB generator and explain how the carrier
and un wanted sideband are suppressed
b) Give the comparison of AM Techniques (8M+7M)

4. a) Explain the generation of FM using reactance modulator with a neat circuit diagram.
b) Write short notes on Foster-Seelay FM discriminator (8M+7M)

5. a) Derive an expression for SNR at the output of envelope detector of a normal AM system
b) Discuss the Threshold effect in FM demodulator (9M+6M)

6. a) Discuss the effect of feedback on performance of Am transmitter (7M+8M)
b) Draw the block diagram of phase modulated FM transmitter and explain its works.

7. a) Discuss the major factors influencing the choice of IF in any receiving systems
b) Explain the operation of self excited transistor mixer by the three frequency approach.
c) Distinguish between AGC and delayed AGC with a neat characteristic curve. (5M+6M+4M)

8. a) Explain the generation of single polarity PAM. (8M+7M)
b) Explain the demodulation of PPM.



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Code No: R22041

II B.Tech II Semester, Regular Examinations, April 2012
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics and Communications Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75

Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry Equal Marks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1. a) Find the modulating index, carrier and sideband frequency for the amplitude modulated
wave given by the equation (8M+7M)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t t t t f
3 3 3
10 410 2 cos 2 10 390 2 cos 2 10 400 2 sin 8 + =
b) Explain the working of rectifier detector with a neat circuit diagram and wave forms

2. a) Draw the circuit diagram of a Ring modulator and show that it produces DSB-SC wave
b) Discuss the effect of frequency and phase error in the demodulation of DSB-SC wave using
synchronous detector. (7M+8M)

3. a) Draw the block diagram of SSB Transmitter using filters for single sideband suppression and
describe its working
b) Explain about envelope detection of a VSB wave pulse carrier (8M+7M)

4. a) Explain how the FM is generated using Armstrong method with a neat block diagram
b) Give the comparison of FM and AM (8M+7M)

5. a) Derive an expression for SNR output of FM system (9M+6M)
b) Distinguish between pre emphasis and de-emphasis with neat figures

6. a) Draw a neat block diagram of low level AM transmitter and explain the function of each
block
b) Explain how frequency stability is achieved in FM transmitter. (8M+7M)

7. a) Explain the working principle of Superhetrodyne receiver with a neat block diagram.
b) For a broad cost Superhetrodyne AM receiver having no RF amplifier, the loaded quality
factor of the antenna coupling circuit is 100. Now if the intermediate frequency is 455 KHz,
then find i) the image frequency and its rejection ration at an incoming frequency of 1000 KHz.
ii) The image frequency and its rejection ratio at an incoming frequency of 25 KHz. (7M+8M)

8. a) Distinguish between TDM and FDM in detail with necessary figures and mathematical
expressions.
b) Explain the generation of PPM from PWM. (7M+8M)

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Code No: R22041

II B.Tech II Semester, Regular Examinations, April 2012
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics and Communications Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75

Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry Equal Marks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1. a) What is amplitude modulation? Derive the expression for transmitted power in terms of
carrier power and modulation index.
b) A diode detector has a load 0.01 F in parallel with a 10 k resistor. What is the depth of
sinusoidal modulation that the detector can handle without diagonal peak chipping when the
modulating frequency is at 800 Hz and 8 KHz? (8M+7M)

2. a) Prove that the balanced modulator produces an output consisting of sidebands only, with the
carrier removed.
b) Draw the block diagram for coherent detection of DSB-SC modulated wave and explain the
operation of it. (7M+8M)

3. a) Explain the generation of VSB modulated wave with a neat block diagram.
b) Draw the circuit diagram of balanced modulator and explain how balanced modulator is able
to demodulate SSB signals (7M+8M)

4. a) Describe the relationship between FM and PM. Derive the FM equation for narrow band and
wideband signals and explain their spectral features.
b) What are zero crossing detectors? Explain how it works and cab be used as an FM
demodulator. (7M+8M)

5. a) Derive an expression for SNR at the output for coherent reception with SSB modulation
b) Discuss the Threshold effect in FM system (9M+6M)

6. a) Draw the block schematic of variable reactance type of FM transmitter and explain its
working.
b) Discuss the feedback effect on the performance of AM transmitter (8M+7M)

7. Write short notes on
i) Image frequency rejection
ii) Tracking in Superhetrodyne receiver (7M+8M)

8. a) Plot the spectrum of PAM wave produced by the modulating signal m(t) = Am cos 2 f
mt
.
Assuming the modulating signal f
m
= 0.25 Hz. Sampling period Ts = 1 second and pulse
duration T = 0.45 seconds.
b) With a neat figures and circuit diagrams explain the principle involved in converting a PWM
signal in to a PPM pulse. (8M+7M)

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Code No: R22041

II B.Tech II Semester, Regular Examinations, April 2012
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics and Communications Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75

Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry Equal Marks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1. a) Explain with a neat circuit diagram, the working of switching modulator. Obtain an
expression for its output.
b) Explain about frequency division multiplexing (FDM) with a neat block diagram. (8M+7M)

2. a) Explain the generation of DSB-SC with a neat circuit diagram of balanced ring modulator.
b) With a block diagram, explain the functioning of a synchronous detector (8M+7M)

3. a) Explain phase shift method of SSB generation with a neat block diagram
b) Discuss the applications of different AM systems (7M+8M)

4. a) Distinguish between PM and FM. Show that FM can be derived using PM and Vice Versa
with the help of differentiator on integrator networks
b) Write short notes on Balanced frequency discriminator (7M+8M)

5. a) Derive an expression for SNR output of a PM system.
b) Show that narrow band FM offers no improvement in SNR over AM (9M+6M)

6. a) Draw the block schematic of an AM transmitter and explain the function of each unit.
b) Discuss the frequency stability in FM Transmitter. (8M+7M)

7. a) Mention the advantages of RF amplifier (4M+5M+6M)
b) Explain the principle of AGC with a neat circuit diagram.
c) Draw the block schematic of FM receiver and explain how it is different from AM receiver

8. Write short notes on (7M+8M)
i) Double polarity PAM
ii) Demodulation of PWM.

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