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07/03/14

1
SLausucal rlnclples and
CompuLauonal MeLhods
rof. ur. Lars kaderall

lnsuLuL fur medlzlnlsche lnformauk und 8lomeLrle
Medlzlnlsche lakulLaL
1echnlsche unlverslLaL uresden

lars.kaderall[Lu-dresden.de
arL 8 - Machlne Learnlng
!"#$%&'$()"&$* ,''-.'
Slldes and exerclses are avallable onllne aL Lhe
lM8 WebslLe or also on my groups webslLe,
follow llnk ,CompuLauonal 8lology:
hup://www.kaderall.org/Leachlng.hLml
Slldes are password-proLecLed:
username: /)012&)
assword: '(-3.%(
ln case of any quesuons, please lnLerrupL aL
any ume
Cmce hours: 8y appolnLmenL, or lmmedlaLely
before or aer Lhe lecLures.
07/03/14
2
Cvervlew
4$(. 5)%(.%(
Wednesday,
May 7Lh
Llnear Separauon / Classlcauon
neuronal neLworks
Wednesday,
May 14Lh
SupporL vecLor Machlnes
Wednesday,
May 21sL
ClusLerlng AlgorlLhms
Wednesday,
May 28Lh
LxpecLauon Maxlmlzauon
Duda, Hart, Storck
Pattern Classification (2
nd
Edition)
Wiley Interscience
ISBN 0-471-05669-3
Baldi, Brunak
Bioinformatics The Machine
Learning Approach (2
nd
Edition)
MIT Press
ISBN 0-262-02506-X
8ecommended LlLeraLure
07/03/14
3
Introduction
Data Complexity
Protein
Structure
ACTGTT...
Sequence
Pathways
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organism
Traditional Bioinformatics
High Throughput Experiments
Big Data -> Machine Learning
lnLroducuon
! Biology has become a very data-
rich science:
Genome Sequencing Data
Protein Structure Data
Gene Expression Data
Protein Arrays / Mass
Spectrometry
High-throughput microscopy
...
! These data cannot be analzed
manually anymore. Ample
opportunities for computer science!
! Requires tight collaboration
between computer science,
mathematics, biology and medicine
! Methods of machine learning,
statistical pattern recognition and
data mining are prime tools to
automatically analyze the vast
amounts of data becoming
available
07/03/14
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lnLroducuon
! Lxample quesuons lnclude:
Can we correlaLe phenoLypes wlLh
genoLypes? lor example, can we
predlcL how a cancer pauenL wlll
respond Lo LreaLmenL, based on hls
genomlc prole?
Can we learn, how our genome
lnuences our meLaboLype? lor
example, who wlll respond wlLh
welghL galn Lo faL-rlch dleL, and who
wlll noL?
Can we learn based on
observauonal daLa, how genes /
proLelns lnLeracL wlLh one anoLher
and how Lhey form regulaLory
molecular neLworks?
Can we lnfer Lhe funcuon of genes
from large daLa seLs?
Can we ldenufy subgroups e.g. ln a
seL of pauenLs wlLh Lhe same
dlsease, based on Lhelr molecular
proles?
Machlne Learnlng and redlcuon
! ln mosL of Lhe quesuons on
Lhe prevlous sllde, we are
concerned wlLh characLerlsuc
properues of ob[ecLs.
! 1hese properues are Lhen
used Lo compare ob[ecLs, or
Lo classlfy new ob[ecLs.
! 8uL.
- WhaL are characLerlsuc
properues of e.g. an
apple? Pow do we as
humans recognlze an
apple?
- 1yplcal feaLures: Color,
form, surface, slze, .
07/03/14
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Machlne Learnlng and redlcuon
! Color?
Machlne Learnlng and redlcuon
! Surface? lorm?
07/03/14
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Puman ercepuon
Sensory lnformauon
reprocesslng
auern recognluon
Acuon
Machlne ercepuon
! Slmple Lxample:
! 8ulld a machlne LhaL
can classlfy sh,
loaded onLo a
conveyor belL, lnLo
dlerenL Lypes
Species
Seabass
Salmon
07/03/14
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roblem Analysls
! Camera, LhaL acqulres
lmages
! lrom Lhe lmages, compuLe
characLerlsuc properues of
Lhe sh, for example
! LengLh
! 8rlghLness
! WldLh
! number and form of ns
! osluon of mouLh,
! eLc.
! 1hls seL of properues are
Lhen candldaLes for
classlcauon of Lhe sh
reprocesslng
SegmenLauon
(SeparaLe sh & background)
leaLure LxLracuon
(CompuLe roperues)
Classlcauon
Seabass
Salmon
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leaLure Selecuon
Choose lengLh as Lhe properLy used for classlcauon?
leaLure Selecuon
! lL seems lengLh alone ls noL a good properLy for classlcauon.
! We could Lry wlLh brlghLness lnsLead:
! The choice of threshold is a further factor that will influence
classification outcome (e.g. minimize seabass in salmon cans")
07/03/14
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leaLure selecuon
Combine width and brightness:
Fish x
T
= [x
1
, x
2
]
Brightness Width
Cenerallzauon?
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Cenerallzauon?
ueslgn-Cycle of a Classler
07/03/14
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Linear discriminant functions
! We wlll assume ln Lhe followlng
LhaL we can (adequaLely) separaLe
salmon and sea bass uslng a llnear
classler
! Llnear funcuons are noL
necessarlly opumal (ln all cases),
buL have Lhe advanLage LhaL Lhey
are very easy Lo use and
undersLand
! Clven Lralnlng daLa, our ob[ecuve
ls Lo nd a llne (or a hyperplane ln
hlgher dlmenslonal spaces) LhaL
opumally separaLes Lwo classes
lnLroducuon
07/03/14
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Llnear ulscrlmlnanL luncuons
and ueclslon 8oundarles
A two-class classifier with discriminant function of the form (1) uses the
following classification rule:

Decide class !
1
if g(x) > 0 and class !
2
if g(x) < 0
! Decide class !
1
if w
t
x > -w
0
and class !
2
otherwise
If g(x) = 0 " x is (by definition) assigned to an arbitrary class
Definition: Linear Discriminant Function

A linear discriminant function is a function g(x) which computes a
linear combination of the components of x,

g(x) = w
t
x + w
0
(1)

where w is a weight vector and w
0
a bias.
Lquauon of a Pyperplane
normal vecLor
osluonal vecLor of a polnL
ulsLance Lo Crlgln:
Crlgln
07/03/14
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Llnear ulscrlmlnanL luncuons
! The equation g(x) = 0 defines
a decision surface, which
separates points of class !
1

from points of class !
2
.


For linear (affine)
functions g(x), the
decision surface is a
hyperplane: In 2D it is
a line, in 3D a plane,
"
g(x) is an algebraic
measure for the
distance of x to the
hyperplane.
Llnear ulscrlmlnanL luncuons
where x
p
is the projection of x onto H
And since w is collinear to x-x
p
.
As g(x
p
)=0 and w
t
w = ||w||# it follows that
=> Linear discriminant functions separate
the space using a hyperplane as decision
surface.
Orientation of the surface is determined by
w, its position by the bias term w
0
.
x = x
p
+r
w
w
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1he Mulu-CaLegory Case
! In case of c>2 classes we define c linear discriminant functions

and assign x to class !
i
if g
i
(x) > g
j
(x) # j $ i. In case of ties, the classification is
undetermined.
! Such a linear machine separates the feature space into c regions, where g
i
(x)
is maximal of the c discriminant functions if x is in region R
i
.
! Two neighboring regions R
i
and R
j
are separated by the hyperplane H
ij
that is
defined by:
g
i
(x) = g
j
(x)
i.e. (w
i
w
j
)
t
x + (w
i0
w
j0
) = 0
! => w
i
w
j
is orthogonal to H
ij
, and
g
i
(x) = w
i
t
x +w
i,0
l=1, ...,c
d(x, H
ij
) =
g
i
(x) ! g
j
(x)
w
i
!w
j
1he Mulu-CaLegory Case
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1he Mulu-CaLegory Case
It is easy to show that the decision
regions of a linear machine are
convex. This restriction limits the
flexibility and accuracy of a linear
classifier.
=> In particular, every decision
region is singly connected
=> This makes the linear machine
suitable, if the conditional class
probabilities p(x|w) are unimodal.
Nevertheless, there are also
multimodal distributions for which
linear discriminants give excellent
results"
Learnlng wlLh llnear dlscrlmlnanLs
! LeL us assume we are glven n
daLa polnLs wlLh class labels "
1

and "
2
.
! Cur ob[ecuve ls Lo use Lhese Lo
learn a llnear dlscrlmlnanL
funcuon g(x)=w
L
x LhaL
separaLes Lhe classes.
! 1he amne case g(x)=w
L
x+w
0
can
be reduced Lo Lhe case g(x)=w
L
x
uslng a slmple Lrlck (how?)
! lor now, we assume LhaL a
soluuon exlsLs LhaL classles all
polnLs correcLly
! We are hence looklng for w, s.L.
wx>0 fur alle Samples of class
1, and wx<0 oLherwlse.
! 1o slmpllfy Lhe compuLauons,
we replace all polnLs x of class
1 by Lhelr negauve -x
! Pence our ob[ecuve becomes:
llnd w, s.L. wx>0 for all x
Solution region
Solution region
07/03/14
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CradlenL descenL
! roblem: llnd a vecLor w, s.L. wx>0
for all Lralnlng polnLs x
! ldea: uene a sulLable funcuon
!(w), LhaL ls mlnlmal lf w ls a
soluuon.
! CradlenL descenL sLarLs wlLh a
arblLrary (random) vecLor w, and
Lhen lLerauvely makes a sLep ln Lhe
dlrecuon of sLeepesL descenL of
!(w) Lo nd a beuer polnL w.
! lormally:
! #
k
ls Lhe learnlng raLe, Lhls ls a
parameLer LhaL musL be chosen
carefully.
! CradlenL descenL ls noL a global
opumlzauon procedure, lL can geL
sLuck ln local opuma.
(1) BEGIN
(2) Initialize w, threshold $, #(), k <- 0
(3) do
(4) k <- k + 1
(5) w <- w #(k)dJ(w)
(6) until |#(k)dJ(w)| < $
(7) return w
(8) END
w
k+1
=w
k
!!
k
"J w
k
( )
Gradient descent Algorithm
Lxcurse: CradlenL uescenL
Conslder Lhe slmplesL case -
mlnlmlzlng a funcuon f(x) of
a scalar x:






f(x)
x x
0
f(x
0
)
07/03/14
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Choose sLarung polnL x
0
,
Lhen compuLe gradlenL of
f() ln x
0
. 1hls gradlenL glves
Lhe sLeepness of f() aL Lhe
polnL x
0
.
Slnce we wlsh Lo mlnlmlze
f(), we wlll proceed ln Lhe
dlrecuon wlLh (sLeepesL)
negauve gradlenL!






f(x)
x x
0
f(x
0
)
Lxcurse: CradlenL uescenL
Choose sLarung polnL x
0
,
Lhen compuLe gradlenL of
f() ln x
0
. 1hls gradlenL glves
Lhe sLeepness of f() aL Lhe
polnL x
0
.
Slnce we wlsh Lo mlnlmlze
f(), we wlll proceed ln Lhe
dlrecuon wlLh (sLeepesL)
negauve gradlenL!
Chooose nexL polnL
!
"#$
& !
"
' ( )*+!
"
,
wlLh sLepwldLh !






f(x)
x x
0
f(x
0
)
x
1
f(x
1
)
Lxcurse: CradlenL uescenL
07/03/14
18
Lxample: CradlenL uescenL
As a slmple example, leL
us conslder mlnlmlzauon
of
f(x) = x - 2x
=> f'(x)=2x-2
As (random) sLarung
polnL, we choose x
0
=0.
LeL us seL Lhe sLepwldLh
h=1 (for lack of any beuer
value)
f'(0)=-2
x
1
= x
0
- h * f'(x
0
) = 2






As a slmple example, leL
us conslder mlnlmlzauon
of
f(x) = x - 2x
=> f'(x)=2x-2
x
1
= 2.
h = 1
f'(2) = 2
x
2
= x
1
- h * f'(x
0
) = 0
6%7)"(-%$(.*89 (:&' ;&**
%)( /)%<."#.====






Lxample: CradlenL uescenL
07/03/14
19
As a slmple example, leL
us conslder mlnlmlzauon
of
f(x) = x - 2x
=> f'(x)=2x-2
x
0
= 0
h = 2
f'(0) = -2
x
1
= x
0
- h * f'(x
0
) = 4
x
2
= x
1
- h * f'(x
1
) = -8
...
4&<."#.' .<.%=






Lxample: CradlenL uescenL
As a slmple example, leL
us conslder mlnlmlzauon
of
f(x) = x - 2x
=> f'(x)=2x-2
x
0
= 0
h = 0.73
f'(0) = -2
x
1
= x
0
- h * f'(x
0
) = 1.3
x
2
= x
1
- h * f'(x
1
) = 0.73
...
5)%<."#.'9 ;&(: "$(.
3.1.%3&%# )% :






Lxample: CradlenL uescenL
usual procedure ls Lo adapL
Lhe sLepwlLh h, decreaslng
lL over ume!
07/03/14
20
1he procedure ls compleLely analogue ln hlgher dlmenslonal space...






Lxcurse: CradlenL uescenL
CradlenL descenL: CaveaLs
>)/$* ?&%&0-0
@*)2$*. ?&%&0-0
07/03/14
21
1he ercepLron - Cb[ecuve luncuon
! 8ack Lo Lhe llnear classler: We are looklng for an ob[ecuve funcuon
LhaL depends on Lhe welghLs w, and LhaL we can mlnlmlze so LhaL all
wx>0 are saused.
! Cne could Lake !(w,x
1
,...,x
n
) = number of olnLs wlLh wx <= 0, buL Lhls
funcuon ls plecewlse consLanL, and we cannoL compuLe a gradlenL.
! A beuer alLernauve ls
x(w) ls Lhe seL of olnLs x, LhaL have been wrongly classled
! !
p
lsL never negauve, and 0 l for all polnL x: wx>0 holds.
! CeomeLrlcally, !
p
ls proporuonal Lo Lhe sum of Lhe dlsLances of Lhe
lncorrecLly classled polnLs Lo Lhe hyperplane dened by w.
! 1he gradlenL of !
p
ls
and hence Lhe Cu updaLe rule becomes
J
p
w
( )
= !w
t
x
( )
x"X w ( )
#
!J
p
w
( )
= "x
( )
x#X w ( )
$
w
k+1
=w
k
+!
k
x
x!X w ( )
"
Batch Update
1he ercepLron - Cb[ecuve luncuon
! 1he drawlng Lo Lhe rlghL
glves an ldea of Lhe way Lhe
algorlLhm works:
! Assume, LhaL only one polnL
x ls wrongly classled.
! 1he welghL vecLor w ls Lhen
correcLed lnLo Lhe dlrecuon
of x
! 1hls Lurns Lhe hyperplane,
and x ls now on Lhe correcL
slde
(lcLure Source: P. 8urkhardL, lrelburg)
07/03/14
22
! 8aLch-Learnlng: 1ake all wrongly
classled polnLs slmulLaneously for
Lhe updaLe
! AlLernauve: 1ake [usL a slngle
lncorrecLly classled polnL aL a ume,
lLeraLe Lhrough polnLs
! !
p
ls an ob[ecuve funcuon, LhaL
focuses on mlsLakes (error
correcuon)
! lf a soluuon exlsLs LhaL classles all
polnLs correcLly, Lhe algorlLhm wlll
LermlnaLe (roof: uuda, ParL, SLork,
p. 230).
! 1he soluuon ls usually noL unlque
! lf Lhere ls no soluuon, Lhe algorlLhm
wlll noL LermlnaLe
1he ercepLron - Cb[ecuve luncuon
noL llnearly separable
Cuadrauc Lrror
! ln Lhe non-separable case, one may sLrlve Lo mlnlmlze Lhe error made.
! So far, our ob[ecuve was Lo nd w s.L. w
L
x
l
>0 for all x
l
. We wlll no
conslder Lhe problem Lo nd w wlLh w
L
x
l
=b
l
, where b
l
ls a consLanL (e.g.
b
l
=+1 for polnLs x
l
ln class 1, b
[
=-1 for unkLe x
[
ln class 2)
! LeL x be a maLrlx LhaL conLalns x
l
ln Lhe l-Lh row. lurLher, leL b be Lhe
vecLor of class labels b
l
. ln maLrlx-form, our problem can Lhen be wrluen
as:
llnd w, s.L. xw = b
! lf x ls non-slngular (lnveruble), a soluuon ls glven by w=x
-1
b
! Powever, Lhls condluon ls usually noL glven:
! lf we have more daLa polnLs Lhan equauons, w ls overdeLermlned, and
Lhere ls no exacL soluuon.
! We could Lhen sull mlnlmlze Lhe error - & ./'0
07/03/14
23
Cuadrauc Lrror
! lor Lechnlcal reasons, one usually mlnlmlzes Lhe squared error lnsLead.
! 1he ob[ecuve funcuon Lhen becomes:
! 1he gradlenL of !
s
ls
(e.g. for gradlenL descenL)
! AlLernauvely: Semng Lhe derlvauve Lo zero glves Lhe necessary condluon
.
1
./ & .
1
0
Cuadrauc Lrror
! lf x
L
x ls nonslgnular, Lhen a soluuon ls
/&+.
1
.,
'$
.
1
0
! lf x
L
x ls slngular, one denes Lhe 23-456"78-93-
and
ls a soluuon LhaL mlnlmlzes Lhe quadrauc error on xw=b.
07/03/14
24
Lxample
! LeL Lhe polnLs (1,2), (2,0), (3,1)
and (2,3) be glven, wlLh class labels
1,1,-1,-1, respecuvely
! Cb[ecuve: llnd w, s.L.
! 1he pseudolnverse ls
! And Lhe soluuon
"#$%&'() "#+,&%-.
07/03/14
23
neuronal neLworks - lnLroducuon
! Objective: Classify objects, learn nonlinear Relations
Many practical problems exist, in which linear discriminant
functions are not sufficient for error minimization.
Support Vector Machines offer one way, to deal with this situation
through the Kernel Trick we will see this in the next lecture
In many situations, nonlinear functions offer much better
classification performance. However, a central problem is the
choice of appropriate nonlinear function to use.
A brute force approach would be to use a full set of basis
functions (e.g. all polynomial functions), however, such a
classifier would have too many parameters that cannot be
estimated from finite data"
neuronal neLwork - lnLroducuon
! neuronal neLworks Lry Lo learn Lhe
nonllnearlues dlrecLly from Lhe
daLa.
! nn were orlglnally developed, Lo
model and sLudy lnformauon
processlng and learnlng ln Lhe
human braln.
! nns conslsL of slmulaLed
neurons", LhaL are connecLed ln a
neLworks.
! nonllnearlues are lnLroduced
Lhrough nonllnear funcuons of Lhe
lnpuLs of a neuron, used Lo
calculaLe Lhe neurons ouLpuL
07/03/14
26
neurons ln neuronal neLworks
! Lvery neuron geLs one or more
lnpuLs
! A welghLed sum of Lhese lnpuLs
ls compuLed
! A nonllnear funcuon
(acuvauon funcuon") ls
applled Lo Lhe welghLed sum
! 1he resulLs of Lhls compuLauon
ls emlued by Lhe neuron.
! arameLers of Lhe nn are Lhe
welghLs w used Lo compuLe Lhe
welghLed sum.
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
w
1
w
2
w
3
w
4
f w
i
i=1
n
!
x
i
+w
0
"
#
$
%
&
'
w
i
i=1
n
!
x
i
+w
0
! Every neuron (=node) hat one or
several inputs from other neurons,
and one or several outputs to other
nodes.
! Inputs and Outputs can be
Binary {0, 1}
Bipolar {-1, 1}
Continous
! All Inputs for a given node arrive
simultaneously, and stay active
until the output is computed.
! The edges in the network have
weights
! f(net) is a (usually nonlinear)
activation function, where net is a
weighted sum of the incoming
connections.
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
w
1
w
2
w
3
w
4
f w
i
i=1
n
!
x
i
+w
0
"
#
$
%
&
'
w
i
i=1
n
!
x
i
+w
0
neurons ln neuronal neLworks
07/03/14
27
! Identity function: f(net)=net
! Step-function:
! Sigmoidal function, e.g.
Continuous and
differentiable
Asymptotic against
saturation points
Logistic sigmoidal function
Tanh sigmoidal function
Acuvauon luncuons
neLwork 1opology
! Feedforward-Network
Connections can only go from layer i to layer i+1
Most widely used network topology
But: Many other topologies are possible!
07/03/14
28
! Acyclic Networks
Connections do not form (directed) cycles.
Example: Feedforward Neuronal Networks.
! Recurrent Networks
Networks with weighted cycles.
Much more difficult to analyze and handle than acyclic
networks.
! Modular Networks
Consist of several different modules, each module is
an individual neural network for a subproblem.
Few connections between modules.
neLwork 1opology
neuronal neLworks and nonllnear Classlcauon
07/03/14
29
Lxpresslve SLrengLh of neuronal neLworks
Lxpresslve SLrengLh of neuronal neLworks
Question: Can any classification-decision be learnt by a three-layer
neuronal feedforward network?


Answer: Yes! (A. Kolmogorov)

Any continuous function from input to output can
be implemented in a three-layer net, given sufficient
number of hidden units n
H
, proper nonlinearities,
and weights.

Unfortunately: Kolmogorovs theorem does not tell us how to choose
the nonlinear activation functions for a given data set, nor how many
hidden units we need. This is hence the central problem in pattern
recognition with neuronal networks"




07/03/14
30
Lxpresslve SLrengLh of neuronal neLworks
,1ralnlng of a neuronal neLwork
! Well now, glven some
experlmenLal daLa wlLh class
labels (Lralnlng daLa") and
agreemenL on a neLwork
Lopology Lo use (Lhree-layer
feedforward neural neLwork
wlLh a cerLaln number of
hldden nodes), how do we
choose Lhe welghLs of Lhe
neLwork Lo properly model
Lhe daLa?
=> 8ackpropagauon algorlLhm
07/03/14
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8ackpropagauon-AlgorlLhm
! Network Architecture:
! Backpropagation works for Feedforward networks
with at least one layer of nonlinear hidden nodes
! The activation function needs to be differentiable
(often used: sigmoidal functions)
! Learning:Supervised, error-driven
! Objective of the learning procedure: Adapt the weights
connecting to input to hidden and the hidden to output
layers so as to minimize the classification error.
& Adaptation of the weights for the hidden-to-output connections
is clear (simple delta-rule for gradient descent), but what about
adapting the weights on the input-to-hidden edges?
& How do we compute an error for the hidden layer nodes? This
is called the Credit assignment problem
8ackpropagauon
! Forward computation:
Present input pattern x at the input layer
Compute Outputs x
(h)
of the hidden layer nodes
Compute output o at the output layer
-> Network computes a function of the inputs x to calculate the
outputs o
! Objective of Training:
Reduce the sum of the squared error:
for given training data P=(x,d) as far as possible (ideally to
zero).
o
k
= S(net
k
(2)
) = S( w
k, j
(2,1)
x
j
(1)
j
!
)
x
j
(1)
= S(net
j
(1)
) = S( w
j,i
(1,0)
x
i
i
!
)
(
j=1
K
!
p=1
P
!
o
p, j
"d
p, j
)
2
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32
8ackpropagauon - rlnclple:
Update the Hidden -> Output Layer weights using a gradient-descent
step (delta-rule)
Unfortunately, the same cannot be done for the Input -> Hidden Layer
weights, as we do not know the desired value for the hidden layer
nodes.
The solution is to distribute the error on the output layer to the
hidden layer nodes, and then do the update of the input->hidden
layer weights using this backpropagation error -> hence the name of
the method.
Key to the whole procedure is the distribution of the error to the
hidden layer nodes.
The same principle can be applied if several hidden layers exist
The method has been originally proposed by Werbos in 1974; todays
formulation is due to Rumelhart, Hinton and Williams (1986)
8ackpropagauon AlgorlLhmus
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33
ueslgn-Cycle of a Classler
Learnlng Curves
Before training, the model error on the training data is high. The
objective of training is to reduce the training error.
The resulting error per training pattern depends on the number of
available data points, as well as the expressive power of the neural
networks -> for example the number of hidden layer nodes
The expected error on a new, independent dataset not used for training
is higher than the error on the training data, and can increase or
decrease with further training
Usually, a validation data set is used to decide when to stop training.
The objective of this is to avoid overfitting and obtain a classifier that
generalizes well.

Stop training the network if the minimum error is achieved on an
independent validation data set.
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34
Lernkurven
MSE
Any Cuesuons?
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33
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rof. ur. Lars kaderall

lnsuLuL fur Medlzlnlsche lnformauk und 8lomeLrle,
Medlzlnlsche lakulLaL,
1echnlsche unlverslLaL uresden

lars.kaderall[Lu-dresden.de