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Abstract

Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
OBJECTIVE:
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
The Methods of Optimal Depression Detection in Parkinson's Disease (MOOD-PD) study compared the
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
psychometric properties of 9depression scales to provide guidance on scale selection in Parkinson
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
disease (PD).
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
METHODS:
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Patients with PD (n = 229) from community-based neurology practices completed 6 self-
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
report scales (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II, Center for Epidemiologic
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Studies Depression Rating Scale-Revised [CESD-R], 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS-30],
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Inventory ofDepressive Symptoms-Patient [IDS-SR], Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9], and Unified
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]-Part I) and were administered 3 clinician-rated scales (17-
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D-17], Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Clinician [IDS-
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
C], and Montgomery-sberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] and a psychiatric interview. DSM-IV-TR
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
diagnoses were established by an expert panel blinded to the self-reported rating scale data. Receiver
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
operating characteristic curves were used to estimate the area under the curve (AUC) of each scale.
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
RESULTS:
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
All scales performed better than chance (AUC 0.75-0.85). Sensitivity ranged from 0.66 to 0.85 and
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
specificity ranged from 0.60 to 0.88. The UPDRS Depression item had a smaller AUC than the BDI-II,
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
HAM-D-17, IDS-C, and MADRS. The CESD-R also had a smaller AUC than the MADRS. The remaining
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
AUCs were statistically similar.
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
CONCLUSIONS:
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
The GDS-30 may be the most efficient depression screening scale to use in PD because of its brevity,
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
favorable psychometric properties, and lack of copyright protection. However, all scales studied, except
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
for the UPDRS Depression, are valid screening tools when PD-specific cutoff scores are used.
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in

Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in
Abstract
Background
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in
occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available
scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
(LEAPS), a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete.
Methods
The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid
work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the
Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Health and Work Performance
Questionnaire (HPQ). Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted.
Results
A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by
Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The
LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and the Global Work Performance
rating from the HPQ (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). The LEAPS total score also increased with greater depression severity.
Conclusion
The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which
suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.
Background
Mental illnesses in general, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, are among the most common, disabling and costly of
medical conditions. The total economic burden (both direct and indirect costs) of depression were estimated at over C$6 billion in