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Semi nar Gui de: Pr es ent ed by,

MRS. SHYMA MOHAMMED SAMNA. K


ASST. PROFESSOR S7 EEE
EEE DEPT 07105046
WRITTEN-POLE
ELECTRIC MOTORS
OVERVIEW
y INTRODUCTION
y WRITTEN POLE MOTOR CONSTRUCTION
y WORKING
y BENEFITS
y EXCITER DESIGN
y APPLICATIONS
y CONCLUSION
y REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
y Rural areas is powering huge loads from rural single
phase electric distribution system.
y Introduced by the Precise Power Corporation of
Bradenton, Florida, in the 1990s.
y The motor dramatically reduced starting current &
are able to drive heavier loads without disrupting
power quality.
Why......?
Large starting current.
Even number of poles.
Dependence of speed on no. of poles of rotor.
speed = 120 X frequency
no. of poles
Conventional Motors Used:
y Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
y Wound Rotor Induction Motor
y Synchronous Motor
CONSTRUCTION
y Stator Construction
1.cast frame construction
2.electrical steel
laminations
3.copper stator winding
with an additional
exciter coil.
y Rotor Construction
1.steel shaft bearings
2.electrical steel
laminations
3.carbon steel rotor cage
4.ferrite magnet layer
WORKING
y There are three modes of operation:-
1.Start Mode
2.Transition Mode
3.Run Mode
Start Mode:
y Induction torque is produced in the machine by the
rotating magnetic field of the stator.
y Hysterisis torque is developed when stator current
slightly magnetize the ferrite material.
y The Hysterisis and Induction torque produced
accelerates the motor to rated speed.
Transition Mode:
y The excitation coil is turned on when the motor reaches
80% - 90% of rated speed.
y The powerful excitation coil starts writing poles to the
ferrite layer as the rotor rotates.
y Magnetic layer magnetized into any desired
configuration using exciter winding.
Figure 1 shows motor is in normal mode of operation.
As the excitation had not been turned on the motor is
running as an induction motor.
Figure 2 & 3 shows the poles are being written into
the magnetic layer in the anticlockwise direction as
the rotor rotates in the clockwise direction.
Contd
y The no: poles produced depends upon the frequency of
signal given to the exciter coil and also speed of the
motor.
y If the exciter has constant frequency o/p then :-
1.Lower speed of rotor results in larger no of poles
with shorter spans.
2.higher speed of rotor results in smaller no of poles
with longer spans.
Run Mode:
y Magnetic interlocking of rotor poles and stator poles
takes place.
y The motor starts run at synchronous speed.
y It excessive torque is applied to the output shaft, causing
the motor to pull out of synchronization, it re-enters the
transition mode and attempts to re- accelerate the load
back to synchronous speed.
BENEFITS
y Low starting current requirements.
y Energy efficient operation.
y Unity power factor operation.
y Low temperature rise.
y High inertia starting.
y Instantaneous restart capability.
y Ride through characteristics.
EXCITER DESIGN
The home appliance requires for a motor to be small,
exciter with a very large magneto-motive force in the
small volume, which is driven by a general voltage
source.
Its divided into:
a) MMF design
b) Pole shape design
Mmf Design:
MMF = Current * coil turns
Voltage equation is given by,
If Seff is the slot area occupied by n turns, then area of
a coil
If Leff is the effective length of a coil side, then
resistance of exciter
Contd
The reactance of coil is proportional to square of
turn number
where R is the magnetic reluctance.
Thus the exciter current is given as,
Thus
Contd
Lesser the turn no:,
larger the exciter
current and mmf.
Maximum MMF is
limited by maximum
allowable current.
Pole Shape Design:
The exciter pole shape is designed with maximising the
magnetic intensity in magnet.
Since the magnetic flux in pole should be concentrated
to increase the magnetic intensity, the width of pole
edge w is selected as variable.
Magneto static analysis is carried out with nImax and
the field intensity according to variation in w.
The edge width corresponding to maximum intensity is
selected.
APPLICATIONS
y Agricultural purpose in rural areas.
y Conveyor belt applications.
y At oil well beam pump.
y To run a 3 phase generator.
CONCLUSION
y WPM shows good value when applied to proper niches
y Technology shows promise where the characteristics
can be benefited for rural and industrial applications.
y For a low Hp WPM, the winding and pole shape of
exciter have to be optimally designed and analyzed.
REFERENCES
y S. Hoffman, B. Banerjee, and M. Samotyj, Written-pole
Revolution, IEEE Power Eng. Rev., pp. 69, 1997.
y A. Hannah, Electrical field measurements on an EPRI two-
pole, 20-HP written pole motor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat.,
vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 408414, Mar./Apr. 1997
y Cyril G. Veinott, Theory and design of small induction
motors, McGraw-Hill pp.447-452, 1959
y R. W. Menzies and L. Ge, Theory investigation of 3-phase
written pole motors, in Proc. 2002 IEEE Can. Conf., 2002,
p. 162165.
THANK YOU