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ST PETERS LUTHERAN COLLEGE

Effects of Body Position on


the Cardiovascular System
The change of heart rate and blood pressure in
relation to body position horizontal, sitting,
vertical

Andrea Roati
17
th
March 2014




Mrs Venton
Year 12 Biology
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Table of Contents
2.0 Abstract ........................................................................................................................... 2
3.0 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 3
3.1 Background Information ............................................................................................. 3
3.2 Aim .............................................................................................................................. 5
3.3 Hypothesis ................................................................................................................... 5
4.0 Method ........................................................................................................................... 6
4.1 Variables ...................................................................................................................... 6
4.2 Materials ..................................................................................................................... 6
4.3 Method ........................................................................................................................ 6
4.4 Risk Assessment .......................................................................................................... 6
5.0 Results ............................................................................................................................. 8
5.1 Raw Data ..................................................................................................................... 8
5.2 Processed Data ............................................................................................................ 9
5.3 Graphs ....................................................................................................................... 10
6.0 Discussion...................................................................................................................... 13
7.0 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 15
8.0 References .................................................................................................................... 16
8.1 Annotated Bibliography ............................................................................................ 16
8.2 Other References ...................................................................................................... 18
9.0 Appendix ....................................................................................................................... 19



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2.0 Abstract
This study is about the effects of body position on heart rate and blood pressure. Heart rate
is measured using a heart rate monitor on five female, non-smoking individuals aged 16-17
over five trials, as with blood pressure also, except using a sphygmomanometer as the
measuring instrument instead. These results were averaged to reveal that heart rate and
diastolic blood pressure are at their lowest whilst lying and highest whilst standing, while
systolic blood pressure is highest whilst sitting and lowest whilst standing. Many
uncontrollable factors may be effected the data, and more studies would have to be
conducted for more conclusive results.
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3.0 Introduction
3.1 Background Information
The measurements of heart rate and blood pressure are important in providing information
about an individuals health and potential health concerns. An abnormality or change from
an individual's normal heart rate can indicate a medical condition (Medline Plus, 2014).
Heart rate measured during or immediately after exercise, can also indicate an individual's
personal fitness level. The higher a person's blood pressure, the higher the risk of future
health problems (Blood Pressure UK, 2008). Having high blood pressure induces extra strain
on the arteries and therefore the heart. As time passes, the arteries may become thicker,
less flexible and weaker, due to the strain. As the arteries become thicker, they become
narrower also, consequently causing blood clots, or less likely, a bursting of an artery.
Furthermore, blood clots can lead to heart attacks, strokes, kidney disease or dementia. In
addition, a burst can lead to a heart attack or stroke. It is important to ensure that adequate
measures can be taken to monitor heart rate and blood pressure to prevent and treat the
occurrence of such conditions.
Medical News Today (2014) defines heart rate as the rate of contraction of the heart and is
equal to the pulse, which is how many times a minute the arteries expand due to increase in
blood pressure originated by the heartbeat. Heart rate can be measured where ever a pulse
is felt, usually where an artery is close to the skin, popularly; the back of the knees, groin,
neck, temple, wrist and the top or inner side of the foot (MNT 2014). Using a heart rate
monitor, it is measured by the number of beats per minute. Heart rate changes when
physical activity takes place but is also affected by air temperature, emotions and the use of
medication, as claimed by the American Heart Association (2012). The expected resting
heart rate for an average person aged 10 years and over varies between 60 - 100 bpm
(beats per minute), claims Richard Stein, M.D., professor of medicine and cardiology at the
New York University School of Medicine in New York City (2012). Furthermore, Stein also
states that athletic persons' resting heart rates should reach as low as 40-60 bpm.
The determination of an individuals blood pressure is one of the most useful clinical
measurements (Fall, 2004). The pressure of the blood against the vessel walls in the arteries,
as it is circulated around the body by the heart, is called the blood pressure. Blood pressure
is continually fluctuating as it changes to meet the body's needs. The most common method
of measuring blood pressure is by the use of a sphygmomanometer whereby an inflatable
pressure cuff is wrapped around the upper arm and blood pressure is measured through an
artery in the arm that is at approximately heart level. It is usually recorded as two numbers,
e.g. 120/80. The pressure in the arteries as the heart pumps out blood during each beat is
indicated by the larger number; the systolic blood pressure. The diastolic blood pressure -
the lower number - indicates the pressure as the heart relaxed before the next beat (Better
Health Channel, 2013). The blood pressure can be affected by various factors including
breathing, emotional state, exercise, sleep, diet, sodium levels and body position. According
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to the Better Health Channel (2013), the standard measurements for blood pressure levels
are:
Low below 90/60
Normal 90/60 - 120/80
Highnormal 120/80 - 140/90
High - 140/90 180/110
Very high 180/110 +
A persistently high blood pressure is medically known as hyper tension, and low blood
pressure is known as hypotension.
Body position affects both heart rate and blood pressure. When lying, the effect of gravity
on the body is reduced, consequently allowing greater blood flow back to the heart,
therefore reducing the heart rate, compared to when sitting or standing. With increased
blood return, the heart is able to pump more blood per beat, therefore requiring less beats
per minute to satisfy the body's demands for blood, oxygen and nutrients (Livestrong,
2013). Moving into a sitting position increases heart rate as physical activity is required and
the effects of gravity increase. However because the body is still partly relaxed, the heart
rate will not be as high as that of when standing. A standing position is fully affected by
gravity, making blood flow slower and therefore requiring more beats per minute to fulfil
the body's need for blood, oxygen and nutrients. Sudden changes in body positions,
especially for the elderly, could cause complications whereby, due to the quick movements,
the heart is unable to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the brain, causing the individual
to lose consciousness and faint, usually resulting in a horizontal position on the floor where
it is advantageous for the heart to function at its best.
Blood pressure is commonly measured when an individual is sitting or lying and occasionally
while standing. The National Guideline Clearinghouse explains that diastolic blood pressure
is approximately 5 mm/Hg higher when sitting than when lying. However reports show that
systolic pressure is 8 mm/Hg higher when an individual is lying than when they are sitting
(Livestrong, 2013). It is crucial that when an individual's blood rate is being measured, their
arm positioning is correct; the arm must be the same level as the right atrium of the heart.
Back support and leg position also play a role in blood pressure measurements as crossing
the legs increases systolic pressure by as much as 8 mm/Hg. Standing after lying or sitting
usually results in lower blood pressure, causing persons to feel light headed and dizzy.
MayoClinic.com defines this as orthostatic hypotension. This occurs due to the sudden
change and the increased difficulty in regulating blood pressure due to gravity. In some
cases, orthostatic hypotension may cause persons to faint, a condition referred to by
doctors as postural hypotension.
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Homeostasis is defined as the condition of equilibrium in the bodys internal environment
due to the consistent interaction of the bodys main regulatory processes [Tortora and
Derrickson [2009:8] (Biology Online, 2009)]. In order to stabilise the body and provide
balance, homeostasis controls the heart by increasing and reducing the heart rate. To
increase the heart rate, as a homeostatic response to increasing oxygen levels in the body, it
releases epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medulla. To reduce the heart rate, a
homeostatic response releases acetylcholine from the medulla to delay heart muscle
contractions. Blood pressure, on the other hand, is controlled through the use of sensory
receptors and hormonal secretions. A baroreceptor reflex is a homeostatic mechanism
which uses sensory receptors in the heart to send messages to the brain to regulate blood
pressure. Adrenal secretions also control blood pressure. The changes in heart rate and
blood pressure can be attributed to the homeostatic mechanisms of the heart.
3.2 Aim
The aim of this extended experimental investigation is to examine the effects of body
position horizontal, sitting and vertical on human physiology, specifically cardiac
function and blood pressure. This will be achieved using a heart rate monitor and
sphygmomanometer.
3.3 Hypothesis
When an individual is in a horizontal position, their heart rate will become slower and their
blood pressure will become lower compared to when sitting and, to a greater extent when
standing.

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4.0 Method
4.1 Variables
INDEPENDENT CONTROLLED
The body position of each test subject

The age, non-smoking status, and gender of
each test subject
The room temperature (air conditioner) and
noise level of the testing room

DEPENDENT UNCONTROLLED
The heart rate and blood pressure measured

Individual fitness level, base heart rate &
blood pressure, pre-existing conditions,
family health history (especially heart
history), weight and height

TABLE 1: Variables
4.2 Materials
sphygmomanometer
Heart rate monitor
5x females (16-17 years of age, non-smokers, plays sports and stays active)
Chair
Silent room (at 25C)
4.3 Method
1. A non-smoking, female human test subject aged 16-17, was placed in a silent room
at 24C.
2. The individual was fastened with a heart rate monitor and sphygmomanometer.
3. The test subject was then advised to lay down in a horizontal position, palms flat
against the surface, for one minute. Their heart rate and blood pressure were
recorded.
4. Step 3 was repeated four more times with a resting of one minute .
5. The subject was then directed to sit down, palms lightly resting on legs, on a chair
with a backrest for one minute. Their heart rate and blood pressure were recorded.
6. Step 5 was repeated four more times.
7. The subject was asked to stand in a vertical position for one minute. Their heart rate
and blood pressure were recorded.
8. Step 7 was repeated four more times.
9. Steps 1-8 were repeated, one at a time, with four more female test subjects of non-
smoking status and aged 16-17.
4.4 Risk Assessment
There is very low hazards associated with this experiment as there is no use of heat,
electrical pulses, corrosive materials, volatile and/or flammable chemicals or dangerous
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biological material. The only risk is that the sphygmomanometer could be fastened too
tightly and affects the circulation of blood, therefore affecting blood pressure and heart rate
as stress may occur from tightening.
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5.0 Results
5.1 Raw Data
SUBJECTS BODY POSITION MEASUREMENT AVERAGE (MEAN)
SUBJECT 1 LAYING HEART RATE (BMP) 63
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 110/63
SITTING HEART RATE (BMP) 66.8
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 118.4/72
STANDING HEART RATE (BMP) 75.8
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 110.8/76
SUBJECT 2 LAYING HEART RATE (BMP) 69.6
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 109.8/55
SITTING HEART RATE (BMP) 82.6
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 102/60.6
STANDING HEART RATE (BMP) 95
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 101.4/70.8
SUBJECT 3 LAYING HEART RATE (BMP) 58.8
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 110.4/69.6
SITTING HEART RATE (BMP) 58.2
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 119/71.2
STANDING HEART RATE (BMP) 58.4
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 107.2/86
SUBJECT 4 LAYING HEART RATE (BMP) 76.4
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 102.8/67.2
SITTING HEART RATE (BMP) 83.4
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 104.2/67.6
STANDING HEART RATE (BMP) 85.6
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 98.6/72.2
SUBJECT 5 LAYING HEART RATE (BMP) 69.8
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 100/62.4
SITTING HEART RATE (BMP) 69.8
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 101.4/68
STANDING HEART RATE (BMP) 78.6
BLOOD PRESSURE (SYS/DIA) 99.4/64
TABLE 2: Raw Data - Averages
These results are the average of the five trials performed for each test subject. Full raw data
included in appendix.

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5.2 Processed Data
BODY
POSITION
MEASUREMENT SUBJECT 1
AVERAGE
SUBJECT 2
AVERAGE
SUBJECT 3
AVERAGE
SUBJECT 4
AVERAGE
SUBJECT 5
AVERAGE
TOTAL
AVERAGE
LAYING HEART RATE
(BMP)
63 69.6 58.8 76.4 69.8 67.52
BLOOD PRESSURE
(SYS/DIA)
110/63 109.8/55 110.4/69.6 102.8/67.2 100/62.4 106.6/63.44
SITTING HEART RATE
(BMP)
66.8 82.6 58.2 83.4 69.8 72.16
BLOOD PRESSURE
(SYS/DIA)
118.4/72 102/60.6 119/71.2 104.2/67.6 101.4/68 109/67.88
STANDING HEART RATE
(BMP)
75.8 95 58.4 85.6 78.6 78.68
BLOOD PRESSURE
(SYS/DIA)
110.8/76 101.4/70.8 107.2/86 98.6/72.2 99.4/64 78.68/73.8
TABLE 3: Total Average Heart Rate and Blood Pressure for Laying, Sitting & Standing

SUBJECTS BODY POSITION STANDARD DEVIATION
HEART RATE
(bpm)
BLOOD PRESSURE
SYSTOLIC DIASTOLIC
SUBJECT 1 LAYING 0.707107 6.9857 3.162278
SITTING 1.30384 3.507136 2.588436
STANDING 1.643168 4.91935 12.64911
SUBJECT 2 LAYING 2.880972 2.774887 6.284903
SITTING 2.966479 5.761944 2.19089
STANDING 3.937004 5.319774 8.58487
SUBJECT 3 LAYING 2.774887 4.159327 5.504544
SITTING 3.114482 5.477226 9.576012
STANDING 5.029911 6.610598 2.588436
SUBJECT 4 LAYING 1.516575 3.193744 3.34664
SITTING 3.847077 2.949576 2.073644
STANDING 2.302173 7.092249 7.854935
SUBJECT 5 LAYING 3.271085 8.944272 2.073644
SITTING 1.923538 7.503333 6.082763
STANDING 3.974921 9.581232 7.582875
TABLE 4: Standard Deviation for Heart Rate and Blood Pressure




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5.3 Graphs



0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
LAYING SITTING STANDING
Graph 1: Mean Heart Rate (bpm)
SUBJECT 1
SUBJECT 2
SUBJECT 3
SUBJECT 4
SUBJECT 5
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
LAYING SITTING STANDING
Graph 2: Mean Systolic Blood
Pressure
SUBJECT 1
SUBJECT 2
SUBJECT 3
SUBJECT 4
SUBJECT 5
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
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80
90
100
LAYING SITTING STANDING
Graph 3: Mean Diastolic Blood
Pressure
SUBJECT 1
SUBJECT 2
SUBJECT 3
SUBJECT 4
SUBJECT 5
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
LAYING SITTING STANDING
Graph 4: Total Average of Individual
Subject Means for H.R. & B.P.
HEART RATE
SYSTOLIC
DIASTOLIC
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SUBJECT 1 SUBJECT 2 SUBJECT 3 SUBJECT 4 SUBJECT 5
Graph 5: Standard Deviations
Heart Rate
(bpm)
Systolic Blood
Pressure
Diastolic Blood
Pressure
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6.0 Discussion
The results of the study show that systolic blood pressure is at its lowest whilst standing,
followed by lying then sitting and diastolic blood pressure is at its lowest whilst lying,
followed by sitting then standing, as seen in Table 3. The heart rate, on the other hand, is
lowest whilst lying, followed by sitting then standing, as seen in Graph 4. The results found
for heart rate are consistent with the hypothesis and can be attributed to, whilst lying
compared to standing; greater blood flow due to reduced effects of gravity, relaxed physical
body and relaxed mind/emotions. The blood pressure results however, contradict the
hypothesis in that it was expected that lying would induce the lowest blood pressure. This
unexpected result may be attributed to the position of the sphygmomanometer, arm
position with relevance to heart positions, leg positioning but mostly to lack of previous
knowledge of blood pressure. As later studied, however, it was found that the results should
have been expected. Uncontrollable variables may have also contributed to these findings.
Results shown in Graph 1 mostly support that heart rate is at its lowest whilst lying, and
highest whilst standing. Oddly, however, Subject 3s results were an anomaly with lying,
sitting and standing resulting in 58.8bpm, 58.2bpm and 58.4bpm respectively. However,
concluded from the five trials of five subjects, the average heart rate whilst lying, sitting and
standing was found to be 67.52bpm, 72.16bpm and 78.68bpm respectively, showing the
trend of an increasing heart rate as an individual moved from a lying position to a standing
position. This is because, whilst lying, the effect of gravity on the body is reduced. This
allows greater blood flow, allowing the body to pump more blood per beat and
consequently require less beats per minute to satisfy the bodys demand for oxygen,
nutrients and blood. As an individual moves from a sitting position and eventually to a
standing positioning, there is more strain and delay in blood flow, therefore requiring more
beats per minute to fulfil the bodys needs. Lying is also physically and mentally relaxing,
contributing to the results of heart rate.
The data on blood pressure show that, across five trials of five subjects, the average systolic
blood pressure, whilst lying, sitting and standing were found to be 106.6, 109 and 78.68
respectively and the average diastolic blood pressure, whilst lying, sitting and standing were
63.44, 67.88 and 73.8 respectively. This shows a trend of systolic blood pressure being
highest whilst sitting and lowest whilst standing and a trend of diastolic blood pressure
being highest whilst standing and lowest whilst lying. According to The National Guideline
Clearinghouse, diastolic blood pressure should increase as an individual moves from a lying
position to sitting, supported by Graph 3. Systolic blood pressure, on the other hand,
although is supposed to be highest when lying (as seen with Subject 2 on Graph 2), is
highest when sitting with Subjects 1, 3, 4 & 5 in Graph 2. This may be due to leg positioning
as while sitting, when legs are crossed, systolic blood pressure increases. Standing was
consistently found to have the lowest systolic blood pressure due to orthostatic
hypotension the sudden change and the increased difficulty in regulating blood pressure
due to gravity. In addition, arm positioning may have played a part in the conclusive data as
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the more level the arm is to the right atrium, the more accurate the result. In saying that,
referring to Graph 5, Subject 1s standing diastolic blood pressure can be seen as an
anomaly. This may have been caused through uncontrollable external factors.
There have been few studies that have investigated the effect of body position on heart rate
and blood pressure. This presents difficulty in the investigation of validity of results found.
Results have been found however to be consistent with current theories; heart rate is
lowest whilst lying and highest when standing, systolic blood pressure should be highest
whilst laying and lowest whilst standing, however sitting may also be highest if there correct
leg positioning isnt taken into account and diastolic blood pressure should be highest whilst
standing and lowest when lying.
While many efforts were made to ensure testing conditions were controlled, there were
some variables that became apparent as uncontrollable and may have contributed to
variation in results. Ideally the results for each test, laying, sitting and standing, would have
been identical across the five trials for each subject. Observing the standard deviations for
each test (Table 4), it is apparent that there was variation across trials. This can be
accounted for by variation in measurement techniques and uncontrollable variables such as
external conditions; noise, temperature and subconscious emotional thoughts.
Variation in base heart rate and blood pressure and the extent of changes to heart rate and
blood pressure due to body positioning between test subjects can be accounted for by
individual traits. Such factors that may have affected results include personal weight, height,
pre-existing conditions, fitness levels and family history. Such factors should be considered
when analysing and interpreting results. In future studies, these traits could be measured
and recorded to identify any affects they may have. In addition the limitations of the study
include the restricted number of test subjects (n=5), the use of test subjects only within the
age bracket of sixteen to seventeen years and the use of only female subjects. Again, to
improve and gather more informative and conclusive data on the specific effect of body
position on heart rate and blood pressure, a larger number of subjects should be involved
ensuring adequate numbers of males and females within each age bracket are investigated.
There were few errors identified in the design of the experiment with specific consideration
taken to ensure consistency in change of body positioning and measuring techniques.
Possible sources of error were insufficient time to allow the heart to stabilise in each
position and also lack of assurance that there was correct leg positioning whilst blood
pressure measures took place. In future studies, the resting time could be increased and the
leg positioning could be accurately placed to ensure this is achieved.



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7.0 Conclusion
It can be concluded that the data support the hypothesis for both heart rate and diastolic
blood pressure as the lowest mean result was found whilst lying and the highest whilst
standing. Findings on systolic blood pressure, on the other hand, do not support the
hypothesis as the highest mean blood pressure was that of a sitting position and the lowest
of a standing position. Further studies should be carried out to confirm the results of this
investigation and provide more conclusive, informative data on the effects of body position
on heart rate and blood pressure.

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8.0 References
8.1 Annotated Bibliography
Hughes, M 2013, Heart Rate & Body Positions, 16 August, in Livestrong, viewed 4 February
2014, < http://www.livestrong.com/article/268891-heart-rate-body-positions/>
Providing background information on the heart and explaining specifically what heart rate
is, how its measured, its relevance to body position, complications and considerations, this
article is concise and brief. It was extremely instrumental in the writing of this investigating
as it covers all the basic knowledge needed in regards to this specific experiment. It is a
reliable article including dependable organisations such as The Mayo Clinic, Kids Health and
the American Heart Association as sources. Although helpful, it is a very basic article for
readers who have little knowledge about heart rate and its function however is very current
as it was only written less than one year ago 16 August, 2013.

Morgan, L A 2013, Body Position and Blood Pressure, 16 August, in Livestrong, viewed 6
February 2014, < http://www.livestrong.com/article/167631-body-position-and-blood-
pressure/>
This article provides background information on blood pressure as well as its relevance to
body position, the effects of body position and arm position, conditions that may occur from
low blood pressure orthostatic hypotension and considerations to make in terms of
blood pressure abnormality. It has high relevance to this investigation and was contributory
in its construction, providing basic knowledge of the EEI topic. It is highly reliable as it uses
sources such as The Mayo Clinic, The Harvard Medical School and the U.S. Department of
Health & Human Services. It is informative in terms of updated basic knowledge, having
been published on 16 August 2013.

State Government of Victoria 2013, Blood Pressure, Better Health Channel, viewed 9
February 2014, < http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/
Blood_pressure_explained>
This government site is very informative and concise, providing information about blood
pressure, the effects of high and low blood pressure, how to maintain it, conditions caused
by blood pressure and the expected pressures. It was of high relevance to this investigation
and was enormously helpful in its production. It is an extremely reliable source as it is a
government site. Moreover, it was approved by The Heart Foundation in 2013, making it
even more dependable. It is also quite recent, last being updated on 12 May 2013.

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Macgill, M 2014, What is heart rate? What is a healthy heart rate?, 14 February, in Medical
News Today (MNT), viewed 18 February 2014, < http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/
articles/235710.php>
This article clearly explains what a heart rate is, how it is measured, where it is measured,
why it is measured, the expected values of heart rate and how exercise affects heart rate. It
had moderate relevance to this investigation, more specifically useful for how heart rate is
measured. It is a highly reliable article, using sources such as John Hopkins Medicine, UK
National Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Boston Scientific, the American Heart
Association and Society for Endocrinology. Having been updated very recently 14 February
2014 it is considered very current.

Minns, J 2009, An Introduction to Homeostatis, 29 March, in Biology Online, viewed 2
February 2014, < http://www.biology-online.org/articles/introduction-homeostasis.html>
Providing background information on homeostasis, this article is very informative. Including
information about what homeostasis is, when it occurs, how it occurs and covering a large
range of what bodily functions it affects, this article was instrumental in the writing of this
investigation, especially in relation to heart rate. It is a reliable source, providing a long list
of references used, including books from Cambridge University and Oxford University,
International Journal of Biological Sciences and BBC UK. Published on 29 March 2009, it is
still valid, but possibly not as current as other sources as it is 5 years old.



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8.2 Other References
Biology Mad 2004, Heart and Exercise, viewed 5 March 2014,
<http://www.biologymad.com/master.html?http://www.biologymad.com/heartexercise/he
artexercise.htm>
Boundless n.d., Blood Pressure, viewed 5 March 2014,
< https://www.boundless.com/biology/the-circulatory-system/blood-flow-and-blood-
pressure-regulation/blood-pressure/>
Fall 2004, Lab 9 - Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory Function, viewed 5 March 2014,
< http://biology.creighton.edu/courses/BIO450/Lab09.html>
n.a. 2014, Pulse, 26 February, in Medline Plus, viewed 5 March 2014,
< http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003399.htm>
Blood Pressure Association 2008, Q: Why is Blood Pressure Important?, in Blood Pressure
UK, viewed 5 March 2014,
< http://www.bloodpressureuk.org/microsites/u40/Home/facts/Whyitmatters>
American Heart Association 2012, All About Heart Rate (Pulse), 15 October, viewed 5
March 2014,
< http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/All-About-
Heart-Rate-Pulse_UCM_438850_Article.jsp>
UNC-Asheville, 2012, L27: Blood Pressure Regulation, in BIO338: Mammalian Physiology,
viewed 5 March 2014, < http://facstaff.unca.edu/cnicolay/BIO338/338-27-BP1.pdf>


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9.0 Appendix
SUBJECTS POSITION MEASUREMENT TRIAL 1 TRIAL 2 TRIAL 3 TRIAL 4 TRIAL 5 AVERAGE
SUBJECT
#1
LAYING
HEART RATE (bpm)
64 63 63 63 62 63
BLOOD PRESSURE
(SYS/DIA)
107/62 107/60 101/61 114/64 119/68 110/63
SITTING
HEART RATE (bpm)
65 67 66 68 68 66.8
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
124/75 115/72 116/73 119/68 118/71 118.4/72
STANDING
HEART RATE (bpm)
75 74 78 75 77 75.8
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
117/63 114/71 107/75 105/74 111/97 110.8/76
SUBJECT
#2
LAYING
HEART RATE (bpm)
73 68 69 72 66 69.6
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
112/55 113/65 110/55 107/52 107/48 109.8/55
SITTING
HEART RATE (bpm)
80 87 82 84 80 82.6
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
103/63 112/59 103/63 99/59 97/59 102/60.6
STANDING
HEART RATE (bpm)
89 95 95 96 100 95
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
104/69 103/66 103/86 92/67 105/66 101.4/70.8
SUBJECT
#3
LAYING
HEART RATE (bpm)
57 60 60 55 62 58.8

BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
117/71 112/71 107/72 108/60 108/74 110.4/69.6
SITTING
HEART RATE (bpm)
55 59 58 63 56 58.2
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
125/60 120/81 110/75 120/78 120/62 119/71.2
STANDING
HEART RATE (bpm)
52 60 65 55 60 58.4
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
118/75 103/89 109/94 102/85 104/87 107.2/86
SUBJECT
#4
LAYING
HEART RATE (bpm)
76 74 77 77 78 76.4
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
102/68 99/72 101/68 107/64 105/64 102.8/67.2
SITTING
HEART RATE (bpm)
84 80 79 86 88 83.4
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
109/70 103/68 105/65 102/66 102/69 104.2/67.6
STANDING
HEART RATE (bpm)
82 85 86 87 88 85.6
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
101/79 95/80 94/63 93/74 110/65 98.6/72.2
SUBJECT
#5
LAYING
HEART RATE (bpm)
68 71 75 68 67 69.8
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
107/62 111/65 90/64 99/60 93/61 100/62.4
SITTING
HEART RATE (bpm)
69 69 68 73 70 69.8
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
113/73 97/75 102/60 102/67 93/65 101.4/68
STANDING
HEART RATE (bpm)
72 81 82 80 78 78.6
BLOOD PRESSURE
(sys/dia)
94/74 92/61 116/70 98/58 97/57 99.4/64
Appendix A: Full Raw Data
Andrea Roati SPLC Mrs Venton
17/03/2014 Year 12 Biology
20 | P a g e

Appendix B: Photos of Experiment and Equipment
Figure 1:

The subject is lying with her arms and palms
flat on the floor. As can be seen, a
sphygmomanometer is used, secured around
the individuals arm, along with a heart rate
monitor the watch attached to the wrist
and an unseen belt around the sternum.







Figure 2:

The individual is preparing for measurements
whilst in a sitting position. Her back is
supported, her legs are flat against the floor
and she is preparing to put her arms in the
correct arm position. Refer to Figure 1 for
equipment used.







Andrea Roati SPLC Mrs Venton
17/03/2014 Year 12 Biology
21 | P a g e

Figure 3:

The subject is in the standing position, arms
by her side. Refer to Figure 1 for equipment
used.