You are on page 1of 81

TUHH - Prof.

Rombach
Introduction
Beam and truss structures
Spatial structures
- shear walls
- slabs
- shells
Material nonlinear analysis
3-d models
Design of real concrete structures with finite element software
- model problems and errors
Prof. Dr.- Ing. Gnter A. Rombach
Hamburg University of Technology
E-mail: rombach@tu-harburg.de
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Special problems of concrete structures
complex material behaviour (cracks, time dependant)
detailing arrangement of rebars significant
construction process significant
complex loading exact value not known
no mass product fast design
massive members (Bernoulli hypothesis not valid)
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 3
Zuse Z1 1936-38
Built the first programmable computer in the world
Argyris: Civil Engineer
Clough: Civil Engineer
Zienkiewicz: mathematician;lecturer in faculty of civil eng.
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform
accident
Collapse: August 1991
Financial loss: 250 Mio US$
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform accident
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform accident tricells
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform accident tricells
7
3.45 3.41 3.25 2.32 Tension force T
1
[MN/m]
1.66 1.67 1.35 0.95 Tension force T
1
-D
1
[MN/m]
N4 N3 N2 N1 Elementmesh
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform accident tricells
8
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Sleipner platform accident
9
Consequences:
distorted 8-noded volume elements
should not be used
qualified staff
indenpendant checks
Sea Troll Plattform, Bj. 1995, h=472 m (330m)
better hard- and software
more elements
substructure techniques
adaptive mesh refinement
nonlinear material models
independant checks
engineering knowledge required
Seite:
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Software faults
loadcase G had not been considered since version 10.0-96
minimum reinforcement had been estimated with f
yk
instead of f
yd
Errors
10
Numerical errors
2
45
- 0,8 - 2
45
= 0,8008
2
50
- 0,8 - 2
50
= 0,00
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Program errors
Software faults
Model errors
material model reinforced concrete behaves nonlinear
loading FE-Model considers only nodal loads
design slab, shear wall, column, tension member,
shear reinforcement
modelling size of elements
type of element
support conditions
singularities
Errors
Reales Bauwerk
Numerisches Modell
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Modelling
12
u
2
v
2

2
u
1

1
v
1
M
V
N
M
Bemessung
F
sd
F
cd
V
N
Spannung
Knotenlasten
reale Einwirkung
Beam element
Beam element
stresses
design
loading
real structure
real loading
Numerical model
beam -, plate-, shell-,
volume elements
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 13
Prof. Dr.-Ing. G. A. Rombach
Hamburg University of Technology
E-mail: rombach@tu-harburg.de
Design of real concrete structures with finite element software
Introduction
Beam and truss structures
Spatial structures
- shear walls
- slabs
- shells
Material nonlinear analysis
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 14
Beam or truss element
Beam element
Strains stresses
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
-190.
187.
-176.
124.
8.
-137.
138.
-178.
176.
-193.
259.
-139.
122.
-141.
142.
horizontal
membrane
force
System
Width of beam b = 0,22 cm
see detail
Loading q = 1 kN/m
2,5m
60
80
9,5m
Discontinuity regions
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 16
D-regions in beam or truss structures
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 17
Beam with opening

2
max
2
8
10 12, 5
195
8
q l
M
kNm

= =

= =
max
/ 195/ 0, 6
325
N M z
kN
= = =
=
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
5,0m 5,0m
50
20
10kN/m
Opening 20/50cm
50 50
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Beam with opening
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
50.0
-50.0
50.0
-50.0
-49.8
49.7
50.4
-50.3
85.0
-15.0
29.1
-70.9
20.8
-41.7
-41.7
-41.7
33.0
-76.5
20.7
-42.1
-40.8
-42.8
Bending Moment
Shear Forces
5,0m 5,0m
50
20
10kN/m
Opening 20/50cm
Model 3 Model 2 Model 1
Beam with opening
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Stress/Strain
section 1-1
left
Stress/Strain
section 1-1
right
Model 1 Model 2
1
1
Beam with opening
Stresses
section 1-1 right
Stresses
section 1-1 left
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
compression forces tension forces
Beam with opening - Strut-and-Tie model
Tension tie Compression strut
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Summary 1: Beam and truss structures (D-regions)
The Bernoulli-Hypothesis (linear strain distribution) is not valid in so-called
discontinuity regions. Thus beam elements, which are mostly based on a
linear strain distribution, can not estimate the forces in discontinuity regions.
It is important to model the stiffness in the discontinuity regions.
D-regions can be designed by means of strut-and-tie models whereas the
member forces of the truss systems at the boundaries can be used to
estimate the forces in the struts.
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Modelling of support - single span girder
rigid
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Modelling of support
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Modelling of support - single span truss
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Schornbachtalbridge
Bridge column with pile foundation
11m
15m
1,8m
Ortbetonramm-
pfhle d=61cm
3m
3,6m
6
:
1
5
:
1
5
0
:
1
2,6m
3,04m
1,5m
7,22m
1,6m
5,72m
1,665m
1,225m
5
0
:
1
1
6
:
1
Bored
Piles
D=0.61 m
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Bending stiffness of piles is neglected
Estimation of pile forces
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Bridge column with pile foundation
Numerical
model
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
H
V
M
beam
horizontal
spring
Vertikal-
feder
n=0
n=0,5
n=1
n=2
k
s
k (z)=k (d)
.
(z/d)
s s
n
n= 0 bindiger Boden
n =1 nichtbindiger Boden
Elastic support of piles
Beam
Horizontal
springs
Vertical
springs
Distribution of soil
stiffness
n = 0 cohesive soil
n = 1 non-cohesive soil
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Bending moments in the piles
H = 870 kN
Base of pile fixed vertically
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
195.
C=400MN/m
pile cap cant move
horizontally
Pile cap
can move
+8
68
-22
H = 870 kN
Bending moments in the piles
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Summary 02: Beam and truss models
32
Beam elements are based on a linear strain distribution
member forces in discontinuity region can not be calculated
but stiffness of the D-regions has to be considered
Nonlinear material behaviour of concrete should be considered (e.g. torsion stiffness)
A realistic model for the support condition has a significant influence on the member
force of the system. Restraints, which may lead to high forces, should be omitted.
The basic parameters of an elastic support on ground should be checked. The stiffness
modulus of the soil is estimated by an Oedometer test, where the soil is fixed by a horizontal
stiff ring. Therefore the real soil stiffness can be significant smaller.
An inclined axis of gravity (haunches) should be modelled with regard to the shear design of a
beam.
System und Belastung
Querkraft
-
7
4
7
k
N
6
0
7
k
N
-375kN
-375kN
Normalkraft
-90kN
-
1
2
1
3
k
N
-
1
2
5
8
k
N
-45kN
-1176kN
Verformung
29,3mm
26,3mm
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 414243444546474849505152535455565758596061 4,0m
12,5m 12,5m 25m
50m
1,0m
(g+q)=30kN/m
-
8
2
4
0
k
N
m
-
6
5
2
0
k
N
m
-1190kNm
1150kNm
1100kNm
Biegemoment beide Trgerenden eingespannt
und unverschieblich
beide Trgerenden eingespannt
ein Lager horizontal verschieblich
-1240kNm.
1
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Pin Support
Corners
Point Loads
Singularities in shear walls
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
a2
a3
a4
a5
v5
v4
v3
v2
v1
a1
v =a
i i
.

F =C a
i i
. .

M =F a =C a
i i i i
2
. . .

M= M = C a =C
i i
2
.
. .

C
=
C a

i
2

l
E ,I
A
c c
v

l
E ,I
A
c c
Deep beam supported on columns
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
h/b=
24/48cm
l
x
=7,20m
l
y
=
3
,
6
0
m
l
=
2
,
4
m
d=24cm
System and Loading
q = 20 kN/m
Finite-Elemente-Model
X
Y
0.78
Main membrane forces and
beam bending moments
Deformed Structure
Deep beam supported on columns
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hau ptmembra nkrfte M e mbrank raftn(S chnittinF eldmitte) x -50.5 54.8 Ve rschoben eStruktur X Y
membrane forces
Horizontal membrane force n (section in midspan)
x
-50.5
54.8
Finite-Elemente-Model
Deformed Structure
X
Y
Deep
Beam
supported
on
columns
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 37
Connection of different types of elements
u
2
v
2
u
1

2
v
1
Plane shell element (2-D) Beam element (2-D)
2 translation degrees of freedom 2 translation degrees of freedom +
1 rotation degree of freedom
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
shell element
Increase of
truss length
truss element
shell element
Coupling of the mid joint
truss element
Connection of different types of elements
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
3.7
-2.5
-3.7
2.5
main membrane forces and truss bending moments
2.0
-1.6
-2.0
1.6
Deformations
Deep beam supported on columns
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
1
1
2 2
3
3
4
4
-80. -60.
-99.
-213.
-182.
-131.
-142.
-152.
-150.
-
1
0
3
.
-
2
1
4
.
-
1
1
7
.
-
1
3
3
.
Schnitt 3-3
Schnitt 1-1
Schnitt 2-2
Schnitt 4-4
X
Y
Detail
Stress distribution in a corner
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
2.0
2.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
1.0
1.0
horizontal reinforcement
2.07
10.42
0.41
3.49
secti on in
midspan
3.5
4.5
4.5
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2
.0
3
.0
0.5
4.0
4.0
vertical reinforcement
7,20 m
3
,
6
m
Reinforcement
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Reinforcement
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Summary: Shear walls
Singularities (e.g. pin support, single forces) should be omitted
Modelling of the support of deep beams should be done with great care
Numerical restraints should be omitted (e.g. supports, coupling of nodes)
An incompatible element mesh should be omitted (e.g. connection of beam
and plain shell elements)
An automatic design of plain shells is not possible
Elastic finite element analysis of shear walls are useful to develop a strut-
and-tie model
Scheibenelement
Stab in Scheibe
verlngern
Stabelement
Scheibenelement
Gelenkige Kopplung
mit Mittenknoten
Stabelement
X
Y
Z
l +a
4
x
l +a
4
x
l +a
4
x
l +a
4
x
l
x
a a
l
y
z
z
2
z
1
Zugstrebe
c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n

s
t
r
u
t
D
r
u
c
k
s
t
r
e
b
e
Druckstrebe
horizontale Membrankraft
in Feldmitte (in kN/m)
Fc=31kN
z
=
3
,
8
m
0,55m
Fs=31kN
-4.80
-3.96
-8.17
36.6
+
-
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 44
Design of real concrete structures with finite element software
Prof. Dr.-Ing. G. A. Rombach
Hamburg University of Technology
E-mail: rombach@tu-harburg.de
Introduction
Beam and truss structures
Spatial structures
- shear walls
- slabs
- shells
Material nonlinear analysis
3-d models
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Stt zenraster 1,50m
Stt zen 24/24cm
Slabs
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Hauptmomente
Lastfall g=10 kN/m2
-146.5
-125.0
-100.0
-75.0
-50.0
-25.0
0.0
25.0
50.0
75.0
100.0
Main bending moments and shear forces
Loading: g = 10 kN/m
2
Sttzenraster 1,50m
Sttzen 24/24cm
2.6
25.0
50.0
75.0
100.0
125.0
150.0
175.0
200.0
225.0
250.0
728.0
Main Shear Force
Loading g=10 kN/m2
Corners
Pin support
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Missing Support
Missing Support
Corner
Corner
Pin Support
Opening
Singularities
Hauptquerkraft Hauptmomente
1m
Y
X
m =0
y,r
m =0
x,r
10.
10.
10.
10.
90.
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Singularities - point load
no
yes
yes
yes
X Y
Z
F
F
v =
F

U
Detail
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Starre Scheibe
a) 2D resp. 3D
Model
b) Pin support of
one node
c) Pin support of
all supported nodes
d) restraint of
the end nodes
e) Pin support of
stiff slab
f) Elastic support
Modelling of wall support
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
X
Z
Node
Coupling
Slab
Column
Restraint
Deformation
One way slab
Load on left span only
Bending
moments
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Walls - partially missing support
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 52
Single-column footing
52
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 53
Single-column footing shell analysis
Membrankraft in
horizontaler Richtung in kN/m
Membrankrfte
3010.
2900.
1302. 2816.
2817.
Setzung in mm
2
.
8
3
m
m
2
.
4
5
m
m
5,0m
Membrane forces
Membrane forces in
horizontal direction
Settlements
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Circular Slab
TUHH - Prof. Rombach 55
Shells
2
5
m
2
8
m
2
8
m
p
p
S
S h
2r
p
p
p
p
Fleckenlast
Ve rtikalschnit t Horizontalschnitt
Patch
load
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Anzahl der Elemente in Umfangsrichtung bzw. ber die Hhe
Elementnetz A
16 x 11 32 x 22 64 x 44
Elementnetz B
Elementnetz C
N
x
200 kN/m
C B A
X
Y
Z
M
x
100 kNm/m
X
Y
Z
C
B
A
Shells
Inner forces in circumferential
direction
Mesh A Mesh B Mesh C
16x11 32x22 64x44
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
Introduction
Beam and truss structures
Spatial structures
- shear walls
- slabs
- shells
Material nonlinear analysis
3-d models
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
Aims
more realistic model
correct deflections (e.g. slabs)
more economical design due to load redistribution
reduce restraint forces
more realistic analysis of damages
analysis of experiments
Problems
reinforcement must be known (e.g. linear analysis)
load combination is not possible
numerical model
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
59
f /
yk s

f /
tk,cal s

Betonstahl
s

su

s
Material models
steel
resistance
Strains stresses and
stress resultant
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
60
Tension
Stiffening
Effect
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
61
tension stiffening effect
modification of steel strains concrete tension
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
62
Tension Stiffening Effect
f
I
= 25,4 mm stage I elastic
f
II,1
= 88,0 mm stage II without TS
f
II,2
= 83,0 mm stage II with TS modification of steel strains
f
II,3
= 48,0 mm stage II mit TS concrete tension
Big differences
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
63
Safety concept
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Material models
concrete: uniaxial and triaxial
tensile strength
long term behaviour (s+c)
load history
cracking
reinforcement: elastic - plastic
64
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
bond: with/without slip
tension stiffening
Kornverzahnung Dbelwirkung
Numerical Modelling
reinforcement bars: discret smeared
bond: fixed - soft
cracks: discret - smeared
65
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
Material models
concrete: uniaxial and triaxial
tensile strength
long term behaviour (s+c)
load history
cracking
reinforcement: elastic - plastic
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
66
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
Material parameters of concrete:
Compressive strength f
ck
Tensile strength f
ct
Shrinkage and creep
Elastic-Modulus
Poissons ratio
........
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
25 120
1
8
0
1
5
0
5
5
0
670cm
Draufsicht
Ansicht
67
plan view
Side-view
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
180
150
d=28/10 +
s
d=16/10
s
d=28/10 +
s
d=28/10
s
d=16/10
s
Special Column
SES Bangkok
Rebar
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
The conclusion of the various analyses is that the offset colum heads, as
detailed, are able to carry the design service and ultimate loads....
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 -146. 5 -125. 0 -100. 0 -75 .0 -50 .0 -25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Aims
More realistic analysis
Fast analysis and design
Simplifications seems not to be required
Problems
Manpower for input
Difficult to check the results
Important details may be overseen
Calculation of reinforcement
not possible (e.g. shear walls) ......
Relevant load arrangement ?
Modelling of whole structures
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Plan view
Side view
3-D (1. BA)
26,4 m
Bored piles d = 1.20m
Wing wall t = 1.0 m
wall t = 0.4 m
Beam
2,2x2,0 m
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Flow of forces
detailing
wrong correct
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
loads
restraints
Dead load
Soil pressure
Temperature = 16 K
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Shear design
Seite:
Stirrups [cm
2
/m]
Bored piles d = 1.20 m
Section
A-A
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Shear design
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
design
Seite:
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
design
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Parametric studies on truss system
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Parametric study: soil stiffness
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Summary: Complex 3-D-shell analysis
Detailing and flow of forces (e.g. in frame corners oder massive members)
should be considered.
Restraint forces should be checked with regard to the cracked state.
Stiffness change of members due to cracking of concrete and variation of
possible soil stiffnesses should be considered in the design.
The numerical model should be to checked for D- and singularity regions.
Automatic design (bending, shear) of shear walls or shell structures is not
possible. Truss forces are needed for design.
Great effort is needed for checking the analysis and for the graphical and
numerical output.
Modifications of the structure requires the analysis of the whole structure.
TUHH - Prof. Rombach
Finite Element Design of Concrete Structures
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gnter A. Rombach
Hamburg University of Technology
E-mail: rombach@tu-harburg.de
Rombach G.: Finite element
design of concrete structures
Thomas Telford
ISBN: 0 7277 3274 9
Published 2004
Thanks you for your attention!