m
P
n
a R
i
b D
2 3
(ln ) (ln ) (ln ) i a b D c D d D
Section 4.5 Types of Rainfall Data 89
IDF Data Sources. As stated earlier in this chapter, hydrology can be thought of
as providing the loading for the design of stormwater conveyance systems. One of the
most widely used methods for estimating peak stormwater runoff rates for small
drainage basins is the rational method (see Section 5.4, page 140 for more informa-
tion). To use the rational method, one must have available a set of IDF curves devel-
oped for the specific geographic location where the conveyance system is to be built.
A single set of IDF curves may be applicable over a fairly large area (for instance, an
entire city or county), given that there are no significant topographic changes (such as
large ridges) that cause rainfall characteristics across the area to vary.
Many drainage jurisdictions and agencies can provide the engineer with IDF data rec-
ommended for their particular geographic location. Engineers should understand
when and by whom the IDF curves were created because more recently updated
resources may be available.
Creating I-D-F Curves from HYDRO-35. A widely used procedure for
developing IDF curves for the central and eastern United States is presented in
HYDRO-35. The procedure uses the six maps shown in Figures 4.15 through 4.20.
For a chosen location, one determines the depths of precipitation for the various com-
binations of storm durations and recurrence intervals represented by the six maps.
Storm depths for other durations and return periods are then found by interpolation
between the map values. For a fixed recurrence interval, rainfall depths for the 10-
minute duration are computed from those for 5- and 15-minute durations as follows:
P
10
= 0.41P
5
+ 0.59P
15
(4.5)
Similarly, for a given recurrence interval, depths for the 30-minute duration are com-
puted as
P
30
= 0.51P
15
+ 0.49P
60
(4.6)
When the storm duration is fixed, depths for recurrence intervals other than 2 or 100
years are computed as
P
T-yr
= aP
2-yr
+ bP
100-yr
(4.7)
where a and b are coefficients given in Table 4.1.
The coefficients a and b in this last expression depend on the recurrence interval, T, as
shown in Table4.1. The coefficients a and b in the table and the coefficients in the P
10
andP
30
estimation equations apply to all locations in the central and eastern United
States covered by HYDRO-35.
After the depths of rainfall are determined for various storm durations and recurrence
intervals by using the procedures described previously in this section, they can be
converted into average intensities by dividing each depth by its corresponding dura-
tion. The IDF curves are then constructed by graphing the average intensities as func-
tions of duration and recurrence interval.
90 Modeling Rainfall Chapter 4
Example 4.2 Developing IDF Curves from HYDRO-35 Isohyetal Maps. Using
the procedures outlined in HYDRO-35, develop a set of IDF curves for the U.S. city of Memphis,
Tennessee, for durations from5 minutes to 1 hour and for recurrence intervals from2 to 100 years.
Solution: Fromthe six isohyetal maps contained in HYDRO-35 and shown in Figures 4.15 through
4.20, the following rainfall depths are obtained for Memphis (located at the southwest corner of the
state of Tennessee):
2-yr, 5-min depth: 0.49 in. 100-yr, 5-min depth: 0.83 in.
2-yr, 15-min depth: 1.01 in. 100-yr, 15-min depth: 1.79 in.
2-yr, 60-min depth: 1.79 in. 100-yr, 60-min depth: 3.65 in.
Table4.2 contains these depths (underlined) as well as other depths that have been interpolated
between themusing Equations 4.5 through 4.7. Within any of the last five columns of the table, pre-
cipitation depths for recurrence intervals other than 2 or 100 years are determined fromthe 2- and
100-year values using Equation 4.3 and the coefficients in Table4.1. Depths in the third column are
then determined fromthe adjacent depths in the second and fourth columns by using Equation 4.1,
and depths in the fifth column are determined fromthe adjacent depths in the fourth and sixth col-
umns by using Equation 4.2.
Intensities are computed fromthe table of rainfall depths by dividing the rainfall depths in each col-
umn by their corresponding duration and expressing the result in units of inches per hour. These com-
putations lead to the results in Table4.3.
Table 4.1 Coefficients for computation of IDF curves
(Frederick, Myers, and Auciello, 1977)
T (yr) a b
5 0.674 0.278
10 0.496 0.449
25 0.293 0.669
50 0.146 0.835
Table 4.2 Total Rainfall Depths (in.)
T (yr)
Duration
5 min 10 min 15 min 30 min 60 min
2 0.49 0.80 1.01 1.39 1.79
5 0.56 0.93 1.18 1.69 2.22
10 0.62 1.02 1.30 1.90 2.53
25 0.70 1.17 1.49 2.22 2.97
50 0.76 1.28 1.64 2.46 3.31
100 0.83 1.40 1.79 2.70 3.65
Table 4.3 Intensity (in/hr)
T (yr)
Duration
5 min 10 min 15 min 30 min 60 min
2 5.88 4.78 4.04 2.78 1.79
5 6.73 5.55 4.71 3.38 2.22
10 7.39 6.13 5.22 3.81 2.53
25 8.39 7.01 5.97 4.43 2.97
50 9.18 7.69 6.57 4.92 3.31
100 9.96 8.38 7.16 5.40 3.65
Section 4.5 Types of Rainfall Data 91
A graph of the values in Table4.3 is the desired set of IDF curves, shown in Figure E4.2.1.
Figure E4.2.1 Derived IDF Curves
Note that rainfall amounts obtained from TP 40, HYDRO-35, and the NOAA Atlas 2,
and hence from a set of IDF curves developed on the basis of those publications, rep-
resent rainfall depths and intensities at a single point in space. If one requires an aver-
age intensity over a large area (such as a large drainage basin), the point depths and
intensities should be reduced somewhat to reflect the reduced probability of a storm
occurring with the same intensity over this large area. Reduction percentages are indi-
cated in Figure 4.23 (U.S. Weather Bureau, 1958) and depend on the area and the
storm duration of interest. For example, the 10-year, 1-hour point rainfall intensity at
a particular location should be multiplied by a factor of approximately 0.72 if it is to
be applied to a drainage basin with an area of 100 mi
2
(259 ha). It is generally
accepted that the curves shown in Figure 4.23 can be applied for any recurrence inter-
val and for any location in the United States, although some differences have been
noted between different regions.
Temporal Distributions and Hyetographs for Design
Storms
Some types of hydrologic analysis require the distribution of precipitation over the
duration of the storm. For example, the depth of a 100-year, 1-hour rainfall event in
Tuscaloosa, Alabama, is estimated from HYDRO-35 to be about 3.8 in. (96.5 mm).
But how much of this rainfall should be considered to occur in, say, the first 10 min-
utes of the storm? What about the second 10 minutes, or the last 10 minutes?
92 Modeling Rainfall Chapter 4
Figure 4.23
Reduction of point
precipitation based on
the area of the
drainage basin (U.S.
Weather Bureau,
1958)
A temporal distribution such as the one in Figure 4.7 shows the cumulative progres-
sion of rainfall depth throughout a storm. A rainfall hyetograph (Figures 4.8 and 4.9)
shows how the total depth (or intensity) of rainfall in a storm is distributed among var-
ious time increments within the storm. Figures such as these can be used to represent
the pattern of an actual recorded storm event.
When the design of a stormwater management facility requires a complete rainfall
hyetograph, the engineer is faced with selecting the appropriate storm distribution to
use in designing and testing for unknown, future events. In design situations, engi-
neers commonly use synthetic temporal distributions of rainfall. Synthetic distribu-
tions are essentially systematic, reproducible methods for varying the rainfall
intensity throughout a design event.
The selected length of the time increment, t, between the data points used to con-
struct a temporal rainfall distribution, depends on the size (area) and other characteris-
tics of the drainage basin. As a rule of thumb, the time increment should be no larger
than about one-fourth to one-fifth of the basin lag time, or about one-sixth of the time
of concentration of the basin. The Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS,
formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service, or SCS) recommends using t =
0.133t
c
=0.222t
L
[see Section 5.3 for explanations of basin lag time (t
L
) and time of
concentration (t
c
)], but notes that a small variation from this is permissible (SCS,
1969). The smallest time increment for which rainfall data are generally available is
about 5 minutes. In small urban drainage basins where it is often necessary to use
time increments as small as 1 or 2 minutes, this data must be interpolated.
In addition to selecting an appropriate t, the engineer must select the total duration
to be used when developing a design storm hyetograph. In many cases, the storm
duration will be specified by the review agency having jurisdiction over the area in
which a stormwater conveyance facility will be built; this approach promotes consis-
tency from one design to another.
Section 4.5 Types of Rainfall Data 93
When the design storm duration is not specified, the design engineer must select it.
The recommended way to accomplish this is to review rainfall records for the locality
of interest to determine typical storm durations for the area. Seasonal characteristics
of storm durations may exist, with longer storms tending to occur in one season and
shorter storms in another. An alternative approach is to perform runoff calculations
using a number of assumed design storm durations. With this approach, the engineer
can select the storm duration giving rise to the largest calculated flood peak and/or
runoff volume.
U.S. NRCS (SCS) Synthetic Temporal Distributions. Many methods
have been proposed for distributing a total rainfall depth throughout a storm to
develop a design storm hyetograph. The NRCS developed a set of synthetic distribu-
tions commonly used in the United States to create 24-hour synthetic design storms
(SCS, 1986). The dimensionless distribution data from the NRCS given in Table4.4
provides fractions of the total accumulated rainfall depth over time for storms with
24-hour durations. (Figure 4.24 depicts this table graphically.) The storms are classi-
fied into various types, with each type being recommended for use in a certain U.S.
geographic region, as shown in Figure 4.25. If necessary, interpolation may be
employed to obtain values not shown in Table4.4. Nonlinear interpolation methods
are recommended for this purpose, although many practicing engineers use simpler
linear interpolation instead. The NRCS (SCS, 1992) and many computer programs
provide data in increments of 0.1 hours.
Table 4.4 NRCS dimensionless storm distributions (adapted from SCS, 1992)
t (hr) Type I Type IA Type II Type III
0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
1 0.017 0.020 0.011 0.010
2 0.035 0.050 0.022 0.020
3 0.054 0.082 0.035 0.031
4 0.076 0.116 0.048 0.043
5 0.100 0.156 0.063 0.057
6 0.125 0.206 0.080 0.072
7 0.156 0.268 0.099 0.091
8 0.194 0.425 0.120 0.114
9 0.254 0.520 0.147 0.146
10 0.515 0.577 0.181 0.189
11 0.623 0.624 0.235 0.250
12 0.684 0.664 0.663 0.500
13 0.732 0.701 0.772 0.750
14 0.770 0.736 0.820 0.811
15 0.802 0.769 0.854 0.854
16 0.832 0.801 0.880 0.886
17 0.860 0.831 0.902 0.910
18 0.886 0.859 0.921 0.928
94 Modeling Rainfall Chapter 4
Figure 4.24
Graphical
representation of
NRCS (SCS) rainfall
distributions
Figure 4.25
Coverage of NRCS
(SCS) rainfall
distributions (SCS,
1986)
19 0.910 0.887 0.938 0.943
20 0.932 0.913 0.952 0.957
21 0.952 0.937 0.965 0.969
22 0.970 0.959 0.977 0.981
23 0.986 0.980 0.989 0.991
24 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Table 4.4 (cont.) NRCS dimensionless storm distributions (adapted from SCS, 1992)
t (hr) Type I Type IA Type II Type III
Section 4.5 Types of Rainfall Data 95
Example 4.3 Developing a Design Storm Hyetograph from SCS Distribu-
tions. Develop a design stormfor a 50-year, 24-hour stormin Boston, Massachusetts. Assume that
t = 0.1 hr is a reasonable choice for the drainage basin to which the design stormwill be applied,
and that the total rainfall depth is 6.0 in.
Solution: Figure 4.25 illustrates that a Type III stormdistribution is a reasonable choice for Boston.
Table4.5 illustrates the calculation of the stormhyetograph.
The first column of the table is the time, in hours, since the beginning of the storm, and is tabulated in
1-hr increments for the total stormduration of 24 hours. In actuality, the t used in the calculations
would be 0.1 hr; the 1-hr increment is used here for brevity.
The second column is the fraction of the total stormdepth that has accumulated at each time during
the storm. These values are obtained fromTable4.4 for the Type III stormdistribution. (The values
would be obtained by interpolation in the case of a 0.1-hr increment.) The third column contains the
cumulative rainfall depths for each time during the stormand is obtained by multiplying each fraction
in the second column by the total stormdepth of 6.0 in. The fourth column contains the incremental
depths of rainfall for each time interval during the storm; these values are computed as the difference
between the concurrent and preceding values in the third column.
Table 4.5 50-year, 24-hour stormhyetograph for Boston, Massachusetts
t (hr) Fraction Cum. P (in.) Incr. P (in.)
0 0.000 0.000
1 0.010 0.060 0.060
2 0.020 0.120 0.060
3 0.031 0.186 0.066
4 0.043 0.258 0.072
5 0.057 0.342 0.084
6 0.072 0.432 0.090
7 0.091 0.546 0.114
8 0.114 0.684 0.138
9 0.146 0.876 0.192
10 0.189 1.134 0.258
11 0.250 1.500 0.366
12 0.500 3.000 1.500
13 0.750 4.500 1.500
14 0.811 4.866 0.366
15 0.854 5.124 0.258
16 0.886 5.316 0.192
17 0.910 5.460 0.144
18 0.928 5.568 0.108
19 0.943 5.658 0.090
20 0.957 5.742 0.084
21 0.969 5.814 0.072
22 0.981 5.886 0.072
23 0.991 5.946 0.060
24 1.000 6.000 0.054
96 Modeling Rainfall Chapter 4
The resulting graph of cumulative precipitation is shown in Figure E4.3.1, and the hyetograph is
shown in Figure E4.3.2. The height of each bar on the hyetograph is the average rainfall intensity dur-
ing that time interval, and the area of each bar is the incremental rainfall depth during that time inter-
val. Because the time increment on the graph is 1 hr (a 1-hr increment is shown in the graphic for
simplicity, though the actual t is 0.1 hr) the value for the height of the bar (in units of in./hr) is equal
to the incremental depth for that time increment (in in.).
Figure E4.3.1 Graph of derived design stormcumulative precipitation
Figure E4.3.2 Derived design stormhyetograph
Section 4.5 Types of Rainfall Data 97
Alternating Block Method. Another method for developing design storm hye-
tographs is called thealternating block method and is illustrated in Example 4.4. With
this method, the resulting hyetograph is consistent with the IDF curves for a particular
location, and is in fact developed from those IDF curves. This method can be used for
cases where the storm duration is not 24 hours, as is required for the SCS method.
Example 4.4 Developing a Design Storm Hyetograph Using the Alternating
Block Method. Using the IDF curves developed in Example 4.2, develop a design stormhyeto-
graph for a 25-yr, 1-hr stormin Memphis, Tennessee using the alternating block method. Use t =10
min for development of the hyetograph.
The first two columns in Table4.6 are duration and intensity values fromthe Memphis IDF curves for
a recurrence interval of 25 years. The durations and intensities are tabulated every t =10 min for the
total stormduration of 60 min. Values in the third column are cumulative depths associated with each
duration and are equal to the duration multiplied by the intensity. Incremental depths are shown in the
fourth column and are obtained by subtracting sequential values in the third column.
Table4.7 demonstrates the essence (and the source of the name) of the alternating block method. The
first column is a tabulation of each time interval during the 1-hr design storm, and the second is the
corresponding rainfall depth in each time interval. The second column is formed by taking the largest
incremental depth fromthe last column of Table4.6 (1.17 in.) and placing it about one-third to one-
half of the way down the column (in this example, in the 20-to-30-min. time interval). The next larg-
est incremental depth fromTable4.6 (0.58 in.) is then placed immediately after the largest incremen-
tal depth (in this case, in the 30 to 40-min. time interval). The third largest depth (0.46 in.) is placed
before the largest depth (in the 10 to 20-min. interval). The remainder of the second column is filled
by proceeding in this fashion, taking the largest remaining value fromthe last column of Table4.6
and placing it in an alternating way either after or before the other entries in Table4.7. Finally, the last
column in Table4.7 is computed by dividing each of the entries in the second column by t and
expressing the result in units of in./hr. Figure E4.4.1 illustrates the resulting hyetograph.
Table 4.6 Calculation of incremental precipitation depths for 25-yr, 1-hr storm
Duration (min) Intensity (in./hr) Cum. P (in.) Incr. P (in)
10 7.02 1.17 1.17
20 5.26 1.75 0.58
30 4.42 2.21 0.46
40 3.84 2.56 0.35
50 3.36 2.8 0.24
60 2.97 2.97 0.17
Table 4.7 Formulation of the design stormhyetograph (alternating block method)
Time (min) Incr. P (in.) Intensity (in./hr)
010 0.24 1.44
1020 0.46 2.76
2030 1.17 7.02
3040 0.58 3.48
4050 0.35 2.1
5060 0.17 1.02
98 Modeling Rainfall Chapter 4
Figure E4.4.1 Design hyetograph derived fromthe alternating block method
Other Synthetic Temporal Distributions. Other methods of developing
design storm hyetographs also exist. Notable among them are the quartile-based
storm patterns presented by Huff (1967) and the instantaneous intensity method pro-
posed by Keifer and Chu (1957). The engineer should use care when applying more
recently developed synthetic design storms, because they will typically result in sig-
nificantly different runoff hydrographs and may not be acceptable to the review
agency having jurisdiction.
The original studies by Huff were updated and expanded for the Illinois State Water
Survey Bulletin 71 (Huff and Angel, 1992), which provides rainfall data for nine
states in the U.S. Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Figure 4.26 shows some of the temporal distributions
from Bulletin 71. Because both axes are dimensionless, the engineer can vary both the
total depth of rainfall and the storm duration. The four temporal distributions corre-
spond to different duration ranges (t
d
) and the quartile of the storm during which the
peak intensity occurs. As a general rule of thumb, these curves indicate that longer-
duration events typically yield a lower overall intensity (which corresponds to a flatter
slope on the distribution curve).
Section 4.5 Types of Rainfall Data 99
Figure 4.26
Synthetic temporal
distributions for the
U.S. Midwest (Huff
and Angel, 1992)
Credit: Huff, 1967. Reproduced/modifiedby permissionof AmericanGeophysical Union.
Example 4.5 Developing a Design Storm Hyetograph from a Bulletin 71 Dis-
tribution. Develop a design storm hyetograph for an event with a duration t
d
=3 hr and a total
depth of 50 mmusing the Bulletin 71 temporal distributions. Assume that t =0.15 hr is a reasonable
choice for the drainage basin to which the design stormwill be applied. The dimensionless first-
quartile rainfall distribution is given in Table4.8.
Table 4.8 Bulletin 71 1st-quartile distribution
t/t
d
Fraction
0.00 0.00
0.05 0.16
0.10 0.33
0.15 0.43
0.20 0.52
0.25 0.60
0.30 0.66
0.35 0.71
0.40 0.75
0.45 0.79
0.50 0.82
0.55 0.84
0.60 0.86
0.65 0.88
0.70 0.90
0.75 0.92
0.80 0.94
0.85 0.96
0.90 0.97
0.95 0.98
1.00 1.00
100 Modeling Rainfall Chapter 4
Solution: First, the t/t
d
column fromTable4.8 is multiplied by the duration (3 hr), and the rainfall
fractions are multiplied by the total rainfall depth of 50 mmto obtain cumulative rainfall depths. The
results are shown in Table4.9.
Next, the incremental precipitation depths are obtained by subtracting successive values for cumula-
tive precipitation. Table4.10 and Figure E4.5.1 show the resulting hyetograph.
Table 4.9 Cumulative depth for Example 4.5.
t (hr) Cum. P (mm)
0.00 0.0
0.15 8.0
0.30 16.5
0.45 21.5
0.60 26.0
0.75 30.0
0.90 33.0
1.05 35.5
1.20 37.5
1.35 39.5
1.50 41.0
1.65 42.0
1.80 43.0
1.95 44.0
2.10 45.0
2.25 46.0
2.40 47.0
2.55 48.0
2.70 48.5
2.85 49.0
3.00 50.0
Table 4.10 Incremental depth for Example 4.5
t (hr) Incr. P (mm)
0.000.15 8.0
0.150.30 8.5
0.300.45 5.0
0.450.60 4.5
0.600.75 4.0
0.750.90 3.0
0.901.05 2.5
1.051.20 2.0
1.201.35 2.0
1.351.50 1.5
1.501.65 1.0
1.651.80 1.0
1.801.95 1.0
1.952.10 1.0
2.102.25 1.0
2.252.40 1.0
Section 4.6 Rainfall Requirements for Modeling Runoff 101
Figure E4.5.1 Hyetograph for Example 4.5
4.6 RAINFALL REQUIREMENTS FOR MODELING
RUNOFF
This chapter has presented several ways in which rainfall information may be repre-
sented for stormwater runoff modeling and management. Which method to use in any
system design or analysis depends on the approach used for transformation of the
rainfall input into a prediction of the resulting stormwater discharge and on local reg-
ulations. Chapter 5 reviews a number of different runoff prediction methods and their
input requirements.
Examples of various runoff prediction methods and their corresponding rainfall
requirements are as follows:
Rational Method This peak discharge method is commonly used for
smaller projects such as inlet design and simple storm sewers. Application of
the rational method requires IDF curves, either provided by a review agency
or created from other sources.
2.402.55 1.0
2.552.70 0.5
2.702.85 0.5
2.853.00 1.0
Table 4.10 Incremental depth for Example 4.5
t (hr) Incr. P (mm)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
Time, hr
0
.
0
0
0
.
1
5
0
.
3
0
0
.
4
5
0
.
6
0
0
.
7
5
0
.
9
0
1
.
0
5
1
.
2
0
1
.
3
5
1
.
5
0
1
.
6
5
1
.
8
0
1
.
9
5
2
.
1
0
2
.
2
5
2
.
4
0
2
.
5
5
2
.
7
0
2
.
8
5
3
.
0
0
I
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
t
a
l
,
i
n
.
P
102 Modeling Rainfall Chapter 4
SCS Peak Discharge Method This method produces only a peak dis-
charge (no hydrograph). Its use requires the 24-hour total rainfall depths for
the selected recurrence interval.
SCS Unit Hydrograph Hydrographs are required for modeling detention
ponds and complex watershed systems. Any rainfall distribution can be used
with the SCS unit hydrograph method; however, the 24-hour total rainfall
depths and the 24-hour rainfall temporal distribution (Type I, IA, II, or III)
applicable to the geographic location of the project is most typical.
General Unit Hydrograph Methods A number of methods may be
applied to synthesize a unit hydrograph for a given watershed. Because unit
hydrograph analyses are time-based, applications of these methods require
use of a rainfall hyetograph or a temporal distribution of some type. As a
general rule, no limitations exist on the methods applied to estimate the hye-
tograph or temporal distribution. A number of standardized methods exist
for design storm development, such as the SCS method, but hydrograph
analyses are by no means limited to use with such methods. As a good prac-
tice, it is recommended that engineers compute stormwater runoff hydro-
graphs using a number of plausible rainfall distributions, as this will
enlighten them as to the sensitivities of their results and the corresponding
uncertainties in their designs and analyses.
Section 4.7 Chapter Summary 103
4.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY
Before designing or evaluating any stormwater drainage system, the engineer must
first determine the flows, and therefore the rainfall event or events, that the system
must be capable of handling.
In evaluating a rainfall event, the rainfall characteristics that must be considered are
the depth/volume, duration, area, and average recurrence interval of the precipitation,
as well as its temporal and spatial distributions. Various types of rainfall gauges are
used to collect rainfall data and develop precipitation records. Rainfall data records
are available from agencies such as the NWS in the United States, and much informa-
tion is available on the Internet. Often, rainfall data has been processed into a form
more readily accessible to the engineer and is presented in publications such as
HYDRO-35 or TP-40, or as IDF curves for the locale of interest. IDF curves can also
be used to approximate the recurrence interval for an actual event, and equations
found in HYDRO-35 can be used to develop IDF curves for areas where little data is
available.
Temporal distributions describe the variation in rainfall intensity over the course of a
storm event. Temporal distributions may be actual gauged rainfall amounts, or they
may be synthetic in nature. Examples of synthetic storm distributions are the NRCS
(SCS) 24-hour distributions for the United States. Temporal distributions are used to
develop rainfall hyetographs, which show incremental rainfall depths or intensities for
storm events.
Once the appropriate hyetograph for a design or study has been developed, this infor-
mation can be used to compute the runoff flow rates that will be used in drainage sys-
tem analysis and design.
REFERENCES
Chow, V. T. 1964. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Chow, V. T., D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Durans, S. R. and P. A. Brown. 2001. Estimation and Internet-Based Dissemination of Extreme Rainfall
Information. Transporation Research Record no. 1743: 4148.
Frederick, R. H., V. A. Myers, and E. P. Auciello. 1977. Five- to 60-Minute Precipitation Frequency for the
Eastern and Central United States.NOAA Technical MemorandumNWS HYDRO-35. Silver Spring,
Maryland: National Weather Service, Office of Hydrology.
Haestad Methods. 2003. StormCAD User Manual. Waterbury, Connecticut: Haestad Methods.
Hershfield, D. M. 1961. Rainfall Frequency Atlas of the United States for Durations from 30 Minutes to 24
Hours and Return Periods from 1 to 100 Years. Technical Paper No. 40. Washington, D.C.: Weather
Bureau, U.S. Dept. of Commerce.
Huff, F. A. 1967. Time Distribution of Rainfall in Heavy Storms. Water Resources Research 3, no. 4:
10071019.
Huff, F. A. and J . R. Angel. 1992. Rainfall Frequency Atlas of the Midwest. Illinois State Water Survey
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104 Modeling Rainfall Chapter 4
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PROBLEMS
4.1 The total volume of water stored in the atmosphere is estimated to be 12,900 km
3
. The average rate
of global evaporation and transpiration is 505,000 km
3
/yr. What is the average amount of time (in
days per year) that moisture spends in the atmosphere?
4.2 Using the methods given by HYDRO-35 and the data given in the table below, construct a set of IDF
curves for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years and durations of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60
minutes.
4.3 Using Figures 4.15 through 4.20, complete the following table for Boston, Massachusetts.
T (yr)
Rainfall Intensity (in/hr) for duration (min)
5 15 60
2 5.1 3.3 2.4
100 8.4 6.6 3.4
T (yr)
Rainfall Intensity (in/hr) for duration (min)
5 15 60
2
100
Problems 105
4.4 Given the following data froma storm, plot the rainfall hyetograph (intensity versus time), calculate
the total rainfall depth for the storm, and calculate the average rainfall intensity.
4.5 Use the appropriate 24-hour NRCS (SCS) synthetic rainfall distribution to develop a design storm
hyetograph for a 10 year, 24-hour stormin Atlanta, Georgia. Use a total rainfall depth of 8.5 in.
(fromTP 40).
Interval (min) Intensity (in/hr)
015 0.25
1530 0.30
3045 0.40
4560 0.25
6075 0.10
7590 0.05
Depression storage,
such as the shallow
ponding in this
grassed area,
reduces the amount
of runoff
discharged from a
watershed.