You are on page 1of 34

Control of

dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Methods for analysis and control of dynamical systems
Lecture 2: Modelling of dynamical systems
O. Sename
1
1
Gipsa-lab, CNRS-INPG, FRANCE
Olivier.Sename@gipsa-lab.inpg.fr
www.gipsa-lab.fr/o.sename
2nd February 2014
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Outline
Introduction
Methods for system modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort management in intelligent building
State space representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer function
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
References
Some interesting books:

G. Franklin, J. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of


Dynamic Systems, Prentice Hall, 2005

R.C. Dorf and R.H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, Prentice


Hall, USA, 2005.

G.C. Goodwin, S.F. Graebe, and M.E. Salgado, Control System


Design, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001.

K.J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark, Computer-Controlled Systems,


Information and systems sciences series. Prentice Hall, New
Jersey, 3rd edition, 1997.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Types of models

Finite state models (Petri nets, Grafcet) of logical systems:


discrete-event systems

Graph models : Bond graph. Allow a physical description in a


unique way whatever the physical domain is.

Experimental models : allow to reproduce an input-output behavior.

State models: A mathematical description of the system in terms


of a minimum set of variables x
i
(t ), i = 1, . . . , n, together with
knowledge of those variables at an initial time t
0
and the system
inputs for time t t
0
, are sufcient to predict the future system
state and outputs for all time t t
0
.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Different issues for modelling (1)
Identication based method- Black box models

System excitations using step inputs, sinusodal signals, or PRBS


(Pseudo Random Binary Signal)

Determination of a transfer function reproducing the input/ouput


system behavior

Method : direct identication (Strejc) or by optimization.

Objective: determination of the set of model parameters.


Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Different issues for modelling (2)
Knowledge-based method - White box models

Represent the system behavior using differential and/or algebraic


equations, based on physical knowledge.

Formulate a nonlinear state-space model, i.e. a matrix differential


equation of order 1.

Determine the steady-state operating point about which to


linearize.

Introduce deviation variables and linearize the model.


Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Why knowledge-based method are of interest?

dynamical systems where physical equations can be derived :


electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, aerospace
engineering, microsystems, process plants ....

include physical parameters: easy to use when parameters are


changed for design

State variables have physical meaning.

Allow for including non linearities (state constraints )

Easy to extend to Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems

Advanced control design methods are based on state space


equations (reliable numerical optimisation tools)
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Height control of a single Tank
Consider a water tank of area S, height H, feeded by an input ow Q
e
,
with an output ow Q
s
Figure: Bac.
Usually the ow is considered to be proportional to the square root of
the pressure difference, then
Q
s
= k
t

H
and
S
dH
dt
= Q
e
Q
s
= Q
e
k
t

H
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
A satellite attitude control model
A simple model for a one-axis system is :
I

= M
D
+F
c
d
where is the inertia, the angular position, M
D
a small disturbance
moment on the satellite, F
c
the control force that comes from the
reaction jets, d the distance from the jet to the center of gravity.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
the DVD player
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Modelling the DVD player
Useo of physical principles.
Focus and radial actuators: are constituted by a lens attached to the
pick-up body by two parallel leaf spring, and moved in vertical and
radial direction by a voice coil and a magnet.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Modelling the DVD player (2)

Actuator : voltage v(t ). Controls the pick-up voice coil

Output signal:laser spot position x(t )


Electrical part: the voltage v(t ) applied to the R-L circuit makes ow in
it a current i (t ):
L
i (t )
t
+Ri (t ) = v(t ) K
e
x(t )
t
(1)
Magnetic part:
f (t ) = K
e
i (t ) (2)
where K
e
is the back-emf constant,
Mechanical part: The force f (t ) [N] acts on the objective lens mass M
[Kg], making the actuator moves:
M

2
x(t )
t
2
+D
x(t )
t
+kx(t ) = f (t ) (3)
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Data of the DVD player 1
Table: Values of the physical parameters of Pick-up 1 (for focus and tracking
actuators), from Pioneer.
Name Description Value Focus Value Tracking
R DC resistance of coil 5.41.1 5.91.2
L Inductance of coil 156 H 96 H
M Moving mass 0.7 g 0.7 g
S
DC
DC Sensitivity 2.69 mm/V 0.63 mm/V
f
0
Resonance frequency 307 Hz 477 Hz
Q
dB
Resonance peak 15 dB 15 dB
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Data of the DVD player 2
Table: Values of the physical parameters of Pick-up 2 (for focus and tracking
actuators), from Sanyo
Name Description Value Focus Value Tracking
R DC resistance of coil 6.51 6.51
L Inductance of coil 256 H 186 H
M Moving mass 0.33 g 0.33 g
S
DC
DC Sensitivity 0.94 mm/V 0.27 mm/V
f
0
Resonance frequency 527 Hz 527 Hz
Q
dB
Resonance peak 20 dB 20 dB
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Calculation of the parameters
The elastic constant k ([N/m]), the dumping factor D ([Ns/m]), and the
electro-magnetic constant K
e
([Wb/m]) are :
w
n
= 2f
0
k = Mw
2
n
D = w
n
M

2
_
1
_
1
1
Q
2
_
K
e
= kRS
DC
where Q denotes the absolute value of the actuator amplitude peak, at
the resonance frequency f
0
, S
DC
([mm/V]) is the value of the actuator
DC sensitivity , M ([kg]) is the objective lens mass R ([]) and L ([H])
the resistance and inductance of the coil.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Calculation of the transfer function
Electrical part:
I(s) =
1
Ls +R
[V(s) K
e
sX(s)] (4)
Magnetic part:
F(s) = K
e
I(s) (5)
Mechanical part:
X(s)
F(s)
=
1
Ms
2
+Ds +k
(6)
Combining these equations , it leads
H(s) =
X(s)
V(s)
=
K
e
ML
s
3
+
_
R
L
+
D
M
_
s
2
+
_
DR
ML
+
k
M
+
K
2
e
ML
_
s +
kR
ML
(7)
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Suspension system
A simplied quarter vehicle model with semi-active suspension.
z
s
and z
us
) are the relative position of the
chassis and of the wheel,
m
s
(resp. m
us
) the mass of the chassis
(resp. of the wheel),
k
s
(resp. k
t
) the spring coefcient of the
suspension (of the tire),
u the active damper force,
z
r
is the road prole.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Suspension system (2)
The mechanical equations are:
_
_
_
m
s

z
s
= F
k
(z
def
) F
c
(

z
def
)
m
us

z
us
= F
k
(z
def
) +F
c
(

z
def
) k
t
(z
us
z
r
)
z
def

_
z
def
z
def

(8)
where F
k
(z
def
) and F
c
(

z
def
) (with z
def
= z
s
z
us
and

z
def
=

z
s

z
us
)
are the nonlinear forces provided by the spring and damper
respectively.
0.1 0.05 0 0.05
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
Stifness coefficient
z
def
[m]
F
k

[
N
]
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1000
500
0
500
1000
1500
Damping coefficient
z
def
[m/s]
F
c

[
N
]
Figure: Nonlinear forces provided by the Spring (left) and the Damper (right).
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Suspension system (3)
The involved model parameters have been identied on a "Renault
Mgane Coup" car and are given below.
Symbol Value Description
m
s
315kg sprung mass
m
us
37.5kg unsprung mass
k 29500N/m suspension linearized stiffness
c 1500N/m/s suspension linearized damping
k
p
210000N/m tire stiffness
[z
def
, z
def
] [8, 6]cm suspensions deection limits
Table: Parameters model of a "Renault Mgane Coup".
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
A wind tunnel
Objective: feedback control of the Mach number in a wind tunnel
(NASA)
In steady-state operating conditions (some constant fan speed, liquid
nitrogen injection rate, and gaseous-nitrogen vent rate), the dynamic
response of the Mach number perturbations M to small perturbations
in the guide vane angle actuator
A


M(t ) +M(t ) = k(t h)


(t ) +2

(t ) +
2
(t ) =
2

A
(t )
(t ) is the guide vane angle.
Time-delay h : transportation time between the guide vanes of the fan
and the test section of the tunnel
h varies as a function of the temperature and is such that
0.288 h 0.455s.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Some issues
Why intelligent control systems (Energy Management System)?

Use several actuators : lights, window opening, shading,


heating/cooling (air conditioning)...

Control objectives:

Air quality: CO
2
, particule matter, Volatile Organic Compounds

Comfort: humidity, temperature, luminance

Energy savings: consumption


Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
A system complex to be modelled:

A Multi-Zone system

Wireless Sensor Network

Air ow (thermodynamics: fans, ducts, doors,.. ) and Thermal


models (temperature, humidity
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Room temperature
Lquation fondamentale reprsentant la variation de temprature de
part et dautres dun mur est la suivante:
.c
v
.V
dT
dt
=

wall
x
.A.(T
out
T) +

Q
sources
(9)
o
T (K) temprature de la pice
T
out
(K) temprature extrieure
c
v
(J/kgK) capacit thermique de lair volume constant = 719
c
p
(J/kgK) capacit thermique de lair pression constante = 1010
V (m
3
) Volume de la pice
(kg/m
3
) densit de lair = 1.169
x (m) paisseur
A (m
2
) Surface du mur

Q
sources
Sources (extrieures + contrle)
Les coefcients de conductivit
wall
dpendent des matriaux
composant les murs, et sont donns :
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
General dynamical system
Many dynamical systems can be represented by Ordinary Differential
Equations (ODE) as
_

x(t ) = f ((x(t ), u(t ), t ), x(0) = x
0
y(t ) = g((x(t ), u(t ), t )
(10)
where f and g are non linear functions.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Denition of state space representations
A continuous-time LINEAR state space system is given as :
_

x(t ) = Ax(t ) +Bu(t ), x(0) = x
0
y(t ) = Cx(t ) +Du(t )
(11)

x(t ) R
n
is the system state (vector of state variables),

u(t ) R
m
the control input

y(t ) R
p
the measured output

A, B, C and D are real matrices of appropriate dimensions

x
0
is the initial condition.
n is the order of the state space representation.
Matlab : ss(A,B,C,D) creates a SS object SYS
representing a continuous-time state-space model
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Height control of a single Tank
In steady state : Q
e
= Q
0
, H = H
0
Consider the variations q
e
, q
s
, h around the steady state as:
Q
e
= Q
0
+q
e
; Q
s
= Q
0
+q
s
; H = H
0
+h.
This leads to the equation :
S
dh
dt
= q
e
k
t
(
_
H
0
+h
_
H
0
)
Using the rst order approximation (1+x)

= 1+x, it leads
S
dh
dt
= q
e
h
Denoting the state variable x = h, the control input u = q
e
, the output
y = h, we get

x = Ax +Bu (12)
y = Cx (13)
with A =
k
t
2

H
0
, B =
1
S
and C = 1.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Some exampes
Suspension system
Choose the state variables and give the state space representation of
the system, with input z
r
(not controlled) and output z
s
z
us
or

z
s
Satellite
Choose the state variables and give the state space representation of
the system, with controlled input F
c
, disturbance input M
D
and output .
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
A wind tunnel
In steady-state operating conditions (fan speed, liquid nitrogen injection
rate and gaseous-nitrogen vent rate) the dynamic response of the Mach
number is given by the following system:
x(t ) =
_
_
0.5091 0 0
0 0 1
0 36 9.6
_
_
x(t )
+
_
_
0 0.005956 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
x(t h)
+
_
_
0
0
36
_
_
u(t ) +
_
_
0
0
1
_
_
w(t )
y(t ) =
_
1 0 0

x(t ) +w(t )
z(t ) =
_
1 1 1

x(t )
x(t ) = (t ); t [h, 0]
where h = 0.33sec., x
1
is the Mach number, x
2
is the guide vane angle
and x
3
=

x
2
.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Example : Wind turbine
An complete model (ADAMS) includes 193 DOFs.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Some important issues

A complete ADAMS model includes 193 DOFs to represent fully


exible tower, drive-train, and blade components simulation
model

Different operating conditions according to the wind speed

Control objectives: maximize power , enhance damping in the rst


drive train torsion mode, design a smooth transition different
modes

A Generator torque controller to enhance drive train torsion


damping in Regions 2 and 3

The control model is obtained by linearisation of a non linear


electro-mechanical model:
_

x(t ) = Ax(t ) +Bu(t ) +Ed(t )
y(t ) = Cx(t )
where x
1
= rotor-speed x
2
= drive-train torsion spring force, x
3
=
rotational generator speed
u = generator torque, d : wind speed
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
More generally
Reformulate Nth-order differential equation into N simultaneous
rst-order differential equations
d
n
y
dt
n
+a
n1
d
n1
y
dt
n1
+. . . +a
1

y +a
0
y = f
Dene the state variables :
x
1
= ..., , x
2
= ...., , . . . x
n
= ...,
and give the according state space representation.
Remark : Knowledge of state variables allows one to determine every
possible output of the system
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Linearisation
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Linearisation
The linearisation can be done around an equilibrium point or around a
particular point dened by:
_

x
eq
(t ) = f ((x
eq
(t ), u
eq
(t ), t ), givenx
eq
(0)
y
eq
(t ) = g((x
eq
(t ), u
eq
(t ), t )
(14)
Dening

x = x x
eq
,

u = u u
eq
,

y = y y
eq
this leads to a linear state space representation of the system, around
the equilibrium point:
_

x(t ) = A

x(t ) +B

u(t ),

y(t ) = C

x(t ) +D

u(t )
(15)
with A =
f
x
|
x=x
eq
,u=u
eq
, B =
f
u
|
x=x
eq
,u=u
eq
,
C =
g
x
|
x=x
eq
,u=u
eq
and D =
g
u
|
x=x
eq
,u=u
eq
Usual case
Usually an equilibrium point satises:
0 = f ((x
eq
(t ), u
eq
(t ), t ) (16)
For the pendulum, we can choose y = = f = 0.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Linear systems : transfer function
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Equivalence transfer function - state space representation
Consider a linear system given by:
_

x(t ) = Ax(t ) +Bu(t ), x(0) = x
0
y(t ) = Cx(t ) +Du(t )
(17)
Using the Laplace transform (and assuming zero initial condition
x
0
= 0), (17) becomes:
s.x(s) = Ax(s) +Bu(s) (s.I
n
A)x(s) = Bu(s)
Then the transfer function matrix of system (17) is given by
G(s) = C(sI
n
A)
1
B+D =
N(s)
D(s)
(18)
Matlab: if SYS is an SS object, then tf(SYS) gives the associated
transfer matrix. Equivalent to tf(N,D)