dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Methods for analysis and control of dynamical systems
Lecture 2: Modelling of dynamical systems
O. Sename
1
1
Gipsalab, CNRSINPG, FRANCE
Olivier.Sename@gipsalab.inpg.fr
www.gipsalab.fr/o.sename
2nd February 2014
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Outline
Introduction
Methods for system modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort management in intelligent building
State space representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer function
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
References
Some interesting books:
H
and
S
dH
dt
= Q
e
Q
s
= Q
e
k
t
H
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
A satellite attitude control model
A simple model for a oneaxis system is :
I
= M
D
+F
c
d
where is the inertia, the angular position, M
D
a small disturbance
moment on the satellite, F
c
the control force that comes from the
reaction jets, d the distance from the jet to the center of gravity.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
the DVD player
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Modelling the DVD player
Useo of physical principles.
Focus and radial actuators: are constituted by a lens attached to the
pickup body by two parallel leaf spring, and moved in vertical and
radial direction by a voice coil and a magnet.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Modelling the DVD player (2)
2
x(t )
t
2
+D
x(t )
t
+kx(t ) = f (t ) (3)
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Data of the DVD player 1
Table: Values of the physical parameters of Pickup 1 (for focus and tracking
actuators), from Pioneer.
Name Description Value Focus Value Tracking
R DC resistance of coil 5.41.1 5.91.2
L Inductance of coil 156 H 96 H
M Moving mass 0.7 g 0.7 g
S
DC
DC Sensitivity 2.69 mm/V 0.63 mm/V
f
0
Resonance frequency 307 Hz 477 Hz
Q
dB
Resonance peak 15 dB 15 dB
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Data of the DVD player 2
Table: Values of the physical parameters of Pickup 2 (for focus and tracking
actuators), from Sanyo
Name Description Value Focus Value Tracking
R DC resistance of coil 6.51 6.51
L Inductance of coil 256 H 186 H
M Moving mass 0.33 g 0.33 g
S
DC
DC Sensitivity 0.94 mm/V 0.27 mm/V
f
0
Resonance frequency 527 Hz 527 Hz
Q
dB
Resonance peak 20 dB 20 dB
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Calculation of the parameters
The elastic constant k ([N/m]), the dumping factor D ([Ns/m]), and the
electromagnetic constant K
e
([Wb/m]) are :
w
n
= 2f
0
k = Mw
2
n
D = w
n
M
2
_
1
_
1
1
Q
2
_
K
e
= kRS
DC
where Q denotes the absolute value of the actuator amplitude peak, at
the resonance frequency f
0
, S
DC
([mm/V]) is the value of the actuator
DC sensitivity , M ([kg]) is the objective lens mass R ([]) and L ([H])
the resistance and inductance of the coil.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Calculation of the transfer function
Electrical part:
I(s) =
1
Ls +R
[V(s) K
e
sX(s)] (4)
Magnetic part:
F(s) = K
e
I(s) (5)
Mechanical part:
X(s)
F(s)
=
1
Ms
2
+Ds +k
(6)
Combining these equations , it leads
H(s) =
X(s)
V(s)
=
K
e
ML
s
3
+
_
R
L
+
D
M
_
s
2
+
_
DR
ML
+
k
M
+
K
2
e
ML
_
s +
kR
ML
(7)
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Suspension system
A simplied quarter vehicle model with semiactive suspension.
z
s
and z
us
) are the relative position of the
chassis and of the wheel,
m
s
(resp. m
us
) the mass of the chassis
(resp. of the wheel),
k
s
(resp. k
t
) the spring coefcient of the
suspension (of the tire),
u the active damper force,
z
r
is the road prole.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Suspension system (2)
The mechanical equations are:
_
_
_
m
s
z
s
= F
k
(z
def
) F
c
(
z
def
)
m
us
z
us
= F
k
(z
def
) +F
c
(
z
def
) k
t
(z
us
z
r
)
z
def
_
z
def
z
def
(8)
where F
k
(z
def
) and F
c
(
z
def
) (with z
def
= z
s
z
us
and
z
def
=
z
s
z
us
)
are the nonlinear forces provided by the spring and damper
respectively.
0.1 0.05 0 0.05
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
Stifness coefficient
z
def
[m]
F
k
[
N
]
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1000
500
0
500
1000
1500
Damping coefficient
z
def
[m/s]
F
c
[
N
]
Figure: Nonlinear forces provided by the Spring (left) and the Damper (right).
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Suspension system (3)
The involved model parameters have been identied on a "Renault
Mgane Coup" car and are given below.
Symbol Value Description
m
s
315kg sprung mass
m
us
37.5kg unsprung mass
k 29500N/m suspension linearized stiffness
c 1500N/m/s suspension linearized damping
k
p
210000N/m tire stiffness
[z
def
, z
def
] [8, 6]cm suspensions deection limits
Table: Parameters model of a "Renault Mgane Coup".
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
A wind tunnel
Objective: feedback control of the Mach number in a wind tunnel
(NASA)
In steadystate operating conditions (some constant fan speed, liquid
nitrogen injection rate, and gaseousnitrogen vent rate), the dynamic
response of the Mach number perturbations M to small perturbations
in the guide vane angle actuator
A
M(t ) +M(t ) = k(t h)
(t ) +2
(t ) +
2
(t ) =
2
A
(t )
(t ) is the guide vane angle.
Timedelay h : transportation time between the guide vanes of the fan
and the test section of the tunnel
h varies as a function of the temperature and is such that
0.288 h 0.455s.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Some issues
Why intelligent control systems (Energy Management System)?
Control objectives:
Air quality: CO
2
, particule matter, Volatile Organic Compounds
A MultiZone system
Q
sources
Sources (extrieures + contrle)
Les coefcients de conductivit
wall
dpendent des matriaux
composant les murs, et sont donns :
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
General dynamical system
Many dynamical systems can be represented by Ordinary Differential
Equations (ODE) as
_
x(t ) = f ((x(t ), u(t ), t ), x(0) = x
0
y(t ) = g((x(t ), u(t ), t )
(10)
where f and g are non linear functions.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Denition of state space representations
A continuoustime LINEAR state space system is given as :
_
x(t ) = Ax(t ) +Bu(t ), x(0) = x
0
y(t ) = Cx(t ) +Du(t )
(11)
x(t ) R
n
is the system state (vector of state variables),
u(t ) R
m
the control input
y(t ) R
p
the measured output
x
0
is the initial condition.
n is the order of the state space representation.
Matlab : ss(A,B,C,D) creates a SS object SYS
representing a continuoustime statespace model
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Height control of a single Tank
In steady state : Q
e
= Q
0
, H = H
0
Consider the variations q
e
, q
s
, h around the steady state as:
Q
e
= Q
0
+q
e
; Q
s
= Q
0
+q
s
; H = H
0
+h.
This leads to the equation :
S
dh
dt
= q
e
k
t
(
_
H
0
+h
_
H
0
)
Using the rst order approximation (1+x)
= 1+x, it leads
S
dh
dt
= q
e
h
Denoting the state variable x = h, the control input u = q
e
, the output
y = h, we get
x = Ax +Bu (12)
y = Cx (13)
with A =
k
t
2
H
0
, B =
1
S
and C = 1.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Some exampes
Suspension system
Choose the state variables and give the state space representation of
the system, with input z
r
(not controlled) and output z
s
z
us
or
z
s
Satellite
Choose the state variables and give the state space representation of
the system, with controlled input F
c
, disturbance input M
D
and output .
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
A wind tunnel
In steadystate operating conditions (fan speed, liquid nitrogen injection
rate and gaseousnitrogen vent rate) the dynamic response of the Mach
number is given by the following system:
x(t ) =
_
_
0.5091 0 0
0 0 1
0 36 9.6
_
_
x(t )
+
_
_
0 0.005956 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
x(t h)
+
_
_
0
0
36
_
_
u(t ) +
_
_
0
0
1
_
_
w(t )
y(t ) =
_
1 0 0
x(t ) +w(t )
z(t ) =
_
1 1 1
x(t )
x(t ) = (t ); t [h, 0]
where h = 0.33sec., x
1
is the Mach number, x
2
is the guide vane angle
and x
3
=
x
2
.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Example : Wind turbine
An complete model (ADAMS) includes 193 DOFs.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Some important issues
x = x x
eq
,
u = u u
eq
,
y = y y
eq
this leads to a linear state space representation of the system, around
the equilibrium point:
_
x(t ) = A
x(t ) +B
u(t ),
y(t ) = C
x(t ) +D
u(t )
(15)
with A =
f
x

x=x
eq
,u=u
eq
, B =
f
u

x=x
eq
,u=u
eq
,
C =
g
x

x=x
eq
,u=u
eq
and D =
g
u

x=x
eq
,u=u
eq
Usual case
Usually an equilibrium point satises:
0 = f ((x
eq
(t ), u
eq
(t ), t ) (16)
For the pendulum, we can choose y = = f = 0.
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Linear systems : transfer function
Control of
dynamical systems
O.Sename
Introduction
Methods for system
modelling
Physical examples
Hydraulic tanks
Satellite attitude control
model
The DVD player
The suspension system
The wind tunnel
Energy and comfort
management in
intelligent building
State space
representation
Physical examples
Linearisation
Conversion to transfer
function
Equivalence transfer function  state space representation
Consider a linear system given by:
_
x(t ) = Ax(t ) +Bu(t ), x(0) = x
0
y(t ) = Cx(t ) +Du(t )
(17)
Using the Laplace transform (and assuming zero initial condition
x
0
= 0), (17) becomes:
s.x(s) = Ax(s) +Bu(s) (s.I
n
A)x(s) = Bu(s)
Then the transfer function matrix of system (17) is given by
G(s) = C(sI
n
A)
1
B+D =
N(s)
D(s)
(18)
Matlab: if SYS is an SS object, then tf(SYS) gives the associated
transfer matrix. Equivalent to tf(N,D)