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DESIGN EXAMPLES

Version 14.0

AMERICAN INSTITUTE
OF
STEEL CONSTRUCTION

ii
Copyright 2011
by
American Institute of Steel Construction
All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof
must not be reproduced in any form without the
written permission of the publisher.
The AISC logo is a registered trademark of AISC.
The information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles
and is for general information only. While it is believed to be accurate, this information should not be used or relied
upon for any specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy,
suitability, and applicability by a licensed professional engineer, designer, or architect. The publication of the material
contained herein is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of the American Institute of Steel
Construction or of any other person named herein, that this information is suitable for any general or particular use or
of freedom from infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.
Caution must be exercised when relying upon other specifications and codes developed by other bodies and
incorporated by reference herein since such material may be modified or amended from time to time subsequent to the
printing of this edition. The Institute bears no responsibility for such material other than to refer to it and incorporate it
by reference at the time of the initial publication of this edition.
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing, October 2011

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AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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PREFACE
The primary objective of these design examples is to provide illustrations of the use of the 2010 AISC Specification
for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-10) and the 14th Edition of the AISC Steel Construction Manual.
The design examples provide coverage of all applicable limit states whether or not a particular limit state controls the
design of the member or connection.
In addition to the examples which demonstrate the use of the Manual tables, design examples are provided for
connection designs beyond the scope of the tables in the Manual. These design examples are intended to demonstrate
an approach to the design, and are not intended to suggest that the approach presented is the only approach. The
committee responsible for the development of these design examples recognizes that designers have alternate
approaches that work best for them and their projects. Design approaches that differ from those presented in these
examples are considered viable as long as the Specification, sound engineering, and project specific requirements are
satisfied.
Part I of these examples is organized to correspond with the organization of the Specification. The Chapter titles
match the corresponding chapters in the Specification.
Part II is devoted primarily to connection examples that draw on the tables from the Manual, recommended design
procedures, and the breadth of the Specification. The chapters of Part II are labeled II-A, II-B, II-C, etc.
Part III addresses aspects of design that are linked to the performance of a building as a whole. This includes
coverage of lateral stability and second order analysis, illustrated through a four-story braced-frame and momentframe building.
The Design Examples are arranged with LRFD and ASD designs presented side by side, for consistency with the
AISC Manual. Design with ASD and LRFD are based on the same nominal strength for each element so that the
only differences between the approaches are which set of load combinations from ASCE/SEI 7-10 are used for
design and whether the resistance factor for LRFD or the safety factor for ASD is used.
CONVENTIONS
The following conventions are used throughout these examples:
1.

The 2010 AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings is referred to as the AISC Specification and the
14th Edition AISC Steel Construction Manual, is referred to as the AISC Manual.

2.

The source of equations or tabulated values taken from the AISC Specification or AISC Manual is noted
along the right-hand edge of the page.

3.

When the design process differs between LRFD and ASD, the designs equations are presented side-by-side.
This rarely occurs, except when the resistance factor, , and the safety factor, , are applied.

4.

The results of design equations are presented to three significant figures throughout these calculations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The AISC Committee on Manuals reviewed and approved V14.0 of the AISC Design Examples:
William A. Thornton, Chairman
Mark V. Holland, Vice Chairman
Abbas Aminmansour
Charles J. Carter
Harry A. Cole

Douglas B. Davis
Robert O. Disque
Bo Dowswell
Edward M. Egan
Marshall T. Ferrell
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iv
Lanny J. Flynn
Patrick J. Fortney
Louis F. Geschwindner
W. Scott Goodrich
Christopher M. Hewitt
W. Steven Hofmeister
Bill R. Lindley, II
Ronald L. Meng
Larry S. Muir
Thomas M. Murray
Charles R. Page

Davis G. Parsons, II
Rafael Sabelli
Clifford W. Schwinger
William N. Scott
William T. Segui
Victor Shneur
Marc L. Sorenson
Gary C. Violette
Michael A. West
Ronald G. Yeager
Cynthia J. Duncan, Secretary

The AISC Committee on Manuals gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals who
assisted in the development of this document: Leigh Arber, Eric Bolin, Janet Cummins, Thomas Dehlin, William
Jacobs, Richard C. Kaehler, Margaret Matthew, Heath Mitchell, Thomas J. Schlafly, and Sriramulu Vinnakota.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I.

EXAMPLES BASED ON THE AISC SPECIFICATION

CHAPTER A
Chapter A
References

GENERAL PROVISIONS.........................................................................................................A-1

CHAPTER B
Chapter B
References

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................................... B-1

CHAPTER C
Example C.1A
Example C.1B
Example C.1C

DESIGN FOR STABILITY .......................................................................................................C-1


Design of a Moment Frame by the Direct Analysis Method ........................................................ C-2
Design of a Moment Frame by the Effective Length Method ...................................................... C-6
Design of a Moment Frame by the First-Order Method ............................................................. C-11

CHAPTER D

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR TENSION...............................................................................D-1

Example D.1
Example D.2
Example D.3
Example D.4
Example D.5
Example D.6
Example D.7
Example D.8
Example D.9

W-Shape Tension Member ..........................................................................................................D-2


Single Angle Tension Member ....................................................................................................D-5
WT-Shape Tension Member ........................................................................................................D-8
Rectangular HSS Tension Member ............................................................................................D-11
Round HSS Tension Member ....................................................................................................D-14
Double Angle Tension Member .................................................................................................D-17
Pin-Connected Tension Member ...............................................................................................D-20
Eyebar Tension Member ............................................................................................................D-23
Plate with Staggered Bolts .........................................................................................................D-25

CHAPTER E

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION ................................................................... E-1

Example E.1A
Example E.1B
Example E.1C
Example E.1D
Example E.2
Example E.3
Example E.4A
Example E.4B
Example E.5
Example E.6
Example E.7
Example E.8
Example E.9
Example E.10
Example E.11
Example E.12
Example E.13

W-Shape Column Design with Pinned Ends ............................................................................... E-4


W-Shape Column Design with Intermediate Bracing.................................................................. E-6
W-Shape Available Strength Calculation .................................................................................... E-8
W-Shape Available Strength Calculation .................................................................................... E-9
Built-up Column with a Slender Web........................................................................................ E-11
Built-up Column with Slender Flanges ...................................................................................... E-16
W-Shape Compression Member (Moment Frame) .................................................................... E-21
W-Shape Compression Member (Moment Frame) .................................................................... E-25
Double Angle Compression Member without Slender Elements ............................................... E-26
Double Angle Compression Member with Slender Elements .................................................... E-31
WT Compression Member without Slender Elements ............................................................... E-37
WT Compression Member with Slender Elements .................................................................... E-42
Rectangular HSS Compression Member without Slender Elements ......................................... E-47
Rectangular HSS Compression Member with Slender Elements ............................................... E-50
Pipe Compression Member ........................................................................................................ E-54
Built-up I-Shaped Member with Different Flange Sizes ............................................................ E-57
Double WT Compression Member ............................................................................................. E-63

CHAPTER F

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR FLEXURE.............................................................................. F-1

Example F.1-1A
Example F.1-1B
Example F.1-2A
Example F.1-2B

W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending, Continuously Braced ................... F-6
W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending, Continuously Braced ................... F-8
W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending, Braced at Third Points ................. F-9
W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending, Braced at Third Points............... F-10

......................................................................................................................................................A-2

...................................................................................................................................................... B-2

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Example F.1-3A
Example F.1-3B
Example F.2-1A
Example F.2-1B
Example F.2-2A
Example F.2-2B
Example F.3A
Example F.3B
Example F.4
Example F.5
Example F.6
Example F.7A
Example F.7B
Example F.8A
Example F.8B
Example F.9A
Example F.9B
Example F.10
Example F.11A
Example F.11B
Example F.11C
Example F.12
Example F.13
Example F.14
Chapter F
Design Example
References

W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending, Braced at Midspan..................... F-12


W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending, Braced at Midspan..................... F-14
Compact Channel Flexural Member, Continuously Braced ...................................................... F-16
Compact Channel Flexural Member, Continuously Braced ...................................................... F-18
Compact Channel Flexural Member with Bracing at Ends and Fifth Points ............................. F-19
Compact Channel Flexural Member with Bracing at End and Fifth Points ............................... F-20
W-Shape Flexural Member with Noncompact Flanges in Strong-Axis Bending ...................... F-22
W-Shape Flexural Member with Noncompact Flanges in Strong-Axis Bending ...................... F-24
W-Shape Flexural Member, Selection by Moment of Inertia for Strong-Axis Bending ............ F-26
I-Shaped Flexural Member in Minor-Axis Bending .................................................................. F-28
HSS Flexural Member with Compact Flanges ........................................................................... F-30
HSS Flexural Member with Noncompact Flanges ..................................................................... F-32
HSS Flexural Member with Noncompact Flanges ..................................................................... F-34
HSS Flexural Member with Slender Flanges ............................................................................. F-36
HSS Flexural Member with Slender Flanges ............................................................................. F-38
Pipe Flexural Member ................................................................................................................ F-41
Pipe Flexural Member ................................................................................................................ F-42
WT-Shape Flexural Member ..................................................................................................... F-44
Single Angle Flexural Member .................................................................................................. F-47
Single Angle Flexural Member .................................................................................................. F-50
Single Angle Flexural Member .................................................................................................. F-53
Rectangular Bar in Strong-Axis Bending .................................................................................. F-59
Round Bar in Bending ............................................................................................................... F-61
Point-Symmetrical Z-shape in Strong-Axis Bending................................................................. F-63

CHAPTER G

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR ...................................................................................G-1

Example G.1A
Example G.1B
Example G.2A
Example G.2B
Example G.3
Example G.4
Example G.5
Example G.6
Example G.7
Example G.8A
Example G.8B
Chapter G
Design Example
References

W-Shape in Strong-Axis Shear ....................................................................................................G-3


W-Shape in Strong-Axis Shear ....................................................................................................G-4
C-Shape in Strong-Axis Shear .....................................................................................................G-5
C-Shape in Strong-Axis Shear .....................................................................................................G-6
Angle in Shear .............................................................................................................................G-7
Rectangular HSS in Shear ............................................................................................................G-9
Round HSS in Shear ..................................................................................................................G-11
Doubly Symmetric Shape in Weak-Axis Shear .........................................................................G-13
Singly Symmetric Shape in Weak-Axis Shear ...........................................................................G-15
Built-up Girder with Transverse Stiffeners ................................................................................G-17
Built-up Girder with Transverse Stiffeners ................................................................................G-21

CHAPTER H

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION ............................H-1

Example H.1A

W-shape Subject to Combined Compression and Bending


About Both Axes (Braced Frame) ...............................................................................................H-2
W-shape Subject to Combined Compression and Bending Moment
About Both Axes (Braced Frame) ................................................................................................H-4
W-Shape Subject to Combined Compression and Bending Moment
About Both Axes (By AISC Specification Section H2) ..............................................................H-5
W-Shape Subject to Combined Axial Tension and Flexure......................................................... H-8
W-Shape Subject to Combined Axial Compression and Flexure ..............................................H-12
Rectangular HSS Torsional Strength .........................................................................................H-16

Example H.1B
Example H.2
Example H.3
Example H.4
Example H.5A

.................................................................................................................................................... F-69

....................................................................................................................................................G-24

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Example H.5B
Example H.5C
Example H.6
Chapter H
Design Example
References

Round HSS Torsional Strength ..................................................................................................H-17


HSS Combined Torsional and Flexural Strength .......................................................................H-19
W-Shape Torsional Strength ......................................................................................................H-23

CHAPTER I

DESIGN OF COMPOSITE MEMBERS................................................................................... I-1

Example I.1
Example I.2
Example I.3
Example I.4
Example I.5
Example I.6
Example I.7
Example I.8
Example I.9
Example I.10
Example I.11
Example I.12
Chapter I
Design Example
References

Composite Beam Design ............................................................................................................... I-8


Composite Girder Design ........................................................................................................... I-18
Concrete Filled Tube (CFT) Force Allocation and Load Transfer .............................................. I-35
Concrete Filled Tube (CFT) in Axial Compression .................................................................... I-45
Concrete Filled Tube (CFT) in Axial Tension ............................................................................ I-50
Concrete Filled Tube (CFT) in Combined Axial Compression, Flexure and Shear ................... I-52
Concrete Filled Box Column with Noncompact/Slender Elements ............................................ I-66
Encased Composite Member Force Allocation and Load Transfer ............................................ I-80
Encased Composite Member in Axial Compression ................................................................... I-93
Encased Composite Member in Axial Tension ......................................................................... I-100
Encased Composite Member in Combined Axial Compression, Flexure and Shear ................ I-103
Steel Anchors in Composite Components ................................................................................. I-119

CHAPTER J

DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS ...................................................................................................J-1

Example J.1
Example J.2
Example J.3
Example J.4A
Example J.4B
Example J.5
Example J.6
Example J.7

Fillet Weld in Longitudinal Shear ................................................................................................. J-2


Fillet Weld Loaded at an Angle .................................................................................................... J-4
Combined Tension and Shear in Bearing Type Connections........................................................ J-6
Slip-Critical Connection with Short-Slotted Holes ....................................................................... J-8
Slip-Critical Connection with Long-Slotted Holes
................................................. J-10
Combined Tension and Shear in a Slip-Critical Connection
................................................. J-12
Bearing Strength of a Pin in a Drilled Hole ................................................................................ J-15
Base Plate Bearing on Concrete................................................................................................... J-16

CHAPTER K

DESIGN OF HSS AND BOX MEMBER CONNECTIONS ...................................................K-1

Example K.1
Example K.2
Example K.3
Example K.4
Example K.5
Example K.6
Example K.7
Example K.8
Example K.9
Example K.10
Example K.11
Example K.12
Example K.13
Chapter K
Design Example
References

Welded/Bolted Wide Tee Connection to an HSS Column ...........................................................K-2


Welded/Bolted Narrow Tee Connection to an HSS Column .....................................................K-10
Double Angle Connection to an HSS Column ...........................................................................K-13
Unstiffened Seated Connection to an HSS Column ...................................................................K-16
Stiffened Seated Connection to an HSS Column .......................................................................K-19
Single-Plate Connection to Rectangular HSS Column ..............................................................K-24
Through-Plate Connection .........................................................................................................K-27
Transverse Plate Loaded Perpendicular to the HSS Axis on a Rectangular HSS .......................K-31
Longitudinal Plate Loaded Perpendicular to the HSS Axis on a Round HSS ............................K-34
HSS Brace Connection to a W-Shape Column ...........................................................................K-36
Rectangular HSS Column with a Cap Plate, Supporting a Continuous Beam ...........................K-39
Rectangular HSS Column Base Plate ........................................................................................K-42
Rectangular HSS Strut End Plate ...............................................................................................K-45

....................................................................................................................................................H-30

................................................................................................................................................... I-123

....................................................................................................................................................K-49

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PART II.

EXAMPLES BASED ON THE AISC STEEL CONSTRUCTION MANUAL

CHAPTER IIA SIMPLE SHEAR CONNECTIONS.......................................................................................IIA-1


Example II.A-1
Example II.A-2
Example II.A-3
Example II.A-4
Example II.A-5
Example II.A-6
Example II.A-7
Example II.A-8
Example II.A-9
Example II.A-10
Example II.A-11
Example II.A-12
Example II.A-13
Example II.A-14
Example II.A-15
Example II.A-16
Example II.A-17
Example II.A-18
Example II.A-19
Example II.A-20
Example II.A-21
Example II.A-22
Example II.A-23
Example II.A-24
Example II.A-25
Example II.A-26
Example II.A-27
Example II.A-28
Example II.A-29
Example II.A-30
Example II.A-31

All-Bolted Double-Angle Connection ...................................................................................... IIA-2


Bolted/Welded Double-Angle Connection ............................................................................... IIA-4
All-Welded Double-Angle Connection .................................................................................... IIA-6
All-Bolted Double-Angle Connection in a Coped Beam .......................................................... IIA-9
Welded/ Bolted Double-Angle Connection (Beam-to-Girder Web). ...................................... IIA-13
Beam End Coped at the Top Flange Only .............................................................................. IIA-16
Beam End Coped at the Top and Bottom Flanges.................................................................. IIA-23
All-Bolted Double-Angle Connections (Beams-to-Girder Web) ........................................... IIA-26
Offset All-Bolted Double-Angle Connections (Beams-to-Girder Web) ................................ IIA-34
Skewed Double Bent-Plate Connection (Beam-to-Girder Web)............................................. IIA-37
Shear End-Plate Connection (Beam to Girder Web). ............................................................. IIA-43
All-Bolted Unstiffened Seated Connection (Beam-to-Column Web) ..................................... IIA-45
Bolted/Welded Unstiffened Seated Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange) .......................... IIA-48
Stiffened Seated Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange) ........................................................ IIA-51
Stiffened Seated Connection (Beam-to-Column Web) ........................................................... IIA-54
Offset Unstiffened Seated Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange)......................................... IIA-57
Single-Plate Connection (Conventional Beam-to-Column Flange) ..................................... IIA-60
Single-Plate Connection (Beam-to-Girder Web) .................................................................... IIA-62
Extended Single-Plate Connection (Beam-to-Column Web) .................................................. IIA-64
All-Bolted Single-Plate Shear Splice ...................................................................................... IIA-70
Bolted/Welded Single-Plate Shear Splice ............................................................................... IIA-75
Bolted Bracket Plate Design ................................................................................................... IIA-80
Welded Bracket Plate Design. ................................................................................................ IIA-86
Eccentrically Loaded Bolt Group (IC Method) ....................................................................... IIA-91
Eccentrically Loaded Bolt Group (Elastic Method)................................................................ IIA-93
Eccentrically Loaded Weld Group (IC Method)..................................................................... IIA-95
Eccentrically Loaded Weld Group (Elastic Method) .............................................................. IIA-98
All-Bolted Single-Angle Connection (Beam-to-Girder Web) .............................................. IIA-100
Bolted/Welded Single-Angle Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange).................................. IIA-105
All-Bolted Tee Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange) ........................................................ IIA-108
Bolted/Welded Tee Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange) ................................................. IIA-115

CHAPTER IIB FULLY RESTRAINED (FR) MOMENT CONNECTIONS............................................... IIB-1


Example II.B-1
Example II.B-2
Example II.B-3
Example II.B-4

Bolted Flange-Plate FR Moment Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange) ............................... IIB-2


Welded Flange-Plated FR Moment Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange) ......................... IIB-14
Directly Welded Flange FR Moment Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange). ..................... IIB-20
Four-Bolt Unstiffened Extended End-Plate
FR Moment Connection (Beam-to-Column Flange) ............................................................. IIB-22

Chapter IIB
Design Example
References
................................................................................................................................................. IIB-33
CHAPTER IIC BRACING AND TRUSS CONNECTIONS.......................................................................... IIC-1
Example II.C-1
Example II.C-2
Example II.C-3
Example II.C-4
Example II.C-5
Example II.C-6

Truss Support Connection........................................................................................................ IIC-2


Bracing Connection ............................................................................................................... IIC-13
Bracing Connection ............................................................................................................... IIC-41
Truss Support Connection...................................................................................................... IIC-50
HSS Chevron Brace Connection ............................................................................................ IIC-57
Heavy Wide Flange Compression Connection (Flanges on the Outside) .............................. IIC-69

CHAPTER IID MISCELLANEOUS CONNECTIONS .................................................................................. ,ID-1


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Example II.D-1
Example II.D-2
Example II.D-3

Prying Action in Tees and in Single Angles ............................................................................ IID-2


Beam Bearing Plate ................................................................................................................. IID-9
Slip-Critical Connection with Oversized Holes...................................................................... IID-15

PART III. SYSTEM DESIGN EXAMPLES ................................................................. III-1


Example III-1

Design of Selected Members and Lateral Analysis of a Four-Story Building .............................III-2


Introduction..................................................................................................................................III-2
Conventions .................................................................................................................................III-2
Design Sequence..........................................................................................................................III-3
General Description of the Building ............................................................................................III-4
Roof Member Design and Selection ...........................................................................................III-5
Floor Member Design and Selection ........................................................................................III-17
Column Design and Selection for Gravity Loads ..................................................................... III-38
Wind Load Determination ........................................................................................................III-46
Seismic Load Determination .....................................................................................................III-49
Moment Frame Model ...............................................................................................................III-61
Calculation of Required StrengthThree Methods ..................................................................III-67
Beam Analysis in the Moment Frame........................................................................................III-77
Braced Frame Analysis ..............................................................................................................III-80
Analysis of Drag Struts..............................................................................................................III-84

Part III Example


References
...................................................................................................................................................III-87

PART IV. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES ..................................................................... IV-1


Table 4-1
Table 4-1
Table 6-1
Table 6-1

Discussion................................................................................................................................... IV-2
W-Shapes in Axial Compressions, Fy = 65 ksi ........................................................................... IV-5
Discussion................................................................................................................................. IV-17
Combined Flexure and Axial Force, W-Shapes, Fy = 65 ksi .................................................... IV-19

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IID-1

Chapter IID
Miscellaneous Connections
This section contains design examples on connections in the AISC Steel Construction Manual that are not covered
in other sections of the AISC Design Examples.

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IID-2

EXAMPLE II.D-1 PRYING ACTION IN TEES AND IN SINGLE ANGLES


Given:
Design an ASTM A992 WT hanger connection between an ASTM A36 2L33c tension member and an ASTM
A992 W2494 beam to support the following loads:
PD = 13.5 kips
PL = 40 kips
Use w-in.-diameter ASTM A325-N or F1852-N bolts and 70-ksi electrodes.

Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties are as follows:
Hanger
WT
ASTM A992
Fy = 50 ksi
Fu = 65 ksi
Beam
W2494
ASTM A992
Fy = 50 ksi
Fu = 65 ksi
Angles
2L33c
ASTM A36
Fy = 36 ksi
Fu = 58 ksi

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IID-3

From AISC Manual Tables 1-1, 1-7 and 1-15, the geometric properties are as follows:
Beam
W2494
d = 24.3 in.
tw = 0.515 in.
bf = 9.07 in.
tf = 0.875 in.
Angles
2L33c
A = 3.56 in.2
x = 0.860 in. for single angle
From Chapter 2 of ASCE/SEI 7, the required strength is:
ASD

LRFD
Pu = 1.2(13.5 kips) + 1.6(40 kips)
= 80.2 kips

Pa = 13.5 kips + 40 kips


= 53.5 kips

Tensile Yielding of Angles


Pn = Fy Ag

= 36 ksi 3.56 in.

(Spec. Eq. D2-1)

= 128 kips
= 0.90

LRFD

Pn = 0.90(128 kips)
= 115 kips > 80.2 kips

o.k.

ASD
= 1.67
Pn 128 kips
=

1.67
= 76.6 kips > 53.5 kips

o.k.

From AISC Specification Table J2.4, the minimum size of fillet weld based on a material thickness of c in. is
x in.
From AISC Specification Section J2.2b, the maximum size of fillet weld is:
wmax = thickness z in.
= c in. z in.
= 4 in.

Try 4-in. fillet welds.

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IID-4

From AISC Manual Part 8, Equations 8-2:


ASD

LRFD
Pu
1.392 D
80.2 kips
=
1.392(4 sixteenths)
= 14.4 in.

Pa
0.928D
53.5 kips
=
0.928(4 sixteenths)
= 14.4 in.

lmin =

lmin =

Use four 4-in. welds (16 in. total), one at the toe and heel of each angle.
Tensile Rupture Strength of Angles
x
from AISC Specification Table D3.1 case 2
L
0.860 in.
= 1
4.00 in.
= 0.785

U = 1

Ae = AnU

(Spec. Eq. D3-1)

= 3.56 in. ( 0.785 )


2

= 2.79 in.2
Pn = Fu Ae

= 58 ksi 2.79 in.2

(Spec. Eq. D2-2)

= 162 kips
LRFD
t = 0.75
t Pn = 0.75 (162 kips )

= 122 kips > 80.2 kips

o.k.

ASD
t = 2.00
Pn 162 kips
=
t
2.00
= 81.0 kips > 53.5 kips

o.k.

Preliminary WT Selection Using Beam Gage


g = 4 in.
Try four w-in.-diameter ASTM A325-N bolts.
From AISC Manual Table 7-2:
ASD

LRFD
P
T = rut = u
n
80.2 kips
=
4
= 20.1 kips/bolt
B = rn = 29.8 kips > 20.1 kips

P
T = rat = a
n
53.5 kips
=
4
= 13.4 kips/bolt
o.k.

B = rn / = 19.9 kips > 13.4 kips

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

o.k.

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IID-5

Determine tributary length per pair of bolts, p, using AISC Manual Figure 9-4 and assuming a 2-in. web
thickness.
4.00 in. 2 in. 8.00 in. 42 in.
+
2
2
= 3.50 in. 42 in.

p=

LRFD
2 bolts(20.1 kips/bolt)
= 11.5 kips/in.
3.50 in.

ASD
2 bolts(13.4 kips/bolt)
= 7.66 kips/in.
3.50 in.

From AISC Manual Table 15-2b, with an assumed b = (4.00 in. 2 in.)/2 = 1.75 in., the flange thickness, t = tf,
of the WT hanger should be approximately s in.
The minimum depth WT that can be used is equal to the sum of the weld length plus the weld size plus the kdimension for the selected section. From AISC Manual Table 1-8 with an assumed b = 1.75 in., t f s in., and
d min = 4 in. + 4 in. + k 6 in., appropriate selections include:
WT625
WT726.5
WT825
WT927.5

Try a WT625.
From AISC Manual Table 1-8, the geometric properties are as follows:
bf = 8.08 in.
tf = 0.640 in.
tw = 0.370 in.
Prying Action Using AISC Manual Part 9
The beam flange is thicker than the WT flange; therefore, prying in the tee flange will control over prying in the
beam flange.
g tw
2
4.00 in. 0.370 in.
=
2
= 1.82 in. > 14-in. entering and tightening clearance, and the fillet toe is cleared

b=

bf g
2
8.08 in. 4.00 in.
=
2
= 2.04 in.

a=

b = b

db
2

(Manual Eq. 9-21)

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IID-6

w in.
= 1.82 in.

2
= 1.45 in.
db

a = a +
2

db

1.25b +
2

w in.
w in.
= 2.04 in. +
1.25(1.82 in.)+
2
2

= 2.42 in. 2.65 in.

(Manual Eq. 9-27)

b
a
1.45 in.
=
2.42 in.
= 0.599

(Manual Eq. 9-26)

ASD

LRFD
1B
= 1
T

(Manual Eq. 9-25)

1 29.8 kips/bolt
1

0.599 20.1 kips/bolt


= 0.806

(Manual Eq. 9-25)

1 19.9 kips/bolt
1

0.599 13.4 kips/bolt


= 0.810

= 1

1B
= 1
T

d
p

(Manual Eq. 9-24)

w in. + z in.
3.50 in.
= 0.768

=1

Since < 1.0,


LRFD

ASD
1
=
1.0
1
1 0.810
=

0.768 1 0.810
= 5.55, therefore, = 1.0
= 1.67

1
=
1.0
1
1 0.806
=

0.768 1 0.806
= 5.41, therefore, = 1.0
= 0.90
tmin =
=

4Tb
pFu (1 + )

(Manual Eq. 9-23a)

4 ( 20.1 kips/bolt )(1.45 in.)

0.90 ( 3.50 in.)( 65 ksi ) 1 + ( 0.768 )(1.0 )

= 0.567 in. < t f = 0.640 in.

tmin =

o.k.

4Tb
pFu (1 + )

(Manual Eq. 9-23b)

1.67 ( 4 )(13.4 kips/bolt )(1.45 in.)

3.50 in. ( 65 ksi ) 1 + ( 0.768 )(1.0 )

= 0.568 in. < t f = 0.640 in.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

o.k.

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IID-7

Tensile Yielding of the WT Stem on the Whitmore Section Using AISC Manual Part 9
The effective width of the WT stem (which cannot exceed the actual width of 8 in.) is:
lw = 3.00 in. + 2(4.00 in.)(tan 30D ) 8.00 in.
= 7.62 in.

The nominal strength is determined as:


Rn = Fy Ag

(Spec. Eq. J4-1)

= 50 ksi(7.62 in.)(0.370 in.)


= 141 kips
LRFD

= 0.90

= 1.67

Rn = 0.90(141 kips)
= 127 kips > 80.2 kips

o.k.

ASD

Rn 141 kips
=
1.67

= 84.4 kips > 53.5 kips

o.k.

Shear Rupture of the WT Stem Base Metal


6.19D
Fu
4 sixteenths
= 6.19

65 ksi
= 0.381 in. > 0.370 in.

(Manual Eq. 9-3)

tmin =

shear rupture strength of WT stem controls over weld rupture strength

Block Shear Rupture of the WT Stem


Agv = ( 2 shear planes )( 4.00 in.)( 0.370 in.)

= 2.96 in.2
Tension stress is uniform, therefore Ubs = 1.0.
Ant = Agt = 3.00 in. ( 0.370 in.)

= 1.11 in.2

Rn = 0.60FuAnv+UbsFuAnt 0.60FyAgv+UbsFuAnt

(Spec. Eq. J4-5)

Because the angles are welded to the WT-hanger, shear yielding on the gross area will control (that is, the portion
of the block shear rupture equation that addresses shear rupture on the net area does not control).
Rn = 0.60 Fy Agv + U bs Fu Ant

= 0.60 ( 50 ksi ) 2.96 in.2 + 1.0 ( 65 ksi ) 1.11 in.2

= 161 kips

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IID-8

LRFD

= 0.75

Rn = 0.75(161 kips)
= 121 kips > 80.2 kips

= 2.00

o.k.

ASD

Rn 161 kips
=

2.00
= 80.5 kips > 53.5 kips

o.k.

Note: As an alternative to the preceding calculations, the designer can use a simplified procedure to select a WT
hanger with a flange thick enough to reduce the effect of prying action to an insignificant amount, i.e.,
q 0. Assuming b ' = 1.45 in.
From AISC Manual Part 9:
LRFD

= 0.90

tmin =

4Tb
pFu

4(20.1 kips/bolt)(1.45 in.)


0.90(3.50 in./bolt)(65 ksi)
= 0.755 in.

= 1.67

(Manual Eq. 9-20a)

tmin =

ASD

4Tb
pFu

(Manual Eq. 9-20b)

1.67 ( 4 ) (13.4 kips/bolt)(1.45 in.)

(3.50 in./bolt)(65 ksi)


= 0.755 in.

A WT625, with tf = 0.640 in. < 0.755 in., does not have a sufficient flange thickness to reduce the effect of
prying action to an insignificant amount. In this case, the simplified approach requires a WT section with a thicker
flange.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IID-9

EXAMPLE II.D-2 BEAM BEARING PLATE


Given:

An ASTM A992 W1850 beam with a dead load end reaction of 15 kips and a live load end reaction of 45 kips is
supported by a 10-in.-thick concrete wall. Assuming the concrete has f c = 3 ksi, and the bearing plate is ASTM
A36 material determine the following:
a. If a bearing plate is required if the beam is supported by the full wall thickness
b. The bearing plate required if lb = 10 in. (the full wall thickness)
c. The bearing plate required if lb = 62 in. and the bearing plate is centered on the thickness of the wall

Solution:

From AISC Manual Tables 2-4 and 2-5, the material properties are as follows:
Beam
W1850
ASTM A992
Fy = 50 ksi
Fu = 65 ksi
Bearing Plate (if required)
ASTM A36
Fy = 36 ksi
Fu = 58 ksi
Concrete Wall
f c = 3 ksi
From AISC Manual Table 1-1, the geometric properties are as follows:
Beam
W1850
d = 18.0 in.
tw = 0.355 in.
bf = 7.50 in.
tf = 0.570 in.
kdes = 0.972 in.
k1 = m in.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IID-10

Concrete Wall
h = 10.0 in.
Solution a:

LRFD
Calculate required strength.

ASD
Calculate required strength.

Ru = 1.2(15 kips) + 1.6(45 kips)


= 90.0 kips

Ra = 15 kips + 45 kips
= 60.0 kips

Check web local yielding using AISC Manual Table


9-4 and Manual Equation 9-45a.

Check web local yielding using AISC Manual Table


9-4 and Manual Equation 9-45b.

Ru R1
kdes
R2
90.0 kips 43.1 kips
=
0.972 in.
17.8 kips/in.
= 2.63 in. < 10.0 in.

lb req =

Ra R1 /
kdes
R2 /
60.0 kips 28.8 kips
=
0.972 in.
11.8 kips/in.
= 2.64 in. < 10.0 in.

lb req =

o.k.

o.k.

Check web local crippling using AISC Manual Table


9-4.

Check web local crippling using AISC Manual Table


9-4.

lb 10.0 in.
=
d 18.0 in.
= 0.556

lb 10.0 in.
=
d 18.0 in.
= 0.556

Since

lb
> 0.2, use Manual Equation 9-48a.
d

Ru R5
R6
90.0 kips 52.0 kips
=
6.30 kips/in.
= 6.03 in. < 10.0 in.

Since

lb req =

Verify

lb
> 0.2, use Manual Equation 9-48b.
d

Ra R5 /
R6 /
60.0 kips 34.7 kips
=
4.20 kips/in.
= 6.02 in. < 10.0 in.

lb req =

o.k.

lb
> 0.2,
d

Verify

lb 6.03 in.
=
d 18.0 in.
= 0.335 > 0.2

o.k.

o.k.

lb
> 0.2,
d

lb 6.02 in.
=
d 18.0 in.
= 0.334 > 0.2

o.k.

Check the bearing strength of concrete.

Check the bearing strength of concrete.

Note that AISC Specification Equation J8-1 is used


because A2 is not larger than A1 in this case.

Note that AISC Specification Equation J8-1 is used


because A2 is not larger than A1 in this case.

Pp = 0.85fc A1

Pp = 0.85fc A1

(Spec. Eq. J8-1)

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

(Spec. Eq. J8-1)

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IID-11

LRFD

ASD
c = 2.31

c = 0.65

cPp = c0.85fcA1
= 0.65(0.85)(3 ksi)(7.50 in.)(10.0 in.)
= 124 kips > 90.0 kips

Pp 0.85 f c'A1
=
c
c
0.85 ( 3 ksi )( 7.50 in.)(10.0 in.)
=
2.31
= 82.8 kips > 60.0 kips

o.k.

o.k.

Beam Flange Thickness Check Using AISC Manual Part 14


LRFD
Determine the cantilever length from Manual Equation
14-1.

ASD
Determine the cantilever length from Manual Equation
14-1.
bf
kdes
2
7.50 in.
=
0.972 in.
2
= 2.78 in.

bf
kdes
2
7.50 in.
=
0.972 in.
2
= 2.78 in.

n=

n=

Determine bearing pressure.

Determine bearing pressure.

fp =

Ru
A1

fp =

Determine the minimum beam flange thickness


required if no bearing plate is provided. The beam
flanges along the length, n, are assumed to be fixed end
cantilevers with a minimum thickness determined
using the limit state of flexural yielding.
Mu =

f p n 2 Ru n 2
=
2
2 A1

Ra
A1

Determine the minimum beam flange thickness


required if no bearing plate is provided. The beam
flanges along the length, n, are assumed to be fixed end
cantilevers with a minimum thickness determined using
the limit state of flexural yielding.
Ma =

f p n 2 Ra n 2
=
2
2 A1

Z = 4t 2

Z = 4t 2

t2
M u Fy Z = Fy
4

Ma

Fy Z Fy t 2
=

tmin =

4M a
2 Ra n 2
=
Fy
A1 Fy

tmin =

4M u
2 Ru n 2
=
Fy
A 1 Fy

= 0.90

tmin =

2 Ru n 2
A 1 Fy

= 1.67

tmin =

2 Ra n 2
A1 Fy

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IID-12

LRFD

ASD

2(90.0 kips)(2.78 in.)2


0.90(7.50 in.)(10.0 in.)(50 ksi)
= 0.642 in. > 0.570 in.

1.67 ( 2 ) (60.0 kips)(2.78 in.) 2

(7.50 in.)(10.0 in.)(50 ksi)


= 0.643 in. > 0.570 in.

n.g.

A bearing plate is required. See note following.

n.g.

A bearing plate is required. See note following.

Note: The designer may assume a bearing width narrower than the beam flange in order to justify a thinner flange.
In this case, if 5.44 in. bearing width 6.56 in., a 0.570 in. flange thickness is ok and the concrete has adequate
bearing strength.
Solution b:

lb = 10 in.
From Solution a, web local yielding and web local crippling are o.k.
LRFD
Calculate the required bearing-plate width using AISC
Specification Equation J8-1.

ASD
Calculate the required bearing-plate width using AISC
Specification Equation J8-1.

c = 0.65

c = 2.31

A1 req =

Ru
c 0.85 f c

A1 req =

60.0 kips(2.31)
(0.85)(3 ksi)
= 54.4 in.2

90.0 kips
0.65(0.85)(3 ksi)
= 54.3 in.2

B req =

Ra c
0.85 f c

A1 req
N

B req =

A 1 req
N

54.4 in.2
10.0 in.
= 5.44 in.

54.3 in.2
10.0 in.
= 5.43 in.

Use B = 8 in. (selected as the least whole-inch


dimension that exceeds bf).

Use B = 8 in. (selected as the least whole-inch


dimension that exceeds bf).

Calculate the required bearing-plate thickness using


AISC Manual Part 14.

Calculate the required bearing-plate thickness using


AISC Manual Part 14.

B
kdes
2
8.00 in.
=
0.972 in.
2
= 3.03 in.

n=

tmin =

2 Ru n 2
A1 Fy

(Manual Eq. 14-1)

B
kdes
2
8.00 in.
=
0.972 in.
2
= 3.03 in.

n=

tmin =

2 Ra n 2
A1 Fy

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

(Manual Eq. 14-1)

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IID-13

2(90.0 kips)(3.03 in.)2


0.90(10.0 in.)(8.00 in.)(36 ksi)
= 0.798 in.

1.67 ( 2 ) (60.0 kips)(3.03 in.) 2

(10.0 in.)(8.00 in.)(36 ksi)


= 0.799 in.

Use PL d in.10 in.0 ft 8 in.

Use PL d in.10 in.0 ft 8 in.

Note: The calculations for tmin are conservative. Taking the strength of the beam flange into consideration results
in a thinner required bearing plate or no bearing plate at all.
Solution c:

lb = N = 6.50 in.
From Solution a, web local yielding and web local crippling are o.k.
Try B = 8 in.

A1 = BN
= 8.00 in.(6.50 in.)
= 52.0 in.2
To determine the dimensions of the area A2, the load is spread into the concrete until an edge or the maximum
condition A 2 / A1 = 2 is met. There is also a requirement that the area, A2, be geometrically similar to A1 or, in
other words, have the same aspect ratio as A1.

N1 = 6.50 in. + 2(1.75 in.)


= 10.0 in.
B 8.00in.
=
N 6.50 in.
= 1.23
B1 = 1.23(10.0 in.)
= 12.3 in.
A2 = B1N1
= 12.3 in. (10.0 in.)
= 123 in.2
Check

A2
123 in.2
=
A1
52.0 in.2
o.k.
= 1.54 2

Pp = 0.85 f c A1 A2 A1 1.7 f c A1

(Spec. Eq. J8-2)

= 0.85 ( 3 ksi ) 52.0 in.2 (1.54 ) 1.7 ( 3 ksi ) 52.0 in.2

= 204 kips 265 kips

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IID-14

LRFD

ASD

c = 0.65

c = 2.31

c Pp = 0.65(204 kips)
= 133 kips

Pp 204 kips
=
2.31

= 88.3 kips

o.k.

133 kips > 90.0 kips

Calculate the required bearing-plate thickness using


AISC Manual Part 14.
B
k
2
8.00 in.
0.972 in.
=
2
= 3.03 in.

n=

tmin =
=

(Manual Eq. 14-1)

Calculate the required bearing-plate thickness using


AISC Manual Part 14.
n=

B
B
k k
2
2

(Manual Eq. 14-1)

8.00 in.
0.972 in.
2
= 3.03 in.

2 Ru n 2
A1 Fy

tmin =

2(90.0 kips)(3.03 in.)2


0.90 ( 6.50 in.)( 8.00 in.) (36 ksi)

= 0.990 in.

o.k.

88.3 kips > 60.0 kips

2 Ra n 2
A1 Fy

1.67 ( 2 ) (60.0 kips)(3.03 in.) 2

( 6.50 in.)(8.00 in.) (36 ksi)

= 0.991 in.
Use PL 1 in. 62 in. 0 ft 8 in.

Use PL 1 in. 62 in. 0 ft 8 in.

Note: The calculations for tmin are conservative. Taking the strength of the beam flange into consideration results
in a thinner required bearing plate or no bearing plate at all.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IID-15

EXAMPLE II.D-3 SLIP-CRITICAL CONNECTION WITH OVERSIZED HOLES


Given:

Design the connection of an ASTM A36 2L33c tension member to an ASTM A36 plate welded to an ASTM
A992 beam as shown in Figure II.D-3-1 for a dead load of 15 kips and a live load of 45 kips. The angles have
standard holes and the plate has oversized holes per AISC Specification Table J3.3. Use w-in.-diameter ASTM
A325-SC bolts with Class A surfaces.
PD = 15 kips
PL = 45 kips

Fig. II.D-3-1. Connection Configuration for Example II.D-3.


Solution:

From AISC Manual Tables 2-4 and 2-5, the material properties are as follows:
Beam
W1626
ASTM A992
Fy = 50 ksi
Fu = 65 ksi
Hanger
2L33c
ASTM A36
Fy = 36 ksi
Fu = 58 ksi

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IID-16

Plate
ASTM A36
Fy = 36 ksi
Fu = 58 ksi
From AISC Manual Tables 1-1, 1-7 and 1-15, the geometric properties are as follows:
Beam
W1626
tf = 0.345 in.
tw = 0.250 in.
kdes = 0.747 in.
Hanger
2L33c
A = 3.56 in.2
x = 0.860 in. for single angle
Plate
tp = 0.500 in.
LRFD
Calculate required strength.

ASD
Calculate required strength.

Ru = (1.2)(15 kips) + (1.6)(45 kips)


= 90.0 kips

Ra = 15 kips + 45 kips
= 60.0 kips

Check the available slip resistance of the bolts using


AISC Manual Table 7-3.

Check the available slip resistance of the bolts using


AISC Manual Table 7-3.

For w-in.-diameter ASTM A325-SC bolts with Class


A faying surfaces in oversized holes and double shear:

For w-in.-diameter ASTM A325-SC bolts with Class A


faying surfaces in oversized holes and double shear:

rn = 16.1 kips/bolt

rn
= 10.8 kips/bolt

n=

Ru
90.0 kips
=
rn 16.1 kips/bolt

n=

= 5.59 6 bolts

= 5.56 6 bolts

Slip-critical connections must also be designed for the


limit states of bearing-type connections. Check bolt
shear strength using AISC Manual Table 7-1.
rn = Fv Ab = 35.8 kips/bolt

Rn = rn n
= (35.8 kips/bolt)(6 bolts)
= 215 kips > 90.0 kips

Ra
60.0 kips
=
( rn / ) 10.8 kips/bolt

o.k.

Slip-critical connections must also be designed for the


limit states of bearing-type connections. Check bolt
shear strength using AISC Manual Table 7-1.
rn Fv Ab
=
= 23.9 kips/bolt

Rn rn
= n

= (23.9 kips/bolt)(6 bolts)
= 143 kips > 60.0 kips

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

o.k.

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IID-17

Tensile Yielding Strength of the Angles


Pn = Fy Ag

= 36 ksi 3.56 in.2

(Spec. Eq. D2-1)

= 128 kips
LRFD

ASD

t = 0.90

t = 1.67

t Pn = 0.90 (128 kips )


= 115 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

Pn 128 kips
=
1.67

= 76.6 kips > 60.0 kips

o.k.

Tensile Rupture Strength of the Angles


x
from AISC Specification Table D3.1 Case 2
l
0.860 in.
= 1
15.0 in.
= 0.943

U = 1

Ae = AnU

(Spec. Eq. D3-1)

= 3.56 in. 2(c in.)(m in. + z in.) ( 0.943)


= 2.84 in.2
2

Pn = Fu Ae

(Spec. Eq. D2-2)


2

= 58 ksi(2.84 in. )
= 165 kips
LRFD
t = 0.75
t Pn = 0.75(165 kips)
= 124 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

ASD
t = 2.00
Pn 165 kips
=
2.00
t
= 82.5 kips > 60.0 kips

o.k.

Block Shear Rupture Strength of the Angles

Use a single vertical row of bolts.


U bs = 1, n = 6, Lev = 12 in., and Leh = 14 in.

Rn = 0.60 Fu Anv + U bs Fu Ant 0.60 Fy Agv + U bs Fu Ant

Shear Yielding Component


Agv = 5 ( 3.00 in.) +1.50 in. ( c in.)

= 5.16 in.2 per angle

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

(Spec. Eq. J4-5)

Return to Table of Contents

IID-18

0.60 Fy Agv = 0.60 ( 36 ksi ) 5.16 in.2

= 111 kips per angle


Shear Rupture Component
Anv = 5.16 in.2 5.5 (m in. + z in.)( c in.)

= 3.66 in.2 per angle

0.60 Fu Anv = 0.60 ( 58 ksi ) 3.66 in.2

= 127 kips per angle


Shear yielding controls over shear rupture.
Tension Rupture Component
Ant = 1.25 in. 0.5 (m in. + z in.) ( c in.)
= 0.254 in.2 per angle

U bs Fu Ant = 1.0 ( 58 ksi ) 0.254 in.2

= 14.7 kips per angle


= 0.75

LRFD

= 2.00

Rn = 0.75 ( 2 )(111 kips + 14.7 kips )


= 189 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

ASD

Rn 2 (111kips + 14.7 kips )


=
2.00

= 126 kips > 60.0 kips

o.k.

Bearing / Tear Out Strength of the Angles


Holes are standard m-in. diameter.
Check strength for edge bolt.
lc = 1.50 in.

w in. + z in.
2

= 1.09 in.
rn = 1.2lc tFu 2.4dtFu
= 1.2(1.09 in.)(c in.)(2)(58 ksi) 2.4(w in.)(c in.)(2)(58 ksi)

(Spec. Eq. J3-6a)

= 47.4 kips 65.3 kips

Check strength for interior bolts.


lc = 3.00 in. ( w in. + z in.)

= 2.19 in.
rn = 1.2lc tFu 2.4dtFu
= 1.2(2.19 in.)(c in.)(2)(58 ksi) 2.4(w in.)(c in.)(2)(58 ksi)

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

(Spec. Eq. J3-6a)

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IID-19

= 95.3 kips 65.3 kips

Total strength for all bolts.


rn = 1(47.4 kips) + 5(65.3 kips)
= 374 kips
LRFD

= 0.75

rn = 0.75(374 kips)
= 281 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

ASD
= 2.00
rn 374 kips
=
2.00

= 187 kips > 60.0 kips

o.k.

Tensile Yielding Strength of the 2-in. Plate


By inspection, the Whitmore section includes the entire width of the 2-in. plate.
Rn = Fy Ag
= 36 ksi(2 in.)(6.00 in.)
= 108 kips

(Spec. Eq. J4-1)

LRFD
t = 0.90
Rn = 0.90(108 kips)
= 97.2 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

ASD
t = 1.67
Rn 108 kips
=
1.67
t
= 64.7 kips > 60.0 kips

o.k.

Tensile Rupture Strength of the 2-in. Plate


Holes are oversized ,-in. diameter.
Calculate the effective net area.
Ae = An 0.85 Ag from AISC Specification Section J4.1

0.85 3.00 in.2

2.55 in.

An = 3.00 in.2 (2 in.)(, in. + z in.)

= 2.50in.2 2.55in.2
Ae = AnU

(Spec. Eq. D3-1)

= 2.50in. (1.0 )
2

= 2.50 in.2
Rn = Fu Ae

(Spec. Eq. J4-2)


2

= 58 ksi(2.50 in. )
= 145 kips

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IID-20

LRFD
= 0.75
Rn = 0.75(145 kips)
= 109 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

ASD
= 2.00
Rn 145 kips
=

2.00
= 72.5 kips > 60.0 kips

o.k.

Block Shear Rupture Strength of the 2-in. Plate


Use a single vertical row of bolts.
U bs = 1.0, n = 6, Lev = 12 in., and Leh = 3 in.
Rn = 0.60 Fu Anv + U bs Fu Ant 0.60 Fy Agv + U bs Fu Ant

(Spec. Eq. J4-5)

Shear Yielding Component


Agv = 5 ( 3.00 in.) + 1.50 in. (2 in.)
= 8.25 in.2

0.60 Fy Agv = 0.60 ( 36 ksi ) 8.25 in.2

= 178 kips
Shear Rupture Component
Anv = 8.25 in.2 5.5 (, in. + z in.)(2 in.)

= 5.50 in.2

0.60 Fu Anv = 0.60 ( 58 ksi ) 5.50 in.2

= 191 kips
Shear yielding controls over shear rupture.
Tension Rupture Component
Ant = 3.00 in. 0.5 (, in. + z in.) (2 in.)
= 1.25 in.2

U bs Fu Ant = 1.0 ( 58 ksi ) 1.25 in.2

= 72.5 kips
= 0.75

LRFD

= 2.00

Rn = 0.75 (178 kips + 72.5 kips )


= 188 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

ASD

Rn (178 kips + 72.5 kips )


=

2.00
= 125 kips > 60.0 kips

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IID-21

Bearing/Tear Out Strength of the 2-in. Plate


Holes are oversized ,-in. diameter.
Check strength for edge bolt.
lc = 1.50 in.

, in.
2

= 1.03 in.
rn = 1.2lc tFu 2.4dtFu
= 1.2(1.03 in.)(2 in.)(58 ksi) 2.4(w)(2 in.)(58 ksi)

(Spec. Eq. J3-6a)

= 35.8 kips 52.2 kips

Check strength for interior bolts.


lc = 3.00 in. , in.
= 2.06 in.
rn = 1.2lc tFu 2.4dtFu
= 1.2(2.06 in.)(2 in.)(58 ksi) 2.4(w in.)(2 in.)(58 ksi)
= 71.7 kips 52.2 kips

(Spec. Eq. J3-6a)

Total strength for all bolts.


rn = 1(35.8 kips) + 5(52.2 kips)
= 297 kips
LRFD
= 0.75
rn = 0.75(297 kips)
= 223 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

ASD
= 2.00
rn 297 kips
=
2.00

= 149 kips > 60.0 kips

o.k.

Fillet Weld Required for the 2-in. Plate to the W-Shape Beam
Because the angle of the force relative to the axis of the weld is 90, the strength of the weld can be increased by
the following factor from AISC Specification Section J2.4.
(1.0 + 0.50sin1.5 ) = (1.0 + 0.50sin1.5 90)
= 1.50

From AISC Manual Equations 8-2,


LRFD
Ru
Dreq =
1.50(1.392l )
90.0 kips
=
1.50(1.392)(2)(6.00 in.)
= 3.59 sixteenths

ASD
Pa
Dreq =
1.50(0.928l )
60.0 kips
=
1.50(0.928)(2)(6.00 in.)
= 3.59 sixteenths

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IID-22

From AISC Manual Table J2.4, the minimum fillet weld size is x in.
Use a 4-in. fillet weld on both sides of the plate.
Beam Flange Base Metal Check
3.09 D
Fu
3.09(3.59 sixteenths)
=
65 ksi
= 0.171 in. < 0.345 in.

tmin =

(Manual Eq. 9-2)

o.k.

Concentrated Forces Check for W16x26 Beam


Check web local yielding. (Assume the connection is at a distance from the member end greater than the depth of
the member, d.)
Rn = Fywtw (5kdes + lb )

(Spec. Eq. J10-2)

= 50 ksi (4 in.) 5 ( 0.747 in.) + 6.00 in.


= 122 kips
= 1.00

LRFD

Rn = 1.00(122 kips)
= 122 kips > 90.0 kips

o.k.

ASD
= 1.50
Rn 122 kips
=

1.50
= 81.3 kips > 60.0 kips

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o.k.

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III-1

Chapter III
System Design Examples

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III-2
EXAMPLE III-1

Design of Selected Members and Lateral Analysis of a Four-Story Building

INTRODUCTION
This section illustrates the load determination and selection of representative members that are part of the gravity
and lateral frame of a typical four-story building. The design is completed in accordance with the 2010 AISC
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings and the 14th Edition AISC Steel Construction Manual. Loading
criteria are based on ASCE/SEI 7-10 (ASCE, 2010).
This section includes:
Analysis and design of a typical steel frame for gravity loads
Analysis and design of a typical steel frame for lateral loads
Examples illustrating three methods for satisfying the stability provisions of AISC Specification Chapter
C
The building being analyzed in this design example is located in a Midwestern city with moderate wind and
seismic loads. The loads are given in the description of the design example. All members are ASTM A992 steel.
CONVENTIONS
The following conventions are used throughout this example:
1.

Beams or columns that have similar, but not necessarily identical, loads are grouped together. This is
done because such grouping is generally a more economical practice for design, fabrication and erection.

2.

Certain calculations, such as design loads for snow drift, which might typically be determined using a
spreadsheet or structural analysis program, are summarized and then incorporated into the analysis. This
simplifying feature allows the design example to illustrate concepts relevant to the member selection
process.

3.

Two commonly used deflection calculations, for uniform loads, have been rearranged so that the
conventional units in the problem can be directly inserted into the equation for steel design. They are as
follows:
Simple Beam:

Beam Fixed at both Ends:

5 w kip/in. ( L in.)

384 ( 29,000 ksi ) ( I in.4 )


w kip/in. ( L in.)

w kip/ft ( L ft )

384 ( 29,000 ksi ) ( I in.4 )

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1,290 ( I in.4 )

w kip/ft ( L ft )

6,440 ( I in.4 )

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III-3
DESIGN SEQUENCE
The design sequence is presented as follows:
1. General description of the building including geometry, gravity loads and lateral loads
2. Roof member design and selection
3. Floor member design and selection
4. Column design and selection for gravity loads
5. Wind load determination
6. Seismic load determination
7. Horizontal force distribution to the lateral frames
8. Preliminary column selection for the moment frames and braced frames
9. Seismic load application to lateral systems
10. Stability (P-) analysis

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III-4
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING
Geometry
The design example is a four-story building, comprised of seven bays at 30 ft in the East-West (numbered grids)
direction and bays of 45 ft, 30 ft and 45 ft in the North-South (lettered grids) direction. The floor-to-floor height
for the four floors is 13 ft 6 in. and the height from the fourth floor to the roof (at the edge of the building) is 14 ft
6 in. Based on discussions with fabricators, the same column size will be used for the whole height of the
building.

Basic Building Layout


The plans of these floors and the roof are shown on Sheets S2.1 thru S2.3, found at the end of this Chapter. The
exterior of the building is a ribbon window system with brick spandrels supported and back-braced with steel and
infilled with metal studs. The spandrel wall extends 2 ft above the elevation of the edge of the roof. The window
and spandrel system is shown on design drawing Sheet S4.1.
The roof system is 12-in. metal deck on bar joists. These bar joists are supported on steel beams as shown on
Sheet S2.3. The roof slopes to interior drains. The middle 3 bays have a 6 ft tall screen wall around them and
house the mechanical equipment and the elevator over run. This area has steel beams, in place of steel bar joists,
to support the mechanical equipment.
The three elevated floors have 3 in. of normal weight concrete over 3-in. composite deck for a total slab thickness
of 6 in. The supporting beams are spaced at 10 ft on center. These beams are carried by composite girders in the
East-West direction to the columns. There is a 30 ft by 29 ft opening in the second floor, to create a two-story
atrium at the entrance. These floor layouts are shown on Sheets S2.1 and S2.2. The first floor is a slab on grade
and the foundation consists of conventional spread footings.
The building includes both moment frames and braced frames for lateral resistance. The lateral system in the
North-South direction consists of chevron braces at the end of the building, located adjacent to the stairways. In

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III-5
the East-West direction there are no locations in which chevron braces can be concealed; consequently, the lateral
system in the East-West direction is composed of moment frames at the North and South faces of the building.
This building is sprinklered and has large open spaces around it, and consequently does not require fireproofing
for the floors.
Wind Forces
The Basic Wind Speed is 90 miles per hour (3 second gust). Because it is sited in an open, rural area, it will be
analyzed as Wind Exposure Category C. Because it is an ordinary (Risk Category II) office occupancy, the wind
importance factor is 1.0.
Seismic Forces
The sub-soil has been evaluated and the site class has been determined to be Category D. The area has a short
period Ss = 0.121g and a one-second period S1 = 0.060g. The seismic importance factor is 1.0, that of an ordinary
office occupancy (Risk Category II).
Roof and Floor Loads
Roof loads:
The ground snow load (pg) is 20 psf. The slope of the roof is 4 in./ft or more at all locations, but not exceeding 2
in./ft; consequently, 5 psf rain-on-snow surcharge is to be considered, but ponding instability design calculations
are not required. This roof can be designed as a fully exposed roof, but, per ASCE/SEI 7 Section 7.3, cannot be
designed for less than pf = (I)pg = 20 psf uniform snow load. Snow drift will be applied at the edges of the roof
and at the screen wall around the mechanical area. The roof live load for this building is 20 psf, but may be
reduced per ASCE/SEI 7 Section 4.8 where applicable.
Floor Loads:
The basic live load for the floor is 50 psf. An additional partition live load of 20 psf is specified. Because the
locations of partitions and, consequently, corridors are not known, and will be subject to change, the entire floor
will be designed for a live load of 80 psf. This live load will be reduced, based on type of member and area per
the ASCE provisions for live-load reduction.
Wall Loads:
A wall load of 55 psf will be used for the brick spandrels, supporting steel, and metal stud back-up. A wall load
of 15 psf will be used for the ribbon window glazing system.
ROOF MEMBER DESIGN AND SELECTION
Calculate dead load and snow load.
Dead Load
Roofing
Insulation
Deck
Beams
Joists
Misc.
Total

= 5 psf
= 2 psf
= 2 psf
= 3 psf
= 3 psf
= 5 psf
= 20 psf

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III-6
Snow Load from ASCE/SEI 7 Section 7.3 and 7.10
Snow
= 20 psf
Rain on Snow
= 5 psf
Total
= 25 psf
Note: In this design, the rain and snow load is greater than the roof live load
The deck is 1 in., wide rib, 22 gage, painted roof deck, placed in a pattern of three continuous spans minimum.
The typical joist spacing is 6 ft on center. At 6 ft on center, this deck has an allowable total load capacity of 89
psf. The roof diaphragm and roof loads extend 6 in. past the centerline of grid as shown on Sheet S4.1.
From Section 7.7 of ASCE/SEI 7, the following drift loads are calculated:
Flat roof snow load = 20 psf, Density = 16.6 lbs/ft3, hb = 1.20 ft
Summary of Drifts

Side Parapet
End Parapet
Screen Wall

Upwind Roof
Length (lu)
121 ft
211 ft
60.5 ft

Proj.
Height
2 ft
2 ft
6 ft

Max. Drift
Load
13.2 psf
13.2 psf
30.5 psf

Max Drift
Width (W)
6.36 ft
6.36 ft
7.35 ft

The snow drift at the penthouse was calculated for the maximum effect, using the East-West wind and an upwind
fetch from the parapet to the centerline of the columns at the penthouse. This same drift is conservatively used for
wind in the North-South direction. The precise location of the drift will depend upon the details of the penthouse
construction, but will not affect the final design in this case.
SELECT ROOF JOISTS
Layout loads and size joists.
User Note: Joists may be specified using ASD or LRFD but are most commonly specified by ASD as shown
here.
The 45-ft side joist with the heaviest loads is shown below along with its end reactions and maximum moment:

Because the load is not uniform, select a 24KCS4 joist from the Steel Joist Institute load tables (SJI, 2005). This
joist has an allowable moment of 92.3 kip-ft, an allowable shear of 8.40 kips, a gross moment of inertia of 453 in.4
and weighs 16.6 plf.
The first joist away from the end of the building is loaded with snow drift along the length of the member. Based
on analysis, a 24KCS4 joist is also acceptable for this uniform load case.
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III-7

As an alternative to directly specifying the joist sizes on the design document, as done in this example, loading
diagrams can be included on the design documents to allow the joist manufacturer to economically design the
joists.
The typical 30-ft joist in the middle bay will have a uniform load of
w = (20 psf + 25 psf)(6 ft) = 270 plf
wSL = (25 psf)(6 ft) = 150 plf
From the Steel Joist Institute load tables, select an 18K5 joist which weighs approximately 7.7 plf and satisfies
both strength and deflection requirements.
Note: the first joist away from the screen wall and the first joist away from the end of the building carry snow
drift. Based on analysis, an 18K7 joist will be used in these locations.

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III-8
SELECT ROOF BEAMS
Calculate loads and select beams in the mechanical area.
For the beams in the mechanical area, the mechanical units could weigh as much as 60 psf. Use 40 psf additional
dead load, which will account for the mechanical units and the screen wall around the mechanical area. Use 15
psf additional snow load, which will account for any snow drift which could occur in the mechanical area. The
beams in the mechanical area are spaced at 6 ft on center.
Per AISC Design Guide 3 (West et al., 2003), calculate the minimum Ix to limit deflection to l/360 = 1.00 in.
because a plaster ceiling will be used in the lobby area. Use 40 psf as an estimate of the snow load, including
some drifting that could occur in this area, for deflection calculations.
Note: The beams and supporting girders in this area should be rechecked when the final weights and locations for
the mechanical units have been determined.
Ireq (Live Load) =

0.240 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

1,290 (1.00 in.)

= 151 in.4

Calculate the required strengths from Chapter 2 of ASCE/SEI 7 and select the beams in the mechanical area.
LRFD

wu = 6.00 ft[1.2 (0.020 kip/ft2 + 0.040 kip/ft2)


+1.6(0.025 kip/ft2 + 0.015 kip/ft2)]
= 0.816 kip/ft

30.0 ft
( 0.600 kip/ft )
2
= 9.00 kips

30.0 ft
( 0.816 kip/ft )
2
= 12.2 kips

Ru =

Mu =

0.816 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

ASD
wa = 6.00 ft[0.020 kip/ft2 + 0.040 kip/ft2
+ 0.025 kip/ft2 + 0.015 kip/ft2]
= 0.600 kip/ft
Ra =

Ma =

= 91.8 kip-ft

0.600 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

= 67.5 kip-ft

Assuming the beam has full lateral support, use


Manual Table 3-2, select an ASTM A992 W1422,
which has a design flexural strength of 125 kip-ft, a
design shear strength of 94.5 kips, and an Ix of 199
in.4

Assuming the beam has full lateral support, use


Manual Table 3-2, select an ASTM A992 W1422,
which has an allowable flexural strength of 82.8 kipft, an allowable shear strength of 63.0 kips and
an Ix of 199 in.4

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III-9

SELECT ROOF BEAMS AT THE END (EAST & WEST) OF THE BUILDING

The beams at the ends of the building carry the brick spandrel panel and a small portion of roof load. For these
beams, the cladding weight exceeds 25% of the total dead load on the beam. Therefore, per AISC Design Guide 3,
limit the vertical deflection due to cladding and initial dead load to L/600 or a in. maximum. In addition, because
these beams are supporting brick above and there is continuous glass below, limit the superimposed dead and live
load deflection to L/600 or 0.3 in. max to accommodate the brick and L/360 or 4 in. max to accommodate the
glass. Therefore, combining the two limitations, limit the superimposed dead and live load deflection to L/600 or
4 in. The superimposed dead load includes all of the dead load that is applied after the cladding has been
installed. In calculating the wall loads, the spandrel panel weight is taken as 55 psf. The spandrel panel weight is
approximately:
wD = 7.50 ft(0.055 kip/ft2)
= 0.413 kip/ft

The dead load from the roof is equal to:


wD = 3.50 ft(0.020 kip/ft2)
= 0.070 kip/ft

Use 8 psf for the initial dead load.


wD(initial) = 3.50 ft(0.008 kip/ft2)
= 0.0280 kip/ft

Use 12 psf for the superimposed dead load.


wD(super) = 3.50 ft(0.012 kip/ft2)
= 0.0420 kip/ft

The snow load from the roof can be conservatively taken as:
wS = 3.50 ft(0.025 kip/ft2 + 0.0132 kip/ft2)
= 0.134 kip/ft

to account for the maximum snow drift as a uniform load.


Assume the beams are simple spans of 22.5 ft.
Calculate minimum Ix to limit the superimposed dead and live load deflection to in.
Ireq =

0.176 kip/ft ( 22.5 ft )

1,290 (4 in.)

=140 in.4

Calculate minimum Ix to limit the cladding and initial dead load deflection to a in.
Ireq =

0.441 kip/ft ( 22.5 ft )


1,290 ( a in.)

= 234 in.4

The beams are full supported by the deck as shown in Detail 4 on Sheet S4.1. The loading diagram is as follows:

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III-10

Calculate the required strengths from Chapter 2 of ASCE/SEI 7 and select the beams for the roof ends.
LRFD

wu =1.2(0.070 kip/ft + 0.413 kip/ft) + 1.6(0.134 kip/ft)


= 0.794 kip/ft
22.5 ft
( 0.794 kip/ft )
2
= 8.93 kips

22.5 ft
( 0.617 kip/ft )
2
= 6.94 kips

Ru =

Mu =

0.794 kip/ft ( 22.5 ft )

ASD
wa = (0.070 kip/ft + 0.413 kip/ft) + 0.134 kip/ft
= 0.617 kip/ft
Ra =

Ma =

= 50.2 kip-ft

0.617 kip/ft ( 22.5 ft )

= 39.0 kip-ft

Assuming the beam has full lateral support, use


Manual Table 3-2, select an ASTM A992 W1626,
which has a design flexural strength of 166 kip-ft, a
design shear strength of 106 kips, and an Ix of 301 in.4

Assuming the beam has full lateral support, use


Manual Table 3-2, select an ASTM A992 W1626,
which has an allowable flexural strength of 110 kipft, an allowable shear strength of 70.5 kips, and an
Ix of 301 in.4

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III-11

SELECT ROOF BEAMS ALONG THE SIDE (NORTH & SOUTH) OF THE BUILDING

The beams along the side of the building carry the spandrel panel and a substantial roof dead load and live load.
For these beams, the cladding weight exceeds 25% of the total dead load on the beam. Therefore, per AISC
Design Guide 3, limit the vertical deflection due to cladding and initial dead load to L/600 or a in. maximum. In
addition, because these beams are supporting brick above and there is continuous glass below, limit the
superimposed dead and live load deflection to L/600 or 0.3 in. max to accommodate the brick and L/360 or 4 in.
max to accommodate the glass. Therefore, combining the two limitations, limit the superimposed dead and live
load deflection to L/600 or 4 in. The superimposed dead load includes all of the dead load that is applied after the
cladding has been installed. These beams will be part of the moment frames on the side of the building and
therefore will be designed as fixed at both ends. The roof dead load and snow load on this edge beam is equal to
the joist end dead load and snow load reaction. Treating this as a uniform load, divide this by the joist spacing.
wD = 2.76 kips/6.00 ft
= 0.460 kip/ft
wS = 3.73 kips/6.00 ft
= 0.622 kip/ft
wD(initial) = 23.0 ft (0.008 kip/ft2)
= 0.184 kip/ft
wD(super) = 23.0 ft (0.012 kip/ft2)
= 0.276 kip/ft

Calculate the minimum Ix to limit the superimposed dead and live load deflection to 4 in.
Ireq =

( 0.898 kip/ft )( 30.0 ft )


6,440 (4 in.)

= 452 in.4
Calculate the minimum Ix to limit the cladding and initial dead load deflection to a in.
Ireq =

( 0.597 kip/ft )( 30.0 ft )


6,440 ( a in.)

= 200 in.4

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III-12

Calculate the required strengths from Chapter 2 of ASCE/SEI 7 and select the beams for the roof sides.
LRFD

wu = 1.2(0.460 kip/ft + 0.413 kip/ft)


+1.6(0.622 kip/ft)
= 2.04 kip/ft
30.0 ft
( 2.04 kip/ft )
2
= 30.6 kips

ASD
wa = (0.460 kip/ft + 0.413 kip/ft)
+ 0.622 kip/ft
= 1.50 kip/ft
30.0 ft
(1.50 kip/ft )
2
= 22.5 kips

Ru =

Ra =

Calculate Cb for compression in the bottom flange


braced at the midpoint and supports using AISC
Specification Equation F1-1.

Calculate Cb for compression in the bottom flange


braced at the midpoint and supports using AISC
Specification Equation F1-1.

MuMax =

2.04 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

MaMax =

12
= 153 kip-ft at supports

Mu =

2.04 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

Ma =

From AISC Manual Table 3-23,

2.04 kip/ft 6 ( 30.0 ft )( 3.75 ft )

2
2
( 30.0 ft ) 6 ( 3.75 ft )
12

= 52.6 kip-ft
at quarter point of unbraced segment

2.04 kip/ft 6 ( 30.0 ft )( 7.50 ft )

2
2
( 30.0 ft ) 6 ( 7.50 ft )
12

= 19.1 kip-ft at midpoint of unbraced segment


M uC =

1.50 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

24
= 56.3 kip-ft at midpoint

From AISC Manual Table 3-23,

M uB =

12
= 113 kip-ft at supports

24
= 76.5 kip-ft at midpoint

M uA =

1.50 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

2.04 kip/ft 6 ( 30.0 ft )(11.3 ft )

2
2
( 30.0 ft ) 6 (11.3 ft )
12

= 62.5 kip-ft at three quarter point of unbraced


segment

M aA =

1.50 kip/ft 6 ( 30.0 ft )( 3.75 ft )

( 30.0 ft )2 6 ( 3.75 ft )2
12

= 38.7 kip-ft
at quarter point of unbraced segment

M aB =

1.50 kip/ft 6 ( 30.0 ft )( 7.50 ft )

2
2
( 30.0 ft ) 6 ( 7.50 ft )
12

= 14.1 kip-ft at midpoint of unbraced segment


M aC =

1.50 kip/ft 6 ( 30.0 ft )(11.3 ft )

2
2
( 30.0 ft ) 6 (11.3 ft )
12

= 46.0 kip-ft at three quarter point of unbraced


segment

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III-13

LRFD

Using AISC Specification Equation F1-1,


12.5M max
Cb =
2.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C
12.5 (153 kip-ft )
=
2.5 (153 kip-ft ) + 3 ( 52.6 kip-ft )

+4 (19.1 kip-ft ) + 3 ( 62.5 kip-ft )


= 2.38

ASD
Using AISC Specification Equation F1-1,
12.5M max
Cb =
2.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C
12.5 (113 kip-ft )
=
2.5 (113 kip-ft ) + 3 ( 38.7 kip-ft )

+4 (14.1 kip-ft ) + 3 ( 46.0 kip-ft )


= 2.38

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, select W1835.

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, select W1835.

For Lb = 6 ft and Cb = 1.0


bMn = 229 kip-ft > 76.5 kip-ft

For Lb = 6 ft and Cb = 1.0


Mn / b = 152 kip-ft > 56.3 kip-ft

o.k.

For Lb = 15 ft and Cb = 2.38,


Mn / b = (72.7 kip-ft)2.38
= 173 kip-ft Mp / b
b / Mp = 166 kip-ft > 113 kip-ft

o.k.

For Lb = 15 ft and Cb = 2.38,


bMn = (109 kip-ft)2.38
= 259 kip-ft bMp
bMp = 249 kip-ft > 153 kip-ft

o.k.

o.k.

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, a W1835 has a


design shear strength of 159 kips and an Ix of 510 in.4
o.k.

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, a W1835 has an


allowable shear strength of 106 kips and an Ix of 510
in.4 o.k.

Note: This roof beam may need to be upsized during the lateral load analysis to increase the
stiffness and strength of the member and improve lateral frame drift performance.

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III-14

SELECT THE ROOF BEAMS ALONG THE INTERIOR LINES OF THE BUILDING

There are three individual beam loadings that occur along grids C and D. The beams from 1 to 2 and 7 to 8 have a
uniform snow load except for the snow drift at the end at the parapet. The snow drift from the far ends of the 45-ft
joists is negligible. The beams from 2 to 3 and 6 to 7 are the same as the first group, except they have snow drift
at the screen wall. The loading diagrams are shown below. A summary of the moments, left and right reactions,
and required Ix to keep the live load deflection to equal or less than the span divided by 240 (or 1.50 in.) is given
below.

Calculate required strengths from Chapter 2 of ASCE/SEI 7 and required moment of inertia.
LRFD

Grids 1 to 2 and 7 to 8 (opposite hand)

ASD
Grids 1 to 2 and 7 to 8 (opposite hand)

Ru (left) = 1.2(11.6 kips) + 1.6(16.0 kips)


= 39.5 kips

Ra (left) = 11.6 kips + 16.0 kips


= 27.6 kips

Ru (right) = 1.2(11.2 kips) + 1.6(14.2 kips)


= 36.2 kips

Ra (right) = 11.2 kips + 14.2 kips


= 25.4 kips

Mu = 1.2(84.3 kip-ft) + 1.6(107 kip-ft)


= 272 kip-ft

Ma = 84.3 kip-ft + 107 kip-ft


= 191 kip-ft

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III-15

LRFD

Ix reqd =

( 0.938 kip/ft )( 30.0 ft )


1,290 (1.50 in.)

ASD
4

Ix reqd =

= 393 in.4

( 0.938 kip/ft )( 30.0 ft )


1,290 (1.50 in.)

= 393 in.4

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, for Lb = 6 ft and Cb


= 1.0, select W2144 which has a design flexural
strength of 332 kip-ft, a design shear strength of 217
kips, and Ix = 843 in.4

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, for Lb = 6 ft and Cb


= 1.0, select W2144 which has an allowable
flexural strength of 221 kip-ft, an allowable shear
strength of 145 kips, and Ix = 843 in.4

Grids 2 to 3 and 6 to 7(opposite hand)

Grids 2 to 3 and 6 to 7(opposite hand)

Ru (left) = 1.2(11.3 kips) + 1.6(14.4 kips)


= 36.6 kips

Ra (left) = 11.3 kips + 14.4 kips


= 25.7 kips

Ru (right) = 1.2(11.3 kips) + 1.6(17.9) kips)


= 42.2 kips

Ra (right) = 11.3 kips + 17.9 kips


= 29.2 kips

Mu = 1.2(84.4 kip-ft) + 1.6(111 kip-ft)


= 279 kip-ft

Ma = 84.4 kip-ft + 111 kip-ft


= 195 kip-ft

Ix reqd =

( 0.938 kip/ft )( 30.0 ft )


1,290 (1.50 in.)

Ix reqd =

= 393 in.4

( 0.938 kip/ft )( 30.0 ft )


1,290 (1.50 in.)

= 393 in.4

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, for Lb = 6 ft and Cb


= 1.0, select W2144 which has a design flexural
strength of 332 kip-ft, a design shear strength of 217
kips and Ix = 843 in.4

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, for Lb = 6 ft and Cb =


1.0, select W2144 which has an allowable flexural
strength of 221 kip-ft, an allowable shear strength of
145 kips, and Ix = 843 in.4

The third individual beam loading occurs at the beams from 3 to 4, 4 to 5, and 5 to 6. This is the
heaviest load.

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III-16

SELECT THE ROOF BEAMS ALONG THE SIDES OF THE MECHANICAL AREA

The beams from 3 to 4, 4 to 5, and 5 to 6 have a uniform snow load outside the screen walled area, except for the
snow drift at the parapet ends and the screen wall ends of the 45-ft joists. Inside the screen walled area the beams
support the mechanical equipment. A summary of the moments, left and right reactions, and required Ix to keep
the live load deflection to equal or less than the span divided by 240 (or 1.50 in.) is given below.

LRFD

wu =1.2 (1.35 kip/ft) +1.6(1.27 kip/ft)


= 3.65 kip/ft
Mu =

3.65 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

Ma =

= 411 kip-ft
30.0 ft
( 3.65 kip/ft )
2
= 54.8 kips

1.27 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

30.0 ft
( 2.62 kip/ft )
2
= 39.3 kips

Ra =

Ix reqd =

1,290 (1.50 in.)

= 532 in.

2.62 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

= 295 kip-ft

Ru =

Ix reqd =

ASD
wa = 1.35 kip/ft + 1.27 kip/ft2
= 2.62 kip/ft

1.27 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

1,290 (1.50 in.)

= 532 in.4

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, for Lb = 6 ft and Cb =


1.0, select W2155, which has a design flexural
strength of 473 kip-ft, a design shear strength of 234
kips, and an Ix of 1,140 in.4

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, for Lb = 6 ft and Cb


= 1.0, select W2155, which has an allowable
flexural strength of 314 kip-ft, an allowable shear
strength of 156 kips, and an Ix of 1,140 in.4

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III-17
FLOOR MEMBER DESIGN AND SELECTION

Calculate dead load and live load.


Dead Load
Slab and Deck
Beams (est.)
Misc. ( ceiling, mechanical, etc.)
Total

= 57 psf
= 8 psf
= 10 psf
= 75 psf

Note: The weight of the floor slab and deck was obtained from the manufacturers literature.
Live Load
Total (can be reduced for area per ASCE/SEI 7)

= 80 psf

The floor and deck will be 3 in. of normal weight concrete, f c = 4 ksi, on 3-in. 20 gage, galvanized, composite
deck, laid in a pattern of three or more continuous spans. The total depth of the slab is 6 in. The Steel Deck
Institute maximum unshored span for construction with this deck and a three-span condition is 10 ft 11 in. The
general layout for the floor beams is 10 ft on center; therefore, the deck does not need to be shored during
construction. At 10 ft on center, this deck has an allowable superimposed live load capacity of 143 psf. In
addition, it can be shown that this deck can carry a 2,000 pound load over an area of 2.5 ft by 2.5 ft as required by
Section 4.4 of ASCE/SEI 7. The floor diaphragm and the floor loads extend 6 in. past the centerline of grid as
shown on Sheet S4.1.

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III-18
SELECT FLOOR BEAMS (composite and noncomposite)

Note: There are two early and important checks in the design of composite beams. First, select a beam that either
does not require camber, or establish a target camber and moment of inertia at the start of the design process. A
reasonable approximation of the camber is between L/300 minimum and L/180 maximum (or a maximum of 12
to 2 in.).
Second, check that the beam is strong enough to safely carry the wet concrete and a 20 psf construction live load
(per ASCE 37-05), when designed by the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations and the provisions of Chapter F of the
AISC Specification.
SELECT TYPICAL 45-FT INTERIOR COMPOSITE BEAM (10 FT ON CENTER)

Find a target moment of inertia for an unshored beam.


Hold deflection to around 2 in. maximum to facilitate concrete placement.
wD = (0.057 kip/ft2 + 0.008 kip/ft2)(10.0 ft)
= 0.650 kip/ft
I req

0.650 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

1,290 ( 2.00 in.)

= 1,030 in.4
Determine the required strength to carry wet concrete and construction live load.
wDL = 0.065 kip/ft2(10.0 ft)
= 0.650 kip/ft
wLL = 0.020 kip/ft2(10.0 ft)
= 0.200 kip/ft
Determine the required flexural strength due to wet concrete only.
LRFD

ASD
wa = 0.650 kip/ft

wu = 1.4(0.650 kip/ft)
= 0.910 kip/ft
Mu =

0.910 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

Ma =

0.650 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

= 165 kip-ft

= 230 kip-ft
Determine the required flexural strength due to wet concrete and construction live load.
LRFD

ASD
wa = 0.650 kip/ft + 0.200 kip/ft
= 0.850 kip/ft

wu = 1.2(0.650 kip/ft) + 1.6(0.200 kip/ft)


= 1.10 kip/ft
Mu =

1.10 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

= 278 kip-ft

Ma =

8
controls

0.850 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

= 215 kip-ft

controls

Use AISC Manual Table 3-2 to select a beam with Ix 1,030 in.4. Select W2150, which has Ix = 984 in.4, close
to our target value, and has available flexural strengths of 413 kip-ft (LRFD) and 274 kip-ft (ASD).
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III-19

Check for possible live load reduction due to area in accordance with Section 4.7.2 of ASCE/SEI 7.
For interior beams, KLL = 2
The beams are at 10.0 ft on center, therefore the area AT = ( 45.0 ft )(10.0 ft ) = 450 ft2.
Since K LL AT = 2 ( 450 ft 2 ) = 900 ft2 > 400 ft2, a reduced live load can be used.
From ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 4.7-1:

15
L = Lo 0.25 +

K LL AT

15
= 80.0 psf 0.25 +

2
900 ft

= 60.0 psf 0.50Lo = 40.0 psf


Therefore, use 60.0 psf.
The beam is continuously braced by the deck.
The beams are at 10 ft on center, therefore the loading diagram is as shown below.

Calculate the required flexural strength from Chapter 2 of ASCE/SEI 7.


LRFD

wu = 1.2(0.750 kip/ft) + 1.6(0.600 kip/ft)


= 1.86 kip/ft
Mu =

1.86 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

ASD
wa = 0.750 kip/ft + 0.600 kip/ft
= 1.35 kip/ft

= 471 kip-ft

Ma =

1.35 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

= 342 kip-ft

Assume initially a = 1.00 in.


Y2 = Ycon a / 2
= 6.00 in. 1.00 in. / 2
= 5.50 in.
Use AISC Manual Table 3-19 to check W2150 selected above. Using required strengths of
471 kip-ft (LRFD) or 342 kip-ft (ASD) and a Y2 value of 5.50 in.

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III-20

LRFD

Select W2150 beam, where

ASD
Select W2150 beam, where

PNA = Location 7 and Qn = 184 kips

PNA = Location 7 and Qn = 184 kips

bMn = 598 kip-ft > 471 kip-ft

o.k.

Mp / n = 398 kip-ft > 342 kip-ft

o.k.

Determine the effective width, beff.


Per Specification AISC Section I3.1a, the effective width of the concrete slab is the sum of the effective widths for
each side of the beam centerline, which shall not exceed:
(1) one-eighth of the span of the beam, center-to-center of supports

45.0 ft
( 2 sides ) = 11.3 ft
8
(2) one-half the distance to the centerline of the adjacent beam
10.0 ft
( 2 sides ) = 10.0 ft controls
2

(3) the distance to the edge of the slab


Not applicable
Determine the height of the compression block, a.
a=

Qn
0.85 f c b

(Manual Eq. 3-7)

184 kips
0.85 ( 4 ksi )(10.0 ft )(12 in./ft )

= 0.451 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

Check the W2150 end shear strength.


LRFD

ASD

45.0 ft
(1.86 kip/ft )
2
= 41.9 kips

45.0 ft
(1.35 kip/ft )
2
= 30.4 kips

Ru =

Ra =

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,

vVn = 237 kips > 41.9 kips

o.k.

Vn / v = 158 kips > 30.4 kips

Check live load deflection.


LL = l 360 = (45.0 ft)(12 in./ft)/360 = 1.50 in.

For a W2150, from AISC Manual Table 3-20,


Y2 = 5.50 in.

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o.k.

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III-21

PNA Location 7
ILB = 1,730 in.4
LL =

wLL l 4
1, 290 I LB
0.600 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

1, 290 (1, 730 in.4 )

= 1.10 in. < 1.50 in.

o.k.

Based on AISC Design Guide 3 (West, Fisher and Griffis, 2003) limit the live load deflection, using 50% of the
(unreduced) design live load, to L / 360 with a maximum absolute value of 1.0 in. across the bay.
LL =

0.400 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

1, 290 (1, 730 in.4 )

= 0.735 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

1.00 in. 0.735 in. = 0.265 in.


Note: Limit the supporting girders to 0.265 in. deflection under the same load case at the connection point of the
beam.
Determine the required number of shear stud connectors.
From AISC Manual Table 3-21, using perpendicular deck with one w-in.-diameter stud per rib in normal weight,
4 ksi concrete, in weak position; Qn = 17.2 kips/stud.
Qn
184 kips
=
Qn
17.2 kips/stud
= 10.7 studs / side

Therefore use 22 studs.


Based on AISC Design Guide 3, limit the wet concrete deflection in a bay to L / 360, not to exceed 1.00 in.
Camber the beam for 80% of the calculated wet deflection.
DL ( wet conc ) =

0.650 kip/ft ( 45.0 ft )

1, 290 ( 984 in.4 )

= 2.10 in.

Camber = 0.80(2.10 in.)


= 1.68 in.
Round the calculated value down to the nearest 4 in; therefore, specify 1.50 in. of camber.
2.10 in. 1.50 in. = 0.600 in.
1.00 in. 0.600 in. = 0.400 in.
Note: Limit the supporting girders to 0.400 in. deflection under the same load combination at the connection point
of the beam.
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III-22

SELECT TYPICAL 30-FT INTERIOR COMPOSITE (OR NONCOMPOSITE) BEAM


(10 FT ON CENTER)

Find a target moment of inertia for an unshored beam.


Hold deflection to around 1.50 in. maximum to facilitate concrete placement.
I req

0.650 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

1,290 (1.50 in.)

= 272 in.4
Determine the required strength to carry wet concrete and construction live load.
wDL = 0.065 kip/ft2(10.0 ft)
= 0.650 kip/ft
wLL = 0.020 kip/ft2(10.0 ft)
= 0.200 kip/ft

Determine the required flexural strength due to wet concrete only.


LRFD

ASD

wu = 1.4(0.650 kip/ft)
= 0.910 kip/ft
Mu =

wa = 0.650 kip/ft

0.910 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

Ma =

0.650 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

= 73.1 kip-ft

= 102 kip-ft
Determine the required flexural strength due to wet concrete and construction live load.
LRFD

wu = 1.2(0.650 kip/ft) + 1.6(0.200 kip/ft)


= 1.10 kip/ft
Mu =

1.10 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

ASD
wa = 0.650 kip/ft + 0.200 kip/ft
= 0.850 kip/ft

Ma =

= 124 kip-ft

controls

0.850 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

= 95.6 kip-ft

controls

Use AISC Manual Table 3-2 to find a beam with an Ix 272 in.4 Select W1626, which has an Ix = 301 in.4
which exceeds our target value, and has available flexural strengths of 166 kip-ft (LRFD) and 110 kip-ft (ASD).
Check for possible live load reduction due to area in accordance with Section 4.7.2 of ASCE/SEI 7.
For interior beams, KLL = 2.
The beams are at 10 ft on center, therefore the area AT = 30.0 ft 10.0 ft = 300 ft2.
Since KLLAT = 2(300 ft2) = 600 ft2 > 400 ft2, a reduced live load can be used.
From ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 4.7-1:
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III-23

15
L = Lo 0.25 +

K LL AT

15
= 80.0 psf 0.25 +

600 ft 2

= 69.0 psf 0.50 Lo = 40.0 psf

Therefore, use 69.0 psf.


The beams are at 10 ft on center, therefore the loading diagram is as shown below.

From Chapter 2 of ASCE/SEI 7, calculate the required strength.


LRFD

wu = 1.2(0.750 kip/ft) + 1.6 (0.690 kip/ft)


= 2.00 kip/ft
Mu =

2.00 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

ASD
wa = 0.750 kip/ft + 0.690 kip/ft
= 1.44 kip/ft

Ma =

= 225 kip-ft

1.44 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

= 162 kip-ft

Assume initially a = 1.00


1.00 in.
Y 2 = 6.00 in.
2
= 5.50 in.
Use AISC Manual Table 3-19 to check the W1626 selected above. Using required strengths of 225 kip-ft
(LRFD) or 162 kip-ft (ASD) and a Y2 value of 5.50 in.
LRFD

Select W1626 beam, where

ASD
Select W1626 beam, where

PNA Location 7 and Qn = 96.0 kips

PNA Location 7 and Qn = 96.0 kips

bMn = 248 kip-ft > 225 kip-ft

o.k.

Mn / n = 165 kip-ft > 162 kip-ft

o.k.

Determine the effective width, beff.


From AISC Specification Section I3.1a, the effective width of the concrete slab is the sum of the effective widths
for each side of the beam centerline, which shall not exceed:
(1) one-eighth of the span of the beam, center-to-center of supports
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III-24

30.0 ft
( 2 sides ) = 7.50 ft controls
8
(2) one-half the distance to the centerline of the adjacent beam
10.0 ft
( 2 sides ) = 10.0 ft
2

(3) the distance to the edge of the slab


Not applicable
Determine the height of the compression block, a.
a=

Qn
0.85 f c b

(Manual Eq. 3-7)

96.0 kips
0.85 ( 4 ksi )( 7.50 ft )(12 in./ft )

= 0.314 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

Check the W1626 end shear strength.


LRFD

ASD

30.0 ft
Ru =
( 2.00 kip/ft )
2
= 30.0 kips

30.0 ft
Ra =
(1.44 kip/ft )
2
= 21.6 kips

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,

vVn = 106 kips > 30.0 kips

o.k.

Vn / v = 70.5 kips > 21.6 kips

Check live load deflection.


LL = l 360
= (30.0 ft)(12 in./ft)/360
= 1.00 in.

For a W1626, from AISC Manual Table 3-20,


Y2 = 5.50 in.
PNA Location 7
ILB = 575 in.4
LL =

wLL l 4
1, 290 I LB

0.690 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

1, 290 ( 575 in.4 )

= 0.753 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

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III-25

Based on AISC Design Guide 3, limit the live load deflection, using 50% of the (unreduced) design live load, to
L/360 with a maximum absolute value of 1.0 in. across the bay.
LL =

0.400 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

1, 290 ( 575 in.4 )

= 0.437 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

1.00 in. 0.437 in. = 0.563 in.


Note: Limit the supporting girders to 0.563 in. deflection under the same load combination at the connection point
of the beam.
Determine the required number of shear stud connectors.
From AISC Manual Table 3-21, using perpendicular deck with one w-in.-diameter stud per rib in normal weight, 4
ksi concrete, in the weak position; Qn = 17.2 kips/stud
Qn
96.0 kips
=
17.2 kips/stud
Qn
= 5.58 studs/side

Use 12 studs
Note: Per AISC Specification Section I8.2d, there is a maximum spacing limit of 8(6 in.) = 4 ft not to exceed 36
in. between studs.
Therefore use 12 studs, uniformly spaced at no more than 36 in. on center.
Note: Although the studs may be placed up to 36 in. o.c. the steel deck must still be anchored to the supporting
member at a spacing not to exceed 18 in. per AISC Specification Section I3.2c.
Based on AISC Design Guide 3, limit the wet concrete deflection in a bay to L/360, not to exceed 1.00 in.
Camber the beam for 80% of the calculated wet dead load deflection.
DL ( wet conc ) =

0.650 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

1, 290 ( 301 in.4 )

= 1.36 in.

Camber = 0.800(1.36 in.)


= 1.09 in.
Round the calculated value down to the nearest 4 in. Therefore, specify 1.00 in. of camber.
1.36 in. 1.00 in. = 0.360 in.
1.00 in. 0.360 in. = 0.640 in.
Note: Limit the supporting girders to 0.640 in. deflection under the same load combination at the connection
point of the beam.
This beam could also be designed as a noncomposite beam. Use AISC Manual Table 3-2 with previous moments
and shears:
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III-26

LRFD

ASD

Select W1835

Select W1835

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,

bMn = bMp

Mn/b = Mp/b

= 249 kip-ft > 225 kip-ft

= 166 kip-ft > 162 kip-ft

o.k.

vVn = 159 > 30.0 kips

o.k.

Vn / v = 106 kips > 21.6 kips

o.k.
o.k.

Check beam deflections.


Check live load deflection of the W1835 with an Ix = 510 in.4, from AISC Manual Table 3-2.
LL =

0.690 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

1, 290 ( 510 in.4 )

= 0.850 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

Based on AISC Design Guide 3, limit the live load deflection, using 50% of the (unreduced) design live load,
to L/360 with a maximum absolute value of 1.0 in. across the bay.
4
0.400 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )
LL =
1, 290 ( 510 in.4 )
= 0.492 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

1.00 in. 0.492 in. = 0.508 in.


Note: Limit the supporting girders to 0.508 in. deflection under the same load combination at the connection
point of the beam.
Note: Because this beam is stronger than the W1626 composite beam, no wet concrete strength
checks are required in this example.
Based on AISC Design Guide 3, limit the wet concrete deflection in a bay to L/360, not to exceed 1.00 in.
Camber the beam for 80% of the calculated wet deflection.
DL ( wet conc ) =

0.650 kip/ft ( 30.0 ft )

1, 290 ( 510 in.4 )

= 0.800 in. < 1.50 in.

o.k.

Camber = 0.800(0.800 in.) = 0.640 in. < 0.750 in.


A good break point to eliminate camber is w in.; therefore, do not specify a camber for this beam.
1.00 in. 0.800 in. = 0.200 in.
Note: Limit the supporting girders to 0.200 in. deflection under the same load case at the connection point of the
beam.

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III-27

Therefore, selecting a W1835 will eliminate both shear studs and cambering. The cost of the extra steel weight
may be offset by the elimination of studs and cambering. Local labor and material costs should be checked to
make this determination.

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III-28

SELECT TYPICAL NORTH-SOUTH EDGE BEAM

The influence area (KLLAT) for these beams is less than 400 ft2, therefore no live load reduction can be taken.
These beams carry 5.50 ft of dead load and live load as well as a wall load.
The floor dead load is:
w = 5.50 ft(0.075 kips/ft2)
= 0.413 kip/ft

Use 65 psf for the initial dead load.


wD(initial) = 5.50 ft(0.065 kips/ft2)
= 0.358 kips/ft

Use 10 psf for the superimposed dead load.


wD(super) = 5.50 ft(0.010 kips/ft2)
= 0.055 kips/ft

The dead load of the wall system at the floor is:


w = 7.50 ft ( 0.055 kip / ft 2 ) + 6.00 ft ( 0.015 kip / ft 2 )

= 0.413 kip/ft + 0.090 kip/ft


= 0.503 kip/ft
The total dead load is wDL = 0.413 kip/ft + 0.503 kip/ft
= 0.916 kip/ft
The live load is wLL = 5.5 ft(0.080 kip/ft2)
= 0.440 kip/ft
The loading diagram is as follows.

Calculate the required strengths from Chapter 2 of ASCE/SEI 7.


LRFD

ASD

wu = 1.2(0.916 kip/ft) + 1.6 (0.440 kip/ft)


= 1.80 kip/ft
Mu =

1.80 kip/ft ( 22.5 ft )


8

wa = 0.916 kip/ft + 0.440 kip/ft


= 1.36 kip/ft

Ma =

1.36 kip/ft ( 22.5 ft )


8

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III-29

= 86.1 kip-ft
22.5 ft
Ra =
(1.36 kip/ft )
2
= 15.3 kips

= 114 kip-ft
22.5 ft
Ru =
(1.80 kip/ft )
2
= 20.3 kips

Because these beams are less than 25 ft long, they will be most efficient as noncomposite beams. The beams at the
edges of the building carry a brick spandrel panel. For these beams, the cladding weight exceeds 25% of the total
dead load on the beam. Therefore, per AISC Design Guide 3, limit the vertical deflection due to cladding and
initial dead load to L/600 or a in. maximum. In addition, because these beams are supporting brick above and
there is continuous glass below, limit the superimposed dead and live load deflection to L/600 or 0.3 in. max to
accommodate the brick and L/360 or 0.25 in. max to accommodate the glass. Therefore, combining the two
limitations, limit the superimposed dead and live load deflection to L/600 or 0.25 in. The superimposed dead load
includes all of the dead load that is applied after the cladding has been installed. Note that it is typically not
recommended to camber beams supporting spandrel panels.
Calculate minimum Ix to limit the superimposed dead and live load deflection to 4 in.
Ireq =

0.495 kip/ft ( 22.5 ft )

1,290 (4 in.)

= 393 in.4 controls


Calculate minimum Ix to limit the cladding and initial dead load deflection to a in.
Ireq =

0.861 kip/ft ( 22.5 ft )

1,290 ( a in.)

= 456 in.4
Select beam from AISC Manual Table 3-2.
LRFD

ASD

Select W1835 with Ix = 510 in.4

Select W1835 with Ix = 510 in.4

bMn = bMp
= 249 kip-ft > 114 kip-ft

o.k.

Mn / b = Mp / b
= 166 kip-ft > 86.1 kip-ft

o.k.

vVn = 159 > 20.3 kips

o.k.

Vn / v = 106 kips > 15.3 kips

o.k.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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III-30

SELECT TYPICAL EAST-WEST SIDE GIRDER

The beams along the sides of the building carry the spandrel panel and glass, and dead load and live load from the
intermediate floor beams. For these beams, the cladding weight exceeds 25% of the total dead load on the beam.
Therefore, per AISC Design Guide 3, limit the vertical deflection due to cladding and initial dead load to L/600 or
a in. maximum. In addition, because these beams are supporting brick above and there is continuous glass below,
limit the superimposed dead and live load deflection to L/600 or 0.3 in. max to accommodate the brick and L/360
or 0.25 in. max to accommodate the glass. Therefore, combining the two limitations, limit the superimposed dead
and live load deflection to L/600 or 0.25 in. The superimposed dead load includes all of the dead load that is
applied after the cladding has been installed. These beams will be part of the moment frames on the North and
South sides of the building and therefore will be designed as fixed at both ends.
Establish the loading.
The dead load reaction from the floor beams is:
PD = 0.750 kip/ft(45.0 ft / 2)
= 16.9 kips
PD(initial) = 0.650 kip/ft(45.0 ft / 2)
= 14.6 kips
PD(super) = 0.100 kip/ft(45.0 ft / 2)
= 2.25 kips

The uniform dead load along the beam is:


wD = 0.500 ft(0.075 kip/ft2) + 0.503 kip/ft
= 0.541 kip/ft
wD(initial) = 0.500 ft(0.065 kip/ft2)
= 0.033 kip/ft
wD(super) = 0.500 ft(0.010 kip/ft2)
= 0.005 kip/ft

Select typical 30-ft composite (or noncomposite) girders.


Check for possible live load reduction in accordance with Section 4.7.2 of ASCE/SEI 7.
For edge beams with cantilevered slabs, KLL = 1, per ASCE/SEI 7, Table 4-2. However, it is also permissible to
calculate the value of KLL based upon influence area. Because the cantilever dimension is small, KLL will be closer
to 2 than 1. The calculated value of KLL based upon the influence area is
KLL =

( 45.5 ft )( 30.0 ft )

45.0 ft

+ 0.500 ft ( 30.0 ft )

= 1.98

The area AT = (30.0 ft)(22.5 ft + 0.500 ft) = 690 ft2


Using Equation 4.7-1 of ASCE/SEI 7

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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III-31

15
L = Lo 0.25 +

K LL AT

15

= 80.0 psf 0.25 +

2
(1.98 ) ( 690 ft )

= 52.5 psf 0.50 Lo = 40.0 psf

Therefore, use 52.5 psf.


The live load from the floor beams is PLL = 0.525 kip/ft(45.0 ft / 2)
= 11.8 kips
The uniform live load along the beam is wLL = 0.500 ft(0.0525 kip/ft2)
= 0.026 kip/ft
The loading diagram is shown below.

A summary of the moments, reactions and required moments of inertia, determined from a structural analysis of
a fixed-end beam, is as follows:
Calculate the required strengths and select the beams for the floor side beams.
LRFD

ASD

Typical side beam

Typical side beam

Ru = 49.5 kips
Mu at ends =313 kip-ft
Mu at ctr. =156 kip-ft

Ra = 37.2 kips
Ma at ends = 234 kip-ft
Ma at ctr. = 117 kip-ft

The maximum moment occurs at the support with compression in the bottom flange. The bottom laterally braced
at 10 ft o.c. by the intermediate beams.
Note: During concrete placement, because the deck is parallel to the beam, the beam will not have continuous
lateral support. It will be braced at 10 ft o.c. by the intermediate beams. By inspection, this condition will not
control because the maximum moment under full loading causes compression in the bottom flange, which is
braced at 10 ft o.c.
LRFD

ASD

Calculate Cb = for compression in the bottom flange


braced at 10 ft o.c.

Calculate Cb = for compression in the bottom flange


braced at 10 ft o.c.

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III-32

LRFD

ASD

Cb = 2.21 (from computer output)

Cb = 2.22 (from computer output)

Select W2144

Select W2144

With continuous bracing, from AISC Manual Table


3-2,

With continuous bracing, from AISC Manual Table


3-2,

bMn = bMp
= 358 kip-ft > 156 kip-ft

Mn / b = Mp / b
= 238 kip-ft > 117 kip-ft

o.k.

o.k.

For Lb = 10 ft and Cb = 2.21, from AISC Manual


Table 3-10,

For Lb = 10 ft and Cb = 2.22, from AISC Manual


Table 3-10,

M n = ( 265 kip-ft )( 2.21)

M n = (176 kip-ft )( 2.22 )


= 391 kip-ft

= 586 kip-ft

According to AISC Specification Section F2.2, the


nominal flexural strength is limited Mp, therefore
bMn = bMp = 358 kip-ft.

According to AISC Specification Section F2.2, the


nominal flexural strength is limited Mp, therefore
Mn/b = Mp/b = 238 kip-ft.

358 kip-ft > 313 kip-ft

238 kip-ft > 234 kip-ft

o.k.

o.k.

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, a W2144 has a


design shear strength of 217 kips. From Table 1-1, Ix
= 843 in.4

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, a W2144 has an


allowable shear strength of 145 kips. From Table 11, Ix = 843 in.4

Check deflection due to cladding and initial dead


load.

Check deflection due to cladding and initial dead


load.

= 0.295 in. < a in.

= 0.295 in. < a in.

o.k.

o.k.

Check deflection due to superimposed dead and live


loads.

Check deflection due to superimposed dead and live


loads.

= 0.212 in. < 0.250 in.

= 0.212 in. < 0.250 in.

o.k.

o.k.

Note that both of the deflection criteria stated previously for the girder and for the locations on the girder where
the floor beams are supported have also been met.
Also noted previously, it is not typically recommended to camber beams supporting spandrel panels. The
W2144 is adequate for strength and deflection, but may be increased in size to help with moment frame strength
or drift control.

Design Examples V14.0


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III-33

SELECT TYPICAL EAST-WEST INTERIOR GIRDER

Establish loads

The dead load reaction from the floor beams is


PDL = 0.750 kip/ft(45.0 ft + 30.0 ft)/2
= 28.1 kips

Check for live load reduction due to area in accordance with Section 4.7.2 of ASCE/SEI 7.
For interior beams, KLL = 2
The area AT = ( 30.0 ft )( 37.5 ft ) = 1,130 ft2
Using ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 4.7-1:

15
L = Lo 0.25 +

K LL AT

15

= 80.0 psf 0.25 +

2
( 2 ) (1,130 ft )

= 45.2 psf 0.50 Lo = 40.0 psf


Therefore, use 45.2 psf.
The live load from the floor beams is PLL = 0.0452 kip/ft2(10.0 ft)(37.5 ft)
= 17.0 kips

Note: The dead load for this beam is included in the assumed overall dead load.
A summary of the simple moments and reactions is shown below:
Calculate the required strengths and select the size for the interior beams.
LRFD

ASD

Typical interior beam

Typical interior beam

Ru = 60.9 kips
Mu = 609 kip-ft

Ra = 45.1 kips
Ma = 451 kip-ft

Check for beam requirements when carrying wet concrete.

Design Examples V14.0


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III-34

Note: During concrete placement, because the deck is parallel to the beam, the beam will not have continuous
lateral support. It will be braced at 10 ft on center by the intermediate beams. Also, during concrete placement,
a construction live load of 20 psf will be present. This load pattern and a summary of the moments, reactions,
and deflection requirements is shown below. Limit wet concrete deflection to 1.5 in.

LRFD

ASD

Typical interior beam with wet concrete only

Typical interior beam with wet concrete only

Ru = 34.2 kips
Mu = 342 kip-ft

Ra = 24.4 kips
Ma = 244 kip-ft

Assume Ix 935 in.4, where 935 in.4 is determined based on a wet concrete deflection of 1.5 in.
LRFD

ASD

Typical interior beam with wet concrete and


construction load

Typical interior beam with wet concrete and


construction load

Ru = 41.3 kips
Mu (midspan) = 413 kip-ft

Ra = 31.9 kips
Ma (midspan) = 319 kip-ft

Select a beam with an unbraced length of 10.0 ft and


a conservative Cb = 1.0.

Select a beam with an unbraced length of 10.0 ft and


a conservative Cb = 1.0.

From AISC Manual Tables 3-2 and 3-10, select a


W2168, which has a design flexural strength of 532
kip-ft, a design shear strength of 272 kips, and from
Table 1-1, an Ix of 1,480 in.4

From AISC Manual Tables 3-2 and 3-10, select a


W2168, which has an allowable flexural strength of
354 kip-ft, an allowable shear strength of 181 kips,
and from Table 1-1 an Ix of 1,480 in.4

bMp = 532 kip-ft > 413 kip-ft

Mp / b = 354 kip-ft > 319 kip-ft

o.k.

o.k.

Check W2168 as a composite beam.


From previous calculations:
LRFD

ASD

Typical interior Beam

Typical interior beam

Ru = 60.9 kips
Mu (midspan) = 609 kip-ft

Ra = 45.1 kips
Ma (midspan) = 451 kip-ft

Y2 (from previous calculations, assuming an initial a = 1.00 in.) = 5.50 in.

Using AISC Manual Table 3-19, check a W2168, using required flexural strengths of 609 kip-ft (LRFD) and
451 kip-ft (ASD) and Y2 value of 5.5 in.
Design Examples V14.0
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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III-35

LRFD

ASD

Select a W2168

Select a W2168

At PNA Location 7, Qn = 250 kips

At PNA Location 7, Qn = 250 kips

bMn = 844 kip-ft > 609 kip-ft

o.k.

Mn / b = 561 kip-ft > 461 kip-ft

o.k.

Based on AISC Design Guide 3, limit the wet concrete deflection in a bay to L/360, not to exceed 1.00 in.
Camber the beam for 80% of the calculated wet deflection.
24.4 kips ( 30.0 ft ) (12 in./ft )
3

DL ( wet conc ) =

28 ( 29, 000 ksi ) (1, 480 in.4 )

= 0.947 in.

Camber = 0.80(0.947 in.)


= 0.758 in.
Round the calculated value down to the nearest 4 in. Therefore, specify w in. of camber.
0.947 in. w in. = 0.197 in. < 0.200 in.
Therefore, the total deflection limit of 1.00 in. for the bay has been met.
Determine the effective width, beff.
Per AISC Specification Section I3.1a, the effective width of the concrete slab is the sum of the effective widths
for each side of the beam centerline, which shall not exceed:
(1) one-eighth of the span of the beam, center-to-center of supports
30.0 ft
( 2 sides ) = 7.50 ft controls
8

(2) one-half the distance to the centerline of the adjacent beam


45.0 ft 30.0 ft
+

= 37.5 ft
2
2

(3) the distance to the edge of the slab


Not applicable.
Determine the height of the compression block.
a=

Qn
0.85 f c b

250 kips
0.85 ( 4 ksi )( 7.50 ft )(12 in./ft )

= 0.817 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

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III-36

Check end shear strength.


LRFD

ASD

Ru = 60.9 kips

Ra = 45.1 kips

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,


vVn = 272 kips > 60.9 kips

o.k.

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,


Vn / v = 181 kips > 45.1 kips

o.k.

Check live load deflection.


LL = l 360 = (30.0 ft)(12 in./ft)/360 = 1.00 in.

From AISC Manual Table 3-20,


W2168: Y2 = 5.50 in., PNA Location 7

ILB = 2,510 in.4


LL =

Pl 3
28 EI LB

17.0 kips ( 30.0 ft ) (12 in./ft )


3

28 ( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 2,510 in.4 )

= 0.389 in. < 1.00 in.

o.k.

Based on AISC Design Guide 3, limit the live load deflection, using 50% of the (unreduced) design live load,
to L/360 with a maximum absolute value of 1.00 in. across the bay.
The maximum deflection is,
15.0 kips ( 30.0 ft ) (12 in./ft )
3

LL =

28 ( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 2,510 in.4 )

= 0.343 in. < 1.00 in. o.k.


Check the deflection at the location where the floor beams are supported.
LL =

15.0 kips (120 in.)

3 ( 360 in.)(120 in.) 4 (120 in.)2

6 ( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 2,510 in.4 )

= 0.297 in. > 0.265 in. o.k.


Therefore, the total deflection in the bay is 0.297 in. + 0.735 in. = 1.03 in., which is acceptably close to the
limit of 1.00 in, where LL = 0.735 in. is from the 45 ft interior composite beam running north-south.
Determine the required shear stud connectors.
Using Manual Table 3-21, for parallel deck with, wr / hr > 1.5, one w-in.-diameter stud in normal weight, 4-ksi
concrete and Qn = 21.5 kips/stud.
Qn
250 kips
=
21.5 kips/stud
Qn
= 11.6 studs/side

Design Examples V14.0


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III-37

Therefore, use a minimum 24 studs for horizontal shear.


Per AISC Specification Section I8.2d, the maximum stud spacing is 36 in.
Since the load is concentrated at 3 points, the studs are to be arranged as follows:
Use 12 studs between supports and supported beams at 3 points. Between supported beams (middle 3 of span),
use 4 studs to satisfy minimum spacing requirements.
Thus, 28 studs are required in a 12:4:12 arrangement.
Notes: Although the studs may be placed up to 3'-0" o.c. the steel deck must still be anchored to be the supporting
member at a spacing not to exceed 18 in. in accordance with AISC Specification Section I3.2c.
This W2168 beam, with full lateral support, is very close to having sufficient available strength to support the
imposed loads without composite action. A larger noncomposite beam might be a better solution.

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III-38
COLUMN DESIGN AND SELECTION FOR GRAVITY COLUMNS
Estimate column loads
Roof

(from previous calculations)


Dead Load
Live (Snow)
Total

20 psf
25 psf
45 psf

Snow drift loads at the perimeter of the roof and at the mechanical screen wall from previous calculations
Reaction to column (side parapet):
w = (3.73 kips / 6.00 ft) (0.025 ksf)(23.0 ft) = 0.0467 kip/ft

Reaction to column (end parapet):


w = (16.0 kips / 37.5 ft) (0.025 ksf)(15.5 ft) = 0.0392 kip/ft

Reaction to column (screen wall along lines C & D):


w = (4.02 kips / 6.00 ft) (0.025 ksf)(22.5 ft) = 0.108 kip/ft

Mechanical equipment and screen wall (average):


w = 40 psf

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III-39

Column

2A, 2F, 3A, 3F, 4A, 4F


5A, 5F, 6A, 6F, 7A, 7F
snow drifting side
exterior wall
1B, 1E, 8B, 8E
snow drifting end
exterior wall
1A, 1F, 8A, 8F

Loading
Width Length
ft
ft

23.0

PD

SL

PS

ft2

kip/ft2

kips

kip/ft2

kips

690

0.020

13.8

30.0
30.0
3.50

23.0

snow drifting end


snow drifting side
exterior wall
1C, 1D, 8C, 8D

30.0

DL

Area

22.5
22.5
22.5
15.5

snow-drifting end
exterior wall

15.5

17.3

0.0467 klf 1.40


0.413 klf 12.4
26.2
78.8

0.020

1.58

18.7

0.025
1.97
0.0418 klf 0.941

0.413 klf 9.29


10.9
357
0.020
(78.8 ft 2 )

2
= 318

11.8
15.5
27.3
37.5

0.025

6.36

2.91

0.025

7.95

0.0418 klf 0.493


0.0467 klf 0.724
0.413 klf 11.3
17.7
581
0.020
(78.8 ft 2 )

2
= 542

26.3
26.3

10.8

9.17

0.025

13.6

0.0418 klf 1.10


0.413 klf 10.9
21.7

14.7

2C, 2D, 7C, 7D

37.5

30.0

1,125

0.020

22.5

0.025

28.1

3C, 3D, 4C, 4D


5C, 5D, 6C, 6D
snow-drifting
mechanical area

22.5

30.0

675

0.020

13.5

0.025

16.9

15.0

30.0
30.0

450

0.060

27.0
40.5

0.108 klf
0.040 klf

3.24
18.0
38.1

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III-40
Floor Loads (from previous calculations)
Dead load
Live load
Total load

75 psf
80 psf
155 psf

Calculate reduction in live loads, analyzed at the base of three floors using Section 4.7.2 of ASCE/SEI 7.
Note: The 6-in. cantilever of the floor slab has been ignored for the calculation of KLL for columns in this building
because it has a negligible effect.
Columns:

2A, 2F, 3A, 3F, 4A, 4F, 5A, 5F, 6A, 6F, 7A, 7F
Exterior column without cantilever slabs
KLL = 4
Lo = 80.0 psf
n=3

AT = ( 23.0 ft )( 30.0 ft )
= 690 ft 2

Using ASCE/SEI 7 Equation 4.7-1

15
L = Lo 0.25 +

K LL nAT

15

= 80.0 psf 0.25+

4 )( 3) ( 690 ft 2 )
(

= 33.2 psf 0.4 Lo = 32.0 psf


Use L = 33.2 psf.
Columns:

1B, 1E, 8B, 8E


Exterior column without cantilever slabs
KLL = 4
Lo = 80.0 psf
n=3

AT = ( 5.50 ft )( 22.5 ft )

= 124 ft 2

15
L = Lo 0.25 +

K LL nAT

15

= 80.0 psf 0.25+

2
( 4 )( 3) (124 ft )

= 51.1 psf 0.4 Lo = 32.0 psf


Use L = 51.1 psf

Columns:
KLL = 4

1A, 1F, 8A, 8F


Corner column without cantilever slabs
Lo = 80.0 psf

n=3

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III-41
AT = (15.5 ft )( 23.0 ft ) (124 ft 2 / 2 )

= 295 ft 2

15
L = Lo 0.25 +
0.4 Lo
K LL nAT

15
0.4 ( 80.0 psf )
= 80.0 psf 0.25+

2
( 4 )( 3) ( 295 ft )

= 40.2 psf 32.0 psf

Use L = 40.2 psf.


Columns:

1C, 1D, 8C, 8D


Exterior column without cantilever slabs
KLL = 4
Lo = 80.0 psf
n=3

AT = (15.5 ft )( 37.5 ft ) (124 ft 2 / 2 )

= 519 ft 2

15
L = Lo 0.25 +
0.4 Lo
K LL nAT

15
0.4 ( 80.0 psf )
= 80.0 psf 0.25+

2
( 4 )( 3) ( 519 ft )

= 35.2 psf 32.0 psf


Use L = 35.2 psf.

Columns:

2C, 2D, 3C, 3D, 4C, 4D, 5C, 5D, 6C, 6D, 7C, 7D
Interior column
KLL = 4
Lo = 80.0 psf
n=3

AT = ( 37.5 ft )( 30.0 ft )
= 1,125 ft 2

15
L = Lo 0.25 +
K LL nAT

0.4 Lo

15

0.4 ( 80.0 psf )


= 80.0 psf 0.25+

2
4
3
1,125
ft
( )( ) (
)

= 30.3 psf 32.0 psf


Use L= 32.0 psf.

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III-42
Column

2A, 2F, 3A, 3F, 4A, 4F


5A, 5F, 6A, 6F, 7A, 7F
exterior wall
1B, 1E, 8B, 8E
exterior wall
1A, 1F, 8A, 8F

Loading
Width Length
ft
ft

23.0

5.50

23.0

22.5
22.5
15.5

27.3
37.5

exterior wall

2C, 2D, 3C, 3D, 4C, 4D


5C, 5D, 6C, 6D, 7C, 7D

DL

PD

LL

kip/ft2

kips

kip/ft2

690

0.075

51.8

0.0332 22.9

0.503 klf

15.1
66.9

22.9

30.0

exterior wall
1C, 1D, 8C, 8D

30.0

Tributary
Area
ft2

15.5

26.3

37.5

30.0

124

0.075
0.503 klf

357
0.075
2
(124 in. )

2
= 295
0.503 klf
581
0.075
2
124
in.
(
)

2
= 519
0.503 klf

1,125

0.075

Design Examples V14.0


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PL
kips

9.30
11.3
20.6

0.0511 6.34

22.1

0.0402 11.9

13.7
35.8

11.9

38.9

0.0352 18.3

6.34

13.2
52.1

18.3

84.4

0.0320 36.0

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III-43
Column load summary
Column

Floor

PD

PL

kips

kips

2A, 2F, 3A, 3F, 4A, 4F


5A, 5F, 6A, 6F, 7A, 7F

Roof
4th
3rd
2nd
Total

26.2
66.9
66.9
66.9
227

18.7
22.9
22.9
22.9
87.4

1B, 1E, 8B, 8E

Roof
4th
3rd
2nd
Total

10.9
20.6
20.6
20.6
72.7

2.91
6.34
6.34
6.34
21.9

1A, 1F, 8A, 8F

Roof
4th
3rd
2nd
Total

17.7
35.8
35.8
35.8
125

9.14
11.9
11.9
11.9
44.8

1C, 1D, 8C, 8D

Roof
4th
3rd
2nd
Total

21.7
52.1
52.1
52.1
178

14.6
18.3
18.3
18.3
69.5

2C, 2D, 7C, 7D

Roof
4th
3rd
2nd
Total

22.5
84.4
84.4
84.4
276

28.1
36.0
36.0
36.0
136

3C, 3D, 4C, 4D


5C, 5D, 6C, 6D

Roof
4th
3rd
2nd
Total

40.5
84.4
84.4
84.4
294

38.1
36.0
36.0
36.0
146

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III-44
SELECT TYPICAL INTERIOR LEANING COLUMNS
Columns: 3C, 3D, 4C, 4D, 5C, 5D, 6C, 6D

Elevation of second floor slab:


Elevation of first floor slab:
Column unbraced length:

113.5 ft
100 ft
KxLx = KyLy = 13.5 ft

From ASCE/SEI 7, determine the required strength,


LRFD

ASD

Pu = 1.2(294 kips) + 1.6(3)(36.0 kips)


+ 0.5(38.1 kips)
= 545 kips

Pa = 294 kips + 0.75(3)(36.0 kips) + 0.75(38.1 kips)


= 404 kips

Using AISC Manual Table 4-1, enter with the effective length of 13.5 ft, and proceed across the table until
reaching the lightest size that has sufficient available strength at the required unbraced length.
LRFD

ASD

W1265

W1265

cPn = 696 kips > 545 kips

o.k.

Pn / c = 463 kips > 404 kips

o.k.

W1468

W1468

cPn = 656 kips > 545 kips

o.k.

Pn / c = 436 kips > 404 kips

o.k.

Columns: 2C, 2D, 7C, 7D

Elevation of second floor slab: 113.5 ft


Elevation of first floor slab: 100.0 ft
KxLx = KyLy = 13.5 ft
Column unbraced length:
LRFD

ASD

Pu = 1.2(276 kips) + 1.6(3)(36.0 kips)


+ 0.5(28.1 kips)
= 518 kips

Pa = 276 kips + 0.75(3)(36.0 kips) + 0.75(28.1 kips)


= 378 kips

Using AISC Manual Table 4-1, enter with the effective length of 13.5 ft, and proceed across the table until
reaching the lightest size that has sufficient available strength at the required unbraced length.
LRFD

ASD

W1265

cPn = 696 kips > 518 kips

W1265
o.k.

o.k.

W1461

W1461

cPn = 585 kips > 518 kips

Pn / c = 463 kips > 378 kips

o.k.

Pn / c = 389 kips > 378 kips

Design Examples V14.0


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o.k.

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III-45
SELECT TYPICAL EXTERIOR LEANING COLUMNS
Columns: 1B, 1E, 8B, 8E

Elevation of second floor slab: 113.5 ft


Elevation of first floor slab: 100.0 ft
KxLx = KyLy = 13.5 ft
Column unbraced length:
LRFD

ASD

Pu = 1.2(72.7 kips) + 1.6(3)(6.34 kips)


+ 0.5(2.91 kips)
= 119 kips

Pa = 72.7 kips + 0.75(3)(6.34 kips) + 0.75(2.91 kips)


= 89.1 kips

Using AISC Manual Table 4-1, enter with the effective length of 13.5 ft, and proceed across the table until
reaching the lightest size that has sufficient available strength at the required unbraced length.
LRFD

ASD

W1240

cPn = 316 kips > 119 kips

W1240
o.k.

Pn / c = 210 kips > 89.1 kips

Note: A 12 in. column was selected above for ease of erection of framing beams.
(Bolted double-angle connections can be used without bolt staggering.)

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

o.k.

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III-46
WIND LOAD DETERMINATION

Use the Envelope Procedure for simple diaphragm buildings from ASCE/SEI 7, Chapter 28, Part 2.
To qualify for the simplified wind load method for low-rise buildings, per ASCE/SEI 7, Section 26.2, the
following must be true.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Simple diaphragm building o.k.


Low-rise building <= 60 ft o.k.
Enclosed o.k.
Regular-shaped o.k.
Not a flexible building o.k.
Does not have response characteristics requiring special considerations o.k.
Symmetrical shape o.k.
Torsional load cases from ASCE/SEI 7, Figure 28.4-1 do not control design of MWFRS o.k.

Define input parameters

1.

Risk category:

II from ASCE/SEI 7, Table 1.5-1

2.

Basic wind speed V: 115 mph (3-s) from ASCE/SEI 7, Figure 26.5-1A

3.

Exposure category:

4.

Topographic factor, Kzt : 1.0 from ASCE/SEI 7, Section 26.8.2

5.

Mean roof height:

6.

Height and exposure adjustment, : 1.59 from ASCE/SEI 7, Figure 28.6-1

7.

Roof angle: 0

C from ASCE/SEI 7, Section 26.7.3

55' - 0"

ps = Kzt ps30
= (1.59)(1.0)(21.0 psf) = 33.4 psf
= (1.59)(1.0)(13.9 psf) = 22.1 psf
= (1.59)(1.0)(-25.2 psf) = -40.1 psf
= (1.59)(1.0)(-14.3 psf) = -22.7 psf
= (1.59)(1.0)(-17.5 psf) = -27.8 psf
= (1.59)(1.0)(-11.1 psf) = -17.6 psf

(ASCE 7 Eq. 28.6-7)


Horizontal pressure zone A
Horizontal pressure zone C
Vertical pressure zone E
Vertical pressure zone F
Vertical pressure zone G
Vertical pressure zone H

a = 10% of least horizontal dimension or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4% of least
horizontal dimension or 3 ft
a = the lesser of:

10% of least horizontal dimension


40% of eave height

12.3 ft
22.0 ft

but not less than

4% of least horizontal dimension or 3 ft

4.92 ft

a = 12.3 ft
2a = 24.6 ft

Zone A End zone of wall (width = 2a)


Zone C Interior zone of wall
Zone E End zone of windward roof (width = 2a)
Zone F End zone of leeward roof (width = 2a)

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III-47

Zone G Interior zone of windward roof


Zone H Interior zone of leeward roof
Calculate load to roof diaphragm

Mechanical screen wall height:

6 ft

Wall height:

2 55.0 ft 3 (13.5 ft ) = 7.25 ft

Parapet wall height:

2 ft

Total wall height at roof at screen wall:

6 ft + 7.25 ft = 13.3 ft

Total wall height at roof at parapet:

2 ft + 7.25 ft = 9.25 ft

Calculate load to fourth floor diaphragm

Wall height:

2 (55.0 ft 40.5 ft) = 7.25 ft


2 (40.5 ft 27.0 ft) = 6.75 ft

Total wall height at floor:

6.75 ft + 7.25 ft = 14.0 ft

Calculate load to third floor diaphragm

Wall height:

2 (40.5 ft 27.0 ft) = 6.75 ft


2 (27.0 ft 13.5 ft) = 6.75 ft

Total wall height at floor:

6.75 ft + 6.75 ft = 13.5 ft

Calculate load to second floor diaphragm

Wall height:

2 (27.0 ft 13.5 ft) = 6.75 ft


2 (13.5 ft 0.0 ft) = 6.75 ft

Total wall height at floor:

6.75 ft + 6.75 ft = 13.5 ft

Total load to diaphragm:

ws(A) = (33.4 psf)(9.25 ft) = 309 plf

Load to diaphragm at roof:

ws(C) = (22.1 psf)(9.25 ft) = 204 plf at parapet


ws(C) = (22.1 psf)(13.3 ft) = 294 plf at screenwall

Load to diaphragm at fourth floor:

ws(A) = (33.4 psf)(14.0 ft) = 468 plf


ws(C) = (22.1 psf)(14.0 ft) = 309 plf

Load to diaphragm at second and third:


floors

ws(A) = (33.4 psf)(13.5 ft) = 451 plf


ws(C) = (22.1 psf)(13.5 ft) = 298 plf

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III-48

l = length of structure, ft
b = width of structure, ft
h = height of wall at building element, ft

Determine the wind load to each frame at each level. Conservatively apply the end zone pressures on both ends
of the building simultaneously.
Wind from a north or south direction:
Total load to each frame:

PW ( n s ) = ws ( A) ( 2a ) + ws (C ) ( l 2 2a )

Shear in diaphragm:

v( n s ) = PW ( n s ) 120 ft for roof


v( n s ) = PW ( n s ) 90 ft for floors (deduction for stair openings)

Wind from an east or west direction:


Total load to each frame:

PW ( e w) = ws ( A) ( 2a ) + ws ( C ) ( b 2 2a )

Shear in diaphragm:

v( e w) = PW ( e w) 210 ft for roof and floors

l
ft
Screen 93.0
Roof
120
4th
213
3rd
213
2nd
213
Base of Frame

b
ft
33.0
90.0
123
123
123

2a
ft
0
24.6
24.6
24.6
24.6

h
ft
13.3
9.25
14.0
13.5
13.5

ps(A)
psf
0
33.4
33.4
33.4
33.4

ps(C)
psf
22.1
22.1
22.1
22.1
22.1

ws(A)
plf
0
309
468
451
451

ws(C)
plf
294
204
309
298
298

PW(n-s)
kips
13.7
14.8
36.8
35.5
35.5
136

PW(e-w)
kips
4.85
11.8
22.9
22.1
22.1
83.8

v(n-s)
plf

238
409
394
394

v(e-w)
plf

79
109
105
105

Note: The table above indicates the total wind load in each direction acting on a steel frame at each level. The
wind load at the ground level has not been included in the chart because it does not affect the steel frame.

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III-49
SEISMIC LOAD DETERMINATION

The floor plan area: 120 ft, column center line to column center line, by 210 ft, column centerline to column
center line, with the edge of floor slab or roof deck 6 in. beyond the column center line.
Area = (121 ft)(211 ft)
= 25,500 ft2
The perimeter cladding system length:
Length = (2)(123 ft) + (2)(213 ft)
= 672 ft
The perimeter cladding weight at floors:
Brick spandrel panel with metal stud backup
Window wall system
Total

(7.50 ft)(0.055 ksf) = 0.413 klf


(6.00 ft)(0.015 ksf) = 0.090 klf
0.503 klf

Typical roof dead load (from previous calculations):


Although 40 psf was used to account for the mechanical units and screen wall for the beam and column design,
the entire mechanical area will not be uniformly loaded. Use 30% of the uniform 40 psf mechanical area load to
determine the total weight of all of the mechanical equipment and screen wall for the seismic load determination.
Roof Area = (25,500 ft2)(0.020 ksf) =
Wall perimeter = (672 ft)(0.413 klf) =
Mechanical Area = (2,700 ft2)(0.300)(0.040 ksf) =
Total

510 kips
278 kips
32.4 kips
820 kips

Typical third and fourth floor dead load:


Note: An additional 10 psf has been added to the floor dead load to account for partitions per Section 12.7.2.2 of
ASCE/SEI 7.
Floor Area = (25,500 ft2)(0.085 ksf) =
Wall perimeter = (672 ft)(0.503 klf) =
Total

2,170 kips
338 kips
2,510 kips

Second floor dead load: the floor area is reduced because of the open atrium
Floor Area = (24,700 ft2)(0.085 ksf) =
Wall perimeter = (672 ft)(0.503 klf) =
Total
Total dead load of the building:
Roof
Fourth floor
Third floor
Second floor
Total

2,100 kips
338 kips
2,440 kips
820 kips
2,510 kips
2,510 kips
2,440 kips
8,280 kips

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III-50

Calculate the seismic forces.


Determine the seismic risk category and importance factors.
Office Building: Risk Category II from ASCE/SEI 7 Table 1.5-1
Seismic Importance Factor: Ie = 1.00 from ASCE/SEI 7 Table 1.5-2
The site coefficients are given in this example. SS and S1 can also be determined from ASCE/SEI 7, Figures 22-1 and
22-2, respectively.
SS = 0.121g
S1 = 0.060g
Soil, site class D (given)
Fa @ SS M 0.25 = 1.6 from ASCE/SEI 7, Table 11.4-1
Fv @ S1 M 0.1 = 2.4 from ASCE/SEI 7, Table 11.4-2
Determine the maximum considered earthquake accelerations.
SMS = Fa SS = (1.6)(0.121g) = 0.194g from ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 11.4-1
SM1 = Fv S1 = (2.4)(0.060g) = 0.144g from ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 11.4-2
Determine the design earthquake accelerations.
SDS = q SMS = q (0.194g) = 0.129g from ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 11.4-3
SD1 = q SM1 = q (0.144g) = 0.096g from ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 11.4-4
Determine the seismic design category.
SDS < 0.167g, Seismic Risk Category II:

Seismic Design Category: A from ASCE/SEI 7, Table 11.6-1

0.067g M SD1 < 0.133g, Seismic Risk Category II: Seismic Design Category: B from ASCE/SEI 7, Table 11.6-2
Select the seismic force resisting system.
Seismic Design Category B may be used and it is therefore permissible to select a structural steel system not
specifically detailed for seismic resistance, for which the seismic response modification coefficient, R = 3
Determine the approximate fundamental period.
Building Height, hn = 55.0 ft
Ct = 0.02:

x = 0.75 from ASCE/SEI 7, Table 12.8-2

Ta = Ct (hn)x = (0.02)(55.0 ft)0.75 = 0.404 sec from ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 12.8-7


Determine the redundancy factor from ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.3.4.1.
= 1.0 because the Seismic Design Category = B

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III-51

Determine the vertical seismic effect term.


Ev = 0.2SDSD
= 0.2(0.129g)D
= 0.0258D

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.4-4)

The following seismic load combinations are as specified in ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.4.2.3.
LRFD

ASD
1.0
+
0.14
S
D
+
H
+
F
+
0.7
QE
(
DS )

(1.2 + 0.2S DS ) D + QE + L + 0.2S


= 1.2 + 0.2 ( 0.129 ) D + 1.0QE + L + 0.2S

= 1.0 + 0.14 ( 0.129 ) D + 0.0 + 0.0 + 0.7 (1.0 ) QE

= 1.23D + 1.0QE + L + 0.2 S

= 1.02 D + 0.7QE

( 0.9 0.2S DS ) D + QE + 1.6 H


= 0.9 0.2 ( 0.129 ) D + 1.0QE + 0.0

(1.0 + 0.10S DS ) D + H + F + 0.525QE + 0.75L + 0.75 ( Lr or S or R )


= 1.0 + 0.10 ( 0.129 ) D + 0.0 + 0.0 + 0.525 (1.0 ) QE + 0.75 L + 0.75S

= 0.874 D + 1.0QE

= 1.01D + 0.525QE + 0.75L + 0.75S

( 0.6 0.14S DS ) D + 0.7QE + H


= 0.6 0.14 ( 0.129 ) D + 0.7 (1.0 ) QE + 0
= 0.582 D + 0.7QE

Note: QE = effect of horizontal seismic (earthquake induced) forces


Overstrength Factor: o = 3 for steel systems not specifically detailed for seismic resistance, excluding cantilever
column systems, per ASCE/SEI 7, Table 12.2-1.
Calculate the seismic base shear using ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.8.1.
Determine the seismic response coefficient from ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 12.8-2
S DS
R
I
e
0.129
=
3

1
= 0.0430

Cs =

controls

Let Ta = T. From ASCE/SEI 7 Figure 22-12, TL = 12 > T (midwestern city); therefore use ASCE/SEI 7, Equation
12.8-3 to determine the upper limit of Cs.
S D1
R
T
Ie
0.096
=
3
0.404
1
= 0.0792

Cs =

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III-52

From ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 12.8-5, Cs shall not be taken less than:


Cs = 0.044SDSIe 0.01
= 0.044(0.129)(1.0)
= 0.00568
Therefore, Cs = 0.0430.
Calculate the seismic base shear from ASCE/SEI 7 Equation 12.8-1
V = CsW
= 0.0430 ( 8, 280 kips )
= 356 kips

Calculate vertical distribution of seismic forces from ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.8.3.


Fx = CvxV

(ASCE Eq. 12.8-11)

= Cvx ( 356 kips )

Cvx =

wx hx k
n

wi hi k

Fx = CvxV

(ASCE Eq. 12.8-12)

i =1

For structures having a period of 0.5 s or less, k = 1.


Calculate horizontal shear distribution at each level per ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.8.4.
n

Vx = Fi

(ASCE Eq. 12.8-13)

i=x

Calculate the overturning moment at each level per ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.8.5.
n

M x = Fi (hi hx )
i=x

Roof
Fourth
Third
Second
Base

wx
kips
820
2,510
2,510
2,440
8,280

hxk
ft
55.0
40.5
27.0
13.5

wxhxk
kip-ft
45,100
102,000
67,800
32,900
248,000

Cvx
kips
0.182
0.411
0.273
0.133

Fx
kips
64.8
146
97.2
47.3
355

Vx
kips
64.8
211
308
355

Calculate strength and determine rigidity of diaphragms.


Determine the diaphragm design forces from Section 12.10.1.1 of ASCE/SEI 7.
Fpx is the largest of:
1.

The force Fx at each level determined by the vertical distribution above


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Mx
k-ft

940
3,790
7,940
12,700

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III-53

2.

Fpx =

i=x
n

w px 0.4S DS I e w px from ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 12.10-1 and 12.10-3

i=x

0.4 ( 0.129 )(1.0 ) w px


0.0516 w px

3.

Fpx = 0.2 S DS I e w px from ASCE/SEI 7, Equation 12.10-2


= 0.2 ( 0.129 )(1.0 ) wpx
= 0.0258w px

Roof
Fourth
Third
Second

wpx
kips
820
2,510
2,510
2,440

A
kips
64.8
146
97.2
47.3

B
kips
42.3
130
130
105

C
kips
21.2
64.8
64.8
63.0

Fpx
kips
64.8
146
130
105

v(n-s)
plf
297
892
791
641

v(e-w)
plf
170
382
339
275

where
A = force at a level based on the vertical distribution of seismic forces
n

B = Fpx =

i=x
n

wi

w px 0.4S DS I e w px

i=x

C = 0.2 S DS I e w px
Fpx = max(A, B, C)
Note: The diaphragm shear loads include the effects of openings in the diaphragm and a 10% increase to account
for accidental torsion.

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III-54

Roof
Roof deck: 12 in. deep, 22 gage, wide rib
Support fasteners: s in. puddle welds in 36 / 5 pattern
Sidelap fasteners: 3 #10 TEK screws
Joist spacing = s = 6.0 ft
Diaphragm length = 210 ft
Diaphragm width = lv =120 ft
By inspection, the critical condition for the diaphragm is loading from the north or south directions.
Calculate the required diaphragm strength, including a 10% increase for accidental torsion.
LRFD
From the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations for strength
design, the earthquake load is,
Q
vr = 1.0 E
lv
Fpx
= 1.0 ( 0.55 )
lv
( 64.8 kips )
= 1.0 ( 0.55 )
(120 ft )

ASD
From the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations for
allowable stress design, the earthquake load is,
Q
vr = 0.7 E
lv
Fpx
= 0.7 ( 0.55 )
lv
( 64.8 kips )
= 0.7 ( 0.55 )
(120 ft )

= 0.297 klf

= 0.208 klf

The wind load is,


vr = 1.0W

The wind load is,


vr = 0.6W

= 1.0 ( 0.238 klf )

= 0.6 ( 0.238 klf )

= 0.238 klf

= 0.143klf

Note: The 0.55 factor in the earthquake load accounts for half the shear to each braced frame plus the 10% increase
for accidental torsion.
From the SDI Diaphragm Design Manual (SDI, 2004), the nominal shear strengths are:
1.
2.

For panel buckling strength, vn = 1.425 klf


For connection strength, vn = 0.820 klf

Calculate the available strengths.


LRFD
Panel Buckling Strength (SDI, 2004)
va = vn

Connection Strength (SDI, 2004)

ASD
Panel Buckling Strength (SDI, 2004)
v
va = n

1.425 klf
=
2.00
= 0.713 klf > 0.208 klf
Connection Strength (SDI, 2004)

Earthquake

Earthquake

= 0.80 (1.425 klf )


= 1.14 klf > 0.297 klf

o.k.

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III-55

LRFD
va = vn
= 0.55 ( 0.820 klf )
= 0.451 klf > 0.297 klf

o.k.

Wind (SDI, 2004)


va = vn
= 0.70 ( 0.820 klf )
= 0.574 klf > 0.238 klf

o.k.

ASD
vn
va =

0.820 klf
=
3.00
= 0.273 klf > 0.208 klf
Wind (SDI, 2004)
v
va = n

0.820 klf
=
2.35
= 0.349 klf > 0.143 klf

o.k.

o.k.

Check diaphragm flexibility.


From the Steel Deck Institute Diaphragm Design Manual,
Dxx = 758 ft

K1 = 0.286 ft-1

K2 = 870 kip/in.

K4 = 3.78

K2
0.3Dxx
K4 +
+ 3K1 s
s
870 kips/in.
=
0.3 ( 758 ft )
0.286
3.78 +
+ 3
( 6.00 ft )
6.00 ft
ft
= 18.6 kips/in.

G' =

Seismic loading to diaphragm.


w = ( 64.8 kips ) ( 210 ft )
= 0.309 klf

Calculate the maximum diaphragm deflection.


=

wL2
8lv G '

( 0.309 klf )( 210 ft )


8 (120 ft )(18.6 kips/in.)
2

= 0.763 in.

Story drift = 0.141 in. (from computer output)


The diaphragm deflection exceeds two times the story drift; therefore, the diaphragm may be considered to be
flexible in accordance with ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.3.1.3
The roof diaphragm is flexible in the N-S direction, but using a rigid diaphragm distribution is more conservative
for the analysis of this building. By similar reasoning, the roof diaphragm will also be treated as a rigid diaphragm
in the E-W direction.
Third and Fourth floors
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III-56

Floor deck: 3 in. deep, 22 gage, composite deck with normal weight concrete,
Support fasteners; s in. puddle welds in a 36 / 4 pattern
Sidelap fasteners: 1 button punched fastener
Beam spacing = s = 10.0 ft
Diaphragm length = 210 ft
Diaphragm width = 120 ft
lv = 120 ft 30 ft = 90 ft to account for the stairwell
By inspection, the critical condition for the diaphragm is loading from the north or south directions
Calculate the required diaphragm strength, including a 10% increase for accidental torsion.
LRFD
From the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations for strength
design, the earthquake load for the fourth floor is,
Q
vr = 1.0 E
lv
Fpx
= 1.0 ( 0.55 )
lv
(146 kips )
= 1.0 ( 0.55 )
( 90 ft )
= 0.892 klf

ASD
From the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations for strength
design, the earthquake load is,
Q
vr = 0.7 E
lv
Fpx
= 0.7 ( 0.55 )
lv
(146 kips )
= 0.7 ( 0.55 )
( 90 ft )
= 0.625 klf

For the fourth floor, the wind load is,


vr = 1.0W

For the fourth floor, the wind load is,


vr = 0.6W

= 1.0 ( 0.409 klf )

= 0.6 ( 0.409 klf )

= 0.409 klf

= 0.245 klf

From the ASCI/SEI 7 load combinations for strength


design, the earthquake load for the third floor is,
QE
vr = 1.0
lv
Fpx
= 1.0 ( 0.55 )
lv
(130 kips )
= 1.0 ( 0.55 )
( 90 ft )
= 0.794 klf

From the ASCI/SEI 7 load combinations for strength


design, the earthquake load for the third floor is,
QE
vr = 0.7
lv
Fpx
= 0.7 ( 0.55 )
lv
(130 kips )
= 0.7 ( 0.55 )
( 90 ft )
= 0.556 klf

For the third floor, the wind load is,


vr = 1.0W

For the third floor, the wind load is,


vr = 0.6W

= 1.0 ( 0.394 klf )

= 0.6 ( 0.394 klf )

= 0.394 klf

= 0.236 klf

From the SDI Diaphragm Design Manual, the nominal shear strengths are:
For connection strength, vn = 5.16 klf
Calculate the available strengths.

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III-57

LRFD

ASD

Connection Strength (same for earthquake or wind)


(SDI, 2004)
va = vn
= 0.5 ( 5.16 klf )
= 2.58 klf > 0.892 klf

o.k.

Connection Strength (same for earthquake or wind)


(SDI, 2004)
v
va = n

5.16 klf
=
3.25
= 1.59 klf > 0.625 klf
o.k.

Check diaphragm flexibility.


From the Steel Deck Institute Diaphragm Design Manual,
K1 = 0.729 ft-1

K2 = 870 kip/in.

K3 = 2,380 kip/in.

K4 = 3.78

K2

G' =
+ K3
K 4 + 3K1 s
870 kip/in.

=
+ 2,380 kip/in.
0.729

3.78 + 3
(10.0 ft )
ft

= 2, 410 kips/in.

Fourth Floor
Calculate seismic loading to diaphragm based on the fourth floor seismic load.
w = (146 kips ) ( 210 ft )
= 0.695 klf
Calculate the maximum diaphragm deflection on the fourth floor.
=

wL2
8lv G '

( 0.695 klf )( 210 ft )


=
8 ( 90 ft )( 2, 410 kips/in.)
2

= 0.0177 in.

Third Floor
Calculate seismic loading to diaphragm based on the third floor seismic load.
w = (130 kips ) ( 210 ft )
= 0.619 klf
Calculate the maximum diaphragm deflection on the third floor.

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III-58

wL2
8lv G '

( 0.619 klf )( 210 ft )


8 ( 90 ft )( 2, 410 kips/in.)
2

= 0.0157 in.

The diaphragm deflection at the third and fourth floors is less than two times the story drift (story drift = 0.245 in.
from computer output); therefore, the diaphragm is considered rigid in accordance with ASCE/SEI 7, Section
12.3.1.3. By inspection, the floor diaphragm will also be rigid in the E-W direction.
Second floor
Floor deck: 3 in. deep, 22 gage, composite deck with normal weight concrete,
Support fasteners: s in. puddle welds in a 36 / 4 pattern
Sidelap fasteners: 1 button punched fasteners
Beam spacing = s = 10.0 ft
Diaphragm length = 210 ft
Diaphragm width = 120 ft
Because of the atrium opening in the floor diaphragm, an effective diaphragm depth of 75 ft will be used for the
deflection calculations.
By inspection, the critical condition for the diaphragm is loading from the north or south directions.
Calculate the required diaphragm strength, including a 10% increase for accidental torsion.
LRFD
From the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations for strength
design, the earthquake load is,
Q
vr = 1.0 E
lv
Fpx
= 1.0 ( 0.55 )
lv
105
( kips )
= 1.0 ( 0.55 )
( 90 ft )

ASD
From the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations for strength
design, the earthquake load is,
Q
vr = 0.7 E
lv
Fpx
= 0.7 ( 0.55 )
lv
105
( kips )
= 0.7 ( 0.55 )
( 90 ft )

= 0.642 klf

= 0.449 klf

The wind load is,


vr = 1.0W

The wind load is,


vr = 0.6W

= 1.0 ( 0.395 klf )

= 0.6 ( 0.395 klf )

= 0.395 klf

= 0.237 klf

From the SDI Diaphragm Design Manual, the nominal shear strengths are:
For connection strength, vn = 5.16 klf
Calculate the available strengths.

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III-59

LRFD
Connection Strength (same for earthquake or wind)
(SDI, 2004)
va = vn
= 0.50 ( 5.16 klf )
= 2.58 klf > 0.642 klf

o.k.

ASD
Connection Strength (same for earthquake or wind)
(SDI, 2004)
v
va = n

5.16 klf
=
3.25
= 1.59 klf > 0.449 klf
o.k.

Check diaphragm flexibility.


From the Steel Deck Institute Diaphragm Design Manual,
K1 = 0.729 ft-1

K2 = 870 kip/in.

K3 = 2,380 kip/in.

K4 = 3.78

K2

G' =
+ K3
K 4 + 3K1 s
870 kip/in.

=
+ 2,380 kip/in.
0.729

3.78 + 3
(10.0 ft )
ft

= 2, 410 kip/in.

Calculate seismic loading to diaphragm.


w = (105 kips ) ( 210 ft )
= 0.500 klf

Calculate the maximum diaphragm deflection.


=

wL2
8bG '

( 0.500 klf )( 210 ft )


=
8 ( 75 ft )( 2, 410 kip/in.)
2

= 0.0152 in.

Story drift = 0.228 in. (from computer output)


The diaphragm deflection is less than two times the story drift; therefore, the diaphragm is considered rigid in
accordance with ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.3.1.3. By inspection, the floor diaphragm will also be rigid in the E-W
direction.
Horizontal shear distribution and torsion:
Calculate the seismic forces to be applied in the frame analysis in each direction, including the effect of accidental
torsion, in accordance with ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.8.4.

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III-60

Roof
Fourth
Third
Second
Base

Roof
Fourth
Third
Second
Base

Fy
kips
64.8
146
97.2
47.3

Load to Frame
%
kips
50
32.4
50
73.0
50
48.6
50
23.7

Load to Grids 1 and 8


Accidental Torsion
%
kips
5
3.24
5
7.30
5
4.86
5
2.37

Fx
kips
64.8
146
97.2
47.3

Load to Frame
%
kips
50
32.4
50
73.0
50
48.6
50.8(1) 24.0

Load to Grids A and F


Accidental Torsion
%
kips
5
3.24
5
7.30
5
4.86
5
2.37

(1)

Total
kips
35.6
80.3
53.5
26.1
196
Total
kips
35.6
80.3
53.5
26.4
196

Note: In this example, Grids A and F have both been conservatively designed for the slightly higher load on
Grid A due to the atrium opening. The increase in load is calculated as follows

I
II

Area
ft2
25,500
841
24,700

Mass
kips
2,170
71.5
2,100

y-dist
ft
60.5
90.5

My
k-ft
131,000
6,470
125,000

y = 125,000 kip-ft/2,100 kips = 59.5 ft


(100%)(121 ft 59.5 ft)/121 ft = 50.8%

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III-61
MOMENT FRAME MODEL

Grids 1 and 8 were modeled in conventional structural analysis software as two-dimensional models. The secondorder option in the structural analysis program was not used. Rather, for illustration purposes, second-order effects
are calculated separately, using the Approximate Second-Order Analysis method described in AISC
Specification Appendix 8.
The column and beam layouts for the moment frames follow. Although the frames on Grids A and F are the
same, slightly heavier seismic loads accumulate on grid F after accounting for the atrium area and accidental
torsion. The models are half-building models. The frame was originally modeled with W1482 interior columns
and W2144 non-composite beams, but was revised because the beams and columns did not meet the strength
requirements. The W1482 column size was increased to a W1490 and the W2144 beams were upsized to
W2455 beams. Minimum composite studs are specified for the beams (corresponding to Qn = 0.25Fy As ), but
the beams were modeled with a stiffness of Ieq = Is.
The frame was checked for both wind and seismic story drift limits. Based on the results on the computer
analysis, the frame meets the L/400 drift criterion for a 10 year wind (0.7W) indicated in Commentary Section
CC.1.2 of ASCE/SEI 7. In addition, the frame meets the 0.025hsx allowable story drift limit given in ASCE/SEI 7
Table 12.12-1 for Seismic Risk Category II.
All of the vertical loads on the frame were modeled as point loads on the frame. The dead load and live load are
shown in the load cases that follow. The wind, seismic, and notional loads from leaning columns are modeled and
distributed 1/14 to exterior columns and 1/7 to the interior columns. This approach minimizes the tendency to
accumulate too much load in the lateral system nearest an externally applied load.
Also shown in the models below are the remainder of the half-building model gravity loads from the interior
leaning columns accumulated in a single leaning column which was connected to the frame portion of the model
with pinned ended links. Because the second-order analyses that follow will use the Approximate Second-Order
Analysis (amplified first-order) approach given in the AISC Specification Appendix 8, the inclusion of the leaning
column is unnecessary, but serves to summarize the leaning column loads and illustrate how these might be
handled in a full second-order analysis. See Geschwindner (1994), A Practical Approach to the Leaning
Column.
There are five lateral load cases. Two are the wind load and seismic load, per the previous discussion. In
addition, notional loads of Ni = 0.002Yi were established. The model layout, nominal dead, live, and snow loads
with associated notional loads, wind loads and seismic loads are shown in the figures below.
The same modeling procedures were used in the braced frame analysis. If column bases are not fixed in
construction, they should not be fixed in the analysis.

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Design Examples V14.0


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Design Examples V14.0


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III-67
CALCULATION OF REQUIRED STRENGTHTHREE METHODS

Three methods for checking one of the typical interior column designs at the base of the building are presented
below. All three of presented methods require a second-order analysis (either direct via computer analysis
techniques or by amplifying a first-order analysis). A fourth method called the First-Order Analysis Method is
also an option. This method does not require a second-order analysis; however, this method is not presented
below. For additional guidance on applying any of these methods, see the discussion in AISC Manual Part 2
titled Required Strength, Stability, Effective Length, and Second-Order Effects.
GENERAL INFORMATION FOR ALL THREE METHODS

Seismic load combinations controlled over wind load combinations in the direction of the moment frames in the
example building. The frame analysis was run for all LRFD and ASD load combinations; however, only the
controlling combinations have been illustrated in the following examples. A lateral load of 0.2% of gravity load
was included for all gravity-only load combinations.
The second-order analysis for all the examples below was carried out by doing a first-order analysis and then
amplifying the results to achieve a set of second-order design forces using the approximate second-order analysis
procedure from AISC Specification Appendix 8.
METHOD 1. DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Design for stability by the direct analysis method is found in Chapter C of the AISC Specification. This method
requires that both the flexural and axial stiffness are reduced and that 0.2% notional lateral loads are applied in the
analysis to account for geometric imperfections and inelasticity. Any general second-order analysis method that
considers both P and P effects is permitted. The amplified first-order analysis method of AISC
Specification Appendix 8 is also permitted provided that the B1 and B2 factors are based on the reduced flexural
and axial stiffnesses. A summary of the axial loads, moments and 1st floor drifts from first-order analysis is
shown below. The floor diaphragm deflection in the east-west direction was previously determined to be very
small and will thus be neglected in these calculations. Second-order member forces are determined using the
amplified first-order procedure of AISC Specification Appendix 8.
It was assumed, subject to verification, that B2 is less than 1.7 for each load combination; therefore, per AISC
Specification Section C2.2b(4), the notional loads were applied to the gravity-only load combinations . The
required seismic load combinations are given in ASCE/SEI 7, Section 12.4.2.3.
LRFD

1.23D 1.0QE + 0.5L + 0.2S


(Controls columns and beams)

ASD
1.01D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7QE) + 0.75S
(Controls columns and beams)

From a first-order analysis with notional loads where


appropriate and reduced stiffnesses:

From a first-order analysis with notional loads where


appropriate and reduced stiffnesses:

For Interior Column Design:


Pu = 317 kips
M1u = 148 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)
M2u = 233 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)

For Interior Column Design:


Pa = 295 kips
M1a = 77.9 kip-ft
M2a = 122 kip-ft

First story drift with reduced stiffnesses = 0.718 in.

First story drift with reduced stiffnesses = 0.377 in.

Note: For ASD, ordinarily the second-order analysis must be carried out under 1.6 times the ASD load
combinations and the results must be divided by 1.6 to obtain the required strengths. For this example, secondorder analysis by the amplified first-order analysis method is used. The amplified first-order analysis method
incorporates the 1.6 multiplier directly in the B1 and B2 amplifiers, such that no other modification is needed.
The required second-order flexural strength, Mr, and axial strength, Pr, are determined as follows. For typical
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III-68

interior columns, the gravity-load moments are approximately balanced, therefore, Mnt = 0.0 kip-ft
Calculate the amplified forces and moments in accordance with AISC Specification Appendix 8.
LRFD

Mr = B1Mnt + B2Mlt

ASD
(Spec. Eq. A-8-1)

Mr = B1Mnt + B2Mlt

(Spec. Eq. A-8-1)

Determine B1

Determine B1

Pr = required second-order axial strength using LRFD


or ASD load combinations, kips.

Pr = required second-order axial strength using


LRFD or ASD load combinations, kips.

Note that for members subject to axial compression,


B1 may be calculated based on the first-order estimate
Pr = Pnt + Plt.

Note that for members subject to axial compression,


B1 may be calculated based on the first-order
estimate Pr = Pnt + Plt.

Therefore, Pr = 317 kips


(from the first-order computer analysis)

Therefore, Pr = 295 kips


(from the first-order computer analysis)

Ix = 999 in.4 (W1490)

Ix = 999 in.4 (W1490)

b = 1.0

b = 1.0

Pe1 =

2 EI *

(Spec. Eq. A-8-5)

( K1 L )
2 ( 0.8 )( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 999 in.4 )
=
2
(1.0 )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )
2

= 8,720 kips

Pe1 =

2 EI *

(Spec. Eq. A-8-5)

( K1 L )
2 ( 0.8 )( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 999 in.4 )
=
2
(1.0 )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )
2

= 8,720 kips

Cm = 0.6 0.4(M1 / M2)


(Spec. Eq. A-8-4)
= 0.6 0.4 (148 kip-ft / 233 kip-ft)
= 0.346

Cm = 0.6 0.4(M1 / M2)


(Spec. Eq. A-8-4)
= 0.6 0.4 (77.9 kip-ft / 122 kip-ft)
= 0.345

= 1.0

= 1.6

Cm
1
P
1 r
Pe1
0.346
=
1
1.0 ( 317 kips )
1
8, 720 kips
= 0.359 1; Use 1.0

B1 =

Determine B2
1
B2 =
1
Pstory
1
Pe story
where
= 1.0

(Spec. Eq. A-8-3)

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

Pstory = 5, 440 kips (from computer output)

Cm
1
P
1 r
Pe1
0.345
=
1
1.6 ( 295 kips )
1
8, 720 kips
= 0.365 1; Use 1.0

B1 =

Determine B2
1
B2 =
1
Pstory
1
Pe story
where
= 1.6

(Spec. Eq. A-8-3)

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

Pstory = 5,120 kips (from computer output)

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III-69

LRFD

ASD

Pe story may be taken as :


Pe story = RM

Pe story may be taken as :

HL
H

(Spec. Eq. A-8-7)

where

Pe story = RM

HL
H

(Spec. Eq. A-8-7)

where

Pmf
(Spec. Eq. A-8-8)
RM = 1 0.15
Pstory
where
Pmf = 2, 250 kips (gravity load in moment frame)
RM = 1 0.15

2, 250 kips
5, 440 kips

RM = 1 0.15

Pmf
Pstory

where
Pmf = 2, 090 kips
RM = 1 0.15

= 0.938

(Spec. Eq. A-8-8)


(gravity load in moment frame)

2, 090 kips
5,120 kips

= 0.939

H = 0.75 ( 0.7QE )

H = 1.0QE
= 1.0 (196 kips )

= 0.75 ( 0.7 )(196 kips )

(Lateral)

( Lateral )

=196 kips
(previous seismic force distribution calculations)

= 103 kips
(previous seismic force distribution calculations)

H = 0.718 in. (from computer output)

H = 0.377 in. (from computer output)

Pe story = 0.938

(196 kips )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )


0.718 in.

= 41,500 kips
1
B2 =
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

1
1
1.0 ( 5, 440 kips )
1
41,500 kips
= 1.15 1

Pe story = 0.939

(103 kips )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )


0.377 in.

= 41, 600 kips


1
B2 =
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

1
1
1.6 ( 5,120 kips )
1
41, 600 kips
= 1.25 1

Because B2 < 1.7, it is verified that it was unnecessary


to add the notional loads to the lateral loads for this
load combination.

Because B2 < 1.7, it is verified that it was


unnecessary to add the notional loads to the lateral
loads for this load combination.

Calculate amplified moment

Calculate amplified moment

From AISC Specification Equation A-8-1,

From AISC Specification Equation A-8-1,

M r = (1.0 )( 0.0 kip-ft ) + (1.15 )( 233 kip-ft )

M r = (1.0 )( 0.0 kip-ft ) + (1.25 )(122 kip-ft )

= 268 kip-ft

= 153 kip-ft

Calculate amplified axial load

Calculate amplified axial load

Pnt = 317 kips

Pnt = 295 kips

(from computer analysis)

(from computer analysis)

For a long frame, such as this one, the change in load


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III-70

LRFD

For a long frame, such as this one, the change in load


to the interior columns associated with lateral load is
negligible.
Pr = Pnt + B2Plt
(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)
= 317 kips + (1.15)(0.0 kips)
= 317 kips
The flexural and axial stiffness of all members in the
moment frame were reduced using 0.8E in the
computer analysis.
Check that the flexural stiffness was adequately
reduced for the analysis per AISC Specification
Section C2.3(2).
= 1.0

ASD
to the interior columns associated with lateral load is
negligible.
Pr = Pnt + B2Plt
(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)
= 295 kips + (1.25)(0.0 kips)
= 295 kips
The flexural and axial stiffness of all members in the
moment frame were reduced using 0.8E in the
computer analysis.
Check that the flexural stiffness was adequately
reduced for the analysis per AISC Specification
Section C2.3(2).
= 1.6
Pr = 295 kips

Pr = 317 kips
Py = AFy = 26.5 in. ( 50.0 ksi ) = 1,330 kips
2

(W1490 column)

Py = AFy = 26.5 in.2 ( 50.0 ksi ) = 1,330 kips

(W1490 column)

Pr 1.6 ( 295 kips )


=
= 0.355 0.5
1,330 kips
Py

Pr 1.0 ( 317 kips )


=
= 0.238 0.5
Py
1,330 kips

Therefore, b = 1.0

o.k.

Note: By inspection b = 1.0 for all of the beams in the


moment frame.

Therefore, b = 1.0

o.k.

Note: By inspection b = 1.0 for all of the beams in


the moment frame.
For the direct analysis method, K = 1.0.

For the direct analysis method, K = 1.0.


From AISC Manual Table 4-1,
Pc = 1,040 kips (W1490 @ KL = 13.5 ft)
From AISC Manual Table 3-2,
Mcx = bMpx = 574 kip-ft (W1490 with Lb = 13.5 ft)

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,


M px
Mcx =
= 382 kip-ft (W1490 with Lb = 13.5 ft)
b
Pr 295 kips
=
= 0.428 0.2
Pc 690 kips

Pr
317 kips
=
= 0.305 0.2
Pc 1, 040 kips
Pr
0.2 , use AISC Specification
Pc
interaction Equation H1-1a.

Because

Pr 8 M rx M ry
+
+
1.0
Pc 9 M cx M cy

From AISC Manual Table 4-1,


Pc = 690 kips (W1490 @ KL = 13.5 ft)

(Spec. Eq. H1-1a)

Pr
0.2 , use AISC Specification
Pc
interaction Equation H1-1a.

Because

Pr 8 M rx M ry
+
+
1.0
Pc 9 M cx M cy

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(Spec. Eq. H1-1a)

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III-71

LRFD

8 268 kip-ft
0.305 +
1.0
9 574 kip-ft
0.720 1.0

o.k.

ASD

8 153 kip-ft
0.428 +
1.0
9 382 kip-ft
0.784 1.0

o.k.

METHOD 2. EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

Required strengths of frame members must be determined from a second-order analysis. In this example the
second-order analysis is performed by amplifying the axial forces and moments in members and connections from
a first-order analysis using the provisions of AISC Specification Appendix 8. The available strengths of
compression members are calculated using effective length factors computed from a sidesway stability analysis.
A first-order frame analysis is conducted using the load combinations for LRFD or ASD. A minimum lateral load
(notional load) equal to 0.2% of the gravity loads is included for any gravity-only load combination. The required
load combinations are given in ASCE/SEI 7 and are summarized in Part 2 of the AISC Manual.
A summary of the axial loads, moments and 1st floor drifts from the first-order computer analysis is shown below.
The floor diaphragm deflection in the east-west direction was previously determined to be very small and will
thus be neglected in these calculations.
LRFD

1.23D 1.0QE + 0.5L + 0.2S


(Controls columns and beams)

ASD
1.01D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7QE) + 0.75S
(Controls columns and beams)

For Interior Column Design:


Pu = 317 kips
M1u = 148 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)
M2u = 233 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)

For Interior Column Design:


Pa = 295 kips
M1a = 77.9 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)
M2a = 122 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)

First-order first story drift = 0.575 in.

First-order first story drift = 0.302 in.

The required second-order flexural strength, Mr, and axial strength, Pr, are calculated as follows:
For typical interior columns, the gravity load moments are approximately balanced; therefore, Mnt = 0.0 kips.
LRFD

Mr = B1Mnt + B2Mlt

ASD
(Spec. Eq. A-8-1)

Mr = B1Mnt + B2Mlt

(Spec. Eq. A-8-1)

Determine B1.

Determine B1.

Pr = required second-order axial strength using


LRFD or ASD load combinations, kips

Pr = required second-order axial strength using LRFD


or ASD load combinations, kips

Note that for members subject to axial compression,


B1 may be calculated based on the first-order
estimate Pr = Pnt + Plt.

Note that for members subject to axial compression,


B1 may be calculated based on the first-order estimate
Pr = Pnt + Plt.

Therefore, Pr = 317 kips


(from first-order computer analysis)

Therefore, Pr = 295 kips


(from first-order computer analysis)

I = 999 in.4 (W1490)

I = 999 in.4 (W1490)

Pe1 =

2 EI *

( K1 L )

(Spec. Eq. A-8-5)

Pe1 =

2 EI *

( K1 L )

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

(Spec. Eq. A-8-5)

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III-72

LRFD

( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 999 in.


2

ASD

(1.0 )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )


= 10,900 kips

( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 999 in.4 )


2

(1.0 )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )


= 10,900 kips

Cm = 0.6 0.4(M1 / M2)


(Spec. Eq. A-8-4)
= 0.6 0.4 (148 kip-ft / 233 kip-ft)
= 0.346

Cm = 0.6 0.4(M1 / M2)


(Spec. Eq. A-8-4)
= 0.6 0.4 (77.9 kip-ft / 122 kip-ft)
= 0.345

= 1.0

= 1.6

Cm
1
P
1 r
Pe1
0.346
=
1
1.0 ( 317 kips )
1
10,900 kips
= 0.356 1; Use 1.00

B1 =

(Spec. Eq. A-8-3)

Determine B2.
B2 =

(Spec. Eq. A-8-3)

Determine B2.

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

where

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story
where

B2 =

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

= 1.6

= 1.0
Pstory = 5, 440 kips (from computer output)

HL
H

Pstory = 5,120 kips (from computer output)


Pe story may be taken as

Pe story may be taken as


Pe story = RM

Cm
1
P
1 r
Pe1
0.345
=
1
1.6 ( 295 kips )
1
10,900 kips
= 0.361 1; Use 1.00

B1 =

(Spec. Eq. A-8-7)

Pe story =RM

HL
H

(Spec. Eq. A-8-7)

where

where
Pmf
Pmf
(Spec. Eq. A-8-8)
(Spec. Eq. A-8-8)
RM = 1 0.15
RM = 1 0.15
Pstory
Pstory
where
where
Pmf = 2, 250 kips (gravity load in moment frame)
Pmf = 2, 090 kips (gravity load in moment frame)
RM = 1 0.15

2, 250 kips
5, 440 kips

RM = 1 0.15

= 0.938

2, 090 kips
5,120 kips

= 0.939

H = 196 kips (Lateral)


(from previous seismic force distribution
calculations)

H = 103 kips (Lateral)


(from previous seismic force distribution
calculations)

H = 0.575 in. (from computer output)

H = 0.302 in. (from computer output)

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III-73

LRFD

Pe story = 0.938

ASD

(196 kips )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )


0.575 in.

= 51,800 kips
1
B2 =
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

1
1
1.0 ( 5, 440 kips )
1
51,800 kips
= 1.12 1

Pe story = 0.939

(103 kips )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )


0.302 in.

= 51,900 kips
1
B2 =
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

1
1
1.6 ( 5,120 kips )
1
51,900 kips
= 1.19 1

Note: B2 < 1.5, therefore use of the effective length


method is acceptable.

Note: B2 < 1.5, therefore use of the effective length


method is acceptable.

Calculate amplified moment

Calculate amplified moment

From AISC Specification Equation A-8-1,

From AISC Specification Equation A-8-1,

M r = (1.00 )( 0.0 kip-ft ) + (1.12 )( 233 kip-ft )

M r = (1.00 )( 0.0 kip-ft ) + (1.19 )(122 kip-ft )

= 261 kip-ft

= 145 kip-ft

Calculate amplified axial load.

Calculate amplified axial load.

Pnt = 317 kips

Pnt = 295 kips

(from computer analysis)

(from computer analysis)

For a long frame, such as this one, the change in load


to the interior columns associated with lateral load is
negligible.

For a long frame, such as this one, the change in load


to the interior columns associated with lateral load is
negligible.

Therefore, Plt = 0

Therefore, Plt = 0

Pr = Pnt + B2Plt
(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)
= 317 kips + (1.12)(0.0 kips)
= 317 kips

Pr = Pnt + B2Plt
(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)
= 295 kips + (1.19)(0.0 kips)
= 295 kips

Determine the controlling effective length.

Determine the controlling effective length.

For out-of-plane buckling in the moment frame

For out-of-plane buckling in the moment frame

Ky = 1.0

Ky = 1.0

K y Ly = 1.0 (13.5 ft ) = 13.5 ft

K y Ly = 1.0 (13.5 ft ) = 13.5 ft

For in-plane buckling in the moment frame, use the


story stiffness procedure from the AISC
Specification Commentary for Appendix 7 to
determine Kx with Specification Commentary
Equation C-A-7-5.

For in-plane buckling in the moment frame, use the


story stiffness procedure from the AISC
Specification Commentary for Appendix 7 to
determine Kx with Specification Commentary
Equation C-A-7-5.

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III-74

LRFD

ASD

EI H
Pr

( 0.85 + 0.15RL ) Pr L2 HL
2

K2 =

2 EI H
Pr

2
( 0.85 + 0.15RL ) Pr L HL

K2 =

2 EI H

L2 1.7 HL

2 EI H

L2 1.7 HL

Simplifying and substituting terms previously


calculated results in:
Pstory
Pe story

Kx =

Pe
H
P Pe 1.7 HL

Pe
H
P Pe 1.7 HL

where
2 EI
L2
2 ( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 999in.4 )

12 in./ft (13.5 ft )
= 10,900 kips
Kx =

Pstory
Pe story

Kx =

where
Pe =

Simplifying and substituting terms previously


calculated results in:

Pe =
=

12 in./ft (13.5 ft )
= 10,900 kips

5, 440 kips 10,900 kips

51,800 kips 317 kips

0.575 in.

10,900 kips
12 in.

1.7 (196 kips )


(13.5 ft )
ft

= 1.90 0.341

Kx =

5,120 kips 10,900 kips

51,900 kips 295 kips

0.302 in.

10,900 kips
12 in.

1.7 (103 kips )


(13.5 ft )
ft

= 1.91 0.341

Use Kx = 1.91

Use Kx = 1.90
KLx
=
rx / ry

2 EI
L2
2 ( 29, 000 ksi ) ( 999in.4 )

1.90 (13.5 ft )
1.66

KLx 1.91(13.5 ft )
=
= 15.5 ft
rx / ry
1.66

= 15.5 ft

K L
Because x x > K y Ly , use KL = 15.5 ft
rx ry

Because

K x Lx
> K y Ly , use KL = 15.5 ft
rx ry

From AISC Manual Table 4-1,


From AISC Manual Table 4-1,
Pc = 990 kips (W1490 @ KL = 15.5 ft)

Pc = 660 kips (W1490 @ KL = 15.5 ft)


From AISC Manual Table 3-2,

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,


Mcx = 574 kip-ft (W1490 with Lb =13.5 ft)
Pr 317 kips
=
Pc 990 kips
= 0.320 0.2

Mcx = 382 kip-ft (W1490 with Lb = 13.5 ft)


Pr 295 kips
=
Pc 660 kips
= 0.447 0.2

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III-75

LRFD

Because

Pr
0.2 , use interaction Equation H1-1a.
Pc

Pr 8 M rx M ry
(Spec. Eq. H1.1-a)
+
+
1.0
Pc 9 M cx M cy
8 261 kip-ft
0.320 +
1.0
9 574 kip-ft
0.724 1.0
o.k.

ASD
Pr
Because
0.2 , use interaction Equation H1-1a.
Pc
Pr 8 M rx M ry
+
+
1.0 (Spec. Eq. H1.1-a)
Pc 9 M cx M cy
8 145 kip-ft
0.447 +
1.0
9 382 kip-ft
0.784 1.0
o.k.

METHOD 3. SIMPLIFIED EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

A simplification of the effective length method using a method of second-order analysis based upon drift limits
and other assumptions is described in Chapter 2 of the AISC Manual. A first-order frame analysis is conducted
using the load combinations for LRFD or ASD. A minimum lateral load (notional load) equal to 0.2% of the
gravity loads is included for all gravity-only load combinations. The floor diaphragm deflection in the east-west
direction was previously determined to be very small and will thus be neglected in these calculations.
LRFD

1.23D 1.0QE + 0.5L + 0.2S


(Controls columns and beams)

ASD
1.01D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7QE) + 0.75S
(Controls columns and beams)

From a first-order analysis

From a first-order analysis

For interior column design:


Pu = 317 kips
M1u = 148 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)
M2u = 233 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)

For interior column design:


Pa = 295 kips
M1a = 77.9 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)
M2a = 122 kip-ft (from first-order analysis)

First story first-order drift = 0.575 in.

First story first-order drift = 0.302 in.

Then the following steps are executed.


LRFD

ASD

Step 1:

Step 1:

Lateral load = 196 kips

Lateral load = 103 kips

Deflection due to first-order elastic analysis

Deflection due to first-order elastic analysis

= 0.575 in. between first and second floor

= 0.302 in. between first and second floor

Floor height = 13.5 ft

Floor height = 13.5 ft

Drift ratio = (13.5 ft)(12 in./ft) / 0.575 in.


= 282

Drift ratio = (13.5 ft)(12 in./ft) / 0.302 in.


= 536

Step 2:

Step 2:

Design story drift limit = H/400

Design story drift limit = H/400

Adjusted Lateral load = (282/ 400)(196 kips)


= 138 kips

Adjusted Lateral load = (536 / 400)(103 kips)


= 138 kips

Design Examples V14.0


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III-76

LRFD

ASD

total story load


Load ratio = (1.0 )
lateral load
5, 440 kips
= (1.0 )
138 kips
= 39.4

Step 3: (for an ASD design the ratio must be


multiplied by 1.6)
total story load
Load ratio = (1.6 )
lateral load
5,120 kips
= (1.6 )
138 kips
= 59.4

From AISC Manual Table 2-1:

From AISC Manual Table 2-1:

B2 = 1.1

B2 = 1.2

Which matches the value obtained in Method 2 to the


two significant figures of the table

Which matches the value obtained in Method 2 to the


two significant figures of the table

Step 3:

Note: Intermediate values are not interpolated from the table because the precision of the table is two significant
digits. Additionally, the design story drift limit used in Step 2 need not be the same as other strength or
serviceability drift limits used during the analysis and design of the structure.
Step 4. Multiply all the forces and moment from the first-order analysis by the value of B2 obtained from the
table. This presumes that B1 is less than or equal to B2, which is usually the case for members without transverse
loading between their ends.
LRFD

Step 5. Since the selection is in the shaded area of the


chart, (B2 1.1). For LRFD design, use K = 1.0.

ASD
Step 5. Since the selection is in the unshaded area of
the chart (B2 > 1.1), For ASD design, the effective
length factor, K, must be determined through
analysis. From previous analysis, use an effective
length of 15.5 ft.

Multiply both sway and non-sway moments by B2.

Multiply both sway and non-sway moments by B2

Mr = B2(Mnt + Mlt)
= 1.1(0 kip-ft + 233 kip-ft) = 256 kip-ft

Mr = B2(Mnt + Mlt)
= 1.2(0 kip-ft + 122 kip-ft) = 146 kip-ft

Pr = B2(Pnt + Plt)
= 1.1(317 kips +0.0 kips) = 349 kips

Pr = B2(Pnt + Plt)
= 1.2(295 kips +0.0 kips) = 354 kips

From AISC Manual Table 4-1,


Pc = 1,040 kips (W1490 @ KL = 13.5 ft)

From AISC Manual Table 4-1,


Pc = 675 kips (W1490 @ KL = 13.5 ft)

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,


Mcx = bMpx = 574 kip-ft (W1490 with Lb = 13.5 ft)

From AISC Manual Table 3-2,


M px
Mcx =
= 382 kip-ft (W1490 with Lb = 13.5 ft)
b

Pr
349 kips
=
= 0.336 0.2
Pc 1, 040 kips

Because

Pr
0.2, use interaction Equation H1-1a.
Pc

Pr 354 kips
=
= 0.524 0.2
Pc 675 kips

Because

Pr
0.2, use interaction Equation H1-1a.
Pc

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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III-77

Pr 8 M rx M ry
+
+
1.0
Pc 9 M cx M cy
8 256 kip-ft
0.336 +
1.0
9 574 kip-ft
0.732 1.0

Pr 8 M rx M ry
+
+
1.0
Pc 9 M cx M cy
8 146 kip-ft
0.524 +
1.0
9 382 kip-ft
0.864 1.0

o.k.

o.k.

BEAM ANALYSIS IN THE MOMENT FRAME

The controlling load combinations for the beams in the moment frames are shown below and
evaluated for the second floor beam. The dead load, live load and seismic moments were taken
from a computer analysis. The table summarizes the calculation of B2 for the stories above and
below the second floor.
1st 2nd

RM
Pe story

LRFD Combination
1.23D + 1.0QE + 0.5L + 0.2S
196 kips
13.5 ft
0.575 in.
2,250 kips
0.938
51,800 kips

ASD Combination 1
1.02D + 0.7QE
137 kips
13.5 ft
0.402 in.
1,640 kips
0.937
51,700 kips

ASD Combination 2
1.01D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7QE) + 0.75S
103 kips
13.5 ft
0.302 in.
2,090 kips
0.939
51,900 kips

Pstory
B2

5,440 kips
1.12

3,920 kips
1.14

5,120 kips
1.19

2nd 3rd

RM
Pe story

LRFD Combination
1.23D + 1.0QE + 0.5L +0.2S
170 kips
13.5 ft
0.728 in.
1,590
0.938
35,500 kips

ASD Combination 1
1.02D + 0.7QE
119 kips
13.5 ft
0.509 in.
1,160
0.937
35,500 kips

ASD Combination 2
1.01D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7QE) + 0.75S
89.3 kips
13.5 ft
0.382 in.
1,490
0.939
35,600 kips

Pstory
B2

3,840 kips
1.12

2,770 kips
1.14

3,660 kips
1.20

H
L
H
Pmf

H
L
H
Pmf

For beam members, the larger of the B2 values from the story above or below is used.
From computer output at the controlling beam:
Mdead = 153 kip-ft

Mlive = 80.6 kip-ft

LRFD Combination
B2 M lt = 1.12 (154 kip-ft )
= 172 kip-ft

Msnow = 0.0 kip-ft

ASD Combination 1
B2 M lt = 1.14 (154 kip-ft )

Mearthquake = 154 kip-ft


ASD Combination 2
B2 M lt = 1.20 (154 kip-ft )

= 176 kip-ft

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AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

= 185 kip-ft

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III-78
1.02 (153 kip-ft )
Ma =

+0.7 (176 kip-ft )

1.23 (153 kip-ft )

M u = +1.0 (172 kip-ft )

+0.5 ( 80.6 kip-ft )


= 400 kip-ft

= 279 kip-ft

1.01(153 kip-ft )

M a = +0.525 (185 kip-ft )

+0.75 ( 80.6 kip-ft )


= 312 kip-ft

Calculate Cb for compression in the bottom flange braced at 10.0 ft o.c.


LRFD
Cb = 1.86 (from computer output)

ASD
1.02D + 0.7QE
Cb = 1.86 (from computer output)
1.01D + 0.75(0.7QE) + 0.75L
Cb = 2.01 (from computer output)

Check W2455

Check W2455

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, with continuous


bracing

1.02D + 0.7E

M n = 503 kip-ft

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, with continuous


bracing

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, for Lb = 10.0 ft and


Cb = 1.86

Mn
= 334 kip-ft

M n = ( 386 kip-ft )1.86 503 kip-ft

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, for Lb = 10.0 ft and


Cb = 1.86

= 718 kip-ft 503 kip-ft

Use M n = 503 kip-ft > 400 kip-ft

o.k.

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, a W2455 has a


design shear strength of 252 kips and an Ix of 1350
in.4

Mn
= ( 256 kip-ft )1.86 334 kip-ft

= 476 kip-ft 334 kip-ft

Use

Mn
= 334 kip-ft > 279 kip-ft

o.k.

1.01D + 0.75(0.7QE) + 0.75L


With continuous bracing
Mn
= 334 kip-ft

From AISC Manual Table 3-10, for Lb = 10 ft and Cb


= 2.01
Mn
= ( 256 kip-ft ) 2.01

= 515 kip-ft 334 kip-ft

Use

Mn
= 334 kip-ft > 312 kip-ft

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

o.k.

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III-79

LRFD

ASD
From AISC Manual Table 3-2, a W2455 has an
allowable shear strength of 167 kips and an Ix of
1,350 in.4

The moments and shears on the roof beams due to the lateral loads were also checked but do not control the
design.
The connections of these beams can be designed by one of the techniques illustrated in the Chapter IIB of the
design examples.

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III-80
BRACED FRAME ANALYSIS

The braced frames at Grids 1 and 8 were analyzed for the required load combinations. The stability design
requirements from Chapter C were applied to this system.
The model layout, nominal dead, live, and snow loads with associated notional loads, wind loads and seismic
loads are shown in the figures below:

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III-81

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III-82

Second-order analysis by amplified first-order analysis


In the following, the approximate second-order analysis method from AISC Specification Appendix 8 is used to
account for second-order effects in the braced frames by amplifying the axial forces in members and connections
from a first-order analysis.
A first-order frame analysis is conducted using the load combinations for LRFD and ASD. From this analysis the
critical axial loads, moments and deflections are obtained.
A summary of the axial loads and 1st floor drifts from the first-order computer analysis is shown below. The
floor diaphragm deflection in the north-south direction was previously determined to be very small and will thus
be neglected in these calculations.
LRFD

1.23D 1.0QE + 0.5L + 0.2S


(Controls columns and beams)

ASD
1.01D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7QE) + 0.75S
(Controls columns and beams)

From a first-order analysis

From a first-order analysis

For interior column design:


Pnt = 236 kips
Plt = 146 kips

For interior column design:


Pnt = 219 kips
Plt = 76.6 kips

The moments are negligible

The moments are negligible

First story first-order drift = 0.211 in.

First story first-order drift = 0.111 in.

The required second-order axial strength, Pr, is computed as follows:


LRFD

Pr = Pnt + B2Plt

ASD
(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

Determine B2.
B2 =

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

(previously calculated)

Pe story may be calculated as:


Pe story = RM

(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

Determine B2.

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

Pstory = 5,440 kips

Pr = Pnt + B2Plt

HL
H

B2 =

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

Pstory = 5,120 kips

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

(previously calculated)

Pe story may be calculated as:


(Spec. Eq. A-8-7)

where

Pe story = RM

HL
H

(Spec. Eq. A-8-7)

where

H = 196 kips (from previous calculations)


H = 0.211 in. (from computer output)
RM = 1.0 for braced frames
Pe story = 1.0

(196 kips )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )

= 150, 000 kips

0.211 in.

H = 103 kips (from previous calculations)


H = 0.111 in. (from computer output)
RM = 1.0 for braced frames
Pe story = 1.0

(103 kips )(13.5 ft )(12 in./ft )

= 150, 000 kips


Design Examples V14.0
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0.111 in.

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III-83

B2 =

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

B2 =

1
1
1.0 ( 5, 440 kips )
1
150, 000 kips
= 1.04 1

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

1
1
1.6 ( 5,120 kips )
1
150, 000 kips
= 1.06 1
=

Pr = Pnt + B2Plt
(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)
= 236 kips + (1.04)(146 kips)
= 388 kips

Pr = Pnt + B2Plt
= 219 kips + (1.06)(76.6 kips)
= 300 kips

From AISC Manual Table 4-1,

From AISC Manual Table 4-1,

Pc = 514 kips (W1253 @ KL = 13.5 ft)

Pc = 342 kips (W1253 @ KL = 13.5 ft)

From AISC Specification Equation H1-1a,

From AISC Specification Equation H1-1a,

Pr 388 kips
=
= 0.755 1.0
Pc 514 kips

o.k.

(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

Pr 300 kips
=
= 0.877 1.0
Pc 342 kips

o.k.

Note: Notice that the lower sidesway displacements of the braced frame produce much lower values of B2 than
those of the moment frame. Similar results could be expected for the other two methods of analysis.
Although not presented here, second-order effects should be accounted for in the design of the beams and
diagonal braces in the braced frames at Grids 1 and 8.

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III-84
ANALYSIS OF DRAG STRUTS

The fourth floor delivers the highest diaphragm force to the braced frames at the ends of the building: E = 80.3
kips (from previous calculations). This force is transferred to the braced frame through axial loading of the
W1835 beams at the end of the building.
The gravity dead loads for the edge beams are the floor loading of 75.0 psf (5.50 ft) plus the exterior wall loading
of 0.503 kip/ft, giving a total dead load of 0.916 kip/ft. The gravity live load for these beams is the floor loading
of 80.0 psf (5.50 ft) = 0.440 kip/ft. The resulting midspan moments are MDead = 58.0 kip-ft and MLive = 27.8 kip-ft.
The controlling load combination for LRFD is 1.23D + 1.0QE + 0.50L. The controlling load combinations for
ASD are 1.01D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7QE) or 1.02D + 0.7QE
LRFD

ASD

Mu = 1.23(58.0 kip-ft) + 0.50(27.8 kip-ft)


= 85.2 kip-ft

Ma = 1.01(58.0 kip-ft) + 0.75(27.8 kip-ft)


= 79.4 kip-ft
or
Ma = 1.02(58.0 kip-ft) = 59.2 kip-ft

Load from the diaphragm shear due to earthquake


loading

Load from the diaphragm shear due to earthquake


loading

Fp = 80.3 kips

Fp = 0.75(0.70)(80.3 kips) = 42.2 kips


or
Fp = 0.70(80.3 kips) = 56.2 kips

Only the two 45 ft long segments on either side of the brace can transfer load into the brace, because the stair
opening is in front of the brace.
Use AISC Specification Section H2 to check the combined bending and axial stresses.
LRFD

ASD

80.3 kips
V=
= 0.892 kip/ft
2 ( 45.0 ft )

42.2 kips
V=
= 0.469 kip/ft
2 ( 45.0 ft )
or
V=

The top flange bending stress is


fb =
=

Mu
Sx
85.2 kip-ft (12 in. / ft )

56.2 kips
= 0.624 kip/ft
2 ( 45.0 ft )

The top flange stress due to bending


fb =
=

Ma
Sx
79.4 kip-ft (12 in. / ft )

57.6 in.3
= 16.5 ksi

57.6 in.3
= 17.8 ksi

or

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

III-85

fb =
=

Ma
Sx
59.2 kip-ft (12 in. / ft )

57.6 in.3
= 12.3 ksi

Note: It is often possible to resist the drag strut force using the slab directly. For illustration purposes, this solution
will instead use the beam to resist the force independently of the slab. The full cross section can be used to resist
the force if the member is designed as a column braced at one flange only (plus any other intermediate bracing
present, such as from filler beams). Alternatively, a reduced cross section consisting of the top flange plus a
portion of the web can be used. Arbitrarily use the top flange and 8 times an area of the web equal to its thickness
times a depth equal to its thickness, as an area to carry the drag strut component.
Area = 6.00 in.(0.425 in.) + 8(0.300 in.)2 = 2.55 in.2 + 0.720 in.2 = 3.27 in.2
Ignoring the small segment of the beam between Grid C and D, the axial stress due to the drag strut force is:
LRFD

fa =

ASD

80.3kips

42.2 kips

fa =

2 ( 3.27 in.2 )

= 12.3 ksi

2 ( 3.27 in.2 )

= 6.45 ksi
or
fa =

90.0 ft ( 0.624 kip/ft )


2 ( 3.27 in.2 )

= 8.59 ksi

Using AISC Specification Section H2, assuming the


top flange is continuously braced:

From AISC Specification Section H2, assuming the


top flange is continuously braced:

Fa = c Fy

Fa = Fy c

= 0.90 ( 50 ksi )

= 50 ksi 1.67
= 29.9 ksi

= 45.0 ksi
Fbw = b Fy

Fbw = Fy b

= 0.90 ( 50 ksi )

= 50 ksi 1.67
= 29.9 ksi

= 45.0 ksi
f a fbw
+
1.0
(from Spec. Eq. H2-1)
Fa Fbw
12.3ksi 17.8 ksi
+
= 0.669
o.k.
45.0 ksi 45.0 ksi

f a fbw
+
1.0
Fa Fbw

(from Spec. Eq. H2-1)

Load Combination 1:
6.45 ksi 16.5 ksi
+
= 0.768
29.9 ksi 29.9 ksi

Load Combination 2:

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

o.k.

Return to Table of Contents

III-86

8.59 ksi 12.3ksi


+
= 0.699
29.9 ksi 29.9 ksi

o.k.

Note: Because the drag strut load is a horizontal load, the method of transfer into the strut, and the extra
horizontal load which must be accommodated by the beam end connections should be indicated on the drawings.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

III-87
PART III EXAMPLE REFERENCES

ASCE (2010), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/SEI 7-10, Reston, VA.
Geschwindner, L.F. (1994), A Practical Approach to the Leaning Column, Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 31,
No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 141-149.
SDI (2004), Diaphragm Design Manual, 3rd Ed., Steel Deck Institute, Fox River Grove, IL.
SJI (2005), Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders, 42nd Ed., Steel Joist Institute,
Forest, VA.
West, M., Fisher, J. and Griffis, L.A. (2003), Serviceability Design Considerations for Steel Buildings, Design
Guide 3, 2nd Ed., AISC, Chicago, IL.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

III-88

Return to Table of Contents

III-89

Return to Table of Contents


III-90

Return to Table of Contents

III-91

Return to Table of Contents

III-92

Return to Table of Contents

IV-1

Chapter IV
Other Resources
This chapter contains additional design aids that are not available in the AISC Steel Construction Manual.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IV-2

DESIGN TABLE DISCUSSION


Table 4-1. W-Shapes in Axial Compression, 65 ksi steel
Available strengths in axial compression are given for W-shapes with Fy = 65 ksi (ASTM A913 Grade 65).
The tabulated values are given for the effective length with respect to the y-axis (KL)y. However, the
effective length with respect to the x-axis (KL)x must also be investigated. To determine the available
strength in axial compression, the table should be entered at the larger of (KL)y and (KL)y eq, where
( KL )
( KL ) y eq = r x
(4-1)
x
ry
The available strength is based on the limit states of flexural buckling, torsional buckling, and flexuralKL
= 99.5 with Fy = 65 ksi.
torsional buckling. The limit between elastic and inelastic buckling is
r
The slenderness limit between a nonslender web and a slender web is rw = 31.5 with Fy = 65 ksi. All
current ASTM A6 W-shapes have nonslender flanges with Fy = 65 ksi.
Values of the ratio rx/ry and other properties useful in the design of W-shape compression members are
listed at the bottom of Table 4-1.
Variables Pwo, Pwi, Pwb and Pfb shown in Table 4-1 can be used to determine the strength of W-shapes
without stiffeners to resist concentrated forces applied normal to the face(s) of the flange(s). In these tables
it is assumed that the concentrated forces act far enough away from the member ends that end effects are
not considered (end effects are addressed in Chapter 9). When Pr Rn or Rn/, column web stiffeners are
not required. Figures 4-1, 4-2 and 4-3 illustrate the limit states and the applicable variables for each.
Web Local Yielding: The variables Pwo and Pwi can be used in the calculation of the available web local
yielding strength for the column as follows:
LRFD
Rn = Pwo + Pwi lb

(4-2a)

ASD
Rn = Pwo + Pwi lb

(4-2b)

where
Rn = Fywtw (5k + lb ) = 5Fywtw k + Fywtwlb , kips (AISC Specification Equation J10-2)
Pwo = 5 Fywtw k for LRFD and 5Fywtw k for ASD, kips
Pwi = Fywtw for LRFD and Fywtw for ASD, kips/in.
k
lb
tw

=
=
=
=
=

distance from outer face of flange to the web toe of fillet, in.
length of bearing, in.
thickness of web, in.
1.00
1.50

Web Compression Buckling: The variable Pwb is the available web compression buckling strength for the
column as follows:
LRFD
Rn = Pwb

(4-3a)

where
Rn =

24tw3 EFyw
h

(AISC Specification Equation J10-8)

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

ASD
Rn = Pwb

(4-3b)

Return to Table of Contents

IV-3

Pwb =
Fyw
h

=
=
=
=

24tw3 EFyw

for LRFD and

24tw3 EFyw

for ASD, kips


h
h
specified minimum yield stress of the web, ksi
clear distance between flanges less the fillet or corner radius for rolled shapes, in.
0.90
1.67

Fig. 4-1. Illustration of web local yielding limit state


(AISC Specification Section J10.2).
Flange Local Buckling: The variable Pfb is the available flange local bending strength for the column as
follows:
LRFD
Rn = Pfb

(4-4a)

ASD
Rn = Pfb

where
Rn = 6.25Fyf t 2f , kips (AISC Specification Equation J10-1)
Pfb = 6.25 Fyf t 2f for LRFD and 6.25 Fyf t 2f for ASD, kips
= 0.90
= 1.67

Fig. 4-2. Illustration of web compression buckling limit state


(AISC Specification Section J10.5).

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

(4-4a)

Return to Table of Contents

IV-4

Fig. 4-3. Illustration of flange local bending limit state


(AISC Specification Section J10.1).

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-5

Table 4-1

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
Shape
lb/ft

W14

Design
0
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

W14

455h
665h
605h
550h
500h
730h
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
8370 12600 7630 11500 6930 10400 6310
9480
5720
8600
5220
7840

6
7
8
9
10

8180
8120
8040
7960
7860

12300
12200
12100
12000
11800

7450
7390
7320
7240
7150

11200
11100
11000
10900
10800

6770
6710
6640
6570
6480

10200
10100
9980
9870
9750

6150
6100
6040
5970
5890

9250
9170
9070
8970
8850

5580
5530
5470
5410
5340

8390
8310
8220
8130
8020

5080
5040
4980
4920
4860

7640
7570
7490
7400
7300

11
12
13
14
15

7760
7650
7530
7410
7270

11700
11500
11300
11100
10900

7060
6960
6850
6730
6600

10600
10500
10300
10100
9930

6400
6300
6200
6090
5970

9610
9470
9310
9150
8970

5810
5720
5620
5520
5410

8730
8590
8450
8300
8130

5260
5170
5090
4990
4890

7900
7780
7640
7500
7350

4780
4710
4620
4530
4440

7190
7070
6950
6820
6680

16
17
18
19
20

7140
6990
6840
6680
6520

10700
10500
10300
10000
9810

6470
6340
6200
6050
5900

9730
9530
9310
9100
8870

5850
5720
5590
5460
5320

8790
8600
8410
8200
7990

5300
5180
5060
4930
4810

7970
7790
7610
7420
7220

4790
4680
4560
4450
4330

7190
7030
6860
6690
6510

4340
4240
4140
4030
3920

6530
6380
6220
6060
5890

22
24
26
28
30

6190
5850
5490
5140
4780

9310
8790
8260
7720
7180

5590
5270
4950
4610
4280

8410
7920
7430
6940
6440

5030
4730
4430
4130
3820

7560
7120
6660
6200
5740

4540
4260
3980
3700
3420

6820
6410
5990
5570
5140

4080
3830
3570
3310
3050

6140
5750
5370
4980
4590

3690
3460
3220
2980
2740

5550
5200
4840
4480
4120

32
34
36
38
40

4420
4080
3740
3410
3090

6650
6130
5620
5120
4640

3960
3640
3320
3020
2730

5950
5460
4990
4540
4100

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

3520
5290
3150
4730
2800
4210
2510
3780
3230
4850
2880
4320
2550
3840
2290
3440
2940
4420
2620
3930
2320
3480
2070
3110
2660
4000
2360
3550
2090
3130
1860
2790
2400
3610
2130
3200
1880
2830
1680
2520
Properties
3670
5500
3140
4710
2680
4020
2280
3420
1950
2920
1670
2500
133
200
123
184
113
169
103
155
94.9
142
87.5
131
50100 75300 39200 58900 30400 45700 23300 35100 18200 27300 14200 21400
5860
8810
4970
7470
4210
6330
3550
5340
2980
4480
2510
3770
14.5
14.1
13.9
13.7
13.6
14.3
212
178
164
151
138
195
215
196
178
162
147
134
14300
4720
4.69
1.74
409000
135000
LRFD
c = 0.90

12400
4170
4.62
1.73
355000
119000
h

10800
3680
4.55
1.71
309000
105000

9430
3250
4.49
1.70
270000
93000

8210
2880
4.43
1.69
235000
82400

Flange thickness is greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC
Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

7190
2560
4.38
1.67
206000
73300

Return to Table of Contents

IV-6

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips
W-Shapes

W14
Shape
lb/ft

W14

Design
0
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

Fy = 65 ksi

283h
398h
370h
342h
311h
426h
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
4870
7310
4550
6840
4240
6380
3930
5910
3560
5350
3240
4870

11
12
13
14
15

4460
4380
4300
4220
4130

6700
6590
6470
6340
6210

4170
4100
4020
3940
3860

6260
6160
6040
5920
5800

3870
3810
3740
3660
3580

5820
5720
5620
5500
5390

3590
3520
3460
3390
3310

5390
5290
5200
5090
4980

3240
3180
3120
3060
2990

4870
4780
4690
4590
4490

2950
2890
2840
2780
2720

4430
4350
4270
4180
4080

16
17
18
19
20

4040
3940
3840
3740
3640

6070
5930
5780
5630
5470

3770
3680
3590
3490
3390

5670
5530
5390
5250
5100

3500
3420
3330
3240
3140

5260
5130
5000
4860
4720

3230
3150
3070
2990
2900

4860
4740
4620
4490
4360

2920
2840
2770
2690
2610

4380
4270
4160
4040
3920

2650
2580
2510
2440
2370

3980
3880
3780
3670
3560

22
24
26
28
30

3420
3200
2980
2750
2530

5140
4810
4470
4140
3800

3190
2980
2770
2560
2350

4790
4480
4160
3840
3530

2950
2750
2550
2360
2160

4430
4140
3840
3540
3240

2720
2540
2350
2160
1980

4090
3810
3530
3250
2980

2440
2280
2110
1940
1770

3670
3420
3160
2910
2660

2220
2060
1900
1750
1600

3330
3100
2860
2630
2400

32
34
36
38
40

2310
2100
1900
1700
1540

3470
3160
2850
2560
2310

2140
1940
1750
1570
1420

3220
2920
2630
2360
2130

1970
1780
1600
1440
1300

2960
2680
2410
2160
1950

1800
1630
1460
1310
1180

2710
2450
2200
1970
1780

1610
1450
1300
1170
1050

2420
2180
1950
1750
1580

1450
1310
1170
1050
945

2180
1960
1750
1570
1420

42
44
46
48
50

1390
1270
1160
1070
983

2090
1910
1750
1600
1480

1290
1170
1070
985
907

1930
1760
1610
1480
1360

1180
1770
1070
1610
980
1470
900
1350
830
1250
Properties
1320
1980
1170
1760
76.7
115
71.9
108
9600 14400 7890 11900
1980
2970
1720
2590
13.2
13.4
122
114

1070
979
896
823
758

1610
1470
1350
1240
1140

954
869
795
730
673

1430
1310
1200
1100
1010

857
781
715
656
605

1290
1170
1070
986
909

1020
66.7
6320
1480

1540
100
9490
2230
13.1
106

874
61.1
4850
1240

1310
91.7
7290
1870
13.0
96.7

746
55.9
3710
1040

1120
83.9
5580
1570
12.9
88.3

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

1480
2220
81.5
122
11500 17200
2250
3380
13.4
130
125
6600
2360
4.34
1.67
189000
67500
LRFD
c = 0.90

117
6000
2170
4.31
1.66
172000
62100
h

109
5440
1990
4.27
1.66
156000
57000

101
4900
1810
4.24
1.65
140000
51800

91.4
4330
1610
4.20
1.64
124000
46100

Flange thickness is greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC
Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

83.3
3840
1440
4.17
1.63
110000
41200

Return to Table of Contents

IV-7

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
Shape
lb/ft
Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

W14

W14
257
233
211
193
176
159
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
2940
4420
2670
4010
2410
3630
2210
3320
2020
3030
1820
2730

6
7
8
9
10

2860
2830
2800
2760
2720

4300
4250
4200
4140
4080

2590
2560
2530
2500
2460

3890
3850
3800
3750
3690

2340
2320
2290
2260
2220

3520
3480
3440
3390
3340

2150
2120
2100
2070
2030

3220
3190
3150
3110
3060

1960
1930
1910
1880
1850

2940
2910
2870
2830
2780

1760
1740
1720
1700
1670

2650
2620
2590
2550
2510

11
12
13
14
15

2670
2620
2570
2510
2460

4010
3940
3860
3780
3690

2420
2370
2320
2270
2220

3630
3560
3490
3420
3340

2180
2140
2100
2050
2000

3280
3220
3150
3080
3010

2000
1960
1920
1880
1830

3000
2950
2890
2820
2750

1820
1780
1750
1710
1670

2740
2680
2630
2570
2500

1640
1610
1570
1540
1500

2460
2420
2360
2310
2250

16
17
18
19
20

2400
2330
2270
2200
2130

3600
3510
3410
3310
3210

2160
2110
2050
1990
1930

3250
3170
3080
2990
2890

1950
1900
1850
1790
1730

2940
2860
2780
2690
2610

1790
1740
1690
1640
1580

2680
2610
2540
2460
2380

1620
1580
1530
1490
1440

2440
2370
2300
2230
2160

1460
1420
1380
1330
1290

2190
2130
2070
2010
1940

22
24
26
28
30

2000
1850
1710
1570
1430

3000
2790
2570
2360
2150

1800
1670
1540
1410
1280

2700
2510
2310
2120
1930

1620
1500
1380
1260
1150

2430
2250
2070
1900
1720

1480
1370
1260
1150
1040

2220
2050
1890
1730
1570

1340
1240
1140
1040
941

2010
1860
1710
1560
1410

1200
1110
1020
929
842

1810
1670
1530
1400
1270

32
34
36
38
40

1290
1160
1040
932
841

1940
1750
1560
1400
1260

1160
1040
927
832
751

1740
1560
1390
1250
1130

941
841
750
673
608

1410
1260
1130
1010
914

847
756
674
605
546

1270
1140
1010
909
821

757
675
602
540
487

1140
1010
905
812
733

637
51.1
2830
869

955
76.7
4250
1310
12.8
80.7

538
46.4
2110
720

807
69.6
3170
1080
12.7
73.5

1040
1560
927
1390
827
1240
742
1120
670
1010
Properties
459
688
42.5
63.7
1630
2460
592
890
12.6
67.2

393
38.6
1220
504

590
57.9
1840
758
12.5
61.8

343
36.0
992
417

515
54.0
1490
627
12.5
57.1

289
32.3
716
344

433
48.4
1080
518
12.4
52.4

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

75.6
3400
1290
4.13
1.62
97300
36900
LRFD

68.5
3010
1150
4.10
1.62
86200
32900

62.0
2660
1030
4.07
1.61
76100
29500

56.8
2400
931
4.05
1.60
68700
26600

51.8
2140
838
4.02
1.60
61300
24000

c = 0.90

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

46.7
1900
748
4.00
1.60
54400
21400

Return to Table of Contents

IV-8

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips
W-Shapes

W14
Shape
lb/ft
Design
0
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

Fy = 65 ksi

W14
145
132
120
109
99
90
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
1660
2500
1510
2270
1370
2070
1250
1870
1130
1700
1030
1550

6
7
8
9
10

1610
1590
1570
1550
1520

2420
2390
2360
2330
2290

1460
1440
1420
1400
1370

2190
2160
2130
2100
2060

1330
1310
1290
1270
1250

1990
1970
1940
1910
1870

1200
1190
1170
1150
1130

1810
1780
1760
1730
1700

1090
1080
1060
1040
1030

1640
1620
1600
1570
1540

995
982
968
951
933

1500
1480
1450
1430
1400

11
12
13
14
15

1500
1470
1440
1400
1370

2250
2210
2160
2110
2060

1340
1310
1280
1250
1210

2020
1970
1930
1880
1830

1220
1190
1160
1130
1100

1830
1790
1750
1700
1660

1110
1080
1050
1030
998

1660
1620
1590
1540
1500

1000
982
957
932
906

1510
1480
1440
1400
1360

914
893
871
848
824

1370
1340
1310
1270
1240

16
17
18
19
20

1330
1290
1260
1220
1180

2000
1950
1890
1830
1770

1180
1140
1100
1060
1030

1770
1720
1660
1600
1540

1070
1040
1000
965
929

1610
1560
1500
1450
1400

968
937
906
873
840

1460
1410
1360
1310
1260

878
850
821
791
761

1320
1280
1230
1190
1140

799
773
746
719
691

1200
1160
1120
1080
1040

22
24
26
28
30

1090
1010
927
844
764

1640
1520
1390
1270
1150

945
865
785
707
632

1420
1300
1180
1060
950

856
782
709
638
569

1290
1180
1070
959
856

774
707
640
576
514

1160
1060
963
866
772

700
639
578
519
463

1050
960
869
781
696

636
580
525
471
419

956
872
789
708
630

32
34
36
38
40

686
611
545
489
441

1030
918
819
735
663

559
495
442
397
358

840
744
664
596
538

454
402
359
322
290

682
604
539
484
437

408
362
323
290
261

614
544
485
435
393

370
328
292
262
237

556
492
439
394
356

249
29.5
543
289

373
44.2
816
434
12.3
48.7

228
28.0
464
258

342
41.9
697
388
11.6
44.3

503
756
446
670
398
598
357
536
322
484
Properties
197
295
25.6
38.4
356
535
215
323
11.6
41.5

166
22.8
251
180

249
34.1
377
270
11.6
39.1

145
21.0
197
148

218
31.5
297
222
11.5
36.8

125
19.1
147
123

187
28.6
222
184
11.5
34.9

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

42.7
1710
677
3.98
1.59
48900
19400
LRFD

38.8
1530
548
3.76
1.67
43800
15700

35.3
1380
495
3.74
1.67
39500
14200

32.0
1240
447
3.73
1.67
35500
12800

29.1
1110
402
3.71
1.66
31800
11500

c = 0.90

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

26.5
999
362
3.70
1.66
28600
10400

Return to Table of Contents

IV-9

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
Shape
lb/ft
Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

W14

W14
82
74
68
61
53
48c
43c
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
934 1400 849 1280 778 1170 697 1050 607
913
541
813
474
712

6
7
8
9
10

862
838
810
780
748

1300
1260
1220
1170
1120

783
761
736
709
679

1180
1140
1110
1060
1020

718
697
674
648
621

1080
1050
1010
974
933

642
623
602
579
555

965
936
905
871
834

531
506
479
449
419

798
761
720
676
630

479
457
432
405
377

720
686
649
609
567

419
401
381
358
334

630
603
572
539
502

11
12
13
14
15

714
678
641
604
566

1070
1020
964
908
851

648
616
583
549
514

974
926
876
824
773

592
562
531
500
468

890
845
798
751
703

529
502
474
446
417

795
754
712
670
627

387
356
324
293
263

582
535
487
441
396

349
320
291
263
236

524
481
438
395
355

308
282
257
231
207

464
425
386
348
311

16
17
18
19
20

528
491
454
418
384

794
738
683
629
576

480
446
413
380
348

721
670
620
571
524

436
405
374
344
315

656
609
562
517
473

389
360
333
306
280

584
542
500
460
421

234
208
185
166
150

352
312
278
250
226

210
186
166
149
134

315
279
249
224
202

184
163
145
130
117

276
244
218
196
177

22
24
26
28
30

318
267
228
197
171

478
402
343
295
257

289
243
207
179
156

435
365
311
268
234

261
219
187
161
140

392
330
281
242
211

232
195
166
143
125

348
293
249
215
187

124
104
88.8
76.6
66.7

186
157
133
115
100

111
93.2
79.4
68.5
59.7

167
140
119
103
89.7

97.1
81.6
69.5
59.9
52.2

146
123
104
90.1
78.5

32
34
36
38
40

150
133
119
107
96.3

226
200
179
160
145

137
121
108
96.9
87.5

205
182
162
146
131

58.6

88.1

160
22.1
229
178

240
33.2
344
267
7.68
26.7

135
19.5
157
150

202
29.3
236
225
7.68
25.2

123
185
110
165
109
164 97.0 146
97.5 147 86.5 130
87.5 131 77.7 117
79.0 119 70.1 105
Properties
118
177
101
151
18.0 27.0 16.3 24.4
124
186 91.3 137
126
190
101
152
7.62
7.59
24.0
22.7

100
16.0
87.4
106

150
24.1
131
159
5.95
18.4

87.7
14.7
67.9
86.1

131
22.1
102
129
5.92
17.6

74.0
13.2
49.1
68.3

111
19.8
73.8
103
5.86
16.8

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

24.0
881
148
2.48
2.44
25200
4240
LRFD
c = 0.90

21.8
795
134
2.48
2.44
22800
3840
c

20.0
722
121
2.46
2.44
20700
3460

17.9
640
107
2.45
2.44
18300
3060

15.6
541
57.7
1.92
3.07
15500
1650

14.1
484
51.4
1.91
3.06
13900
1470

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

12.6
428
45.2
1.89
3.08
12300
1290

Return to Table of Contents

IV-10

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips
W-Shapes

W12
Shape
lb/ft
Design
0
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

Fy = 65 ksi

W12
210
305h
279h
252h
230h
336h
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD
LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
3850
5790
3480
5240
3190
4790
2880
4330
2640
3960
2410
3620

6
7
8
9
10

3700
3640
3580
3510
3440

5550
5470
5380
5280
5160

3340
3290
3230
3170
3100

5020
4940
4860
4760
4660

3050
3010
2950
2890
2830

4590
4520
4440
4350
4250

2760
2720
2670
2610
2550

4150
4080
4010
3920
3830

2520
2480
2430
2380
2330

3790
3730
3660
3580
3500

2300
2260
2220
2170
2120

3450
3400
3330
3260
3180

11
12
13
14
15

3350
3270
3180
3080
2980

5040
4910
4770
4630
4480

3020
2940
2860
2770
2680

4540
4420
4300
4160
4020

2760
2680
2600
2520
2430

4140
4030
3910
3790
3660

2490
2420
2340
2270
2190

3740
3630
3520
3410
3290

2270
2200
2130
2060
1990

3400
3310
3210
3100
2990

2060
2000
1940
1870
1810

3100
3010
2920
2820
2720

16
17
18
19
20

2880
2770
2660
2550
2440

4320
4170
4000
3840
3670

2580
2480
2380
2280
2180

3880
3730
3580
3430
3280

2350
2250
2160
2070
1970

3530
3390
3250
3110
2970

2110
2020
1940
1850
1770

3170
3040
2910
2780
2650

1910
1840
1760
1680
1600

2880
2760
2640
2520
2400

1740
1670
1590
1520
1450

2610
2500
2390
2280
2170

22
24
26
28
30

2220
2000
1790
1580
1380

3340
3010
2680
2370
2080

1980
1780
1580
1390
1210

2970
2670
2370
2090
1820

1790
1600
1420
1250
1090

2680
2400
2130
1870
1630

1590
1420
1260
1100
959

2390
2140
1890
1650
1440

1440
1280
1130
988
860

2160
1930
1700
1480
1290

1300
1160
1020
885
771

1950
1740
1530
1330
1160

32
34
36
38
40

1210
1080
959
861
777

1820
1620
1440
1290
1170

1070
945
843
757
683

1600
1420
1270
1140
1030

954
1430
845
1270
754
1130
676
1020
610
917
Properties
1170
1750
1020
1530
70.6
106
66.3
99.5
8770 13200 7270 10900
1790
2690
1480
2230
10.6
10.5
105
96.8

843
746
666
598
539

1270
1120
1000
898
811

756
670
597
536
484

1140
1010
898
806
727

678
600
535
481
434

1020
902
805
722
652

865
60.7
5560
1230

1300
91.0
8350
1850
10.3
88.0

746
55.9
4340
1040

1120
83.9
6530
1570
10.3
80.7

639
51.1
3340
878

959
76.7
5020
1320
10.2
73.9

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

1370
77.1
11400
2130

2050
116
17200
3200
10.7
116

98.9
4060
1190
3.47
1.85
116000
34100
LRFD
c = 0.90

89.5
3550
1050
3.42
1.84
102000
30100
h

81.9
3110
937
3.38
1.82
89000
26800

74.1
2720
828
3.34
1.81
77900
23700

67.7
2420
742
3.31
1.80
69300
21200

Flange thickness is greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC
Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

61.8
2140
664
3.28
1.80
61300
19000

Return to Table of Contents

IV-11

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
Shape
lb/ft
Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

W12

W12
190
170
152
136
120
106
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
2180
3280
1950
2920
1740
2610
1550
2330
1370
2060
1210
1830

6
7
8
9
10

2080
2050
2010
1960
1910

3130
3070
3020
2950
2880

1860
1820
1790
1750
1710

2790
2740
2690
2630
2560

1660
1630
1600
1560
1520

2490
2450
2400
2350
2290

1480
1450
1420
1390
1350

2220
2180
2140
2090
2040

1300
1280
1250
1220
1190

1960
1920
1880
1840
1790

1150
1130
1110
1080
1050

1730
1700
1670
1630
1580

11
12
13
14
15

1860
1810
1750
1690
1630

2800
2720
2630
2540
2450

1660
1610
1560
1500
1450

2490
2420
2340
2260
2170

1480
1430
1390
1340
1290

2220
2150
2080
2010
1930

1320
1270
1230
1190
1140

1980
1920
1850
1780
1710

1160
1120
1080
1040
1000

1740
1680
1630
1570
1500

1020
990
956
920
883

1540
1490
1440
1380
1330

16
17
18
19
20

1560
1500
1430
1370
1300

2350
2250
2150
2050
1950

1390
1330
1270
1210
1150

2090
2000
1910
1820
1730

1230
1180
1130
1070
1020

1850
1770
1690
1610
1530

1090
1050
996
947
898

1640
1570
1500
1420
1350

958
915
871
827
783

1440
1380
1310
1240
1180

845
807
768
729
689

1270
1210
1150
1100
1040

22
24
26
28
30

1160
1030
908
788
686

1750
1550
1360
1180
1030

1030
910
797
690
601

1540
1370
1200
1040
904

907
802
701
606
528

1360
1210
1050
910
793

800
705
615
530
462

1200
1060
924
797
695

697
613
532
459
400

1050
921
800
690
601

612
537
466
402
350

920
808
700
604
526

32
34
36
38
40

603
534
476
428
386

906
803
716
643
580

528
468
418
375
338

794
704
628
563
508

406
360
321
288
260

610
541
482
433
391

352
311
278
249
225

528
468
417
375
338

308
272
243
218
197

462
410
365
328
296

535
45.9
2420
737

803
68.9
3640
1110
10.1
67.4

449
41.6
1800
592

674
62.4
2710
890
9.98
60.7

464
697
411
617
366
551
329
494
297
446
Properties
377
566
37.7
56.6
1330
2000
477
717
9.88
54.8

317
34.2
1000
380

475
51.4
1500
571
9.79
49.1

262
30.8
726
300

392
46.2
1090
450
9.70
44.2

210
26.4
462
238

315
39.7
694
358
9.63
39.9

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

56.0
1890
589
3.25
1.79
54100
16900
LRFD

50.0
1650
517
3.22
1.78
47200
14800

44.7
1430
454
3.19
1.77
40900
13000

39.9
1240
398
3.16
1.77
35500
11400

35.2
1070
345
3.13
1.76
30600
9870

c = 0.90

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

31.2
933
301
3.11
1.76
26700
8620

Return to Table of Contents

IV-12

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips
W-Shapes

W12
Shape
lb/ft

W12
96

Design
0
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

Fy = 65 ksi

87

79

72
65
58
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
1100
1650
996
1500
903
1360
821
1230
743
1120
662
994

6
7
8
9
10

1040
1020
1000
977
951

1570
1540
1510
1470
1430

946
928
908
886
862

1420
1390
1360
1330
1300

856
840
822
802
779

1290
1260
1240
1200
1170

779
764
747
728
708

1170
1150
1120
1090
1060

704
691
675
658
640

1060
1040
1020
989
962

612
595
576
555
532

920
894
865
834
800

11
12
13
14
15

923
893
861
829
795

1390
1340
1290
1250
1190

836
808
780
750
719

1260
1210
1170
1130
1080

756
731
704
677
648

1140
1100
1060
1020
975

687
664
639
614
589

1030
997
961
923
885

620
599
577
554
530

932
900
867
833
797

509
484
458
432
406

765
727
689
650
610

16
17
18
19
20

760
725
690
654
619

1140
1090
1040
983
930

687
655
622
590
557

1030
984
936
887
838

620
590
561
531
501

931
887
843
798
753

562
535
508
481
454

845
805
764
723
683

506
482
457
432
408

761
724
687
650
613

379
353
327
302
277

570
531
492
454
417

22
24
26
28
30

548
481
416
358
312

824
722
625
539
469

493
432
373
321
280

742
649
560
483
421

443
387
333
287
250

666
582
501
432
376

401
350
301
260
226

603
526
453
390
340

360
313
269
232
202

540
471
404
349
304

231
194
165
143
124

347
292
249
214
187

32
34
36
38
40

274
243
217
195
176

413
365
326
293
264

246
218
194
174
157

370
327
292
262
237

199
176
157
141
127

299
265
236
212
191

178
157
140
126
114

267
236
211
189
171

109
96.7
86.3
77.4
69.9

164
145
130
116
105

179
23.8
337
197

268
35.8
507
296
9.57
37.0

157
22.3
277
160

236
33.5
416
240
9.51
34.4

220
331
195
293
174
261
156
234
141
212
Properties
135
203
20.4
30.6
211
316
131
198
9.45
32.1

118
18.6
161
109

177
28.0
243
164
9.42
30.4

101
16.9
121
89.0

152
25.4
181
134
9.36
28.8

96.7
15.6
94.7
99.6

145
23.4
142
150
7.78
24.4

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

28.2
833
270
3.09
1.76
23800
7730
LRFD

25.6
740
241
3.07
1.75
21200
6900

23.2
662
216
3.05
1.75
18900
6180

21.1
597
195
3.04
1.75
17100
5580

19.1
533
174
3.02
1.75
15300
4980

c = 0.90

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

17.0
475
107
2.51
2.10
13600
3060

Return to Table of Contents

IV-13

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
Shape
lb/ft

58

W12
50
P n / c
c P n
ASD
LRFD
568
854

P n / c
ASD
662

c P n
LRFD
994

P n / c
ASD
607

c P n
LRFD
913

6
7
8
9
10

612
595
576
555
532

920
894
865
834
800

560
544
527
507
486

842
818
791
762
731

500
477
452
426
398

11
12
13
14
15

509
484
458
432
406

765
727
689
650
610

464
441
417
393
368

697
662
627
590
553

16
17
18
19
20

379
353
327
302
277

570
531
492
454
417

343
319
295
272
249

22
24
26
28
30

231
194
165
143
124

347
292
249
214
187

207
174
148
128
111

32
34
36
38
40

109
96.7
86.3
77.4
69.9

164
145
130
116
105

97.8
86.6
77.3
69.4
62.6

96.7
15.6
94.7
99.6

145
23.4
142
150
7.78
24.4

88.2
15.0
83.6
80.4

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

53

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

17.0
475
107
2.51
2.10
13600
3060
LRFD
c = 0.90

W12
45

40c
P n / c
c P n
ASD
LRFD
450
676

P n / c
ASD
510

c P n
LRFD
766

751
717
680
640
598

448
427
405
381
356

673
642
609
573
535

400
381
361
339
317

600
573
542
510
476

369
340
311
283
255

555
511
468
425
383

330
304
278
252
227

496
456
417
378
341

293
270
246
223
201

441
405
370
336
302

516
480
444
409
375

228
203
181
162
146

343
304
272
244
220

203
180
160
144
130

305
270
241
216
195

179
159
142
127
115

270
239
213
191
173

311
261
223
192
167

121
102
86.6
74.7
65.0

182
153
130
112
97.8

107
90.3
76.9
66.3
57.8

161
136
116
100
86.8

95.0
79.8
68.0
58.6
51.1

143
120
102
88.1
76.8

147
57.2
85.9
130
116
104
94.1
Properties
132
91.4
137
22.4
16.0
24.1
126
101
151
121
99.6
150
7.68
6.07
23.2
19.5

50.8

76.3

44.9

67.5

78.4
14.5
74.8
80.4

118
21.8
112
121
6.04
18.5

65.2
12.8
51.1
64.5

97.8
19.2
76.8
97.0
6.01
17.6

15.6
425
95.8
2.48
2.11
12200
2740

14.6
391
56.3
1.96
2.64
11200
1610

13.1
348
50.0
1.95
2.64
9960
1430

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

11.7
307
44.1
1.94
2.64
8790
1260

Return to Table of Contents

IV-14

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips
W-Shapes

W10
Shape
lb/ft
Design
0
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

Fy = 65 ksi

W10
112
100
88
77
68
60
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
1280
1920
1140
1710
1010
1520
884
1330
775
1160
689
1040

6
7
8
9
10

1200
1170
1130
1100
1060

1800
1750
1700
1650
1590

1060
1040
1010
974
938

1600
1560
1510
1460
1410

942
918
892
862
830

1420
1380
1340
1300
1250

821
800
776
750
722

1230
1200
1170
1130
1080

720
701
680
657
632

1080
1050
1020
987
949

639
622
603
582
560

961
935
907
875
842

11
12
13
14
15

1020
973
928
881
834

1530
1460
1390
1320
1250

901
861
820
778
736

1350
1290
1230
1170
1110

796
761
724
687
648

1200
1140
1090
1030
974

692
660
627
594
560

1040
992
943
893
842

605
577
549
519
489

909
868
825
780
736

536
511
485
459
432

806
768
730
690
650

16
17
18
19
20

786
738
691
644
597

1180
1110
1040
967
898

692
649
606
564
523

1040
976
912
848
786

610
571
533
495
459

916
859
801
745
689

526
492
458
425
393

791
740
689
639
591

459
429
400
371
342

690
646
601
557
515

405
379
352
326
301

609
569
529
490
452

22
24
26
28
30

509
428
365
315
274

765
644
548
473
412

444
373
318
274
239

667
560
478
412
359

388
326
278
239
209

583
490
417
360
313

331
278
237
204
178

497
418
356
307
267

288
242
206
178
155

433
364
310
267
233

252
212
181
156
136

379
318
271
234
204

32
34
36
38
40

241
213
190
171
154

362
321
286
257
232

210
186
166
149
134

315
279
249
224
202

156
139
124
111
100

235
208
186
167
150

136
121
108
96.5
87.1

205
181
162
145
131

119
106
94.2
84.5
76.3

179
159
142
127
115

286
32.7
1080
380

429
49.1
1630
571
8.30
49.6

239
29.5
786
305

358
44.2
1180
459
8.21
44.8

183
276
162
244
145
218
130
195
117
176
Properties
195
293
26.2
39.3
556
835
238
358
8.15
39.9

157
23.0
374
184

236
34.5
563
277
8.05
35.5

129
20.4
261
144

194
30.6
392
217
8.02
32.1

107
18.2
186
112

161
27.3
280
169
7.96
29.2

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

32.9
716
236
2.68
1.74
20500
6750
LRFD

29.3
623
207
2.65
1.74
17800
5920

26.0
534
179
2.63
1.73
15300
5120

22.7
455
154
2.60
1.73
13000
4410

19.9
394
134
2.59
1.71
11300
3840

c = 0.90

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

17.7
341
116
2.57
1.71
9760
3320

Return to Table of Contents

IV-15

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
Shape
lb/ft

54

W10
45
P n / c
c P n
ASD
LRFD
518
778

P n / c
ASD
615

c P n
LRFD
924

P n / c
ASD
560

c P n
LRFD
842

6
7
8
9
10

570
555
538
519
499

857
834
809
780
750

519
505
489
472
453

780
759
735
709
681

458
438
417
393
369

11
12
13
14
15

478
455
432
408
384

718
684
649
614
578

434
413
392
370
348

652
621
589
556
523

16
17
18
19
20

360
336
313
289
267

542
505
470
435
401

326
304
282
261
240

22
24
26
28
30

223
188
160
138
120

336
282
240
207
180

32
34
36
38
40

106
93.5
83.4
74.8
67.6
89.8
16.0
127
92.0

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

49

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

W10
39

33

P n / c
ASD
448

c P n
LRFD
673

P n / c
ASD
378

c P n
LRFD
568

689
659
626
591
554

395
377
358
337
316

593
567
538
507
474

332
316
299
282
263

498
475
450
423
395

344
318
292
266
242

516
478
439
401
363

293
271
248
226
204

441
407
373
339
307

243
224
204
185
167

366
336
307
278
251

489
456
424
392
361

217
194
173
155
140

327
292
260
234
211

183
163
145
130
118

275
245
218
196
177

149
132
118
106
95.4

224
198
177
159
143

200
168
143
124
108

301
253
216
186
162

116
97.4
83.0
71.5
62.3

174
146
125
108
93.7

97.2
81.7
69.6
60.0
52.3

146
123
105
90.2
78.6

78.8
66.2
56.4
48.7
42.4

118
100
84.8
73.1
63.7

159
141
125
112
102

94.7
83.9
74.8
67.2
60.6

142
126
112
101
91.1

54.8

82.3

46.0

69.1

37.3

56.0

135
24.1
192
138
7.93
27.0

78.1
14.7
98.7
76.3

70.3
13.7
78.3
68.3

105
20.5
118
103
6.13
19.7

58.7
12.6
61.2
46.0

88.1
18.9
92.0
69.2
6.01
18.0

15.8
303
103
2.56
1.71
8670
2950
LRFD

Properties
117
84.9
127
22.1
15.2
22.8
148
107
161
115
93.5
141
7.87
6.23
25.6
21.6

14.4
272
93.4
2.54
1.71
7790
2670

13.3
248
53.4
2.01
2.15
7100
1530

11.5
209
45.0
1.98
2.16
5980
1290

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

c = 0.90

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

9.71
171
36.6
1.94
2.16
4890
1050

Return to Table of Contents

IV-16

Table 4-1 (continued)

Available Strength in
Axial Compression, kips
W-Shapes

W8
Shape
lb/ft

W8
67

Design
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry

Fy = 65 ksi

58

48

40
35
31
P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n P n / c c P n
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
767
1150
666
1000
549
825
455
684
401
603
355
534

6
7
8
9
10

687
660
631
599
565

1030
993
948
901
850

595
572
546
518
488

895
859
820
778
733

490
470
448
425
400

736
706
674
638
601

405
388
369
349
328

608
583
555
524
493

356
341
324
306
288

535
512
487
460
432

315
301
287
271
254

473
453
431
407
382

11
12
13
14
15

530
495
458
422
386

797
743
689
634
581

457
426
394
362
331

687
640
592
544
498

374
348
322
295
269

562
523
483
444
405

306
284
261
239
217

460
426
393
359
327

268
248
229
209
190

403
373
344
314
285

237
219
202
184
167

356
329
303
277
251

16
17
18
19
20

352
318
285
256
231

528
478
429
385
347

301
271
243
218
197

452
408
365
328
296

244
220
197
176
159

367
331
295
265
239

196
176
157
141
127

295
264
236
212
191

171
153
137
123
111

257
230
206
184
166

151
135
120
108
97.2

226
202
180
162
146

22
24
26
28
30

191
160
137
118
103

287
241
205
177
154

163
137
116
100
87.5

244
205
175
151
131

132
111
94.2
81.2
70.7

198
166
142
122
106

105
88.2
75.2
64.8
56.5

158
133
113
97.4
84.9

91.5
76.9
65.5
56.5
49.2

138
116
98.5
84.9
74.0

80.3
67.5
57.5
49.6
43.2

121
101
86.5
74.5
64.9

32
34

90.3
79.9

136
120

76.9
68.1

116
102

62.2
55.1

93.5
82.8

49.6

74.6

43.3

65.0

38.0

57.1

164
24.7
578
213

246
37.1
868
320
6.57
36.9

133
22.1
414
160

199
33.2
622
240
6.51
32.4

74.4
15.6
145
76.3

112
23.4
218
115
6.32
23.8

59.7
13.4
92.5
59.6

89.6
20.2
139
89.6
6.29
21.7

51.2
12.4
71.9
46.0

76.8
18.5
108
69.2
6.26
20.1

P wo , kips
P wi , kips/in.
P wb , kips
P fb , kips
L p , ft
L r , ft
A g , in.2
I x , in.4
I y , in.4
r y , in.
r x /r y
P ex (KL )2/104, k-in.2
P ey (KL )2/104, k-in.2
ASD
c = 1.67

19.7
272
88.6
2.12
1.75
7790
2540
LRFD

17.1
228
75.1
2.1
1.74
6530
2150

Properties
93.6
140
17.3
26.0
199
298
114
172
6.44
27.6
14.1
184
60.9
2.08
1.74
5270
1740

11.7
146
49.1
2.04
1.73
4180
1410

10.3
127
42.6
2.03
1.73
3630
1220

Note: Heavy line indicates KL/r y equal to or greater than 200.

c = 0.90

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

9.13
110
37.1
2.02
1.72
3150
1060

Return to Table of Contents

IV-17

DESIGN TABLE DISCUSSION


Table 6-1. W-Shapes in Combined Flexure and Axial Force, 65 ksi
Steel W-shapes with Fy = 65 ksi (ASTM A913 Grade 65) and subject to combined axial force (tension or
compression) and flexure may be checked for compliance with the provisions of Section H1.1 and H1.2 of
the AISC Specification using values listed in Table 6-1 and the appropriate interaction equations provided
in the following sections.
Values p, bx, by, ty and tr presented in Table 6-1 are defined as follows.
LRFD

ASD

Axial Compression

p =

1
, (kips) 1
c Pn

p =

c
, (kips) 1
Pn

Strong Axis Bending

bx =

8
, (kip-ft) 1
9b M nx

bx =

8b
, (kip-ft)1
9 M nx

Weak Axis Bending

by =

8
, (kip-ft) 1
9b M ny

by =

8b
, (kip-ft) 1
9 M ny

Tension Yielding

ty =

1
, (kips) 1
t Fy Ag

ty =

t
, (kips) 1
Fy Ag

Tension Rupture

tr =

1
, (kips) 1
t Fu 0.75 Ag

tr =

t
, (kips) 1
Fu 0.75 Ag

Combined Flexure and Compression


Equations H1-1a and H1-1b of the AISC Specification may be written as follows using the coefficients
listed in Table 6-1 and defined previously.
When pPr 0.2:

pPr + bx M rx + by M ry 1.0

When pPr < 0.2:


1

pPr + 9 8 bx M rx + by M ry 1.0

(6-1)
(6-2)

The designer may check acceptability of a given shape using the appropriate interaction equation from the
preceding list. See Aminmansour (2000) for more information on this method, including an alternative
approach for selection of a trial shape.

Combined Flexure and Tension


Equations H1-1a and H1-1b of the AISC Specification may be written as follows using the coefficients
listed in Table 6-1 and defined previously.
When pPr 0.2:

(t y or tr ) Pr + bx M rx + by M ry 1.0

When pPr < 0.2:


1

(t y or tr ) Pr + 9 8 (bx M rx + by M ry ) 1.0

The larger value of ty and tr should be used in the preceding equations.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

(6-3)

(6-4)

Return to Table of Contents

IV-18

The designer may check acceptability of a given shape using the appropriate interaction equation from
above along with variables tr, ty, bx and by. See Aminmansour (2006) for more information on this method.
It is noted that the values for tr listed in Table 6-1 are based on the assumption that Ae = 0.75Ag. See Part 5
for more information on this assumption. When Ae > 0.75Ag, the tabulated values for tr are conservative.
When Ae < 0.75Ag, tr must be calculated based upon the actual value of Ae.

General Considerations for Use of Values Listed in Table 6-1


The following remarks are offered for consideration in use of the values listed in Table 6-1.
1. Values of p, bx and by already account for section compactness and can be used directly.
2. Tabulated values of bx assumed Cb = 1.0. A procedure for determining bx when Cb > 1.0 follows.
3. Given that the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling does not apply to W-shapes bent about their
weak axis, values of by are independent of unbraced length and Cb.
4. Values of bx equally apply to combined flexure and compression as well as combined flexure and
tension.
5. Smaller values of variable p for a given KL and smaller values of bx for a given Lb indicate higher
strength for the type of load in question. For example, a section with a smaller p at a certain KL is
more effective in carrying axial compression than another section with a larger value of p at the same
KL. Similarly, a section with a smaller bx is more effective for flexure at a given Lb than another
section with a larger bx for the same Lb. This information may be used to select more efficient shapes
when relatively large amounts of axial load or bending are present.

Determination of bx when Cb > 1.0

The tabulated values of bx assume that Cb = 1.0. These values may be modified in accordance with AISC
Specification Sections F1 and H1.2. The following procedure may be used to account for Cb > 1.0.
bx (Cb =1.0)
bxmin
bx (Cb >1.0) =
(6-5)
Cb
Values of bxmin are listed in Table 6-1 at Lb = 0 ft. See Aminmansour (2009) for more information on this
method. Values for p, bx, by, ty and tr presented in Table 6-1 have been multiplied by 103. Thus, when used
in the appropriate interaction equation they must be multiplied by 10-3 (0.001).

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-19

Table 6-1

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W44

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Design

(kips)
ASD LRFD

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD

262c,v
b x 10

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD

0.276

0.184

0.169

0.113

0.333

0.221

0.194

0.129

0.378

0.251

0.216

0.144

11
12
13
14
15

0.309
0.315
0.323
0.331
0.341

0.205
0.210
0.215
0.221
0.227

0.170
0.173
0.176
0.179
0.183

0.113
0.115
0.117
0.119
0.122

0.370
0.378
0.387
0.396
0.407

0.246
0.251
0.257
0.264
0.271

0.195
0.199
0.203
0.207
0.211

0.130
0.132
0.135
0.138
0.140

0.420
0.428
0.438
0.449
0.461

0.279
0.285
0.291
0.299
0.307

0.217
0.221
0.226
0.231
0.236

0.144
0.147
0.150
0.154
0.157

16
17
18
19
20

0.352
0.363
0.376
0.391
0.409

0.234
0.242
0.250
0.260
0.272

0.187
0.190
0.194
0.198
0.203

0.124
0.127
0.129
0.132
0.135

0.419
0.433
0.447
0.464
0.482

0.279
0.288
0.298
0.309
0.321

0.215
0.220
0.225
0.230
0.235

0.143
0.146
0.150
0.153
0.156

0.474
0.489
0.506
0.524
0.544

0.316
0.325
0.336
0.349
0.362

0.241
0.246
0.252
0.258
0.264

0.160
0.164
0.168
0.172
0.176

22
24
26
28
30

0.449
0.498
0.558
0.629
0.719

0.299
0.332
0.371
0.419
0.478

0.212
0.222
0.233
0.245
0.258

0.141
0.147
0.155
0.163
0.172

0.525
0.577
0.643
0.726
0.829

0.349
0.384
0.428
0.483
0.552

0.246
0.258
0.272
0.287
0.304

0.164
0.172
0.181
0.191
0.202

0.591
0.649
0.721
0.812
0.928

0.393
0.432
0.480
0.540
0.617

0.278
0.292
0.309
0.327
0.348

0.185
0.195
0.206
0.218
0.232

32
34
36
38
40

0.818
0.923
1.03
1.15
1.28

0.544
0.614
0.689
0.767
0.850

0.273
0.296
0.323
0.350
0.377

0.182
0.197
0.215
0.233
0.251

0.943
1.06
1.19
1.33
1.47

0.628
0.708
0.794
0.885
0.980

0.328
0.361
0.395
0.429
0.464

0.218
0.240
0.263
0.286
0.309

1.06
1.19
1.34
1.49
1.65

0.702
0.793
0.889
0.990
1.10

0.384
0.424
0.465
0.507
0.549

0.256
0.282
0.310
0.337
0.365

42
44
46
48
50

1.41
1.55
1.69
1.84
2.00

0.937
1.03
1.12
1.22
1.33

0.404 0.269 1.62


1.08
0.499 0.332
0.431 0.287 1.78
1.19
0.534 0.355
0.459 0.305 1.95
1.30
0.570 0.379
0.486 0.323 2.12
1.41
0.605 0.403
0.514 0.342 2.30
1.53
0.641 0.426
Other Constants and Properties
0.773
1.34
0.889

1.82
2.00
2.18
2.37
2.58

1.21
1.33
1.45
1.58
1.71

0.592
0.635
0.679
0.722
0.766

0.394
0.423
0.452
0.481
0.510

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.16

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.261

t r 10 (kips)
r x /r y

0.338

r y , in.

290c

335
3

W44

-1

0.174

0.301

0.226

0.390

1.51

1.00

0.200

0.333

0.221

0.260

0.432

0.288

5.10

5.10

5.10

3.49

3.49

3.47

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-20

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W44-W40
W44

Shape

230

b x 10

-1

503h

593
3

p 10

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
(kip-ft)
(kips)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
0.148 0.0982 0.0993 0.0661 0.174 0.116

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.118 0.0786

11
12
13
14
15

0.492
0.502
0.513
0.526
0.540

0.327
0.334
0.342
0.350
0.359

0.251
0.256
0.262
0.268
0.273

0.167
0.171
0.174
0.178
0.182

0.166
0.169
0.173
0.178
0.183

0.110
0.113
0.115
0.118
0.122

0.0993
0.0995
0.101
0.102
0.103

0.0661
0.0662
0.0669
0.0676
0.0684

0.196
0.200
0.205
0.211
0.217

0.130
0.133
0.137
0.140
0.144

0.118
0.119
0.120
0.122
0.123

0.0786
0.0791
0.0801
0.0811
0.0821

16
17
18
19
20

0.555
0.573
0.592
0.613
0.636

0.369
0.381
0.394
0.408
0.423

0.280
0.286
0.293
0.300
0.308

0.186
0.190
0.195
0.200
0.205

0.188
0.194
0.201
0.208
0.216

0.125
0.129
0.134
0.138
0.144

0.104
0.105
0.106
0.107
0.109

0.0691
0.0699
0.0707
0.0715
0.0723

0.224
0.231
0.239
0.248
0.258

0.149
0.154
0.159
0.165
0.172

0.125
0.127
0.128
0.130
0.132

0.0832
0.0843
0.0854
0.0866
0.0878

22
24
26
28
30

0.690
0.758
0.841
0.946
1.08

0.459
0.504
0.560
0.630
0.719

0.324
0.342
0.362
0.384
0.417

0.215
0.227
0.241
0.256
0.277

0.234
0.255
0.280
0.310
0.347

0.155
0.170
0.186
0.207
0.231

0.111
0.114
0.117
0.120
0.123

0.0740
0.0758
0.0777
0.0797
0.0817

0.280
0.307
0.339
0.377
0.423

0.186
0.204
0.225
0.251
0.281

0.136
0.140
0.144
0.148
0.153

0.0903
0.0929
0.0957
0.0986
0.102

32
34
36
38
40

1.23
1.39
1.56
1.73
1.92

0.818
0.924
1.04
1.15
1.28

0.466
0.516
0.568
0.621
0.674

0.310
0.343
0.378
0.413
0.449

0.390
0.441
0.494
0.551
0.610

0.260
0.293
0.329
0.366
0.406

0.126
0.130
0.133
0.137
0.141

0.0839
0.0862
0.0887
0.0912
0.0940

0.479
0.541
0.606
0.675
0.748

0.319
0.360
0.403
0.449
0.498

0.158
0.163
0.169
0.175
0.182

0.105
0.109
0.113
0.117
0.121

42
44
46
48
50

2.12
2.33
2.54
2.77
3.00

1.41
1.55
1.69
1.84
2.00

0.729 0.485 0.673 0.448 0.146 0.0969


0.784 0.522 0.738 0.491 0.150 0.100
0.840 0.559 0.807 0.537 0.155 0.103
0.897 0.597 0.879 0.585 0.160 0.107
0.954 0.634 0.953 0.634 0.166 0.111
Other Constants and Properties
0.570
0.379
1.16

0.825
0.906
0.990
1.08
1.17

0.549
0.603
0.659
0.717
0.778

0.189
0.197
0.208
0.219
0.229

0.126
0.131
0.138
0.145
0.153

1.75

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.379

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.492

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.249 0.166

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.443 0.295

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W40

c,v

r y , in.

Fy = 65 ksi

0.252

0.148

0.328

0.192

-1

0.696

0.463

0.0982

0.174

0.116

0.128

0.225

0.150

5.10

4.47

4.52

3.43

3.80

3.72

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.
Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-21

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W40

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.221 0.147

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.160 0.107

11
12
13
14
15

0.229
0.235
0.241
0.247
0.255

0.152
0.156
0.160
0.165
0.170

0.140
0.141
0.143
0.145
0.147

0.0930
0.0939
0.0953
0.0967
0.0981

0.249
0.255
0.261
0.269
0.277

0.166
0.170
0.174
0.179
0.184

0.152
0.154
0.156
0.159
0.161

0.101
0.102
0.104
0.105
0.107

0.281
0.294
0.309
0.325
0.345

0.187
0.196
0.205
0.217
0.229

0.169
0.172
0.176
0.179
0.183

0.112
0.115
0.117
0.119
0.122

16
17
18
19
20

0.263
0.272
0.282
0.293
0.305

0.175
0.181
0.188
0.195
0.203

0.150
0.152
0.154
0.157
0.159

0.0995
0.101
0.103
0.104
0.106

0.286
0.296
0.307
0.319
0.332

0.190
0.197
0.204
0.212
0.221

0.164
0.166
0.169
0.172
0.175

0.109
0.111
0.112
0.114
0.116

0.366
0.391
0.418
0.450
0.486

0.244
0.260
0.278
0.299
0.323

0.187
0.191
0.195
0.199
0.204

0.124
0.127
0.130
0.133
0.136

22
24
26
28
30

0.333
0.366
0.405
0.453
0.510

0.221
0.243
0.270
0.301
0.339

0.164
0.170
0.176
0.182
0.189

0.109
0.113
0.117
0.121
0.126

0.362
0.398
0.441
0.494
0.556

0.241
0.265
0.294
0.328
0.370

0.181
0.187
0.194
0.202
0.210

0.120
0.125
0.129
0.134
0.140

0.574
0.683
0.801
0.929
1.07

0.382
0.454
0.533
0.618
0.710

0.214
0.224
0.236
0.250
0.265

0.142
0.149
0.157
0.166
0.176

32
34
36
38
40

0.580
0.655
0.734
0.818
0.906

0.386
0.436
0.488
0.544
0.603

0.196
0.204
0.213
0.222
0.234

0.131
0.136
0.142
0.148
0.155

0.633
0.714
0.801
0.892
0.989

0.421
0.475
0.533
0.594
0.658

0.219
0.228
0.239
0.250
0.268

0.146
0.152
0.159
0.167
0.178

1.21
1.37
1.54
1.71
1.90

0.807
0.911
1.02
1.14
1.26

0.285
0.307
0.329
0.350
0.372

0.189
0.204
0.219
0.233
0.248

42
44
46
48
50

0.999
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.42

0.665
0.729
0.797
0.868
0.942

0.249 0.165 1.09


0.725 0.286 0.190
0.264 0.175
1.20
0.796 0.303 0.202
0.279 0.185 1.31
0.870 0.321 0.213
0.293 0.195 1.42
0.947 0.338 0.225
0.308 0.205 1.55
1.03
0.356 0.237
Other Constants and Properties
0.556
0.914
0.608

2.09
2.29

1.39
1.53

0.394
0.415

0.262
0.276

0.836
0.202

t r 10 (kips)
r x /r y

0.262

-1

0.135

0.220

0.175

0.285

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.152 0.101

t y 103 (kips)-1

-1

(kip-ft)
(kips)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
0.140 0.0930 0.220 0.146

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

-1

392h
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.202 0.135

Design

r y , in.

397h

431
3

W40

1.32

0.877

0.146

0.221

0.147

0.190

0.287

0.192

4.55

4.56

6.10

3.65

3.64

2.64

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-22

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W40

W40

Shape

362h

372

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.163 0.109

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.242 0.161

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.167 0.111

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.263 0.175

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.192 0.128

11
12
13
14
15

0.265
0.272
0.279
0.287
0.296

0.177
0.181
0.186
0.191
0.197

0.163
0.165
0.168
0.171
0.173

0.109
0.110
0.112
0.113
0.115

0.275
0.282
0.290
0.298
0.307

0.183
0.188
0.193
0.198
0.205

0.167
0.169
0.172
0.175
0.178

0.111
0.113
0.114
0.116
0.118

0.338
0.354
0.373
0.395
0.419

0.225
0.236
0.248
0.263
0.279

0.205
0.209
0.214
0.219
0.224

0.136
0.139
0.142
0.146
0.149

16
17
18
19
20

0.306
0.317
0.329
0.342
0.356

0.204
0.211
0.219
0.228
0.237

0.176
0.179
0.182
0.186
0.189

0.117
0.119
0.121
0.123
0.126

0.318
0.329
0.341
0.355
0.370

0.211
0.219
0.227
0.236
0.246

0.181
0.184
0.187
0.191
0.194

0.120
0.122
0.125
0.127
0.129

0.447
0.479
0.515
0.556
0.602

0.297
0.318
0.342
0.370
0.401

0.230
0.236
0.242
0.249
0.256

0.153
0.157
0.161
0.165
0.170

22
24
26
28
30

0.389
0.429
0.477
0.535
0.605

0.259
0.286
0.317
0.356
0.402

0.196
0.203
0.212
0.220
0.230

0.130
0.135
0.141
0.147
0.153

0.404
0.445
0.495
0.555
0.628

0.269
0.296
0.329
0.369
0.418

0.201
0.209
0.218
0.227
0.237

0.134
0.139
0.145
0.151
0.158

0.719
0.855
1.00
1.16
1.34

0.478
0.569
0.668
0.774
0.889

0.270
0.287
0.306
0.330
0.362

0.180
0.191
0.204
0.220
0.241

32
34
36
38
40

0.688
0.777
0.871
0.970
1.08

0.458
0.517
0.579
0.646
0.715

0.241
0.252
0.265
0.284
0.304

0.160
0.168
0.176
0.189
0.202

0.714
0.806
0.904
1.01
1.12

0.475
0.536
0.601
0.670
0.742

0.249
0.261
0.274
0.295
0.316

0.165
0.174
0.182
0.196
0.210

1.52
1.72
1.92
2.14
2.38

1.01
1.14
1.28
1.43
1.58

0.393
0.425
0.456
0.488
0.519

0.262
0.283
0.304
0.324
0.345

42
44
46
48
50

1.19
1.30
1.42
1.55
1.68

0.789
0.866
0.946
1.03
1.12

0.324 0.216 1.23


0.818 0.337
0.344 0.229 1.35
0.898 0.358
0.365 0.243 1.48
0.982 0.380
0.385 0.256 1.61
1.07
0.401
0.405 0.270 1.74
1.16
0.422
Other Constants and Properties

0.224
0.238
0.253
0.267
0.281

2.62

1.74

0.550

0.366

-1

331h
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.234 0.155

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.989

0.658

1.02

0.675

1.62

1.08

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.234

0.155

0.242

0.161

0.263

0.175

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.303

0.202

0.314

0.210

0.341

r y , in.

0.227

4.58

4.58

6.19

3.60

3.60

2.57

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-23

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W40

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

b x 103

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.307 0.204

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.206 0.137

11
12
13
14
15

0.344
0.360
0.379
0.401
0.426

0.229
0.240
0.252
0.267
0.283

0.207
0.212
0.217
0.222
0.227

0.138
0.141
0.144
0.148
0.151

0.309
0.315
0.323
0.332
0.343

0.205
0.210
0.215
0.221
0.228

0.188
0.191
0.194
0.197
0.201

0.125
0.127
0.129
0.131
0.134

0.343
0.351
0.359
0.369
0.379

0.228
0.233
0.239
0.245
0.252

0.206
0.210
0.214
0.218
0.222

0.137
0.140
0.142
0.145
0.147

16
17
18
19
20

0.454
0.485
0.522
0.563
0.610

0.302
0.323
0.347
0.374
0.406

0.233
0.239
0.245
0.252
0.259

0.155
0.159
0.163
0.168
0.172

0.354
0.367
0.381
0.396
0.413

0.236
0.244
0.254
0.264
0.275

0.204
0.208
0.212
0.216
0.220

0.136
0.138
0.141
0.144
0.147

0.391
0.404
0.419
0.437
0.456

0.260
0.268
0.279
0.290
0.303

0.226
0.230
0.235
0.240
0.245

0.150
0.153
0.156
0.159
0.163

22
24
26
28
30

0.726
0.864
1.01
1.18
1.35

0.483
0.575
0.675
0.783
0.899

0.274
0.291
0.310
0.334
0.366

0.182
0.194
0.206
0.222
0.244

0.452
0.499
0.555
0.623
0.706

0.301
0.332
0.369
0.414
0.470

0.229
0.239
0.250
0.261
0.274

0.153
0.159
0.166
0.174
0.182

0.499
0.552
0.616
0.693
0.788

0.332
0.367
0.410
0.461
0.524

0.255
0.267
0.280
0.294
0.309

0.170
0.178
0.186
0.195
0.206

32
34
36
38
40

1.54
1.73
1.95
2.17
2.40

1.02
1.15
1.29
1.44
1.60

0.398
0.430
0.462
0.494
0.526

0.265
0.286
0.307
0.329
0.350

0.803
0.907
1.02
1.13
1.25

0.534
0.603
0.676
0.754
0.835

0.288
0.303
0.329
0.355
0.382

0.192
0.202
0.219
0.236
0.254

0.897
1.01
1.13
1.26
1.40

0.597
0.674
0.755
0.841
0.932

0.326
0.352
0.383
0.414
0.446

0.217
0.234
0.255
0.276
0.297

42
44
46
48
50

2.65

1.76

0.557

0.371

1.54
1.70
1.85
2.02
2.19

1.03
1.13
1.23
1.34
1.46

0.478
0.509
0.541
0.573
0.605

0.318
0.339
0.360
0.381
0.403

1.63
0.268

t r 10 (kips)
r x /r y

0.348

-1

-1

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.188 0.125

t y 103 (kips)-1

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.276 0.184

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

r y , in.

b x 10

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.194 0.129

-1

297c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.268 0.178

Design

324c

327
3

W40

1.38
0.921 0.408 0.272
1.52
1.01
0.435 0.289
1.66
1.10
0.461 0.307
1.81
1.20
0.488 0.324
1.96
1.30
0.514 0.342
Other Constants and Properties
1.09
1.15
0.763
0.178

0.270

0.232

0.350

1.27

0.848

0.179

0.294

0.196

0.233

0.382

0.255

6.20

4.58

4.60

2.58

3.58

3.54

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-24

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W40

W40

Shape

278c

294

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.216 0.144

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.318 0.212

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.230 0.153

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.337 0.224

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.219 0.146

11
12
13
14
15

0.385
0.404
0.425
0.450
0.479

0.256
0.269
0.283
0.300
0.318

0.232
0.238
0.244
0.250
0.257

0.154
0.158
0.162
0.166
0.171

0.405
0.426
0.449
0.476
0.507

0.270
0.283
0.299
0.317
0.337

0.249
0.255
0.262
0.269
0.276

0.165
0.170
0.174
0.179
0.184

0.375
0.383
0.392
0.402
0.413

0.250
0.255
0.261
0.267
0.275

0.219
0.223
0.227
0.231
0.236

0.146
0.148
0.151
0.154
0.157

16
17
18
19
20

0.511
0.548
0.590
0.637
0.692

0.340
0.364
0.392
0.424
0.460

0.264
0.271
0.279
0.287
0.296

0.175
0.180
0.185
0.191
0.197

0.542
0.582
0.628
0.680
0.739

0.361
0.387
0.418
0.452
0.492

0.284
0.292
0.301
0.310
0.320

0.189
0.194
0.200
0.206
0.213

0.425
0.438
0.453
0.469
0.488

0.283
0.292
0.301
0.312
0.324

0.240
0.245
0.250
0.255
0.261

0.160
0.163
0.166
0.170
0.173

22
24
26
28
30

0.827
0.985
1.16
1.34
1.54

0.550
0.655
0.769
0.892
1.02

0.315
0.337
0.363
0.402
0.442

0.210
0.224
0.241
0.268
0.294

0.887
1.06
1.24
1.44
1.65

0.590
0.702
0.824
0.956
1.10

0.342
0.367
0.401
0.445
0.490

0.227
0.244
0.267
0.296
0.326

0.530
0.583
0.649
0.728
0.825

0.352
0.388
0.432
0.485
0.549

0.272
0.285
0.299
0.314
0.331

0.181
0.190
0.199
0.209
0.220

32
34
36
38
40

1.75
1.98
2.22
2.47
2.73

1.16
1.31
1.47
1.64
1.82

0.482
0.521
0.561
0.601
0.640

0.320
0.347
0.373
0.400
0.426

1.88
2.12
2.38
2.65
2.93

1.25
1.41
1.58
1.76
1.95

0.535
0.580
0.624
0.669
0.714

0.356
0.386
0.415
0.445
0.475

0.939
1.06
1.19
1.32
1.47

0.625
0.705
0.791
0.881
0.976

0.350
0.380
0.414
0.449
0.484

0.233
0.253
0.276
0.299
0.322

42
44
46
48
50

3.02

2.01

0.679

0.452

3.23

2.15

0.758

0.504

1.62
1.78
1.94
2.11
2.29

1.08
1.18
1.29
1.41
1.53

0.519
0.555
0.590
0.625
0.661

0.345
0.369
0.393
0.416
0.440

-1

277c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.301 0.200

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.83

1.22

1.97

1.31

1.34

0.894

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.298

0.198

0.312

0.208

0.315

0.210

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.387

0.258

0.405

0.270

0.409

r y , in.

0.273

6.24

6.27

4.58

2.55

2.52

3.58

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-25

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W40

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.245 0.163

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.403 0.268

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.271 0.181

11
12
13
14
15

0.431
0.453
0.478
0.506
0.539

0.287
0.301
0.318
0.337
0.359

0.262
0.269
0.276
0.284
0.292

0.174
0.179
0.184
0.189
0.194

0.426
0.435
0.445
0.456
0.468

0.283
0.289
0.296
0.303
0.311

0.245
0.249
0.254
0.259
0.264

0.163
0.166
0.169
0.172
0.176

0.496
0.518
0.542
0.570
0.603

0.330
0.344
0.361
0.379
0.401

0.294
0.302
0.310
0.319
0.329

0.196
0.201
0.207
0.213
0.219

16
17
18
19
20

0.576
0.619
0.667
0.723
0.786

0.383
0.412
0.444
0.481
0.523

0.301
0.310
0.319
0.330
0.340

0.200
0.206
0.212
0.219
0.227

0.482
0.497
0.513
0.532
0.552

0.321
0.331
0.342
0.354
0.367

0.270
0.275
0.281
0.287
0.294

0.179
0.183
0.187
0.191
0.195

0.640
0.686
0.739
0.800
0.869

0.426
0.457
0.492
0.532
0.578

0.339
0.350
0.361
0.373
0.386

0.226
0.233
0.240
0.248
0.257

22
24
26
28
30

0.943
1.12
1.32
1.53
1.75

0.628
0.747
0.877
1.02
1.17

0.365
0.392
0.434
0.483
0.533

0.243
0.261
0.289
0.322
0.354

0.599
0.657
0.729
0.819
0.931

0.399
0.437
0.485
0.545
0.619

0.307
0.322
0.339
0.357
0.377

0.204
0.214
0.225
0.238
0.251

1.04
1.24
1.45
1.68
1.93

0.692
0.824
0.967
1.12
1.29

0.415
0.451
0.510
0.569
0.629

0.276
0.300
0.339
0.379
0.419

32
34
36
38
40

2.00
2.25
2.53
2.81
3.12

1.33
1.50
1.68
1.87
2.07

0.582
0.632
0.681
0.730
0.780

0.387
0.420
0.453
0.486
0.519

1.06
1.20
1.34
1.49
1.65

0.705
0.795
0.892
0.994
1.10

0.405
0.446
0.488
0.530
0.573

0.270
0.297
0.325
0.353
0.381

2.20
2.48
2.79
3.10
3.44

1.46
1.65
1.85
2.06
2.29

0.690
0.750
0.811
0.872
0.932

0.459
0.499
0.540
0.580
0.620

42
44
46
48
50

3.44

2.29

0.829

0.552

1.82
1.21
0.616 0.410
2.00
1.33
0.659 0.438
2.19
1.46
0.702 0.467
2.38
1.59
0.746 0.496
2.59
1.72
0.790 0.525
Other Constants and Properties
1.38
1.51
1.00

3.79

2.52

0.993

0.661

2.08

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.332

t r 10 (kips)
r x /r y

0.431

-1

0.221

0.350

0.287

0.454

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.383 0.255

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.243 0.161

-1

235c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.345 0.230

Design

r y , in.

249c

264
3

W40

2.32

1.55

0.233

0.372

0.247

0.302

0.482

0.322

6.27

4.59

6.26

2.52

3.55

2.54

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-26

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W40

W40

Shape

c,v

211c

215

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.284 0.189

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.462 0.307

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.302 0.201

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.500 0.333

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.315 0.210

11
12
13
14
15

0.508
0.519
0.530
0.543
0.557

0.338
0.345
0.353
0.361
0.371

0.284
0.290
0.296
0.302
0.308

0.189
0.193
0.197
0.201
0.205

0.568
0.592
0.619
0.651
0.688

0.378
0.394
0.412
0.433
0.458

0.330
0.339
0.350
0.360
0.372

0.219
0.226
0.233
0.240
0.247

0.556
0.568
0.581
0.596
0.612

0.370
0.378
0.387
0.396
0.407

0.317
0.324
0.331
0.338
0.346

0.211
0.216
0.220
0.225
0.230

16
17
18
19
20

0.573
0.590
0.609
0.630
0.654

0.381
0.393
0.405
0.419
0.435

0.315
0.322
0.329
0.336
0.344

0.209
0.214
0.219
0.224
0.229

0.731
0.781
0.838
0.906
0.987

0.486
0.519
0.558
0.603
0.656

0.384
0.397
0.411
0.426
0.442

0.255
0.264
0.273
0.283
0.294

0.630
0.649
0.671
0.696
0.723

0.419
0.432
0.447
0.463
0.481

0.353
0.362
0.370
0.379
0.389

0.235
0.241
0.246
0.252
0.259

22
24
26
28
30

0.708
0.774
0.855
0.956
1.08

0.471
0.515
0.569
0.636
0.721

0.361
0.380
0.401
0.424
0.450

0.240
0.253
0.267
0.282
0.300

1.19
1.41
1.66
1.92
2.20

0.789
0.938
1.10
1.28
1.47

0.478
0.535
0.606
0.679
0.753

0.318
0.356
0.403
0.452
0.501

0.785
0.863
0.959
1.08
1.23

0.523
0.574
0.638
0.718
0.820

0.409
0.432
0.458
0.486
0.526

0.272
0.287
0.304
0.323
0.350

32
34
36
38
40

1.23
1.39
1.56
1.74
1.93

0.820
0.926
1.04
1.16
1.28

0.497
0.549
0.603
0.657
0.712

0.331
0.365
0.401
0.437
0.474

2.51
2.83
3.17
3.54
3.92

1.67
1.88
2.11
2.35
2.61

0.827
0.902
0.978
1.05
1.13

0.550
0.600
0.650
0.701
0.751

1.40
1.58
1.77
1.98
2.19

0.933
1.05
1.18
1.32
1.46

0.588
0.651
0.716
0.782
0.849

0.391
0.433
0.476
0.520
0.565

42
44
46
48
50

2.12
2.33
2.55
2.77
3.01

1.41
1.55
1.69
1.85
2.00

0.768 0.511
0.825 0.549
0.882 0.587
0.939 0.625
0.997 0.663
Other Constants and Properties

2.41
2.65
2.90
3.15
3.42

1.61
1.76
1.93
2.10
2.28

0.918
0.987
1.06
1.13
1.20

0.610
0.657
0.703
0.750
0.797

-1

199c,v
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.458 0.305

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.76

1.17

2.61

1.74

2.00

1.33

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.405

0.269

0.414

0.275

0.437

0.291

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.525

0.350

0.537

0.358

0.567

r y , in.

0.378

4.58

6.29

4.64

3.54

2.51

3.45

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-27

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W40

Shape

c,v

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.395 0.263

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.709 0.472

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.458 0.305

11
12
13
14
15

0.685
0.713
0.746
0.783
0.826

0.456
0.475
0.496
0.521
0.550

0.389
0.401
0.413
0.427
0.441

0.259
0.267
0.275
0.284
0.293

0.758
0.791
0.829
0.874
0.925

0.504
0.526
0.552
0.581
0.616

0.440
0.454
0.470
0.486
0.504

0.293
0.302
0.312
0.323
0.335

0.886
0.927
0.976
1.03
1.10

0.590
0.617
0.649
0.687
0.731

0.520
0.538
0.558
0.579
0.602

0.346
0.358
0.371
0.385
0.401

16
17
18
19
20

0.876
0.933
1.00
1.08
1.17

0.583
0.621
0.665
0.717
0.778

0.457
0.473
0.491
0.510
0.531

0.304
0.315
0.327
0.339
0.353

0.985
1.06
1.14
1.23
1.35

0.656
0.702
0.757
0.821
0.898

0.523
0.543
0.565
0.589
0.615

0.348
0.361
0.376
0.392
0.409

1.18
1.27
1.38
1.51
1.67

0.782
0.844
0.916
1.00
1.11

0.627
0.654
0.684
0.716
0.752

0.417
0.435
0.455
0.477
0.500

22
24
26
28
30

1.40
1.67
1.96
2.27
2.61

0.934
1.11
1.30
1.51
1.74

0.577
0.669
0.763
0.859
0.957

0.384
0.445
0.507
0.571
0.636

1.63
1.94
2.28
2.65
3.04

1.09
1.29
1.52
1.76
2.02

0.693
0.804
0.919
1.04
1.16

0.461
0.535
0.611
0.690
0.771

2.02
2.40
2.82
3.27
3.75

1.34
1.60
1.88
2.18
2.50

0.882
1.03
1.18
1.33
1.49

0.587
0.683
0.783
0.887
0.993

32
34
36
38
40

2.97
3.35
3.76
4.19
4.64

1.98
2.23
2.50
2.79
3.09

1.06
1.16
1.26
1.36
1.46

0.702
0.769
0.837
0.905
0.973

3.45
3.90
4.37
4.87
5.40

2.30
2.59
2.91
3.24
3.59

1.28
1.41
1.53
1.66
1.79

0.853
0.937
1.02
1.11
1.19

4.27
4.82
5.41
6.02

2.84
3.21
3.60
4.01

1.66
1.82
1.99
2.16

1.10
1.21
1.33
1.44

3.10

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.482

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.625

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.614 0.408

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.354 0.236

-1

149c,v
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.560 0.373

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

167c,v

183
3

r y , in.

W40

Other Constants and Properties


2.06
3.61
2.40
0.321

0.521

0.417

0.676

4.41

2.94

0.347

0.587

0.390

0.451

0.761

0.507

6.31

6.38

6.55

2.49

2.40

2.29

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-28

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W36

W36

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

487h
3

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
(kip-ft)
(kips)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
0.134 0.0890 0.0942 0.0627 0.165 0.110

(kip-ft)
(kips)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
0.118 0.0783 0.180 0.120

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.129 0.0856

11
12
13
14
15

0.148
0.150
0.154
0.157
0.161

0.0982
0.100
0.102
0.104
0.107

0.0942
0.0942
0.0944
0.0952
0.0961

0.0627
0.0627
0.0628
0.0634
0.0639

0.183
0.186
0.190
0.195
0.200

0.122
0.124
0.127
0.130
0.133

0.118
0.118
0.118
0.120
0.121

0.0783
0.0783
0.0787
0.0796
0.0804

0.200
0.204
0.208
0.213
0.219

0.133
0.136
0.139
0.142
0.145

0.129
0.129
0.130
0.131
0.133

0.0856
0.0856
0.0863
0.0873
0.0883

16
17
18
19
20

0.165
0.169
0.174
0.180
0.185

0.110
0.113
0.116
0.119
0.123

0.0969
0.0977
0.0986
0.0995
0.100

0.0645
0.0650
0.0656
0.0662
0.0668

0.205
0.211
0.217
0.224
0.232

0.136
0.140
0.145
0.149
0.154

0.122
0.124
0.125
0.126
0.128

0.0813
0.0822
0.0831
0.0841
0.0850

0.225
0.231
0.238
0.246
0.255

0.149
0.154
0.159
0.164
0.169

0.134
0.136
0.137
0.139
0.141

0.0893
0.0904
0.0915
0.0926
0.0937

22
24
26
28
30

0.198
0.214
0.232
0.253
0.278

0.132
0.142
0.154
0.169
0.185

0.102
0.104
0.106
0.108
0.110

0.0680
0.0693
0.0706
0.0720
0.0734

0.249
0.270
0.294
0.322
0.356

0.166
0.179
0.195
0.214
0.237

0.131
0.134
0.137
0.141
0.144

0.0870
0.0890
0.0912
0.0935
0.0959

0.274
0.297
0.324
0.356
0.394

0.182
0.198
0.216
0.237
0.262

0.144
0.148
0.152
0.156
0.161

0.0961
0.0986
0.101
0.104
0.107

32
34
36
38
40

0.308
0.343
0.385
0.429
0.475

0.205
0.228
0.256
0.285
0.316

0.113
0.115
0.117
0.120
0.123

0.0749
0.0765
0.0781
0.0798
0.0816

0.395
0.444
0.497
0.554
0.614

0.263
0.295
0.331
0.369
0.409

0.148
0.152
0.156
0.161
0.165

0.0984
0.101
0.104
0.107
0.110

0.439
0.494
0.554
0.617
0.684

0.292
0.329
0.368
0.410
0.455

0.165
0.170
0.175
0.181
0.187

0.110
0.113
0.117
0.120
0.124

42
44
46
48
50

0.524
0.575
0.628
0.684
0.742

0.348
0.382
0.418
0.455
0.494

0.125 0.0834 0.677 0.450 0.170


0.128 0.0853 0.743 0.494 0.176
0.131 0.0873 0.812 0.540 0.181
0.134 0.0895 0.884 0.588 0.187
0.138 0.0917 0.960 0.638 0.194
Other Constants and Properties

0.113
0.117
0.121
0.125
0.129

0.754
0.827
0.904
0.984
1.07

0.501
0.550
0.601
0.655
0.711

0.193
0.200
0.207
0.215
0.226

0.128
0.133
0.138
0.143
0.150

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

529h

652
3

-1

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.472

0.314

0.604

0.402

0.665

0.443

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.134

0.0890

0.165

0.110

0.180

0.120

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.174

0.116

0.214

0.142

0.233

r y , in.
h

Fy = 65 ksi

0.155

3.95

4.00

3.99

4.10

4.00

3.96

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-29

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W36

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

361h
3

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.198 0.131

(kip-ft)
(kips)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
0.143 0.0955 0.221 0.147

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.160 0.107

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.242 0.161

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.177 0.118

11
12
13
14
15

0.220
0.225
0.230
0.235
0.241

0.146
0.149
0.153
0.157
0.161

0.143
0.143
0.143
0.143
0.143

0.0955
0.0955
0.0955
0.0955
0.0955

0.247
0.252
0.258
0.265
0.272

0.164
0.168
0.172
0.176
0.181

0.160
0.160
0.162
0.165
0.167

0.107
0.107
0.108
0.110
0.111

0.271
0.277
0.283
0.290
0.298

0.180
0.184
0.189
0.193
0.199

0.177
0.177
0.180
0.182
0.185

0.118
0.118
0.120
0.121
0.123

16
17
18
19
20

0.248
0.256
0.264
0.273
0.282

0.165
0.170
0.175
0.181
0.188

0.143
0.143
0.143
0.143
0.143

0.0955
0.0955
0.0955
0.0955
0.0955

0.280
0.288
0.297
0.308
0.319

0.186
0.192
0.198
0.205
0.212

0.169
0.172
0.174
0.177
0.179

0.113
0.114
0.116
0.118
0.119

0.307
0.317
0.327
0.338
0.351

0.204
0.211
0.218
0.225
0.233

0.188
0.191
0.194
0.197
0.200

0.125
0.127
0.129
0.131
0.133

22
24
26
28
30

0.304
0.330
0.361
0.397
0.441

0.202
0.220
0.240
0.264
0.293

0.143
0.143
0.143
0.143
0.143

0.0955
0.0955
0.0955
0.0955
0.0955

0.344
0.374
0.410
0.452
0.502

0.229
0.249
0.272
0.301
0.334

0.185
0.191
0.197
0.204
0.211

0.123
0.127
0.131
0.135
0.140

0.379
0.413
0.452
0.500
0.556

0.252
0.274
0.301
0.333
0.370

0.206
0.213
0.221
0.229
0.238

0.137
0.142
0.147
0.152
0.158

32
34
36
38
40

0.492
0.554
0.622
0.693
0.767

0.327
0.369
0.414
0.461
0.511

0.154
0.168
0.181
0.194
0.207

0.103
0.111
0.120
0.129
0.138

0.562
0.634
0.711
0.792
0.878

0.374
0.422
0.473
0.527
0.584

0.218
0.227
0.236
0.245
0.256

0.145
0.151
0.157
0.163
0.170

0.624
0.705
0.790
0.880
0.976

0.415
0.469
0.526
0.586
0.649

0.247
0.258
0.269
0.281
0.296

0.165
0.171
0.179
0.187
0.197

42
44
46
48
50

0.846
0.928
1.01
1.10
1.20

0.563
0.618
0.675
0.735
0.798

0.221 0.147 0.968 0.644 0.269


0.234 0.155
1.06
0.707 0.285
0.247 0.164 1.16
0.772 0.302
0.260 0.173 1.26
0.841 0.318
0.273 0.182 1.37
0.913 0.334
Other Constants and Properties

0.179
0.190
0.201
0.212
0.222

1.08
1.18
1.29
1.40
1.52

0.716
0.785
0.858
0.935
1.01

0.316
0.336
0.356
0.376
0.395

0.210
0.224
0.237
0.250
0.263

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

395h

441
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.745

0.495

0.843

0.561

0.935

0.622

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.198

0.131

0.221

0.147

0.242

0.161

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.256

0.171

0.287

0.192

0.314

r y , in.
h

W36

0.210

4.01

4.05

4.05

3.92

3.88

3.85

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-30

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W36

W36

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.194 0.129

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.294 0.196

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.214 0.142

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.321 0.214

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.230 0.153

11
12
13
14
15

0.297
0.303
0.310
0.318
0.327

0.197
0.202
0.207
0.212
0.218

0.194
0.195
0.198
0.201
0.204

0.129
0.130
0.131
0.134
0.136

0.325
0.331
0.338
0.347
0.357

0.216
0.221
0.225
0.231
0.237

0.214
0.215
0.218
0.222
0.225

0.142
0.143
0.145
0.148
0.150

0.354
0.361
0.369
0.377
0.387

0.236
0.240
0.245
0.251
0.257

0.230
0.231
0.235
0.239
0.243

0.153
0.154
0.156
0.159
0.162

16
17
18
19
20

0.337
0.347
0.359
0.371
0.385

0.224
0.231
0.239
0.247
0.256

0.207
0.210
0.214
0.218
0.221

0.138
0.140
0.142
0.145
0.147

0.367
0.379
0.391
0.405
0.420

0.244
0.252
0.260
0.269
0.280

0.229
0.233
0.237
0.241
0.245

0.152
0.155
0.158
0.160
0.163

0.397
0.408
0.421
0.436
0.453

0.264
0.272
0.280
0.290
0.301

0.247
0.252
0.256
0.261
0.266

0.164
0.167
0.170
0.174
0.177

22
24
26
28
30

0.417
0.454
0.498
0.551
0.614

0.277
0.302
0.331
0.367
0.409

0.229
0.238
0.247
0.256
0.267

0.152
0.158
0.164
0.171
0.178

0.455
0.496
0.544
0.602
0.671

0.302
0.330
0.362
0.401
0.447

0.255
0.264
0.275
0.286
0.299

0.169
0.176
0.183
0.191
0.199

0.490
0.535
0.588
0.652
0.727

0.326
0.356
0.391
0.434
0.484

0.276
0.287
0.299
0.313
0.327

0.184
0.191
0.199
0.208
0.218

32
34
36
38
40

0.690
0.779
0.874
0.973
1.08

0.459
0.518
0.581
0.648
0.717

0.278
0.291
0.305
0.322
0.346

0.185
0.194
0.203
0.214
0.230

0.755
0.853
0.956
1.07
1.18

0.503
0.567
0.636
0.709
0.785

0.313
0.327
0.344
0.371
0.399

0.208
0.218
0.229
0.247
0.266

0.820
0.925
1.04
1.16
1.28

0.545
0.616
0.690
0.769
0.852

0.343
0.361
0.385
0.417
0.449

0.228
0.240
0.256
0.277
0.299

42
44
46
48
50

1.19
1.30
1.43
1.55
1.69

0.791
0.868
0.949
1.03
1.12

0.369 0.246 1.30


0.866 0.428
0.393 0.262 1.43
0.950 0.456
0.417 0.277 1.56
1.04
0.484
0.441 0.293 1.70
1.13
0.513
0.465 0.309 1.84
1.23
0.541
Other Constants and Properties

0.284
0.303
0.322
0.341
0.360

1.41
1.55
1.69
1.84
2.00

0.939
1.03
1.13
1.23
1.33

0.482
0.514
0.547
0.580
0.612

0.320
0.342
0.364
0.386
0.407

-1

282c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.265 0.176

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

302c

330
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.03

0.688

1.14

0.757

1.23

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.265

0.176

0.289

0.192

0.310

0.206

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.344

0.229

0.375

0.250

0.402

0.268

r y , in.
c

Fy = 65 ksi

0.818

4.05

4.03

4.05

3.83

3.82

3.80

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-31

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W36

Shape

256c

262

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.249 0.166

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.349 0.232

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.264 0.175

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.377 0.251

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.266 0.177

11
12
13
14
15

0.386
0.393
0.402
0.411
0.421

0.257
0.262
0.267
0.273
0.280

0.249
0.251
0.255
0.260
0.264

0.166
0.167
0.170
0.173
0.176

0.432
0.452
0.474
0.500
0.529

0.287
0.301
0.316
0.333
0.352

0.281
0.288
0.295
0.302
0.310

0.187
0.191
0.196
0.201
0.206

0.416
0.424
0.433
0.443
0.454

0.277
0.282
0.288
0.295
0.302

0.266
0.268
0.273
0.278
0.283

0.177
0.178
0.181
0.185
0.188

16
17
18
19
20

0.433
0.445
0.459
0.474
0.491

0.288
0.296
0.305
0.315
0.327

0.269
0.274
0.279
0.285
0.291

0.179
0.182
0.186
0.190
0.193

0.562
0.599
0.642
0.690
0.744

0.374
0.399
0.427
0.459
0.495

0.319
0.327
0.337
0.347
0.357

0.212
0.218
0.224
0.231
0.238

0.466
0.479
0.494
0.511
0.528

0.310
0.319
0.329
0.340
0.352

0.288
0.294
0.300
0.306
0.312

0.192
0.195
0.199
0.203
0.208

22
24
26
28
30

0.532
0.581
0.640
0.711
0.795

0.354
0.387
0.426
0.473
0.529

0.302
0.315
0.330
0.345
0.362

0.201
0.210
0.219
0.230
0.241

0.877
1.04
1.22
1.42
1.63

0.583
0.694
0.815
0.945
1.08

0.380
0.406
0.436
0.484
0.533

0.253
0.270
0.290
0.322
0.355

0.570
0.623
0.687
0.763
0.855

0.379
0.414
0.457
0.508
0.569

0.325
0.340
0.356
0.373
0.392

0.216
0.226
0.237
0.248
0.261

32
34
36
38
40

0.899
1.01
1.14
1.27
1.40

0.598
0.675
0.757
0.843
0.934

0.381
0.402
0.438
0.475
0.513

0.253
0.267
0.291
0.316
0.341

1.86
2.09
2.35
2.62
2.90

1.23
1.39
1.56
1.74
1.93

0.582
0.632
0.681
0.730
0.779

0.387
0.420
0.453
0.486
0.519

0.967
1.09
1.22
1.36
1.51

0.644
0.727
0.815
0.908
1.01

0.414
0.444
0.485
0.528
0.570

0.275
0.295
0.323
0.351
0.379

42
44
46
48
50

1.55
1.70
1.86
2.02
2.19

1.03
1.13
1.24
1.35
1.46

0.551 0.367 3.20


2.13
0.828
0.589 0.392 3.51
2.33
0.877
0.628 0.418
0.666 0.443
0.705 0.469
Other Constants and Properties

0.551
0.584

1.67
1.83
2.00
2.18
2.36

1.11
1.22
1.33
1.45
1.57

0.613
0.657
0.700
0.744
0.788

0.408
0.437
0.466
0.495
0.524

-1

247c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.350 0.233

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W36

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.34

0.894

2.00

1.33

1.44

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.333

0.221

0.341

0.227

0.354

0.236

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.432

0.288

0.443

0.295

0.460

0.307

r y , in.

0.960

4.07

5.62

4.06

3.76

2.65

3.74

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-32

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W36

W36

Shape

231c

232

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.293 0.195

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.406 0.270

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.285 0.189

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.445 0.296

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.329 0.219

11
12
13
14
15

0.487
0.507
0.530
0.559
0.592

0.324
0.337
0.353
0.372
0.394

0.314
0.322
0.330
0.339
0.349

0.209
0.214
0.220
0.226
0.232

0.448
0.457
0.466
0.477
0.489

0.298
0.304
0.310
0.317
0.325

0.285
0.287
0.292
0.298
0.304

0.189
0.191
0.195
0.198
0.202

0.545
0.567
0.594
0.624
0.659

0.363
0.378
0.395
0.415
0.439

0.355
0.365
0.376
0.386
0.398

0.236
0.243
0.250
0.257
0.265

16
17
18
19
20

0.629
0.672
0.721
0.776
0.839

0.419
0.447
0.480
0.516
0.558

0.359
0.369
0.380
0.392
0.405

0.239
0.246
0.253
0.261
0.269

0.502
0.517
0.533
0.550
0.570

0.334
0.344
0.354
0.366
0.379

0.309
0.316
0.322
0.329
0.336

0.206
0.210
0.214
0.219
0.223

0.703
0.752
0.808
0.872
0.945

0.467
0.500
0.538
0.580
0.629

0.410
0.423
0.437
0.452
0.468

0.273
0.282
0.291
0.301
0.311

22
24
26
28
30

0.993
1.18
1.39
1.61
1.85

0.661
0.787
0.923
1.07
1.23

0.432
0.464
0.512
0.571
0.631

0.288
0.309
0.341
0.380
0.420

0.614
0.669
0.738
0.822
0.922

0.409
0.445
0.491
0.547
0.613

0.350
0.367
0.384
0.404
0.425

0.233
0.244
0.256
0.269
0.283

1.13
1.34
1.57
1.82
2.09

0.749
0.891
1.05
1.21
1.39

0.503
0.545
0.616
0.690
0.765

0.335
0.362
0.410
0.459
0.509

32
34
36
38
40

2.10
2.37
2.66
2.96
3.28

1.40
1.58
1.77
1.97
2.18

0.691
0.751
0.812
0.872
0.932

0.460
0.500
0.540
0.580
0.620

1.05
1.18
1.32
1.47
1.63

0.695
0.785
0.880
0.981
1.09

0.449
0.489
0.536
0.583
0.631

0.299
0.326
0.357
0.388
0.420

2.38
2.69
3.01
3.36
3.72

1.58
1.79
2.00
2.23
2.48

0.841
0.917
0.993
1.07
1.15

0.559
0.610
0.661
0.712
0.763

42
44
46
48
50

3.62

2.41

0.992

0.660

1.80
1.20
0.680
1.98
1.31
0.729
2.16
1.44
0.778
2.35
1.56
0.828
2.55
1.70
0.878
Other Constants and Properties

0.452
0.485
0.518
0.551
0.584

4.10

2.73

1.22

0.814

-1

210c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.398 0.265

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.25

1.49

1.56

1.04

2.56

1.70

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.378

0.251

0.377

0.251

0.415

0.276

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.490

0.327

0.489

0.326

0.539

r y , in.

0.359

5.65

4.07

5.66

2.62

3.71

2.58

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-33

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W36

Shape

182c

194

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.357 0.238

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.536 0.356

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.382 0.254

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.586 0.390

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.410 0.273

11
12
13
14
15

0.605
0.630
0.658
0.691
0.730

0.403
0.419
0.438
0.460
0.485

0.388
0.399
0.410
0.423
0.436

0.258
0.265
0.273
0.281
0.290

0.653
0.680
0.710
0.745
0.786

0.435
0.452
0.472
0.496
0.523

0.415
0.427
0.440
0.454
0.468

0.276
0.284
0.293
0.302
0.311

0.713
0.742
0.775
0.813
0.857

0.474
0.493
0.516
0.541
0.570

0.448
0.461
0.476
0.491
0.507

0.298
0.307
0.317
0.327
0.337

16
17
18
19
20

0.774
0.824
0.887
0.958
1.04

0.515
0.548
0.590
0.637
0.691

0.450
0.465
0.481
0.498
0.516

0.299
0.309
0.320
0.331
0.343

0.833
0.887
0.950
1.02
1.11

0.554
0.590
0.632
0.682
0.740

0.484
0.500
0.518
0.537
0.557

0.322
0.333
0.344
0.357
0.371

0.908
0.967
1.04
1.11
1.21

0.604
0.643
0.689
0.742
0.804

0.524
0.543
0.563
0.584
0.607

0.349
0.361
0.374
0.389
0.404

22
24
26
28
30

1.24
1.48
1.73
2.01
2.31

0.826
0.983
1.15
1.34
1.54

0.557
0.616
0.700
0.786
0.873

0.370
0.410
0.466
0.523
0.581

1.33
1.58
1.86
2.16
2.47

0.885
1.05
1.24
1.43
1.65

0.603
0.677
0.771
0.868
0.966

0.401
0.451
0.513
0.577
0.642

1.45
1.72
2.02
2.35
2.69

0.964
1.15
1.35
1.56
1.79

0.659
0.751
0.857
0.966
1.08

0.439
0.500
0.570
0.643
0.717

32
34
36
38
40

2.63
2.96
3.32
3.70
4.10

1.75
1.97
2.21
2.46
2.73

0.961
1.05
1.14
1.23
1.32

0.639
0.699
0.758
0.818
0.878

2.81
3.18
3.56
3.97
4.40

1.87
2.11
2.37
2.64
2.93

1.07
1.17
1.27
1.37
1.47

0.709
0.775
0.843
0.911
0.979

3.07
3.46
3.88
4.32
4.79

2.04
2.30
2.58
2.88
3.19

1.19
1.31
1.42
1.54
1.66

0.792
0.869
0.946
1.02
1.10

42

4.52

3.01

1.41

0.938

4.85

3.23

1.57

1.05

5.28

3.51

1.77

1.18

-1

170c,v
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.495 0.329

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W36

Other Constants and Properties


b y 10 (kip-ft)
3

-1

2.81

1.87

3.02

2.01

3.27

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.451

0.300

0.479

0.319

0.514

0.342

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.585

0.390

0.622

0.415

0.667

0.444

r y , in.

2.18

5.70

5.69

5.73

2.56

2.55

2.53

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-34

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W36

W36

Shape

c,v

150c,v

160

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.439 0.292

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.682 0.454

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.472 0.314

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.777 0.517

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.538 0.358

11
12
13
14
15

0.771
0.803
0.839
0.880
0.928

0.513
0.534
0.558
0.586
0.618

0.482
0.497
0.513
0.530
0.548

0.321
0.331
0.341
0.352
0.364

0.832
0.866
0.905
0.950
1.00

0.553
0.576
0.602
0.632
0.667

0.520
0.537
0.555
0.573
0.594

0.346
0.357
0.369
0.382
0.395

0.954
0.995
1.04
1.10
1.16

0.635
0.662
0.694
0.730
0.773

0.602
0.623
0.645
0.668
0.693

0.401
0.414
0.429
0.445
0.461

16
17
18
19
20

0.984
1.05
1.12
1.21
1.31

0.655
0.698
0.748
0.806
0.874

0.567
0.588
0.610
0.634
0.660

0.377
0.391
0.406
0.422
0.439

1.06
1.13
1.22
1.31
1.43

0.707
0.754
0.809
0.873
0.949

0.615
0.639
0.664
0.691
0.720

0.409
0.425
0.442
0.460
0.479

1.24
1.32
1.43
1.55
1.70

0.823
0.881
0.950
1.03
1.13

0.721
0.750
0.782
0.817
0.854

0.479
0.499
0.520
0.543
0.569

22
24
26
28
30

1.58
1.88
2.20
2.56
2.94

1.05
1.25
1.47
1.70
1.95

0.719
0.830
0.950
1.07
1.20

0.478
0.553
0.632
0.714
0.797

1.72
2.04
2.40
2.78
3.19

1.14
1.36
1.59
1.85
2.12

0.796
0.926
1.06
1.20
1.34

0.530
0.616
0.706
0.799
0.894

2.05
2.44
2.87
3.32
3.82

1.37
1.62
1.91
2.21
2.54

0.977
1.14
1.31
1.49
1.67

0.650
0.758
0.871
0.989
1.11

32
34
36
38
40

3.34
3.77
4.23
4.71
5.22

2.22
2.51
2.81
3.13
3.47

1.33
1.46
1.59
1.72
1.86

0.883
0.969
1.06
1.15
1.23

3.63
4.10
4.59
5.12
5.67

2.42
2.73
3.06
3.41
3.77

1.49
1.64
1.79
1.94
2.10

0.991
1.09
1.19
1.29
1.40

4.34
4.90
5.49
6.12

2.89
3.26
3.66
4.07

1.85
2.05
2.24
2.44

1.23
1.36
1.49
1.62

-1

135c,v
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.633 0.421

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

3.55

2.36

3.87

2.57

4.59

3.05

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.547

0.364

0.580

0.386

0.644

0.428

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.709

0.473

0.752

0.502

0.835

r y , in.

0.557

5.76

5.79

5.88

2.50

2.47

2.38

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-35

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W33

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.176 0.117

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.247 0.164

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.193 0.128

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.274 0.182

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.216 0.144

11
12
13
14
15

0.253
0.259
0.265
0.272
0.280

0.168
0.172
0.176
0.181
0.186

0.176
0.176
0.179
0.181
0.183

0.117
0.117
0.119
0.120
0.122

0.278
0.284
0.291
0.299
0.308

0.185
0.189
0.194
0.199
0.205

0.193
0.194
0.197
0.199
0.202

0.128
0.129
0.131
0.133
0.135

0.309
0.316
0.324
0.333
0.343

0.206
0.211
0.216
0.222
0.228

0.216
0.217
0.221
0.224
0.227

0.144
0.145
0.147
0.149
0.151

16
17
18
19
20

0.288
0.298
0.308
0.319
0.331

0.192
0.198
0.205
0.212
0.220

0.186
0.188
0.191
0.194
0.196

0.124
0.125
0.127
0.129
0.131

0.317
0.328
0.339
0.352
0.365

0.211
0.218
0.226
0.234
0.243

0.205
0.208
0.211
0.214
0.218

0.137
0.139
0.141
0.143
0.145

0.354
0.365
0.378
0.393
0.408

0.235
0.243
0.252
0.261
0.272

0.231
0.235
0.238
0.242
0.246

0.154
0.156
0.159
0.161
0.164

22
24
26
28
30

0.359
0.392
0.432
0.480
0.536

0.239
0.261
0.288
0.319
0.357

0.202
0.208
0.215
0.221
0.229

0.134
0.138
0.143
0.147
0.152

0.397
0.434
0.479
0.532
0.596

0.264
0.289
0.318
0.354
0.397

0.225
0.232
0.240
0.248
0.257

0.149
0.154
0.160
0.165
0.171

0.444
0.486
0.537
0.598
0.671

0.295
0.323
0.357
0.398
0.446

0.255
0.264
0.274
0.285
0.296

0.170
0.176
0.182
0.189
0.197

32
34
36
38
40

0.605
0.684
0.766
0.854
0.946

0.403
0.455
0.510
0.568
0.629

0.237
0.245
0.254
0.264
0.274

0.157
0.163
0.169
0.175
0.182

0.674
0.761
0.854
0.951
1.05

0.449
0.507
0.568
0.633
0.701

0.267
0.277
0.288
0.300
0.314

0.177
0.184
0.192
0.200
0.209

0.761
0.859
0.963
1.07
1.19

0.506
0.571
0.641
0.714
0.791

0.308
0.322
0.337
0.353
0.378

0.205
0.214
0.224
0.235
0.251

42
44
46
48
50

1.04
1.14
1.25
1.36
1.48

0.694
0.762
0.832
0.906
0.984

0.285 0.190 1.16


0.773 0.333
0.300 0.200 1.28
0.848 0.353
0.317 0.211 1.39
0.927 0.372
0.333 0.222 1.52
1.01
0.392
0.350 0.233 1.65
1.10
0.412
Other Constants and Properties

0.221
0.235
0.248
0.261
0.274

1.31
1.44
1.57
1.71
1.86

0.872
0.957
1.05
1.14
1.24

0.403
0.428
0.453
0.477
0.502

0.268
0.285
0.301
0.318
0.334

-1

318
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.225 0.150

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

354h

387
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.878

0.584

0.972

0.647

1.10

0.729

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.225

0.150

0.247

0.164

0.274

0.182

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.292

0.195

0.321

0.214

0.356

r y , in.
h

W33

0.237

3.87

3.88

3.91

3.77

3.74

3.71

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-36

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W33

W33

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.236 0.157

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.339 0.226

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.264 0.175

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.374 0.249

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.292 0.194

11
12
13
14
15

0.339
0.347
0.356
0.366
0.377

0.226
0.231
0.237
0.243
0.251

0.236
0.238
0.242
0.246
0.250

0.157
0.159
0.161
0.164
0.167

0.378
0.386
0.395
0.406
0.418

0.252
0.257
0.262
0.270
0.278

0.264
0.267
0.271
0.276
0.281

0.175
0.177
0.180
0.183
0.187

0.417
0.426
0.436
0.447
0.459

0.277
0.283
0.290
0.297
0.305

0.292
0.296
0.301
0.306
0.312

0.194
0.197
0.200
0.204
0.208

16
17
18
19
20

0.389
0.402
0.416
0.432
0.450

0.259
0.267
0.277
0.288
0.299

0.254
0.259
0.263
0.268
0.273

0.169
0.172
0.175
0.178
0.181

0.431
0.446
0.462
0.480
0.500

0.287
0.297
0.308
0.319
0.332

0.285
0.291
0.296
0.302
0.307

0.190
0.193
0.197
0.201
0.204

0.472
0.489
0.507
0.527
0.549

0.314
0.325
0.337
0.351
0.365

0.318
0.324
0.330
0.337
0.344

0.211
0.216
0.220
0.224
0.229

22
24
26
28
30

0.490
0.537
0.594
0.663
0.745

0.326
0.357
0.395
0.441
0.496

0.283
0.294
0.306
0.319
0.333

0.188
0.196
0.203
0.212
0.221

0.544
0.598
0.662
0.740
0.833

0.362
0.398
0.441
0.492
0.554

0.319
0.333
0.347
0.363
0.380

0.213
0.221
0.231
0.241
0.253

0.599
0.660
0.732
0.820
0.925

0.399
0.439
0.487
0.545
0.616

0.358
0.374
0.391
0.410
0.431

0.238
0.249
0.260
0.273
0.287

32
34
36
38
40

0.846
0.955
1.07
1.19
1.32

0.563
0.636
0.713
0.794
0.880

0.348
0.364
0.383
0.413
0.443

0.231
0.242
0.255
0.275
0.295

0.946
1.07
1.20
1.33
1.48

0.630
0.711
0.797
0.888
0.984

0.399
0.419
0.452
0.489
0.525

0.265
0.279
0.301
0.325
0.349

1.05
1.19
1.33
1.48
1.65

0.701
0.791
0.887
0.988
1.09

0.455
0.487
0.530
0.574
0.619

0.302
0.324
0.353
0.382
0.412

42
44
46
48
50

1.46
1.60
1.75
1.90
2.07

0.970
1.06
1.16
1.27
1.37

0.473 0.315
1.63
1.08
0.562
0.503 0.335
1.79
1.19
0.598
0.533 0.354
1.96
1.30
0.635
0.563 0.374
2.13
1.42
0.672
0.592 0.394
2.31
1.54
0.708
Other Constants and Properties

0.374
0.398
0.422
0.447
0.471

1.81
1.99
2.18
2.37
2.57

1.21
1.32
1.45
1.58
1.71

0.663
0.708
0.753
0.797
0.842

0.441
0.471
0.501
0.530
0.560

-1

241c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.300 0.200

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

263c

291
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.21

0.807

1.36

0.903

1.51

1.00

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.300

0.200

0.332

0.221

0.361

0.240

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.389

0.260

0.431

0.287

0.469

r y , in.
c

Fy = 65 ksi

0.313

3.91

3.91

3.90

3.68

3.66

3.62

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-37

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W33

Shape

201c

221

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.320 0.213

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.468 0.311

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.355 0.236

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.575 0.382

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.436 0.290

11
12
13
14
15

0.462
0.472
0.482
0.495
0.508

0.307
0.314
0.321
0.329
0.338

0.320
0.325
0.331
0.337
0.344

0.213
0.216
0.220
0.224
0.229

0.521
0.531
0.544
0.557
0.573

0.346
0.354
0.362
0.371
0.381

0.355
0.361
0.368
0.376
0.383

0.236
0.240
0.245
0.250
0.255

0.710
0.740
0.776
0.817
0.864

0.472
0.493
0.516
0.543
0.575

0.476
0.490
0.505
0.521
0.538

0.317
0.326
0.336
0.347
0.358

16
17
18
19
20

0.523
0.540
0.558
0.579
0.602

0.348
0.359
0.372
0.385
0.400

0.351
0.358
0.365
0.373
0.381

0.233
0.238
0.243
0.248
0.253

0.589
0.608
0.629
0.652
0.677

0.392
0.405
0.418
0.433
0.450

0.391
0.399
0.408
0.417
0.427

0.260
0.266
0.272
0.278
0.284

0.918
0.982
1.06
1.14
1.25

0.611
0.653
0.702
0.761
0.829

0.556
0.575
0.596
0.618
0.642

0.370
0.383
0.396
0.411
0.427

22
24
26
28
30

0.658
0.725
0.807
0.905
1.02

0.438
0.483
0.537
0.602
0.682

0.398
0.417
0.437
0.460
0.485

0.265
0.277
0.291
0.306
0.323

0.736
0.810
0.902
1.01
1.15

0.489
0.539
0.600
0.675
0.766

0.447
0.469
0.493
0.520
0.551

0.297
0.312
0.328
0.346
0.366

1.50
1.78
2.09
2.43
2.79

0.997
1.19
1.39
1.62
1.85

0.695
0.786
0.891
0.999
1.11

0.463
0.523
0.593
0.664
0.737

32
34
36
38
40

1.17
1.32
1.48
1.64
1.82

0.776
0.876
0.982
1.09
1.21

0.513
0.562
0.614
0.666
0.719

0.341
0.374
0.408
0.443
0.478

1.31
1.48
1.66
1.85
2.05

0.871
0.984
1.10
1.23
1.36

0.596
0.657
0.719
0.782
0.846

0.397
0.437
0.479
0.520
0.563

3.17
3.58
4.01
4.47
4.95

2.11
2.38
2.67
2.98
3.30

1.22
1.33
1.44
1.55
1.66

0.810
0.883
0.957
1.03
1.10

42
44
46
48
50

2.01
2.20
2.41
2.62
2.85

1.34
1.47
1.60
1.75
1.89

0.772 0.514 2.26


1.50
0.910
0.825 0.549 2.48
1.65
0.975
0.879 0.585 2.71
1.80
1.04
0.932 0.620 2.95
1.96
1.11
0.986 0.656 3.20
2.13
1.17
Other Constants and Properties

0.606
0.649
0.692
0.736
0.780

-1

169c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.414 0.276

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W33

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.67

1.11

1.86

1.24

3.25

2.16

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.393

0.262

0.435

0.289

0.519

0.345

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.510

0.340

0.564

0.376

0.673

r y , in.

0.449

3.93

3.93

5.48

3.59

3.56

2.50

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 50 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-38

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W33

W33

Shape

141c,v

152

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.490 0.326

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.713 0.474

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.533 0.355

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.787 0.523

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.587 0.390

11
12
13
14
15

0.798
0.832
0.872
0.918
0.971

0.531
0.554
0.580
0.611
0.646

0.540
0.557
0.574
0.593
0.614

0.359
0.370
0.382
0.395
0.408

0.881
0.920
0.964
1.02
1.08

0.586
0.612
0.642
0.676
0.716

0.591
0.610
0.630
0.652
0.675

0.393
0.406
0.419
0.434
0.449

0.974
1.02
1.07
1.13
1.19

0.648
0.677
0.710
0.749
0.793

0.656
0.678
0.702
0.727
0.754

0.436
0.451
0.467
0.484
0.502

16
17
18
19
20

1.03
1.10
1.19
1.29
1.40

0.687
0.735
0.791
0.856
0.934

0.636
0.659
0.684
0.711
0.741

0.423
0.438
0.455
0.473
0.493

1.15
1.23
1.32
1.43
1.56

0.762
0.816
0.879
0.953
1.04

0.700
0.727
0.756
0.787
0.821

0.466
0.483
0.503
0.524
0.546

1.27
1.36
1.47
1.60
1.75

0.846
0.907
0.979
1.06
1.17

0.784
0.816
0.850
0.888
0.929

0.521
0.543
0.566
0.591
0.618

22
24
26
28
30

1.69
2.01
2.36
2.74
3.15

1.13
1.34
1.57
1.82
2.09

0.810
0.936
1.07
1.20
1.33

0.539
0.623
0.709
0.798
0.888

1.89
2.25
2.64
3.07
3.52

1.26
1.50
1.76
2.04
2.34

0.918
1.06
1.21
1.37
1.53

0.611
0.708
0.808
0.911
1.02

2.12
2.52
2.96
3.43
3.94

1.41
1.68
1.97
2.28
2.62

1.06
1.23
1.41
1.60
1.78

0.707
0.821
0.939
1.06
1.19

32
34
36
38
40

3.58
4.04
4.53
5.05
5.60

2.38
2.69
3.02
3.36
3.72

1.47
1.61
1.75
1.89
2.03

0.979
1.07
1.16
1.26
1.35

4.00
4.52
5.07
5.65
6.26

2.66
3.01
3.37
3.76
4.16

1.69
1.85
2.02
2.18
2.35

1.12
1.23
1.34
1.45
1.56

4.48
5.06
5.68
6.32

2.98
3.37
3.78
4.21

1.98
2.17
2.37
2.57

1.32
1.45
1.58
1.71

-1

130c,v
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.647 0.430

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

3.71

2.47

4.10

2.73

4.61

3.06

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.572

0.381

0.619

0.412

0.671

0.446

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.742

0.495

0.803

0.535

0.870

r y , in.

0.580

5.47

5.51

5.52

2.47

2.43

2.39

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-39

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W30

W33

Shape

c,v

118

b x 10

p 10

-1

357h

391
3

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.223 0.149

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.189 0.126

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.245 0.163

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.208 0.138

11
12
13
14
15

1.11
1.16
1.22
1.29
1.37

0.738
0.771
0.811
0.856
0.910

0.747
0.773
0.802
0.832
0.865

0.497
0.514
0.533
0.554
0.576

0.253
0.259
0.265
0.273
0.281

0.168
0.172
0.176
0.181
0.187

0.189
0.190
0.192
0.195
0.197

0.126
0.127
0.128
0.130
0.131

0.277
0.284
0.291
0.300
0.309

0.184
0.189
0.194
0.199
0.205

0.208
0.209
0.212
0.215
0.218

0.138
0.139
0.141
0.143
0.145

16
17
18
19
20

1.46
1.57
1.70
1.86
2.05

0.972
1.05
1.13
1.24
1.37

0.901
0.940
0.982
1.03
1.08

0.600
0.625
0.654
0.684
0.718

0.290
0.300
0.311
0.322
0.335

0.193
0.199
0.207
0.215
0.223

0.199
0.202
0.204
0.207
0.209

0.133
0.134
0.136
0.138
0.139

0.319
0.330
0.342
0.355
0.370

0.212
0.219
0.228
0.236
0.246

0.220
0.223
0.226
0.229
0.233

0.147
0.149
0.151
0.153
0.155

22
24
26
28
30

2.48
2.95
3.47
4.02
4.62

1.65
1.97
2.31
2.68
3.07

1.27
1.48
1.70
1.92
2.16

0.845
0.984
1.13
1.28
1.44

0.365
0.401
0.444
0.496
0.558

0.243
0.267
0.295
0.330
0.371

0.215
0.220
0.226
0.233
0.239

0.143
0.147
0.151
0.155
0.159

0.403
0.444
0.492
0.550
0.620

0.268
0.295
0.327
0.366
0.413

0.239
0.246
0.254
0.261
0.270

0.159
0.164
0.169
0.174
0.179

32
34
36
38
40

5.25
5.93
6.65
7.41

3.49
3.95
4.42
4.93

2.40
2.64
2.89
3.14

1.59
1.76
1.92
2.09

0.633
0.715
0.802
0.893
0.990

0.421
0.476
0.533
0.594
0.658

0.246
0.254
0.262
0.270
0.279

0.164
0.169
0.174
0.180
0.186

0.705
0.796
0.892
0.994
1.10

0.469
0.530
0.594
0.662
0.733

0.279
0.288
0.298
0.309
0.321

0.185
0.192
0.199
0.206
0.214

1.09
0.726 0.289
1.20
0.797 0.299
1.31
0.871 0.310
1.43
0.948 0.325
1.55
1.03
0.340
Other Constants and Properties

0.192
0.199
0.206
0.216
0.226

1.21
1.33
1.46
1.59
1.72

0.808
0.887
0.969
1.06
1.15

0.334
0.349
0.368
0.387
0.406

0.222
0.233
0.245
0.257
0.270

42
44
46
48
50

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.660 0.439

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.890 0.592

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W33-W30

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

5.34

3.55

0.884

0.588

0.982

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.740

0.493

0.223

0.149

0.245

0.163

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.961

0.640

0.290

0.193

0.317

0.212

r y , in.

0.654

5.60

3.65

3.65

2.32

3.67

3.64

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.
Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-40

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W30

W30

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.230 0.153

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.299 0.199

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.259 0.172

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.334 0.222

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.291 0.193

11
12
13
14
15

0.304
0.312
0.320
0.330
0.340

0.203
0.208
0.213
0.219
0.226

0.230
0.233
0.236
0.239
0.242

0.153
0.155
0.157
0.159
0.161

0.340
0.348
0.358
0.368
0.380

0.226
0.232
0.238
0.245
0.253

0.259
0.262
0.266
0.270
0.274

0.172
0.174
0.177
0.179
0.182

0.381
0.391
0.402
0.414
0.427

0.254
0.260
0.267
0.275
0.284

0.291
0.296
0.300
0.305
0.311

0.194
0.197
0.200
0.203
0.207

16
17
18
19
20

0.351
0.364
0.377
0.392
0.409

0.234
0.242
0.251
0.261
0.272

0.246
0.249
0.253
0.257
0.261

0.164
0.166
0.168
0.171
0.173

0.393
0.407
0.422
0.439
0.458

0.261
0.271
0.281
0.292
0.305

0.278
0.282
0.287
0.292
0.296

0.185
0.188
0.191
0.194
0.197

0.442
0.458
0.476
0.496
0.518

0.294
0.305
0.317
0.330
0.344

0.316
0.321
0.327
0.333
0.339

0.210
0.214
0.218
0.221
0.225

22
24
26
28
30

0.447
0.492
0.547
0.613
0.694

0.297
0.328
0.364
0.408
0.462

0.269
0.277
0.286
0.296
0.306

0.179
0.184
0.190
0.197
0.204

0.501
0.553
0.615
0.690
0.782

0.333
0.368
0.409
0.459
0.520

0.306
0.317
0.329
0.341
0.355

0.204
0.211
0.219
0.227
0.236

0.568
0.628
0.701
0.789
0.899

0.378
0.418
0.466
0.525
0.598

0.352
0.365
0.380
0.397
0.414

0.234
0.243
0.253
0.264
0.276

32
34
36
38
40

0.789
0.891
0.999
1.11
1.23

0.525
0.593
0.665
0.741
0.821

0.318
0.330
0.342
0.356
0.372

0.211
0.219
0.228
0.237
0.247

0.890
1.00
1.13
1.26
1.39

0.592
0.669
0.749
0.835
0.925

0.369
0.385
0.402
0.421
0.450

0.246
0.256
0.268
0.280
0.299

1.02
1.15
1.29
1.44
1.60

0.680
0.768
0.861
0.959
1.06

0.434
0.455
0.481
0.517
0.554

0.289
0.303
0.320
0.344
0.368

42
44
46
48
50

1.36
1.49
1.63
1.78
1.93

0.905
0.993
1.09
1.18
1.28

0.392 0.261 1.53


1.02
0.479
0.415 0.276 1.68
1.12
0.507
0.438 0.291 1.84
1.22
0.535
0.460 0.306 2.00
1.33
0.564
0.483 0.321 2.17
1.45
0.592
Other Constants and Properties

0.318
0.337
0.356
0.375
0.394

1.76
1.93
2.11
2.30
2.50

1.17
1.29
1.41
1.53
1.66

0.590
0.626
0.662
0.698
0.734

0.392
0.416
0.440
0.464
0.488

-1

261
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.268 0.178

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

292

326
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.09

0.724

1.23

0.818

1.40

0.930

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.268

0.178

0.299

0.199

0.334

0.222

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.348

0.232

0.388

0.258

0.433

r y , in.
h

Fy = 65 ksi

0.289

3.67

3.69

3.71

3.60

3.58

3.53

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-41

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W30

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.324 0.215

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.422 0.281

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.365 0.243

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.479 0.319

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.406 0.270

11
12
13
14
15

0.424
0.435
0.447
0.461
0.476

0.282
0.289
0.298
0.307
0.317

0.324
0.330
0.335
0.341
0.347

0.216
0.219
0.223
0.227
0.231

0.475
0.487
0.499
0.514
0.531

0.316
0.324
0.332
0.342
0.353

0.366
0.373
0.380
0.387
0.394

0.244
0.248
0.253
0.257
0.262

0.539
0.551
0.565
0.581
0.599

0.359
0.367
0.376
0.387
0.398

0.408
0.416
0.424
0.433
0.441

0.272
0.277
0.282
0.288
0.294

16
17
18
19
20

0.493
0.511
0.531
0.554
0.578

0.328
0.340
0.354
0.368
0.385

0.353
0.360
0.367
0.374
0.381

0.235
0.240
0.244
0.249
0.254

0.550
0.571
0.594
0.619
0.646

0.366
0.380
0.395
0.412
0.430

0.402
0.410
0.418
0.427
0.436

0.267
0.273
0.278
0.284
0.290

0.618
0.640
0.663
0.692
0.724

0.411
0.426
0.441
0.460
0.481

0.450
0.460
0.470
0.480
0.491

0.300
0.306
0.313
0.319
0.327

22
24
26
28
30

0.635
0.703
0.786
0.886
1.01

0.422
0.468
0.523
0.589
0.672

0.397
0.413
0.432
0.452
0.474

0.264
0.275
0.287
0.301
0.315

0.710
0.788
0.882
0.995
1.14

0.473
0.524
0.587
0.662
0.756

0.455
0.476
0.499
0.524
0.552

0.303
0.317
0.332
0.349
0.368

0.796
0.885
0.992
1.12
1.28

0.530
0.589
0.660
0.747
0.854

0.514
0.540
0.568
0.599
0.634

0.342
0.359
0.378
0.398
0.422

32
34
36
38
40

1.15
1.30
1.45
1.62
1.80

0.764
0.863
0.968
1.08
1.19

0.498
0.527
0.571
0.615
0.659

0.331
0.350
0.380
0.409
0.439

1.29
1.46
1.64
1.82
2.02

0.860
0.971
1.09
1.21
1.34

0.584
0.635
0.690
0.746
0.802

0.388
0.423
0.459
0.496
0.533

1.46
1.65
1.85
2.06
2.28

0.972
1.10
1.23
1.37
1.52

0.686
0.753
0.821
0.889
0.957

0.457
0.501
0.546
0.591
0.637

42
44
46
48
50

1.98
2.17
2.37
2.59
2.81

1.32
1.45
1.58
1.72
1.87

0.704 0.468 2.23


1.48
0.858
0.748 0.498 2.44
1.63
0.914
0.792 0.527 2.67
1.78
0.970
0.837 0.557 2.91
1.94
1.03
0.881 0.586 3.16
2.10
1.08
Other Constants and Properties

0.571
0.608
0.645
0.683
0.720

2.52
2.76
3.02
3.29
3.57

1.67
1.84
2.01
2.19
2.37

1.03
1.10
1.16
1.23
1.30

0.683
0.729
0.775
0.821
0.867

-1

191c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.373 0.248

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

211c

235
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.57

1.04

1.77

1.18

1.99

1.32

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.371

0.247

0.412

0.274

0.458

0.305

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.481

0.321

0.535

0.357

0.594

r y , in.
c

W30

0.396

3.70

3.70

3.70

3.51

3.49

3.46

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-42

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W30

W30

Shape

148c

173

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.451 0.300

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.639 0.425

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.548 0.365

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.734 0.488

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.627 0.417

11
12
13
14
15

0.606
0.620
0.636
0.653
0.673

0.403
0.412
0.423
0.435
0.448

0.455
0.464
0.474
0.483
0.494

0.303
0.309
0.315
0.322
0.328

0.831
0.876
0.929
0.991
1.07

0.553
0.583
0.618
0.659
0.709

0.616
0.636
0.657
0.680
0.704

0.410
0.423
0.437
0.452
0.469

0.953
1.00
1.07
1.14
1.22

0.634
0.668
0.709
0.757
0.813

0.712
0.737
0.763
0.792
0.822

0.474
0.490
0.508
0.527
0.547

16
17
18
19
20

0.695
0.719
0.746
0.776
0.810

0.462
0.478
0.496
0.516
0.539

0.504
0.515
0.527
0.539
0.552

0.336
0.343
0.351
0.359
0.367

1.16
1.26
1.38
1.53
1.69

0.769
0.839
0.920
1.02
1.12

0.731
0.759
0.789
0.823
0.859

0.486
0.505
0.525
0.547
0.571

1.32
1.45
1.59
1.76
1.95

0.880
0.962
1.06
1.17
1.30

0.856
0.892
0.931
0.974
1.02

0.569
0.593
0.619
0.648
0.679

22
24
26
28
30

0.889
0.990
1.11
1.26
1.45

0.592
0.659
0.741
0.841
0.964

0.580
0.610
0.644
0.681
0.724

0.386
0.406
0.428
0.453
0.481

2.05
2.43
2.86
3.31
3.80

1.36
1.62
1.90
2.20
2.53

0.967
1.10
1.25
1.39
1.53

0.643
0.735
0.828
0.923
1.02

2.36
2.81
3.30
3.82
4.39

1.57
1.87
2.19
2.54
2.92

1.18
1.36
1.54
1.72
1.91

0.787
0.904
1.02
1.15
1.27

32
34
36
38
40

1.65
1.86
2.09
2.32
2.57

1.10
1.24
1.39
1.55
1.71

0.802
0.882
0.964
1.05
1.13

0.533
0.587
0.641
0.696
0.751

4.33
4.89
5.48

2.88
3.25
3.64

1.67
1.82
1.96

1.11
1.21
1.30

4.99
5.64
6.32

3.32
3.75
4.21

2.09
2.28
2.47

1.39
1.52
1.64

42
44
46
48
50

2.84
3.12
3.41
3.71
4.02

1.89
2.07
2.27
2.47
2.68

1.21
0.807
1.30
0.863
1.38
0.919
1.47
0.976
1.55
1.03
Other Constants and Properties

-1

132c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.538 0.358

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.23

1.48

4.03

2.68

4.69

3.12

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.505

0.336

0.589

0.392

0.662

0.441

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.655

0.437

0.765

0.510

0.859

r y , in.

0.573

3.71

5.44

5.42

3.42

2.28

2.25

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-43

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W30

Shape

116c,v

124

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.672 0.447

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.858 0.571

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.725 0.482

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.942 0.627

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.792 0.527

11
12
13
14
15

1.03
1.09
1.15
1.23
1.32

0.685
0.722
0.766
0.817
0.878

0.767
0.794
0.824
0.856
0.890

0.510
0.528
0.548
0.569
0.592

1.12
1.18
1.26
1.34
1.45

0.745
0.786
0.835
0.893
0.962

0.834
0.865
0.898
0.934
0.973

0.555
0.575
0.597
0.621
0.647

1.23
1.30
1.39
1.48
1.60

0.820
0.867
0.922
0.988
1.07

0.921
0.957
0.996
1.04
1.08

0.613
0.637
0.663
0.691
0.721

16
17
18
19
20

1.43
1.56
1.72
1.91
2.11

0.951
1.04
1.14
1.27
1.40

0.927
0.968
1.01
1.06
1.12

0.617
0.644
0.673
0.706
0.745

1.57
1.72
1.89
2.11
2.34

1.04
1.14
1.26
1.40
1.55

1.01
1.06
1.11
1.17
1.26

0.675
0.706
0.739
0.776
0.837

1.74
1.91
2.12
2.36
2.62

1.16
1.27
1.41
1.57
1.74

1.13
1.19
1.25
1.32
1.44

0.754
0.791
0.831
0.877
0.959

22
24
26
28
30

2.55
3.04
3.57
4.14
4.75

1.70
2.02
2.37
2.75
3.16

1.31
1.51
1.72
1.92
2.13

0.873
1.01
1.14
1.28
1.42

2.83
3.36
3.95
4.58
5.26

1.88
2.24
2.63
3.05
3.50

1.48
1.70
1.94
2.18
2.42

0.983
1.13
1.29
1.45
1.61

3.16
3.77
4.42
5.13
5.88

2.11
2.51
2.94
3.41
3.91

1.70
1.96
2.24
2.52
2.81

1.13
1.31
1.49
1.68
1.87

32
34
36

5.40
6.10
6.84

3.60
4.06
4.55

2.35
2.56
2.78

1.56
1.70
1.85

5.98
6.75
7.57

3.98
4.49
5.04

2.67
2.92
3.17

1.78
1.94
2.11

6.69
7.56

4.45
5.03

3.10
3.40

2.06
2.26

-1

108c,v
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.793 0.527

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W30

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

5.08

3.38

5.57

3.71

6.24

4.15

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.704

0.468

0.751

0.500

0.810

0.539

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.913

0.609

0.975

0.650

1.05

r y , in.

0.701

5.43

5.48

5.53

2.23

2.19

2.15

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-44

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W30-W27

W30

Shape

W27

c,v

c,f,v

b x 10

p 10

-1

539h

90

99
3

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.05
0.700

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.878 0.584

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.20
0.797

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.983 0.654

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.162 0.108

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.145 0.0965

11
12
13
14
15

1.38
1.46
1.56
1.68
1.81

0.921
0.975
1.04
1.11
1.21

1.03
1.08
1.12
1.17
1.23

0.687
0.715
0.746
0.779
0.815

1.57
1.65
1.76
1.89
2.03

1.04
1.10
1.17
1.25
1.35

1.14
1.19
1.24
1.30
1.36

0.761
0.793
0.827
0.865
0.906

0.183
0.187
0.192
0.198
0.204

0.122
0.125
0.128
0.131
0.135

0.145
0.146
0.147
0.148
0.149

0.0965
0.0970
0.0977
0.0984
0.0992

16
17
18
19
20

1.98
2.18
2.43
2.70
3.00

1.32
1.45
1.61
1.80
1.99

1.29
1.35
1.42
1.55
1.69

0.855
0.899
0.947
1.03
1.13

2.21
2.43
2.70
3.01
3.34

1.47
1.62
1.80
2.00
2.22

1.43
1.51
1.59
1.75
1.92

0.951
1.00
1.06
1.17
1.28

0.210
0.217
0.225
0.234
0.244

0.140
0.145
0.150
0.156
0.162

0.150
0.151
0.152
0.154
0.155

0.0999
0.101
0.101
0.102
0.103

22
24
26
28
30

3.63
4.31
5.06
5.87
6.74

2.41
2.87
3.37
3.91
4.49

2.00
2.32
2.65
2.99
3.34

1.33
1.54
1.76
1.99
2.22

4.04
4.80
5.64
6.54
7.51

2.69
3.20
3.75
4.35
4.99

2.28
2.65
3.04
3.44
3.85

1.52
1.76
2.02
2.29
2.56

0.266
0.292
0.324
0.362
0.407

0.177
0.194
0.215
0.241
0.271

0.157
0.160
0.162
0.165
0.168

0.105
0.106
0.108
0.110
0.112

32
34
36
38
40

7.67
8.66

5.10
5.76

3.69
4.06

2.46
2.70

8.54
9.64

5.68
6.41

4.27
4.70

2.84
3.13

0.463
0.523
0.586
0.653
0.724

0.308
0.348
0.390
0.435
0.481

0.171
0.174
0.177
0.180
0.183

0.114
0.116
0.118
0.120
0.122

0.798
0.876
0.957
1.04
1.13

0.531
0.583
0.637
0.693
0.752

0.187
0.190
0.194
0.198
0.202

0.124
0.127
0.129
0.132
0.134

Design
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry , or
Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

42
44
46
48
50
Other Constants and Properties

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

7.10

4.72

8.07

5.37

0.627

0.417

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.886

0.589

0.977

0.650

0.162

0.108

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.15

0.766

1.27

0.845

0.210

r y , in.

0.140

5.57

5.60

3.48

2.10

2.09

3.65

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.
Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-45

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W27

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.221 0.147

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.259 0.172

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.243 0.161

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.285 0.190

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.266 0.177

11
12
13
14
15

0.270
0.277
0.285
0.294
0.304

0.180
0.185
0.190
0.196
0.202

0.221
0.224
0.226
0.229
0.231

0.147
0.149
0.151
0.152
0.154

0.298
0.306
0.315
0.324
0.335

0.198
0.203
0.209
0.216
0.223

0.243
0.246
0.249
0.252
0.255

0.162
0.164
0.166
0.168
0.170

0.328
0.337
0.348
0.359
0.371

0.219
0.225
0.231
0.239
0.247

0.267
0.271
0.274
0.278
0.282

0.178
0.180
0.183
0.185
0.188

16
17
18
19
20

0.315
0.327
0.340
0.354
0.370

0.209
0.217
0.226
0.236
0.246

0.234
0.237
0.239
0.242
0.245

0.156
0.157
0.159
0.161
0.163

0.348
0.361
0.376
0.392
0.410

0.231
0.240
0.250
0.261
0.273

0.258
0.262
0.265
0.268
0.272

0.172
0.174
0.176
0.179
0.181

0.385
0.400
0.417
0.436
0.456

0.256
0.266
0.278
0.290
0.303

0.286
0.290
0.294
0.298
0.302

0.190
0.193
0.196
0.198
0.201

22
24
26
28
30

0.407
0.452
0.506
0.572
0.653

0.271
0.301
0.337
0.380
0.435

0.251
0.257
0.264
0.270
0.278

0.167
0.171
0.175
0.180
0.185

0.452
0.502
0.564
0.638
0.730

0.301
0.334
0.375
0.425
0.486

0.279
0.287
0.295
0.303
0.312

0.186
0.191
0.196
0.202
0.208

0.504
0.561
0.631
0.717
0.822

0.335
0.373
0.420
0.477
0.547

0.311
0.321
0.331
0.342
0.354

0.207
0.214
0.220
0.228
0.235

32
34
36
38
40

0.743
0.839
0.941
1.05
1.16

0.494
0.558
0.626
0.697
0.773

0.285
0.293
0.302
0.311
0.320

0.190
0.195
0.201
0.207
0.213

0.831
0.938
1.05
1.17
1.30

0.553
0.624
0.700
0.780
0.864

0.322
0.332
0.343
0.355
0.367

0.214
0.221
0.228
0.236
0.244

0.935
1.06
1.18
1.32
1.46

0.622
0.703
0.788
0.878
0.972

0.366
0.379
0.394
0.409
0.426

0.244
0.252
0.262
0.272
0.283

42
44
46
48
50

1.28
1.41
1.54
1.67
1.81

0.852
0.935
1.02
1.11
1.21

0.331 0.220 1.43


0.952 0.381
0.341 0.227 1.57
1.05
0.395
0.353 0.235 1.72
1.14
0.413
0.365 0.243 1.87
1.24
0.434
0.381 0.254 2.03
1.35
0.454
Other Constants and Properties

0.253
0.263
0.275
0.289
0.302

1.61
1.77
1.93
2.10
2.28

1.07
1.18
1.29
1.40
1.52

0.445
0.469
0.494
0.519
0.543

0.296
0.312
0.329
0.345
0.361

-1

307h
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.236 0.157

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

336h

368
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.982

0.654

1.09

0.724

1.21

0.803

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.236

0.157

0.259

0.172

0.285

0.190

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.306

0.204

0.336

0.224

0.370

r y , in.
h

W27

0.246

3.51

3.51

3.52

3.48

3.45

3.41

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-46

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W27

W27

Shape

281

258
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.293 0.195

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.338 0.225

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.322 0.214

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.370 0.246

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.355 0.236

11
12
13
14
15

0.357
0.367
0.378
0.390
0.404

0.238
0.244
0.252
0.260
0.269

0.295
0.299
0.303
0.307
0.312

0.196
0.199
0.202
0.205
0.207

0.391
0.402
0.414
0.428
0.443

0.260
0.267
0.276
0.285
0.295

0.324
0.329
0.334
0.339
0.345

0.216
0.219
0.222
0.226
0.229

0.430
0.442
0.456
0.472
0.489

0.286
0.294
0.303
0.314
0.325

0.359
0.365
0.371
0.377
0.383

0.239
0.243
0.247
0.251
0.255

16
17
18
19
20

0.419
0.436
0.455
0.475
0.498

0.279
0.290
0.303
0.316
0.331

0.316
0.321
0.326
0.331
0.336

0.211
0.214
0.217
0.220
0.224

0.460
0.479
0.500
0.523
0.548

0.306
0.319
0.333
0.348
0.365

0.350
0.356
0.362
0.368
0.374

0.233
0.237
0.241
0.245
0.249

0.508
0.529
0.552
0.578
0.607

0.338
0.352
0.367
0.385
0.404

0.390
0.397
0.404
0.411
0.419

0.259
0.264
0.269
0.274
0.279

22
24
26
28
30

0.550
0.614
0.692
0.787
0.903

0.366
0.408
0.460
0.523
0.601

0.347
0.359
0.371
0.384
0.398

0.231
0.239
0.247
0.256
0.265

0.607
0.679
0.766
0.874
1.00

0.404
0.452
0.510
0.582
0.668

0.387
0.401
0.416
0.433
0.450

0.258
0.267
0.277
0.288
0.300

0.673
0.754
0.853
0.976
1.12

0.448
0.501
0.567
0.649
0.745

0.435
0.452
0.471
0.492
0.514

0.289
0.301
0.313
0.327
0.342

32
34
36
38
40

1.03
1.16
1.30
1.45
1.61

0.683
0.772
0.865
0.964
1.07

0.414
0.430
0.448
0.467
0.492

0.275
0.286
0.298
0.311
0.327

1.14
1.29
1.45
1.61
1.78

0.760
0.858
0.962
1.07
1.19

0.470
0.490
0.513
0.544
0.580

0.312
0.326
0.342
0.362
0.386

1.27
1.44
1.61
1.80
1.99

0.848
0.957
1.07
1.20
1.33

0.538
0.565
0.603
0.646
0.690

0.358
0.376
0.401
0.430
0.459

42
44
46
48
50

1.77
1.94
2.12
2.31
2.51

1.18
1.29
1.41
1.54
1.67

0.522 0.347 1.97


1.31
0.615
0.551 0.367 2.16
1.44
0.650
0.580 0.386 2.36
1.57
0.685
0.610 0.406 2.57
1.71
0.721
0.639 0.425 2.79
1.85
0.756
Other Constants and Properties

0.409
0.433
0.456
0.479
0.503

2.20
2.41
2.63
2.87
3.11

1.46
1.60
1.75
1.91
2.07

0.733
0.776
0.818
0.861
0.904

0.487
0.516
0.544
0.573
0.601

-1

235
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.309 0.206

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.33

0.885

1.47

0.975

1.63

1.09

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.309

0.206

0.338

0.225

0.370

0.246

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.401

0.267

0.438

0.292

0.480

r y , in.

0.320

3.54

3.54

3.54

3.39

3.36

3.33

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-47

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W27

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.385 0.256

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.452 0.301

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.434 0.289

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.495 0.330

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.481 0.320

11
12
13
14
15

0.467
0.481
0.496
0.513
0.532

0.311
0.320
0.330
0.341
0.354

0.390
0.397
0.403
0.411
0.418

0.259
0.264
0.268
0.273
0.278

0.524
0.540
0.557
0.577
0.598

0.349
0.359
0.371
0.384
0.398

0.441
0.449
0.457
0.466
0.475

0.293
0.299
0.304
0.310
0.316

0.572
0.590
0.609
0.631
0.655

0.381
0.392
0.405
0.420
0.436

0.489
0.499
0.509
0.519
0.530

0.325
0.332
0.338
0.345
0.352

16
17
18
19
20

0.553
0.576
0.601
0.629
0.661

0.368
0.383
0.400
0.419
0.440

0.426
0.434
0.442
0.450
0.459

0.283
0.288
0.294
0.300
0.306

0.622
0.648
0.678
0.710
0.746

0.414
0.431
0.451
0.473
0.496

0.484
0.494
0.504
0.515
0.526

0.322
0.329
0.335
0.342
0.350

0.682
0.712
0.745
0.781
0.822

0.454
0.474
0.495
0.520
0.547

0.541
0.552
0.565
0.577
0.591

0.360
0.368
0.376
0.384
0.393

22
24
26
28
30

0.733
0.822
0.931
1.07
1.22

0.488
0.547
0.619
0.710
0.814

0.478
0.499
0.521
0.545
0.572

0.318
0.332
0.347
0.363
0.381

0.830
0.932
1.06
1.22
1.40

0.552
0.620
0.704
0.809
0.928

0.549
0.575
0.604
0.635
0.670

0.366
0.383
0.402
0.422
0.446

0.916
1.03
1.18
1.35
1.55

0.610
0.687
0.782
0.901
1.03

0.619
0.651
0.686
0.725
0.768

0.412
0.433
0.456
0.482
0.511

32
34
36
38
40

1.39
1.57
1.76
1.96
2.18

0.927
1.05
1.17
1.31
1.45

0.602
0.640
0.690
0.741
0.791

0.400
0.426
0.459
0.493
0.527

1.59
1.79
2.01
2.24
2.48

1.06
1.19
1.34
1.49
1.65

0.714
0.778
0.841
0.905
0.968

0.475
0.517
0.560
0.602
0.644

1.77
2.00
2.24
2.49
2.76

1.18
1.33
1.49
1.66
1.84

0.840
0.917
0.995
1.07
1.15

0.559
0.610
0.662
0.713
0.765

42
44
46
48
50

2.40
2.63
2.88
3.13
3.40

1.60
1.75
1.91
2.09
2.26

0.842 0.560 2.73


1.82
1.03
0.892 0.593 3.00
2.00
1.10
0.942 0.627 3.28
2.18
1.16
0.992 0.660 3.57
2.38
1.22
1.04
0.693 3.88
2.58
1.29
Other Constants and Properties

0.687
0.729
0.771
0.813
0.855

3.05
3.34
3.66
3.98
4.32

2.03
2.23
2.43
2.65
2.87

1.23
1.31
1.38
1.46
1.54

0.817
0.869
0.920
0.972
1.02

-1

178c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.402 0.268

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

194c

217
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.78

1.18

2.02

1.34

2.25

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.402

0.268

0.450

0.299

0.489

0.326

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.522

0.348

0.584

0.389

0.635

0.423

r y , in.
c

W27

1.49

3.55

3.56

3.57

3.32

3.29

3.25

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-48

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W27

W27

Shape

146c

161

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.532 0.354

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.628 0.418

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.591 0.393

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.726 0.483

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.694 0.462

11
12
13
14
15

0.641
0.658
0.678
0.700
0.725

0.426
0.438
0.451
0.466
0.482

0.543
0.554
0.566
0.578
0.590

0.361
0.369
0.376
0.384
0.393

0.720
0.740
0.762
0.787
0.814

0.479
0.492
0.507
0.523
0.542

0.604
0.617
0.631
0.645
0.66

0.402
0.411
0.420
0.429
0.439

0.966
1.02
1.09
1.18
1.28

0.643
0.681
0.726
0.783
0.850

0.788
0.814
0.842
0.873
0.905

0.524
0.542
0.560
0.581
0.602

16
17
18
19
20

0.755
0.789
0.826
0.867
0.912

0.502
0.525
0.549
0.577
0.607

0.604
0.618
0.632
0.647
0.663

0.402
0.411
0.421
0.431
0.441

0.845
0.880
0.919
0.964
1.02

0.562
0.586
0.611
0.641
0.675

0.675
0.691
0.708
0.726
0.745

0.449
0.460
0.471
0.483
0.496

1.39
1.53
1.69
1.87
2.08

0.927
1.02
1.12
1.25
1.38

0.941
0.979
1.02
1.06
1.11

0.626
0.651
0.679
0.708
0.741

22
24
26
28
30

1.02
1.15
1.31
1.51
1.74

0.678
0.765
0.872
1.01
1.16

0.698
0.736
0.778
0.826
0.895

0.464
0.489
0.518
0.550
0.596

1.14
1.28
1.47
1.70
1.95

0.756
0.855
0.977
1.13
1.30

0.786
0.831
0.882
0.939
1.04

0.523
0.553
0.587
0.625
0.695

2.51
2.99
3.51
4.07
4.67

1.67
1.99
2.33
2.71
3.11

1.28
1.46
1.64
1.82
2.00

0.850
0.969
1.09
1.21
1.33

32
34
36
38
40

1.98
2.23
2.50
2.79
3.09

1.31
1.48
1.66
1.85
2.05

0.987
1.08
1.17
1.27
1.36

0.657
0.719
0.781
0.844
0.907

2.22
2.50
2.81
3.13
3.47

1.48
1.67
1.87
2.08
2.31

1.16
1.27
1.38
1.50
1.61

0.769
0.843
0.919
0.995
1.07

5.31
6.00
6.73

3.54
3.99
4.47

2.18
2.36
2.54

1.45
1.57
1.69

42
44
46
48
50

3.40
3.73
4.08
4.44
4.82

2.26
2.48
2.72
2.96
3.21

1.46
0.970 3.82
2.54
1.73
1.55
1.03
4.19
2.79
1.84
1.65
1.10
4.58
3.05
1.96
1.74
1.16
4.99
3.32
2.07
1.84
1.22
5.41
3.60
2.19
Other Constants and Properties

-1

129c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.558 0.371

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

1.15
1.23
1.30
1.38
1.46

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.51

1.67

2.81

1.87

4.76

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.540

0.359

0.595

0.396

0.680

0.452

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.700

0.467

0.772

0.514

0.882

0.588

r y , in.

3.17

3.56

3.59

5.07

3.23

3.20

2.21

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-49

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W27

Shape

102c

114

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.799 0.532

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.965 0.642

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.899 0.598

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.07
0.711

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.986 0.656

11
12
13
14
15

1.11
1.18
1.26
1.35
1.46

0.740
0.784
0.836
0.898
0.973

0.917
0.950
0.986
1.02
1.07

0.610
0.632
0.656
0.681
0.709

1.28
1.36
1.45
1.55
1.68

0.852
0.903
0.963
1.03
1.12

1.04
1.08
1.12
1.17
1.22

0.692
0.718
0.746
0.777
0.810

1.42
1.51
1.61
1.73
1.87

0.945
1.00
1.07
1.15
1.24

1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.36

0.766
0.797
0.829
0.865
0.904

16
17
18
19
20

1.60
1.76
1.94
2.17
2.40

1.06
1.17
1.29
1.44
1.60

1.11
1.16
1.21
1.27
1.35

0.739
0.771
0.807
0.846
0.900

1.83
2.02
2.24
2.49
2.76

1.22
1.34
1.49
1.66
1.84

1.27
1.33
1.39
1.47
1.60

0.846
0.885
0.928
0.976
1.07

2.04
2.25
2.50
2.79
3.09

1.36
1.49
1.66
1.86
2.06

1.42
1.49
1.57
1.69
1.84

0.946
0.993
1.04
1.12
1.23

22
24
26
28
30

2.90
3.46
4.06
4.70
5.40

1.93
2.30
2.70
3.13
3.59

1.58
1.80
2.04
2.27
2.51

1.05
1.20
1.36
1.51
1.67

3.34
3.98
4.67
5.42
6.22

2.22
2.65
3.11
3.60
4.14

1.87
2.15
2.44
2.74
3.03

1.25
1.43
1.63
1.82
2.02

3.74
4.45
5.22
6.06
6.95

2.49
2.96
3.47
4.03
4.62

2.16
2.50
2.84
3.19
3.54

1.44
1.66
1.89
2.12
2.36

32
34
36

6.14
6.94
7.78

4.09
4.61
5.17

2.75
2.99
3.23

1.83
1.99
2.15

7.07
7.99

4.71
5.31

3.33
3.63

2.22
2.42

7.91
8.93

5.26
5.94

3.90
4.26

2.59
2.83

-1

94c,v
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.836 0.556

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W27

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

5.56

3.70

6.31

4.20

7.06

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.765

0.509

0.856

0.570

0.931

0.619

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.992

0.661

1.11

0.741

1.21

0.805

r y , in.

4.70

5.05

5.12

5.14

2.18

2.15

2.12

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-50

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W27-W24

W24

W27

Shape

c,v

b x 10

p 10

-1

335h

370

84
3

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.236 0.157

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.243 0.161

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.261 0.174

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.269 0.179

11
12
13
14
15

1.64
1.74
1.86
2.00
2.17

1.09
1.16
1.23
1.33
1.44

1.33
1.39
1.45
1.51
1.58

0.885
0.922
0.962
1.01
1.05

0.275
0.283
0.293
0.303
0.314

0.183
0.189
0.195
0.202
0.209

0.245
0.247
0.249
0.252
0.254

0.163
0.164
0.166
0.167
0.169

0.306
0.316
0.326
0.338
0.351

0.204
0.210
0.217
0.225
0.234

0.271
0.274
0.277
0.280
0.283

0.181
0.183
0.185
0.187
0.189

16
17
18
19
20

2.37
2.62
2.93
3.27
3.62

1.58
1.75
1.95
2.17
2.41

1.66
1.75
1.86
2.05
2.24

1.11
1.16
1.24
1.36
1.49

0.327
0.341
0.357
0.374
0.393

0.218
0.227
0.237
0.249
0.262

0.257
0.259
0.262
0.264
0.267

0.171
0.172
0.174
0.176
0.178

0.366
0.382
0.400
0.420
0.442

0.243
0.254
0.266
0.279
0.294

0.287
0.290
0.293
0.296
0.300

0.191
0.193
0.195
0.197
0.199

22
24
26
28
30

4.38
5.21
6.12
7.10
8.15

2.91
3.47
4.07
4.72
5.42

2.64
3.06
3.49
3.93
4.38

1.76
2.04
2.32
2.62
2.92

0.438
0.493
0.560
0.644
0.740

0.291
0.328
0.373
0.429
0.492

0.273
0.279
0.285
0.291
0.298

0.181
0.185
0.189
0.194
0.198

0.493
0.556
0.634
0.732
0.841

0.328
0.370
0.422
0.487
0.559

0.307
0.314
0.322
0.330
0.339

0.204
0.209
0.214
0.220
0.226

32
34
36
38
40

9.27
10.5

6.17
6.96

4.84
5.31

3.22
3.53

0.842
0.950
1.07
1.19
1.32

0.560
0.632
0.709
0.790
0.875

0.305
0.312
0.320
0.328
0.336

0.203
0.208
0.213
0.218
0.224

0.957
1.08
1.21
1.35
1.49

0.636
0.718
0.806
0.897
0.994

0.348
0.358
0.368
0.379
0.390

0.232
0.238
0.245
0.252
0.260

1.45
0.965 0.345
1.59
1.06
0.354
1.74
1.16
0.364
1.89
1.26
0.375
2.05
1.37
0.386
Other Constants and Properties

0.230
0.236
0.242
0.249
0.257

1.65
1.81
1.98
2.15
2.34

1.10
1.20
1.32
1.43
1.55

0.402
0.415
0.429
0.444
0.461

0.268
0.276
0.285
0.295
0.307

42
44
46
48
50

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.12
0.747

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.23
0.816

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

8.25

5.49

1.03

0.683

1.15

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.04

0.692

0.236

0.157

0.261

0.174

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.35

0.900

0.306

0.204

0.339

0.226

r y , in.

0.766

5.17

3.39

3.41

2.07

3.27

3.23

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.
Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-51

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W24

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.297 0.198

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.314 0.209

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.328 0.218

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.350 0.233

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.368 0.245

11
12
13
14
15

0.337
0.347
0.359
0.372
0.387

0.224
0.231
0.239
0.248
0.257

0.301
0.304
0.308
0.312
0.315

0.200
0.203
0.205
0.207
0.210

0.370
0.382
0.395
0.410
0.426

0.246
0.254
0.263
0.273
0.284

0.333
0.337
0.342
0.346
0.351

0.222
0.224
0.227
0.230
0.233

0.413
0.427
0.442
0.459
0.478

0.275
0.284
0.294
0.305
0.318

0.375
0.380
0.385
0.391
0.397

0.249
0.253
0.256
0.260
0.264

16
17
18
19
20

0.403
0.421
0.442
0.464
0.489

0.268
0.280
0.294
0.309
0.325

0.319
0.323
0.327
0.331
0.335

0.212
0.215
0.218
0.220
0.223

0.445
0.465
0.488
0.513
0.541

0.296
0.309
0.325
0.341
0.360

0.355
0.360
0.365
0.370
0.375

0.236
0.240
0.243
0.246
0.250

0.499
0.522
0.548
0.577
0.609

0.332
0.347
0.365
0.384
0.405

0.403
0.409
0.415
0.422
0.428

0.268
0.272
0.276
0.280
0.285

22
24
26
28
30

0.547
0.619
0.707
0.818
0.939

0.364
0.412
0.470
0.544
0.625

0.344
0.354
0.363
0.374
0.385

0.229
0.235
0.242
0.249
0.256

0.606
0.687
0.788
0.913
1.05

0.404
0.457
0.524
0.607
0.697

0.386
0.398
0.410
0.423
0.437

0.257
0.265
0.273
0.281
0.291

0.684
0.778
0.893
1.04
1.19

0.455
0.517
0.594
0.690
0.792

0.442
0.457
0.473
0.490
0.509

0.294
0.304
0.315
0.326
0.338

32
34
36
38
40

1.07
1.21
1.35
1.51
1.67

0.711
0.802
0.899
1.00
1.11

0.396
0.408
0.421
0.435
0.450

0.264
0.272
0.280
0.290
0.300

1.19
1.35
1.51
1.68
1.86

0.793
0.895
1.00
1.12
1.24

0.452
0.468
0.485
0.503
0.523

0.301
0.311
0.322
0.335
0.348

1.35
1.53
1.71
1.91
2.12

0.901
1.02
1.14
1.27
1.41

0.528
0.550
0.573
0.599
0.633

0.352
0.366
0.381
0.398
0.421

42
44
46
48
50

1.84
2.02
2.21
2.40
2.61

1.22
1.34
1.47
1.60
1.73

0.466 0.310 2.05


1.37
0.544
0.483 0.322 2.25
1.50
0.574
0.504 0.335 2.46
1.64
0.603
0.528 0.351 2.68
1.78
0.631
0.552 0.367 2.91
1.94
0.660
Other Constants and Properties

0.362
0.382
0.401
0.420
0.439

2.33
2.56
2.80
3.05
3.31

1.55
1.70
1.86
2.03
2.20

0.669
0.706
0.742
0.778
0.814

0.445
0.469
0.494
0.518
0.541

-1

250
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.286 0.191

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

279h

306
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.28

0.852

1.42

0.945

1.60

1.07

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.286

0.191

0.314

0.209

0.350

0.233

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.372

0.248

0.407

0.271

0.454

r y , in.
h

W24

0.302

3.41

3.41

3.41

3.20

3.17

3.14

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-52

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W24

W24

Shape

229

207
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.406 0.270

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.423 0.282

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.452 0.301

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.455 0.303

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.490 0.326

11
12
13
14
15

0.454
0.469
0.486
0.505
0.526

0.302
0.312
0.323
0.336
0.350

0.414
0.421
0.427
0.434
0.441

0.276
0.280
0.284
0.289
0.293

0.504
0.521
0.540
0.562
0.586

0.335
0.347
0.359
0.374
0.390

0.463
0.471
0.479
0.487
0.496

0.308
0.313
0.319
0.324
0.330

0.542
0.561
0.581
0.604
0.630

0.361
0.373
0.387
0.402
0.419

0.503
0.512
0.521
0.531
0.541

0.335
0.341
0.347
0.353
0.360

16
17
18
19
20

0.549
0.576
0.605
0.637
0.673

0.365
0.383
0.402
0.424
0.448

0.448
0.455
0.463
0.471
0.479

0.298
0.303
0.308
0.313
0.319

0.612
0.642
0.676
0.713
0.754

0.407
0.427
0.449
0.474
0.502

0.505
0.514
0.523
0.533
0.544

0.336
0.342
0.348
0.355
0.362

0.660
0.692
0.728
0.768
0.813

0.439
0.460
0.484
0.511
0.541

0.551
0.562
0.573
0.584
0.596

0.367
0.374
0.381
0.389
0.397

22
24
26
28
30

0.758
0.864
0.996
1.16
1.33

0.505
0.575
0.663
0.769
0.883

0.497
0.515
0.535
0.557
0.580

0.330
0.343
0.356
0.370
0.386

0.851
0.972
1.12
1.30
1.50

0.566
0.647
0.748
0.868
0.996

0.565
0.589
0.615
0.643
0.674

0.376
0.392
0.409
0.428
0.448

0.918
1.05
1.22
1.41
1.62

0.611
0.698
0.809
0.938
1.08

0.622
0.650
0.681
0.715
0.752

0.414
0.433
0.453
0.475
0.500

32
34
36
38
40

1.51
1.70
1.91
2.13
2.36

1.00
1.13
1.27
1.42
1.57

0.606
0.634
0.664
0.708
0.752

0.403
0.422
0.442
0.471
0.501

1.70
1.92
2.16
2.40
2.66

1.13
1.28
1.43
1.60
1.77

0.708
0.748
0.803
0.857
0.912

0.471
0.497
0.534
0.571
0.607

1.84
2.08
2.33
2.60
2.88

1.23
1.38
1.55
1.73
1.92

0.793
0.856
0.920
0.984
1.05

0.528
0.569
0.612
0.655
0.697

42
44
46
48
50

2.60
2.85
3.12
3.40
3.68

1.73
1.90
2.08
2.26
2.45

0.796 0.530 2.93


1.95
0.967
0.840 0.559 3.22
2.14
1.02
0.884 0.588 3.52
2.34
1.07
0.928 0.617 3.83
2.55
1.13
0.971 0.646 4.16
2.77
1.18
Other Constants and Properties

0.643
0.679
0.715
0.751
0.787

3.17
3.48
3.81
4.15
4.50

2.11
2.32
2.53
2.76
2.99

1.11
1.17
1.24
1.30
1.36

0.740
0.782
0.824
0.866
0.908

-1

192
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.382 0.254

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.78

1.18

2.00

1.33

2.18

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.382

0.254

0.423

0.282

0.455

0.303

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.496

0.331

0.549

0.366

0.590

0.393

r y , in.

1.45

3.44

3.44

3.42

3.11

3.08

3.07

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-53

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W24

Shape

176
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.536 0.357

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.537 0.358

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.586 0.390

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.606 0.403

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.656 0.436

11
12
13
14
15

0.594
0.615
0.638
0.664
0.693

0.396
0.409
0.425
0.442
0.461

0.552
0.563
0.573
0.585
0.597

0.367
0.374
0.382
0.389
0.397

0.642
0.664
0.689
0.717
0.748

0.427
0.442
0.459
0.477
0.498

0.603
0.615
0.628
0.641
0.655

0.401
0.409
0.418
0.426
0.436

0.717
0.743
0.771
0.803
0.839

0.477
0.494
0.513
0.535
0.558

0.679
0.693
0.708
0.724
0.740

0.452
0.461
0.471
0.482
0.493

16
17
18
19
20

0.726
0.762
0.803
0.848
0.899

0.483
0.507
0.534
0.564
0.598

0.609
0.622
0.635
0.649
0.663

0.405
0.414
0.422
0.432
0.441

0.783
0.822
0.866
0.914
0.968

0.521
0.547
0.576
0.608
0.644

0.669
0.684
0.699
0.715
0.732

0.445
0.455
0.465
0.476
0.487

0.880
0.925
0.975
1.03
1.09

0.585
0.615
0.649
0.686
0.727

0.758
0.776
0.795
0.815
0.836

0.504
0.516
0.529
0.542
0.556

22
24
26
28
30

1.02
1.17
1.36
1.57
1.80

0.677
0.776
0.902
1.05
1.20

0.695
0.729
0.766
0.808
0.855

0.462
0.485
0.510
0.538
0.569

1.10
1.25
1.46
1.69
1.94

0.729
0.835
0.969
1.12
1.29

0.769
0.809
0.854
0.904
0.969

0.512
0.538
0.568
0.602
0.645

1.24
1.43
1.66
1.93
2.21

0.826
0.949
1.11
1.28
1.47

0.881
0.931
0.988
1.05
1.17

0.586
0.620
0.657
0.700
0.775

32
34
36
38
40

2.05
2.32
2.60
2.90
3.21

1.37
1.54
1.73
1.93
2.13

0.923
1.00
1.08
1.15
1.23

0.614
0.665
0.716
0.767
0.818

2.21
2.49
2.79
3.11
3.45

1.47
1.66
1.86
2.07
2.29

1.06
1.15
1.24
1.33
1.42

0.705
0.765
0.826
0.886
0.947

2.52
2.84
3.19
3.55
3.93

1.68
1.89
2.12
2.36
2.62

1.28
1.39
1.50
1.62
1.73

0.850
0.926
1.00
1.08
1.15

42
44
46
48
50

3.54
3.88
4.24
4.62
5.01

2.35
2.58
2.82
3.07
3.34

1.31
0.869 3.80
2.53
1.51
1.38
0.920 4.17
2.78
1.60
1.46
0.970 4.56
3.03
1.69
1.53
1.02
4.96
3.30
1.78
1.61
1.07
5.39
3.58
1.87
Other Constants and Properties

1.01
1.07
1.13
1.19
1.25

4.34
4.76
5.20
5.67
6.15

2.89
3.17
3.46
3.77
4.09

1.85
1.96
2.07
2.19
2.30

1.23
1.30
1.38
1.45
1.53

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.497 0.331

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

146c

162
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.38

1.59

2.61

1.74

2.94

1.96

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.497

0.331

0.537

0.358

0.597

0.398

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.645

0.430

0.697

0.465

0.775

r y , in.
c

W24

0.517

3.45

3.41

3.42

3.04

3.05

3.01

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-54

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W24

W24

Shape

117c

131

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.741 0.493

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.789 0.525

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.838 0.558

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.905 0.602

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.961 0.640

11
12
13
14
15

0.809
0.835
0.865
0.902
0.944

0.538
0.556
0.576
0.600
0.628

0.770
0.788
0.806
0.826
0.846

0.513
0.524
0.537
0.549
0.563

0.928
0.958
0.992
1.03
1.07

0.618
0.638
0.660
0.686
0.715

0.875
0.897
0.919
0.942
0.967

0.582
0.597
0.611
0.627
0.643

1.06
1.10
1.14
1.18
1.23

0.708
0.731
0.757
0.786
0.819

0.995
1.02
1.05
1.07
1.10

0.662
0.679
0.696
0.715
0.735

16
17
18
19
20

0.990
1.04
1.10
1.17
1.24

0.659
0.693
0.732
0.775
0.824

0.867
0.890
0.913
0.938
0.964

0.577
0.592
0.607
0.624
0.641

1.12
1.18
1.25
1.32
1.41

0.748
0.785
0.830
0.880
0.936

0.993
1.02
1.05
1.08
1.11

0.660
0.679
0.698
0.718
0.740

1.29
1.35
1.42
1.50
1.60

0.857
0.899
0.947
1.00
1.06

1.14
1.17
1.20
1.24
1.28

0.755
0.777
0.801
0.826
0.852

22
24
26
28
30

1.41
1.63
1.90
2.21
2.53

0.938
1.08
1.27
1.47
1.68

1.02
1.09
1.16
1.28
1.42

0.679
0.722
0.770
0.849
0.942

1.61
1.86
2.18
2.53
2.90

1.07
1.24
1.45
1.68
1.93

1.18
1.26
1.36
1.54
1.71

0.787
0.840
0.908
1.02
1.14

1.83
2.12
2.49
2.89
3.32

1.22
1.41
1.66
1.92
2.21

1.37
1.47
1.64
1.85
2.06

0.910
0.976
1.09
1.23
1.37

32
34
36
38
40

2.88
3.25
3.65
4.06
4.50

1.92
2.16
2.43
2.70
3.00

1.56
1.70
1.84
1.99
2.13

1.04
1.13
1.23
1.32
1.42

3.30
3.72
4.18
4.65
5.16

2.20
2.48
2.78
3.10
3.43

1.89
2.07
2.25
2.43
2.62

1.26
1.38
1.50
1.62
1.74

3.77
4.26
4.78
5.32
5.90

2.51
2.83
3.18
3.54
3.92

2.29
2.51
2.74
2.97
3.20

1.52
1.67
1.82
1.98
2.13

42
44
46
48

4.96
5.45
5.95
6.48

3.30
3.62
3.96
4.31

2.28
2.42
2.57
2.71

1.52
1.61
1.71
1.80

5.68
6.24
6.82
7.42

3.78
4.15
4.54
4.94

2.80
2.98
3.17
3.35

1.86
1.99
2.11
2.23

6.50
7.13
7.80
8.49

4.33
4.75
5.19
5.65

3.44
3.67
3.91
4.14

2.29
2.44
2.60
2.76

-1

104c,f
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.687 0.457

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

3.36

2.24

3.84

2.55

4.48

2.98

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.666

0.443

0.747

0.497

0.837

0.557

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.864

0.576

0.969

0.646

1.09

r y , in.
c

0.724

3.43

3.44

3.47

2.97

2.94

2.91

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-55

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W24

Shape

94c

103

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

84c
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.903 0.601

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.979 0.651

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.01
0.670

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.08
0.718

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.16
0.773

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.22
0.814

11
12
13
14
15

1.29
1.39
1.52
1.67
1.85

0.860
0.928
1.01
1.11
1.23

1.16
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.36

0.769
0.799
0.831
0.866
0.904

1.43
1.54
1.67
1.84
2.03

0.954
1.03
1.11
1.22
1.35

1.28
1.34
1.39
1.45
1.52

0.854
0.888
0.926
0.967
1.01

1.65
1.78
1.93
2.11
2.34

1.10
1.18
1.28
1.41
1.56

1.48
1.54
1.61
1.69
1.77

0.982
1.02
1.07
1.12
1.18

16
17
18
19
20

2.05
2.31
2.59
2.88
3.19

1.37
1.54
1.72
1.92
2.12

1.42
1.49
1.57
1.68
1.82

0.946
0.991
1.04
1.12
1.21

2.27
2.55
2.86
3.18
3.53

1.51
1.70
1.90
2.12
2.35

1.59
1.67
1.76
1.93
2.10

1.06
1.11
1.17
1.29
1.39

2.61
2.95
3.30
3.68
4.08

1.74
1.96
2.20
2.45
2.71

1.86
1.96
2.14
2.33
2.54

1.24
1.31
1.42
1.55
1.69

22
24
26
28
30

3.86
4.60
5.40
6.26
7.19

2.57
3.06
3.59
4.16
4.78

2.09
2.37
2.65
2.94
3.22

1.39
1.58
1.77
1.95
2.14

4.27
5.08
5.96
6.92
7.94

2.84
3.38
3.97
4.60
5.28

2.43
2.76
3.10
3.44
3.79

1.61
1.84
2.06
2.29
2.52

4.94
5.88
6.90
8.00
9.18

3.28
3.91
4.59
5.32
6.11

2.95
3.37
3.80
4.24
4.67

1.96
2.24
2.53
2.82
3.11

32

8.18

5.44

3.50

2.33

9.03

6.01

4.13

2.75

6.95

5.11

3.40

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W24

10.4

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

6.60

4.39

7.31

4.86

8.41

5.59

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.848

0.564

0.928

0.617

1.04

0.692

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.10

0.733

1.20

0.802

1.35

r y , in.

0.900

5.03

4.98

5.02

1.99

1.98

1.95

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-56

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W24

W24

Shape

c,v

68c,v

76

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

62c,v
3

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.31
0.872

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.37
0.912

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.50
0.996

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.55
1.03

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.67
1.11

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.79
1.19

6
7
8
9
10

1.45
1.50
1.57
1.65
1.75

0.963
1.00
1.04
1.10
1.16

1.37
1.42
1.48
1.54
1.60

0.913
0.947
0.984
1.02
1.07

1.66
1.72
1.80
1.90
2.01

1.10
1.15
1.20
1.26
1.34

1.56
1.62
1.69
1.76
1.84

1.04
1.08
1.12
1.17
1.22

2.01
2.16
2.35
2.60
2.93

1.34
1.43
1.56
1.73
1.95

1.96
2.07
2.19
2.33
2.50

1.30
1.38
1.46
1.55
1.66

11
12
13
14
15

1.87
2.01
2.18
2.39
2.65

1.24
1.34
1.45
1.59
1.76

1.67
1.75
1.83
1.92
2.02

1.11
1.16
1.22
1.28
1.35

2.15
2.32
2.53
2.78
3.09

1.43
1.54
1.68
1.85
2.06

1.92
2.02
2.12
2.24
2.37

1.28
1.34
1.41
1.49
1.57

3.37
3.98
4.67
5.42
6.22

2.25
2.65
3.11
3.60
4.14

2.68
2.89
3.25
3.69
4.15

1.78
1.93
2.16
2.46
2.76

16
17
18
19
20

2.97
3.35
3.76
4.19
4.64

1.98
2.23
2.50
2.79
3.09

2.14
2.30
2.53
2.77
3.02

1.42
1.53
1.68
1.85
2.01

3.49
3.94
4.42
4.92
5.45

2.32
2.62
2.94
3.27
3.63

2.51
2.76
3.05
3.35
3.66

1.67
1.84
2.03
2.23
2.43

7.08
7.99
8.96
9.98
11.1

4.71
5.31
5.96
6.64
7.36

4.62
5.11
5.60
6.10
6.61

3.08
3.40
3.72
4.06
4.40

22
24
26
28
30

5.62
6.68
7.84
9.10
10.4

3.74
4.45
5.22
6.05
6.95

3.53
4.05
4.58
5.12
5.66

2.35
2.69
3.05
3.41
3.77

6.60
7.85
9.21
10.7
12.3

4.39
5.22
6.13
7.11
8.16

4.29
4.94
5.61
6.30
6.99

2.85
3.29
3.74
4.19
4.65

13.4

8.90

7.64

5.08

32

11.9

7.90

6.21

4.13

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

9.58

6.38

11.20

7.44

17.50

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.15

0.763

1.28

0.850

1.41

0.939

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.49

0.992

1.66

1.11

1.83

1.22

r y , in.

11.60

5.05

5.11

6.69

1.92

1.87

1.38

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-57

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W21

W24

Shape

c,v

201

55

b x 10

p 10

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.433 0.288

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.517 0.344

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.479 0.319

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.576 0.383

6
7
8
9
10

2.35
2.52
2.75
3.06
3.46

1.56
1.68
1.83
2.03
2.30

2.26
2.40
2.55
2.73
2.93

1.50
1.59
1.70
1.81
1.95

0.457
0.466
0.477
0.489
0.503

0.304
0.310
0.317
0.326
0.335

0.517
0.517
0.517
0.517
0.522

0.344
0.344
0.344
0.344
0.347

0.506
0.516
0.528
0.542
0.558

0.337
0.344
0.352
0.361
0.371

0.576
0.576
0.576
0.576
0.582

0.383
0.383
0.383
0.383
0.387

11
12
13
14
15

4.00
4.74
5.57
6.46
7.41

2.66
3.16
3.70
4.29
4.93

3.16
3.43
3.96
4.51
5.08

2.10
2.28
2.63
3.00
3.38

0.520
0.538
0.558
0.581
0.607

0.346
0.358
0.371
0.387
0.404

0.530
0.537
0.545
0.554
0.562

0.352
0.358
0.363
0.368
0.374

0.576
0.597
0.620
0.646
0.675

0.383
0.397
0.412
0.430
0.449

0.591
0.601
0.611
0.621
0.632

0.394
0.400
0.406
0.413
0.420

16
17
18
19
20

8.43
9.52
10.7
11.9
13.2

5.61
6.33
7.10
7.91
8.77

5.68
6.29
6.91
7.55
8.20

3.78
4.18
4.60
5.02
5.46

0.636
0.669
0.705
0.745
0.790

0.423
0.445
0.469
0.496
0.525

0.571
0.581
0.590
0.600
0.610

0.380
0.386
0.393
0.399
0.406

0.707
0.744
0.785
0.830
0.881

0.471
0.495
0.522
0.552
0.586

0.643
0.654
0.666
0.678
0.691

0.428
0.435
0.443
0.451
0.459

22
24
26
28
30

15.9

9.52

6.34

0.896
1.03
1.20
1.39
1.59

0.596
0.684
0.797
0.924
1.06

0.631
0.654
0.679
0.705
0.734

0.420
0.435
0.452
0.469
0.488

1.00
1.15
1.34
1.56
1.79

0.666
0.766
0.893
1.04
1.19

0.717
0.746
0.777
0.811
0.849

0.477
0.496
0.517
0.540
0.565

1.81
1.21
0.765
2.05
1.36
0.799
2.30
1.53
0.836
2.56
1.70
0.885
2.83
1.89
0.939
Other Constants and Properties

0.509
0.531
0.556
0.589
0.625

2.03
2.30
2.57
2.87
3.18

1.35
1.53
1.71
1.91
2.11

0.889
0.934
1.00
1.07
1.13

0.592
0.622
0.666
0.710
0.754

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.06

1.37

2.30

1.53

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.59

1.06

0.433

0.288

0.479

0.319

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.06

1.37

0.562

0.375

0.622

r y , in.

20.6

13.7

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.05
1.36

32
34
36
38
40

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.95
1.30

10.6

-1

182
3

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W24-W21

0.415

6.80

3.14

3.13

1.34

3.02

3.00

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-58

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W21

W21

Shape

166

147
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.634 0.422

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.595 0.396

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.735 0.489

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.662 0.441

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.823 0.548

6
7
8
9
10

0.556
0.567
0.581
0.596
0.614

0.370
0.378
0.386
0.397
0.408

0.634
0.634
0.634
0.634
0.642

0.422
0.422
0.422
0.422
0.427

0.629
0.642
0.658
0.676
0.696

0.419
0.427
0.438
0.449
0.463

0.735
0.735
0.735
0.735
0.747

0.489
0.489
0.489
0.489
0.497

0.701
0.716
0.733
0.753
0.777

0.467
0.476
0.488
0.501
0.517

0.823
0.823
0.823
0.823
0.838

0.548
0.548
0.548
0.548
0.558

11
12
13
14
15

0.634
0.656
0.682
0.711
0.743

0.422
0.437
0.454
0.473
0.494

0.653
0.665
0.677
0.689
0.702

0.435
0.442
0.450
0.458
0.467

0.719
0.746
0.776
0.809
0.847

0.479
0.496
0.516
0.539
0.564

0.761
0.776
0.792
0.808
0.825

0.506
0.516
0.527
0.537
0.549

0.803
0.833
0.867
0.905
0.948

0.534
0.554
0.577
0.602
0.631

0.856
0.874
0.892
0.912
0.933

0.569
0.581
0.594
0.607
0.621

16
17
18
19
20

0.779
0.819
0.865
0.915
0.971

0.518
0.545
0.575
0.609
0.646

0.715
0.729
0.743
0.758
0.774

0.476
0.485
0.494
0.504
0.515

0.890
0.937
0.990
1.05
1.12

0.592
0.623
0.659
0.698
0.742

0.842
0.861
0.880
0.900
0.921

0.560
0.573
0.585
0.599
0.613

0.996
1.05
1.11
1.18
1.25

0.663
0.698
0.739
0.783
0.834

0.954
0.977
1.00
1.02
1.05

0.635
0.650
0.665
0.682
0.699

22
24
26
28
30

1.10
1.27
1.48
1.72
1.98

0.735
0.846
0.988
1.15
1.31

0.806
0.842
0.882
0.925
0.972

0.537
0.560
0.587
0.615
0.647

1.27
1.47
1.72
2.00
2.29

0.847
0.979
1.15
1.33
1.53

0.966
1.02
1.07
1.13
1.21

0.643
0.676
0.712
0.753
0.803

1.43
1.66
1.94
2.25
2.59

0.953
1.10
1.29
1.50
1.72

1.11
1.17
1.24
1.32
1.45

0.737
0.778
0.825
0.877
0.962

32
34
36
38
40

2.25
2.54
2.85
3.17
3.51

1.50
1.69
1.89
2.11
2.34

1.02
0.682 2.61
1.74
1.31
1.10
0.735 2.95
1.96
1.42
1.18
0.788 3.30
2.20
1.53
1.26
0.842 3.68
2.45
1.64
1.34
0.895 4.08
2.71
1.75
Other Constants and Properties

0.875
0.947
1.02
1.09
1.16

2.95
3.32
3.73
4.15
4.60

1.96
2.21
2.48
2.76
3.06

1.58
1.71
1.85
1.98
2.12

1.05
1.14
1.23
1.32
1.41

-1

132
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.526 0.350

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.54

1.69

2.96

1.97

3.33

2.22

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.526

0.350

0.595

0.396

0.662

0.441

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.683

0.455

0.772

0.514

0.859

r y , in.

0.573

3.13

3.11

3.11

2.99

2.95

2.93

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-59

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W21

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.893 0.594

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.804 0.535

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.982 0.654

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.898 0.597

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.08
0.721

6
7
8
9
10

0.758
0.774
0.793
0.815
0.840

0.504
0.515
0.528
0.542
0.559

0.893
0.893
0.893
0.893
0.911

0.594
0.594
0.594
0.594
0.606

0.846
0.862
0.881
0.903
0.927

0.563
0.574
0.586
0.601
0.617

0.982
0.982
0.982
0.983
1.00

0.654
0.654
0.654
0.654
0.668

0.944
0.962
0.983
1.01
1.03

0.628
0.640
0.654
0.670
0.689

1.08
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.11

0.721
0.721
0.721
0.722
0.738

11
12
13
14
15

0.869
0.902
0.939
0.980
1.03

0.578
0.600
0.625
0.652
0.683

0.930
0.951
0.973
0.995
1.02

0.619
0.633
0.647
0.662
0.678

0.960
0.996
1.04
1.08
1.14

0.638
0.663
0.690
0.721
0.756

1.03
1.05
1.08
1.10
1.13

0.684
0.700
0.716
0.734
0.752

1.07
1.10
1.15
1.19
1.25

0.710
0.734
0.762
0.794
0.829

1.14
1.16
1.19
1.22
1.25

0.756
0.774
0.793
0.814
0.835

16
17
18
19
20

1.08
1.14
1.20
1.28
1.36

0.718
0.757
0.801
0.850
0.905

1.04
1.07
1.10
1.13
1.16

0.694
0.712
0.730
0.749
0.769

1.20
1.26
1.34
1.42
1.51

0.795
0.839
0.888
0.944
1.01

1.16
1.19
1.22
1.26
1.29

0.772
0.792
0.813
0.836
0.860

1.31
1.38
1.47
1.56
1.66

0.873
0.921
0.976
1.04
1.10

1.29
1.32
1.36
1.40
1.44

0.857
0.881
0.906
0.933
0.961

22
24
26
28
30

1.56
1.80
2.12
2.45
2.82

1.04
1.20
1.41
1.63
1.87

1.22
1.30
1.38
1.50
1.65

0.813
0.862
0.917
0.996
1.10

1.73
2.01
2.36
2.74
3.14

1.15
1.34
1.57
1.82
2.09

1.37
1.46
1.56
1.74
1.93

0.912
0.972
1.04
1.16
1.28

1.91
2.22
2.60
3.02
3.46

1.27
1.48
1.73
2.01
2.30

1.54
1.64
1.80
2.01
2.24

1.02
1.09
1.19
1.34
1.49

32
34
36
38
40

3.20
3.62
4.06
4.52
5.01

2.13
2.41
2.70
3.01
3.33

1.81
1.20
3.58
2.38
2.12
1.97
1.31
4.04
2.69
2.31
2.12
1.41
4.53
3.01
2.50
2.28
1.52
5.05
3.36
2.69
2.44
1.62
5.59
3.72
2.88
Other Constants and Properties

1.41
1.53
1.66
1.79
1.91

3.94
4.45
4.99
5.56
6.16

2.62
2.96
3.32
3.70
4.10

2.46
2.69
2.92
3.14
3.37

1.64
1.79
1.94
2.09
2.24

-1

101c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.716 0.476

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

111c

122
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

3.63

2.41

4.02

2.67

4.44

2.96

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.716

0.476

0.788

0.524

0.862

0.574

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.929

0.619

1.02

0.682

1.12

r y , in.
c

W21

0.746

3.11

3.12

3.12

2.92

2.90

2.89

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-60

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W21

W21

Shape

83c

93

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

73c
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.950 0.632

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.24
0.825

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.10
0.731

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.40
0.930

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.29
0.859

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.59
1.06

6
7
8
9
10

1.09
1.15
1.22
1.31
1.41

0.724
0.763
0.811
0.869
0.938

1.25
1.29
1.34
1.39
1.44

0.833
0.861
0.891
0.924
0.959

1.24
1.30
1.37
1.47
1.58

0.827
0.866
0.914
0.976
1.05

1.41
1.47
1.52
1.58
1.64

0.941
0.975
1.01
1.05
1.09

1.46
1.52
1.61
1.71
1.84

0.970
1.01
1.07
1.14
1.22

1.62
1.68
1.74
1.82
1.89

1.08
1.12
1.16
1.21
1.26

11
12
13
14
15

1.53
1.68
1.86
2.08
2.34

1.02
1.12
1.24
1.38
1.56

1.50
1.56
1.62
1.70
1.77

0.996
1.04
1.08
1.13
1.18

1.73
1.90
2.10
2.35
2.64

1.15
1.26
1.40
1.56
1.76

1.71
1.79
1.87
1.96
2.06

1.14
1.19
1.24
1.30
1.37

1.99
2.18
2.42
2.71
3.06

1.32
1.45
1.61
1.80
2.04

1.98
2.07
2.17
2.28
2.41

1.32
1.38
1.45
1.52
1.60

16
17
18
19
20

2.65
3.00
3.36
3.74
4.15

1.77
1.99
2.23
2.49
2.76

1.86
1.96
2.08
2.25
2.42

1.24
1.30
1.38
1.50
1.61

3.00
3.39
3.80
4.23
4.69

2.00
2.25
2.53
2.82
3.12

2.17
2.29
2.51
2.72
2.94

1.44
1.52
1.67
1.81
1.96

3.48
3.93
4.41
4.91
5.44

2.32
2.62
2.93
3.27
3.62

2.55
2.78
3.04
3.31
3.58

1.70
1.85
2.02
2.20
2.38

22
24
26
28
30

5.02
5.97
7.01
8.13
9.33

3.34
3.97
4.66
5.41
6.21

2.77
3.12
3.46
3.81
4.16

1.84
2.07
2.30
2.54
2.77

5.67
6.75
7.93
9.19
10.6

3.78
4.49
5.27
6.12
7.02

3.37
3.81
4.25
4.69
5.13

2.24
2.53
2.83
3.12
3.41

6.58
7.83
9.19
10.7
12.2

4.38
5.21
6.12
7.09
8.14

4.13
4.68
5.24
5.81
6.37

2.75
3.12
3.49
3.86
4.24

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

7.90

5.25

8.99

5.98

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.941

0.626

1.05

0.701

1.19

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.22

0.814

1.37

0.911

1.55

r y , in.

10.3

6.85
0.795
1.03

4.73

4.74

4.77

1.84

1.83

1.81

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-61

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W21

Shape

62c

68

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

57c
3

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.41
0.939

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.71
1.14

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.58
1.05

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.90
1.27

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.74
1.16

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
2.12
1.41

6
7
8
9
10

1.59
1.66
1.75
1.87
2.00

1.06
1.11
1.17
1.24
1.33

1.74
1.81
1.88
1.97
2.05

1.16
1.20
1.25
1.31
1.37

1.78
1.86
1.96
2.09
2.24

1.18
1.24
1.31
1.39
1.49

1.94
2.02
2.11
2.20
2.30

1.29
1.34
1.40
1.46
1.53

2.14
2.32
2.55
2.86
3.27

1.43
1.54
1.70
1.90
2.17

2.34
2.47
2.62
2.79
2.99

1.55
1.64
1.74
1.86
1.99

11
12
13
14
15

2.17
2.37
2.62
2.94
3.33

1.44
1.58
1.75
1.96
2.21

2.15
2.26
2.37
2.50
2.65

1.43
1.50
1.58
1.67
1.76

2.43
2.66
2.95
3.31
3.76

1.62
1.77
1.96
2.20
2.50

2.41
2.53
2.67
2.82
2.99

1.60
1.69
1.78
1.88
1.99

3.82
4.53
5.32
6.17
7.08

2.54
3.02
3.54
4.10
4.71

3.21
3.47
3.92
4.42
4.94

2.14
2.31
2.61
2.94
3.29

16
17
18
19
20

3.78
4.27
4.79
5.34
5.91

2.52
2.84
3.19
3.55
3.93

2.82
3.11
3.42
3.72
4.03

1.88
2.07
2.27
2.48
2.68

4.28
4.83
5.41
6.03
6.68

2.85
3.21
3.60
4.01
4.45

3.26
3.61
3.97
4.33
4.70

2.17
2.40
2.64
2.88
3.13

8.06
9.10
10.2
11.4
12.6

5.36
6.05
6.79
7.56
8.38

5.47
6.01
6.55
7.10
7.65

3.64
4.00
4.36
4.72
5.09

22
24
26
28
30

7.16
8.52
9.99
11.6
13.3

4.76
5.67
6.65
7.71
8.85

4.66
5.31
5.95
6.60
7.26

3.10
3.53
3.96
4.39
4.83

8.09
9.63
11.3
13.1

5.38
6.40
7.52
8.72

5.46
6.24
7.02
7.81

3.63
4.15
4.67
5.20

15.2

8.76

5.83

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W21

10.1

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

11.2

7.47

12.6

8.40

18.5

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.28

0.855

1.40

0.934

1.54

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.67

1.11

1.82

1.21

2.00

r y , in.

12.3
1.02
1.33

4.78

4.82

6.19

1.80

1.77

1.35

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-62

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W21

W21

Shape

c,v

50c,v

55

b x 10

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.83
1.22

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.18
1.45

6
7
8
9
10

2.07
2.16
2.28
2.43
2.61

1.37
1.44
1.52
1.62
1.74

2.23
2.33
2.44
2.55
2.68

11
12
13
14
15

2.84
3.11
3.46
3.89
4.45

1.89
2.07
2.30
2.59
2.96

16
17
18
19
20

5.06
5.71
6.40
7.13
7.90

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

-1

48c,f,v
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.04
1.36

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.49
1.66

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.17
1.44

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
2.68
1.78

1.49
1.55
1.62
1.70
1.78

2.53
2.75
3.04
3.42
3.94

1.68
1.83
2.02
2.28
2.62

2.78
2.95
3.14
3.36
3.61

1.85
1.96
2.09
2.23
2.40

2.46
2.58
2.73
2.92
3.15

1.64
1.72
1.82
1.94
2.10

2.68
2.78
2.92
3.07
3.23

1.78
1.85
1.94
2.04
2.15

2.82
2.98
3.16
3.36
3.59

1.88
1.98
2.10
2.23
2.39

4.67
5.55
6.52
7.56
8.68

3.10
3.69
4.34
5.03
5.77

3.91
4.36
5.00
5.67
6.36

2.60
2.90
3.33
3.77
4.23

3.44
3.80
4.25
4.83
5.55

2.29
2.52
2.83
3.22
3.69

3.42
3.62
3.86
4.12
4.60

2.27
2.41
2.57
2.74
3.06

3.37
3.80
4.26
4.75
5.26

4.02
4.46
4.92
5.38
5.86

2.67
2.97
3.27
3.58
3.90

9.87
11.1
12.5
13.9
15.4

6.57
7.42
8.31
9.26
10.3

7.06
7.78
8.51
9.24
9.99

4.70
5.17
5.66
6.15
6.65

6.31
7.13
7.99
8.90
9.86

4.20
4.74
5.32
5.92
6.56

5.16
5.75
6.35
6.97
7.60

3.44
3.82
4.22
4.63
5.06

8.71
9.56
10.5
11.4
12.3

5.80
6.36
6.95
7.57
8.22

6.34
6.84
7.34
7.84
8.35

4.22
4.55
4.88
5.22
5.56

17.0

11.3

10.7

7.15

10.9
11.9
13.0
14.2
15.4

7.23
7.94
8.68
9.45
10.3

8.25
8.91
9.58
10.3
10.9

5.49
5.93
6.37
6.82
7.28

13.4
14.4
15.5

8.89
9.58
10.3

8.87
9.38
9.90

5.90
6.24
6.59

16.7
18.0

11.1
12.0

11.6
12.3

7.75
8.22

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

14.9

9.91

22.5

14.9

19.6

13.0

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.59

1.06

1.75

1.16

1.82

1.21

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.06

1.37

2.27

1.51

2.36

1.58

r y , in.

4.86

6.29

4.96

1.73

1.30

1.66

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-63

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
c,v

b x 10

p 10

283h

311

44
3

-1

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.87
1.91

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.280 0.187

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.363 0.242

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.308 0.205

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.405 0.270

6
7
8
9
10

2.97
3.24
3.59
4.06
4.71

1.98
2.15
2.39
2.70
3.13

3.25
3.46
3.71
3.99
4.32

2.16
2.30
2.47
2.66
2.88

0.297
0.303
0.310
0.319
0.328

0.197
0.202
0.206
0.212
0.218

0.363
0.363
0.363
0.363
0.366

0.242
0.242
0.242
0.242
0.243

0.327
0.334
0.342
0.352
0.363

0.218
0.222
0.228
0.234
0.241

0.405
0.405
0.405
0.405
0.409

0.270
0.270
0.270
0.270
0.272

11
12
13
14
15

5.62
6.68
7.84
9.10
10.4

3.74
4.45
5.22
6.05
6.95

4.71
5.43
6.25
7.11
7.99

3.13
3.61
4.16
4.73
5.32

0.339
0.352
0.366
0.382
0.400

0.226
0.234
0.243
0.254
0.266

0.369
0.372
0.375
0.378
0.381

0.245
0.247
0.249
0.251
0.254

0.375
0.389
0.405
0.423
0.444

0.250
0.259
0.270
0.282
0.295

0.412
0.416
0.420
0.424
0.428

0.274
0.277
0.279
0.282
0.284

16
17
18
19
20

11.9
13.4
15.0
16.8
18.6

7.91
8.93
10.0
11.1
12.4

8.90
9.83
10.8
11.8
12.7

5.92
6.54
7.18
7.82
8.47

0.420
0.442
0.467
0.495
0.526

0.279
0.294
0.311
0.329
0.350

0.384
0.387
0.391
0.394
0.397

0.256
0.258
0.260
0.262
0.264

0.467
0.492
0.521
0.553
0.589

0.310
0.327
0.346
0.368
0.392

0.431
0.435
0.440
0.444
0.448

0.287
0.290
0.292
0.295
0.298

0.601
0.694
0.812
0.942
1.08

0.400
0.462
0.541
0.627
0.720

0.404
0.412
0.419
0.427
0.435

0.269
0.274
0.279
0.284
0.289

0.674
0.783
0.918
1.06
1.22

0.449
0.521
0.611
0.708
0.813

0.457
0.466
0.475
0.485
0.495

0.304
0.310
0.316
0.323
0.330

1.23
0.819 0.443
1.39
0.924 0.452
1.56
1.04
0.461
1.74
1.15
0.470
1.92
1.28
0.480
Other Constants and Properties

0.295
0.301
0.307
0.313
0.319

1.39
1.57
1.76
1.96
2.17

0.925
1.04
1.17
1.30
1.45

0.506
0.517
0.529
0.541
0.554

0.337
0.344
0.352
0.360
0.368

32
34
36
38
40

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

26.9

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.98

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.56

17.9

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.39
1.59

22
24
26
28
30

-1

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W18

W21

Shape

r y , in.

W21-W18

1.32

0.881

1.48

0.986

1.31

0.280

0.187

0.308

0.205

1.71

0.364

0.243

0.400

0.267

6.40

2.96

2.96

1.26

2.95

2.91

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.
Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-64

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W18

W18

Shape

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

234h

258

211

p 10

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

p 103

b x 103

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

ASD
0.338

LRFD
0.225

ASD
0.449

LRFD
0.298

ASD
0.375

LRFD
0.249

ASD
0.499

LRFD
0.332

ASD
0.412

LRFD
0.274

ASD
0.559

LRFD
0.372

6
7
8
9
10

0.359
0.367
0.376
0.386
0.399

0.239
0.244
0.250
0.257
0.265

0.449
0.449
0.449
0.449
0.453

0.298
0.298
0.298
0.299
0.302

0.398
0.407
0.417
0.429
0.443

0.265
0.271
0.278
0.286
0.295

0.499
0.499
0.499
0.500
0.505

0.332
0.332
0.332
0.333
0.336

0.439
0.449
0.460
0.474
0.490

0.292
0.299
0.306
0.315
0.326

0.559
0.559
0.559
0.561
0.568

0.372
0.372
0.372
0.373
0.378

11
12
13
14
15

0.413
0.429
0.447
0.467
0.490

0.275
0.285
0.297
0.311
0.326

0.458
0.462
0.467
0.471
0.476

0.304
0.307
0.310
0.314
0.317

0.459
0.477
0.498
0.521
0.547

0.306
0.318
0.331
0.347
0.364

0.511
0.516
0.522
0.528
0.534

0.340
0.343
0.347
0.351
0.355

0.508
0.528
0.552
0.578
0.607

0.338
0.352
0.367
0.384
0.404

0.574
0.581
0.588
0.596
0.603

0.382
0.387
0.391
0.396
0.401

16
17
18
19
20

0.516
0.545
0.577
0.613
0.654

0.343
0.362
0.384
0.408
0.435

0.481
0.486
0.491
0.496
0.501

0.320
0.323
0.327
0.330
0.334

0.577
0.610
0.647
0.688
0.735

0.384
0.406
0.430
0.458
0.489

0.540
0.546
0.552
0.558
0.565

0.359
0.363
0.367
0.372
0.376

0.641
0.678
0.720
0.768
0.821

0.426
0.451
0.479
0.511
0.546

0.611
0.618
0.626
0.635
0.643

0.406
0.411
0.417
0.422
0.428

22
24
26
28
30

0.751
0.875
1.03
1.19
1.37

0.500
0.582
0.684
0.793
0.910

0.512
0.524
0.536
0.548
0.561

0.341
0.348
0.356
0.365
0.373

0.847
0.990
1.16
1.35
1.55

0.563
0.659
0.773
0.897
1.03

0.579
0.593
0.608
0.624
0.641

0.385
0.395
0.405
0.415
0.426

0.949
1.11
1.31
1.52
1.74

0.631
0.741
0.870
1.01
1.16

0.661
0.679
0.699
0.720
0.742

0.440
0.452
0.465
0.479
0.494

32
34
36
38
40

1.56
1.76
1.97
2.19
2.43

1.04
1.17
1.31
1.46
1.62

0.575 0.382 1.76


1.17
0.658
0.589 0.392 1.99
1.32
0.677
0.604 0.402 2.23
1.48
0.697
0.620 0.413 2.48
1.65
0.718
0.637 0.424 2.75
1.83
0.740
Other Constants and Properties

0.438
0.451
0.464
0.478
0.492

1.98
2.24
2.51
2.79
3.09

1.32
1.49
1.67
1.86
2.06

0.766
0.791
0.817
0.846
0.877

0.509
0.526
0.544
0.563
0.583

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.65

1.10

1.84

1.22

2.08

1.38

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.338

0.225

0.375

0.249

0.412

0.274

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.439

0.292

0.486

0.324

0.535

r y , in.
h

Fy = 65 ksi

0.357

2.96

2.96

2.96

2.88

2.85

2.82

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-65

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W18

Shape

192

175
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.620 0.413

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.500 0.333

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.689 0.458

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.555 0.369

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.770 0.512

6
7
8
9
10

0.487
0.498
0.512
0.527
0.545

0.324
0.332
0.340
0.351
0.363

0.620
0.620
0.620
0.623
0.631

0.413
0.413
0.413
0.414
0.420

0.533
0.546
0.561
0.578
0.598

0.355
0.363
0.373
0.385
0.398

0.689
0.689
0.689
0.693
0.703

0.458
0.458
0.458
0.461
0.468

0.593
0.607
0.624
0.643
0.666

0.394
0.404
0.415
0.428
0.443

0.770
0.770
0.770
0.776
0.788

0.512
0.512
0.512
0.516
0.524

11
12
13
14
15

0.566
0.589
0.615
0.645
0.679

0.376
0.392
0.409
0.429
0.452

0.639
0.648
0.656
0.665
0.675

0.425
0.431
0.437
0.443
0.449

0.621
0.647
0.677
0.711
0.749

0.413
0.431
0.451
0.473
0.498

0.713
0.723
0.734
0.745
0.757

0.474
0.481
0.488
0.496
0.503

0.692
0.722
0.755
0.793
0.836

0.460
0.480
0.502
0.528
0.556

0.801
0.814
0.827
0.841
0.855

0.533
0.541
0.550
0.560
0.569

16
17
18
19
20

0.717
0.760
0.808
0.862
0.924

0.477
0.506
0.538
0.574
0.615

0.684
0.694
0.704
0.714
0.725

0.455
0.462
0.468
0.475
0.482

0.792
0.840
0.895
0.956
1.03

0.527
0.559
0.595
0.636
0.682

0.768
0.780
0.793
0.806
0.819

0.511
0.519
0.528
0.536
0.545

0.885
0.940
1.00
1.07
1.15

0.589
0.625
0.667
0.713
0.766

0.870
0.886
0.902
0.918
0.935

0.579
0.589
0.600
0.611
0.622

22
24
26
28
30

1.07
1.26
1.48
1.72
1.97

0.712
0.839
0.985
1.14
1.31

0.747
0.771
0.796
0.823
0.852

0.497
0.513
0.530
0.548
0.567

1.19
1.41
1.65
1.92
2.20

0.794
0.938
1.10
1.28
1.47

0.847
0.877
0.910
0.945
0.982

0.564
0.584
0.605
0.628
0.653

1.34
1.59
1.86
2.16
2.48

0.892
1.06
1.24
1.44
1.65

0.971
1.01
1.05
1.10
1.15

0.646
0.672
0.701
0.731
0.765

32
34
36
38
40

2.24
2.53
2.84
3.16
3.50

1.49
1.68
1.89
2.10
2.33

0.883 0.587 2.51


1.67
1.02
0.916 0.609 2.83
1.88
1.07
0.952 0.633 3.17
2.11
1.11
0.990 0.659 3.53
2.35
1.18
1.03
0.688 3.91
2.60
1.25
Other Constants and Properties

0.680
0.710
0.742
0.784
0.830

2.82
3.19
3.57
3.98
4.41

1.88
2.12
2.38
2.65
2.93

1.21
1.27
1.35
1.44
1.52

0.802
0.843
0.900
0.957
1.01

-1

158
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.457 0.304

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W18

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.30

1.53

2.59

1.72

2.89

1.92

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.457

0.304

0.500

0.333

0.555

0.369

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.593

0.395

0.649

0.432

0.720

r y , in.

0.480

2.97

2.97

2.96

2.79

2.76

2.74

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-66

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W18

W18

Shape

143

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

130

119

p 103

b x 103

p 103

b x 103

p 103

b x 103

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

ASD
0.612

LRFD
0.407

ASD
0.851

LRFD
0.566

ASD
0.671

LRFD
0.446

ASD
0.945

LRFD
0.629

ASD
0.732

LRFD
0.487

ASD
1.05

LRFD
0.696

6
7
8
9
10

0.654
0.670
0.689
0.711
0.736

0.435
0.446
0.458
0.473
0.490

0.851
0.851
0.851
0.859
0.874

0.566
0.566
0.566
0.572
0.582

0.718
0.735
0.756
0.781
0.809

0.478
0.489
0.503
0.520
0.539

0.945
0.945
0.945
0.956
0.974

0.629
0.629
0.629
0.636
0.648

0.784
0.803
0.826
0.853
0.884

0.521
0.534
0.550
0.568
0.588

1.05
1.05
1.05
1.06
1.08

0.696
0.696
0.696
0.705
0.719

11
12
13
14
15

0.765
0.798
0.836
0.879
0.928

0.509
0.531
0.556
0.585
0.617

0.889
0.905
0.921
0.938
0.956

0.592
0.602
0.613
0.624
0.636

0.842
0.879
0.921
0.969
1.02

0.560
0.585
0.613
0.645
0.681

0.992
1.01
1.03
1.05
1.07

0.660
0.673
0.686
0.700
0.714

0.920
0.961
1.01
1.06
1.12

0.612
0.639
0.670
0.706
0.745

1.10
1.13
1.15
1.18
1.20

0.734
0.750
0.766
0.783
0.800

16
17
18
19
20

0.982
1.04
1.11
1.19
1.28

0.654
0.695
0.741
0.794
0.853

0.974
0.993
1.01
1.03
1.05

0.648
0.661
0.674
0.688
0.702

1.08
1.15
1.23
1.32
1.42

0.722
0.768
0.820
0.879
0.946

1.10
1.12
1.14
1.17
1.20

0.729
0.745
0.761
0.778
0.796

1.19
1.26
1.35
1.45
1.56

0.790
0.841
0.899
0.964
1.04

1.23
1.26
1.29
1.32
1.36

0.819
0.838
0.858
0.880
0.902

22
24
26
28
30

1.50
1.78
2.08
2.42
2.77

0.996
1.18
1.39
1.61
1.85

1.10
1.15
1.20
1.26
1.33

0.732
0.765
0.801
0.841
0.885

1.66
1.98
2.32
2.69
3.09

1.11
1.31
1.54
1.79
2.05

1.25
1.32
1.39
1.47
1.56

0.834
0.877
0.923
0.975
1.04

1.83
2.17
2.55
2.96
3.39

1.22
1.45
1.70
1.97
2.26

1.43
1.51
1.60
1.71
1.87

0.950
1.00
1.06
1.14
1.24

32
34
36
38
40

3.16
3.56
4.00
4.45
4.93

2.10
2.37
2.66
2.96
3.28

1.41
0.938 3.51
2.34
1.69
1.51
1.01
3.97
2.64
1.82
1.62
1.08
4.45
2.96
1.95
1.72
1.15
4.95
3.30
2.08
1.82
1.21
5.49
3.65
2.20
Other Constants and Properties

1.13
1.21
1.30
1.38
1.47

3.86
4.36
4.89
5.45
6.04

2.57
2.90
3.25
3.62
4.02

2.03
2.18
2.34
2.50
2.65

1.35
1.45
1.56
1.66
1.77

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

3.21

2.14

3.57

2.38

3.97

2.64

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.612

0.407

0.671

0.446

0.732

0.487

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.794

0.529

0.870

0.580

0.950

r y , in.

0.633

2.97

2.97

2.94

2.72

2.70

2.69

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-67

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W18

Shape

106
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.19
0.793

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.901 0.600

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.30
0.864

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.03
0.685

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.47
0.980

6
7
8
9
10

0.886
0.908
0.935
0.966
1.00

0.589
0.604
0.622
0.643
0.667

1.19
1.19
1.19
1.21
1.24

0.793
0.793
0.793
0.806
0.824

0.967
0.992
1.02
1.06
1.10

0.643
0.660
0.679
0.702
0.729

1.30
1.30
1.30
1.32
1.35

0.864
0.864
0.864
0.880
0.900

1.10
1.12
1.15
1.19
1.24

0.730
0.747
0.767
0.793
0.824

1.47
1.47
1.47
1.50
1.54

0.980
0.980
0.980
1.00
1.03

11
12
13
14
15

1.04
1.09
1.15
1.21
1.28

0.695
0.726
0.762
0.803
0.849

1.27
1.29
1.33
1.36
1.39

0.842
0.862
0.882
0.903
0.926

1.14
1.19
1.25
1.32
1.40

0.759
0.794
0.834
0.879
0.930

1.38
1.42
1.45
1.49
1.53

0.921
0.944
0.967
0.992
1.02

1.29
1.35
1.42
1.50
1.59

0.858
0.898
0.944
0.996
1.05

1.58
1.62
1.67
1.71
1.76

1.05
1.08
1.11
1.14
1.17

16
17
18
19
20

1.36
1.44
1.55
1.66
1.79

0.902
0.961
1.03
1.11
1.19

1.43
1.46
1.50
1.54
1.59

0.949
0.974
1.00
1.03
1.06

1.48
1.58
1.70
1.82
1.97

0.988
1.05
1.13
1.21
1.31

1.57
1.62
1.66
1.71
1.76

1.05
1.07
1.11
1.14
1.17

1.69
1.80
1.93
2.07
2.24

1.12
1.20
1.28
1.38
1.49

1.81
1.87
1.93
1.99
2.05

1.21
1.24
1.28
1.32
1.37

22
24
26
28
30

2.11
2.51
2.94
3.41
3.92

1.40
1.67
1.96
2.27
2.61

1.68
1.79
1.91
2.11
2.31

1.12
1.19
1.27
1.40
1.54

2.32
2.76
3.24
3.75
4.31

1.54
1.83
2.15
2.50
2.87

1.87
2.00
2.19
2.43
2.67

1.25
1.33
1.46
1.61
1.77

2.65
3.15
3.70
4.29
4.93

1.76
2.10
2.46
2.86
3.28

2.20
2.38
2.68
2.98
3.29

1.46
1.58
1.78
1.98
2.19

32
34
36
38
40

4.46
5.03
5.64
6.29
6.97

2.97
3.35
3.75
4.18
4.63

2.51
1.67
4.90
3.26
2.91
2.72
1.81
5.53
3.68
3.15
2.92
1.94
6.20
4.13
3.38
3.12
2.08
6.91
4.60
3.62
3.32
2.21
7.66
5.10
3.86
Other Constants and Properties

1.93
2.09
2.25
2.41
2.57

5.61
6.33
7.10
7.91
8.76

3.73
4.21
4.72
5.26
5.83

3.59
3.90
4.21
4.51
4.82

2.39
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.21

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.826 0.550

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

86c

97
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

4.53

3.01

4.96

3.30

5.66

3.77

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.826

0.550

0.901

0.600

1.02

0.676

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.07

0.715

1.17

0.780

1.32

r y , in.
c

W18

0.878

2.95

2.95

2.95

2.66

2.65

2.63

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-68

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W18

W18

Shape

c,f

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

71c

76

65c

p 10

b x 10

p 10

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

ASD
1.20

LRFD
0.799

ASD
1.69

LRFD
1.12

ASD
1.24

LRFD
0.826

ASD
1.88

LRFD
1.25

ASD
1.39

LRFD
0.927

ASD
2.06

LRFD
1.37

6
7
8
9
10

1.28
1.31
1.34
1.38
1.43

0.850
0.869
0.893
0.920
0.952

1.69
1.69
1.69
1.72
1.77

1.12
1.12
1.12
1.15
1.18

1.46
1.55
1.66
1.80
1.97

0.970
1.03
1.11
1.20
1.31

1.93
2.00
2.08
2.16
2.26

1.28
1.33
1.38
1.44
1.50

1.62
1.71
1.83
1.98
2.17

1.07
1.14
1.22
1.32
1.45

2.12
2.20
2.29
2.39
2.50

1.41
1.47
1.53
1.59
1.66

11
12
13
14
15

1.49
1.55
1.62
1.71
1.81

0.989
1.03
1.08
1.14
1.20

1.82
1.87
1.92
1.98
2.04

1.21
1.24
1.28
1.32
1.36

2.18
2.43
2.74
3.11
3.57

1.45
1.62
1.82
2.07
2.37

2.36
2.47
2.59
2.72
2.87

1.57
1.64
1.72
1.81
1.91

2.40
2.68
3.02
3.44
3.95

1.60
1.78
2.01
2.29
2.63

2.61
2.74
2.88
3.04
3.21

1.74
1.82
1.92
2.02
2.14

16
17
18
19
20

1.93
2.06
2.21
2.38
2.57

1.28
1.37
1.47
1.58
1.71

2.10
2.17
2.25
2.32
2.41

1.40
1.45
1.49
1.55
1.60

4.06
4.58
5.14
5.73
6.34

2.70
3.05
3.42
3.81
4.22

3.03
3.27
3.55
3.84
4.12

2.02
2.18
2.36
2.55
2.74

4.50
5.08
5.69
6.34
7.02

2.99
3.38
3.79
4.22
4.67

3.43
3.76
4.09
4.43
4.76

2.28
2.50
2.72
2.95
3.17

22
24
26
28
30

3.05
3.63
4.26
4.94
5.68

2.03
2.42
2.84
3.29
3.78

2.60
2.90
3.28
3.67
4.06

1.73
1.93
2.18
2.44
2.70

7.68
9.14
10.7
12.4

5.11
6.08
7.13
8.27

4.69
5.25
5.82
6.38

3.12
3.50
3.87
4.25

8.50
10.1
11.9
13.8

5.66
6.73
7.90
9.16

5.44
6.11
6.79
7.46

3.62
4.07
4.51
4.96

32
34
36
38
40

6.46
7.29
8.17
9.11
10.1

4.30
4.85
5.44
6.06
6.71

4.45
2.96
4.85
3.22
5.24
3.49
5.64
3.75
6.04
4.02
Other Constants and Properties

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

6.52

4.34

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.15

0.767

1.23

0.818

1.35

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.49

0.997

1.59

1.06

1.75

r y , in.
c

Fy = 65 ksi

11.1

7.38

12.2

8.10
0.895
1.16

2.96

4.41

4.43

2.61

1.70

1.69

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-69

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W18

Shape

55c

60

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

50c
3

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.55
1.03

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.23
1.48

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.71
1.14

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.45
1.63

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.93
1.29

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
2.71
1.81

6
7
8
9
10

1.79
1.89
2.01
2.17
2.37

1.19
1.26
1.34
1.44
1.58

2.30
2.39
2.49
2.60
2.72

1.53
1.59
1.66
1.73
1.81

1.97
2.08
2.22
2.39
2.60

1.31
1.39
1.48
1.59
1.73

2.53
2.64
2.76
2.88
3.03

1.68
1.76
1.83
1.92
2.01

2.23
2.35
2.51
2.70
2.94

1.48
1.57
1.67
1.80
1.95

2.82
2.94
3.08
3.23
3.40

1.87
1.96
2.05
2.15
2.26

11
12
13
14
15

2.63
2.93
3.31
3.78
4.34

1.75
1.95
2.20
2.52
2.89

2.85
3.00
3.16
3.34
3.54

1.90
1.99
2.10
2.22
2.35

2.87
3.22
3.64
4.16
4.77

1.91
2.14
2.42
2.77
3.17

3.18
3.36
3.55
3.76
4.04

2.12
2.23
2.36
2.50
2.69

3.23
3.61
4.09
4.69
5.39

2.15
2.40
2.72
3.12
3.58

3.59
3.79
4.03
4.29
4.70

2.39
2.52
2.68
2.85
3.13

16
17
18
19
20

4.94
5.57
6.25
6.96
7.71

3.28
3.71
4.16
4.63
5.13

3.87
4.25
4.63
5.02
5.41

2.58
2.83
3.08
3.34
3.60

5.43
6.13
6.87
7.65
8.48

3.61
4.08
4.57
5.09
5.64

4.48
4.93
5.39
5.85
6.32

2.98
3.28
3.59
3.89
4.20

6.13
6.92
7.76
8.64
9.58

4.08
4.60
5.16
5.75
6.37

5.22
5.76
6.31
6.86
7.43

3.48
3.83
4.20
4.57
4.94

22
24
26
28

9.33
11.1
13.0
15.1

6.21
7.39
8.67
10.1

6.19
6.98
7.76
8.55

4.12
4.64
5.16
5.69

6.83
8.13
9.54

7.26
8.20
9.16

4.83
5.46
6.09

7.71
9.17
10.8

8.56
9.72
10.9

5.70
6.47
7.24

10.3
12.2
14.3

-1

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W18

11.6
13.8
16.2

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

13.3

8.85

14.8

9.86

16.5

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.46

0.971

1.59

1.06

1.75

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.89

1.26

2.06

1.37

2.27

r y , in.

11.0
1.16
1.51

4.45

4.44

4.47

1.68

1.67

1.65

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-70

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W18

W18

Shape

40c,v

46

Design

35c,v

p 10

b x 10

p 10

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

(kips)-1

(kip-ft)-1

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry , or


Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

ASD
2.12

LRFD
1.41

ASD
3.02

LRFD
2.01

ASD
2.52

LRFD
1.67

ASD
3.50

LRFD
2.33

ASD
2.97

LRFD
1.98

ASD
4.12

LRFD
2.74

6
7
8
9
10

2.68
2.93
3.27
3.71
4.33

1.78
1.95
2.17
2.47
2.88

3.37
3.57
3.81
4.07
4.37

2.24
2.38
2.53
2.71
2.91

3.17
3.47
3.87
4.39
5.10

2.11
2.31
2.57
2.92
3.40

3.93
4.18
4.47
4.80
5.18

2.62
2.78
2.97
3.19
3.45

3.78
4.15
4.65
5.33
6.27

2.51
2.76
3.10
3.55
4.17

4.73
5.06
5.45
5.90
6.43

3.14
3.37
3.62
3.92
4.28

11
12
13
14
15

5.16
6.14
7.21
8.36
9.60

3.43
4.09
4.80
5.56
6.38

4.73
5.23
5.95
6.69
7.45

3.15
3.48
3.96
4.45
4.95

6.09
7.25
8.51
9.87
11.3

4.05
4.82
5.66
6.56
7.54

5.63
6.43
7.35
8.30
9.27

3.74
4.28
4.89
5.52
6.17

7.56
9.00
10.6
12.2
14.1

5.03
5.99
7.03
8.15
9.36

7.23
8.43
9.67
11.0
12.3

4.81
5.61
6.43
7.29
8.17

6.83
7.50
8.17
8.85
9.54

16.0
18.1
20.2
22.6
25.0

13.6
15.0
16.4
17.9
19.3

9.07
10.0
10.9
11.9
12.8

16
17
18
19
20

10.9
12.3
13.8
15.4
17.1

7.26
8.20
9.19
10.2
11.3

8.21
8.98
9.75
10.5
11.3

5.46
5.97
6.49
7.01
7.53

12.9
14.5
16.3
18.2
20.1

8.57
9.68
10.9
12.1
13.4

10.3
11.3
12.3
13.3
14.3

21

18.8

12.5

12.1

8.05

22.2

14.8

15.4

10.6
12.0
13.5
15.0
16.6

10.2

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

23.4

15.6

27.4

18.2

34.0

22.6

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.90

1.27

2.18

1.45

2.49

1.66

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.47

1.65

2.82

1.88

3.24

2.16

r y , in.

5.62

5.68

5.77

1.29

1.27

1.22

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /ry equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-71

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W16

Shape

100

89
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

77
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.874 0.581

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.38
0.921

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.981 0.652

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.57
1.04

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.14
0.756

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.83
1.22

6
7
8
9
10

0.945
0.972
1.00
1.04
1.09

0.629
0.647
0.668
0.693
0.723

1.38
1.38
1.39
1.42
1.45

0.921
0.921
0.925
0.944
0.965

1.06
1.09
1.13
1.17
1.22

0.706
0.727
0.751
0.780
0.814

1.57
1.57
1.58
1.61
1.65

1.04
1.04
1.05
1.07
1.10

1.23
1.27
1.31
1.36
1.42

0.820
0.844
0.873
0.907
0.947

1.83
1.83
1.84
1.89
1.94

1.22
1.22
1.23
1.26
1.29

11
12
13
14
15

1.14
1.19
1.26
1.34
1.42

0.756
0.795
0.839
0.890
0.948

1.48
1.51
1.55
1.58
1.62

0.986
1.01
1.03
1.05
1.08

1.28
1.35
1.42
1.51
1.61

0.852
0.897
0.947
1.01
1.07

1.69
1.73
1.78
1.82
1.87

1.12
1.15
1.18
1.21
1.24

1.49
1.57
1.66
1.76
1.88

0.992
1.04
1.11
1.17
1.25

1.99
2.04
2.10
2.16
2.22

1.32
1.36
1.40
1.44
1.48

16
17
18
19
20

1.52
1.64
1.77
1.91
2.08

1.01
1.09
1.18
1.27
1.39

1.66
1.70
1.75
1.79
1.84

1.11
1.13
1.16
1.19
1.23

1.73
1.86
2.01
2.18
2.37

1.15
1.23
1.33
1.45
1.58

1.92
1.98
2.03
2.10
2.16

1.28
1.32
1.35
1.39
1.44

2.02
2.17
2.35
2.56
2.79

1.34
1.45
1.56
1.70
1.86

2.29
2.36
2.44
2.52
2.61

1.52
1.57
1.62
1.68
1.74

22
24
26
28
30

2.50
2.98
3.50
4.06
4.66

1.67
1.98
2.33
2.70
3.10

1.95
2.07
2.20
2.40
2.62

1.30
1.38
1.46
1.60
1.74

2.85
3.40
3.99
4.62
5.31

1.90
2.26
2.65
3.08
3.53

2.30
2.46
2.71
2.99
3.26

1.53
1.64
1.80
1.99
2.17

3.36
4.00
4.70
5.45
6.25

2.24
2.66
3.13
3.62
4.16

2.80
3.09
3.46
3.83
4.20

1.86
2.06
2.30
2.55
2.80

32
34
36
38
40

5.30
5.98
6.70
7.47
8.28

3.52
3.98
4.46
4.97
5.51

2.83
1.88
6.04
4.02
3.54
3.04
2.03
6.82
4.54
3.82
3.26
2.17
7.64
5.09
4.09
3.47
2.31
8.52
5.67
4.36
3.68
2.45
9.44
6.28
4.63
Other Constants and Properties

2.36
2.54
2.72
2.90
3.08

7.12
8.03
9.01
10.0
11.1

4.73
5.34
5.99
6.68
7.40

4.57
4.94
5.31
5.68
6.04

3.04
3.29
3.53
3.78
4.02

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W16

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

4.99

3.32

5.70

3.79

6.67

4.44

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.874

0.581

0.981

0.652

1.14

0.756

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.13

0.756

1.27

0.848

1.47

r y , in.

0.983

2.83

2.83

2.83

2.51

2.49

2.47

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-72

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W16

W16

Shape

57c

67

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.55
1.03

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.61
1.74

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.83
1.22

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
2.98
1.98

6
7
8
9
10

1.45
1.49
1.53
1.59
1.65

0.963
0.989
1.02
1.06
1.10

2.11
2.11
2.13
2.19
2.25

1.40
1.40
1.42
1.45
1.50

1.85
1.99
2.15
2.36
2.61

1.23
1.32
1.43
1.57
1.74

2.72
2.82
2.94
3.07
3.21

1.81
1.88
1.96
2.04
2.14

2.16
2.30
2.47
2.71
3.00

1.44
1.53
1.64
1.80
2.00

3.11
3.25
3.40
3.57
3.75

2.07
2.16
2.26
2.37
2.49

11
12
13
14
15

1.72
1.82
1.92
2.04
2.18

1.15
1.21
1.28
1.36
1.45

2.31
2.38
2.45
2.53
2.61

1.54
1.58
1.63
1.68
1.74

2.92
3.30
3.78
4.37
5.01

1.94
2.20
2.51
2.90
3.33

3.37
3.54
3.73
3.94
4.17

2.24
2.35
2.48
2.62
2.77

3.37
3.81
4.36
5.05
5.80

2.24
2.54
2.90
3.36
3.86

3.95
4.17
4.43
4.71
5.13

2.63
2.78
2.94
3.13
3.41

16
17
18
19
20

2.34
2.52
2.73
2.97
3.24

1.56
1.68
1.81
1.97
2.16

2.70
2.79
2.89
3.00
3.11

1.80
1.86
1.92
1.99
2.07

5.70
6.44
7.22
8.04
8.91

3.79
4.28
4.80
5.35
5.93

4.55
4.97
5.39
5.81
6.23

3.03
3.31
3.58
3.86
4.14

6.60
7.45
8.35
9.31
10.3

4.39
4.96
5.56
6.19
6.86

5.66
6.20
6.74
7.28
7.83

3.77
4.12
4.48
4.85
5.21

22
24
26
28
30

3.91
4.65
5.46
6.33
7.27

2.60
3.10
3.63
4.21
4.84

3.39
3.86
4.34
4.82
5.31

2.25
2.57
2.89
3.21
3.53

7.17
8.54
10.0

7.07
7.90
8.74

4.70
5.26
5.82

12.5
14.8
17.4

8.30
9.88
11.6

8.93
10.0
11.1

5.94
6.67
7.40

32
34
36
38
40

8.27
9.34
10.5
11.7
12.9

5.50
6.21
6.96
7.76
8.60

5.80
3.86
6.29
4.18
6.77
4.51
7.26
4.83
7.75
5.15
Other Constants and Properties

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

7.72

5.14

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.31

0.872

1.53

1.02

1.75

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.70

1.13

1.98

1.32

2.27

r y , in.

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.11
1.40

10.8
12.8
15.1

-1

50c
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.35
0.897

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

14.5

9.65

16.8

11.2
1.16
1.51

2.83

4.20

4.20

2.46

1.60

1.59

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-73

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W16

Shape

40c

45

b x 10

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.07
1.38

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
3.33
2.22

6
7
8
9
10

2.45
2.60
2.80
3.05
3.37

1.63
1.73
1.86
2.03
2.24

3.50
3.66
3.84
4.04
4.25

11
12
13
14
15

3.78
4.30
4.94
5.73
6.58

2.52
2.86
3.29
3.81
4.37

16
17
18
19
20

7.48
8.45
9.47
10.5
11.7

4.98
5.62
6.30
7.02
7.78

21
22
23
24
25

12.9
14.1
15.5
16.8
18.3

8.57
9.41
10.3
11.2
12.2

26

19.8

13.1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry , or Unbraced


Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W16

-1

36c,f,v
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.41
1.60

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
3.75
2.50

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.73
1.82

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
4.29
2.86

2.33
2.44
2.55
2.68
2.83

2.83
3.00
3.22
3.50
3.85

1.88
2.00
2.15
2.33
2.56

3.95
4.14
4.35
4.59
4.85

2.63
2.76
2.90
3.05
3.23

3.22
3.43
3.70
4.03
4.45

2.14
2.28
2.46
2.68
2.96

4.55
4.78
5.04
5.32
5.64

3.03
3.18
3.35
3.54
3.75

4.50
4.77
5.07
5.43
6.06

2.99
3.17
3.38
3.61
4.03

4.29
4.84
5.57
6.46
7.41

2.85
3.22
3.70
4.30
4.93

5.14
5.47
5.84
6.40
7.17

3.42
3.64
3.89
4.26
4.77

4.99
5.69
6.61
7.67
8.80

3.32
3.78
4.40
5.10
5.86

6.00
6.41
6.88
7.82
8.79

3.99
4.26
4.58
5.20
5.85

6.71
7.36
8.03
8.70
9.37

4.46
4.90
5.34
5.79
6.23

8.43
9.52
10.7
11.9
13.2

5.61
6.33
7.10
7.91
8.77

7.96
8.76
9.58
10.4
11.2

5.30
5.83
6.38
6.93
7.48

10.0
11.3
12.7
14.1
15.6

6.66
7.52
8.43
9.40
10.4

9.79
10.8
11.9
12.9
14.0

6.51
7.19
7.89
8.59
9.31

10.0
10.7
11.4
12.1
12.8

6.68
7.14
7.59
8.04
8.50

14.5
15.9
17.4
19.0
20.6

9.66
10.6
11.6
12.6
13.7

12.1
12.9
13.8
14.6
15.5

8.04
8.61
9.17
9.74
10.3

17.3
18.9
20.7
22.5
24.4

11.5
12.6
13.8
15.0
16.3

15.1
16.2
17.3
18.4
19.5

13.5

8.95

22.3

14.8

16.4

10.9

10.0
10.8
11.5
12.2
13.0

Other Constants and Properties


b y 10 (kip-ft)
3

t y 10 (kips)
3

-1

18.9

12.6

21.6

14.4

25.5

16.9

-1

1.93

1.29

2.18

1.45

2.42

1.61

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.51

1.67

2.82

1.88

3.14

2.10

r y , in.

4.24

4.22

4.28

1.57

1.57

1.52

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-74

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W16

W16

Shape

c,v

26c,v

31

b x 10

p 10

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)-1
ASD
LRFD
6.20
4.13

p 10

-1

(kips)

(kip-ft)
ASD
LRFD
5.08
3.38

(kips)
ASD
4.05

LRFD
2.69

5.38
6.02
6.91
8.15
9.94

3.58
4.01
4.60
5.42
6.62

7.39
7.99
8.70
9.56
10.9

4.91
5.32
5.79
6.36
7.26

ASD
3.27

LRFD
2.17

6
7
8
9
10

4.30
4.79
5.45
6.36
7.67

2.86
3.18
3.62
4.23
5.10

5.92
6.36
6.88
7.49
8.21

3.94
4.23
4.58
4.98
5.47

11
12
13
14
15

9.28
11.0
13.0
15.0
17.2

6.17
7.34
8.62
10.0
11.5

9.55
11.1
12.6
14.2
15.8

6.35
7.35
8.39
9.45
10.5

12.0
14.3
16.8
19.5
22.4

8.01
9.53
11.2
13.0
14.9

12.9
15.0
17.2
19.5
21.9

8.60
10.0
11.5
13.0
14.6

16
17
18
19

19.6
22.2
24.8
27.7

13.1
14.7
16.5
18.4

17.5
19.2
20.9
22.6

11.6
12.8
13.9
15.0

25.5
28.7
32.2

16.9
19.1
21.4

24.3
26.7
29.2

16.2
17.8
19.4

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

39.0

25.9

50.0

33.3

t y 103 (kips)-1

2.81

1.87

3.35

2.23

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

3.65

2.43

4.34

2.89

r y , in.

5.48

5.59

1.17

1.12

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-75

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W14

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

605h
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

p 10

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
0.119 0.0795 0.165 0.110

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
0.131 0.0872 0.185 0.123

(kips)
(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
0.144 0.0960 0.208 0.138

11
12
13
14
15

0.129
0.131
0.133
0.135
0.137

0.0857
0.0870
0.0883
0.0898
0.0915

0.165
0.165
0.165
0.165
0.165

0.110
0.110
0.110
0.110
0.110

0.142
0.144
0.146
0.149
0.151

0.0943
0.0957
0.0972
0.0989
0.101

0.185
0.185
0.185
0.185
0.185

0.123
0.123
0.123
0.123
0.123

0.156
0.159
0.161
0.164
0.167

0.104
0.106
0.107
0.109
0.111

0.208
0.208
0.208
0.208
0.208

0.138
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.138

16
17
18
19
20

0.140
0.143
0.146
0.150
0.153

0.0932
0.0952
0.0973
0.0995
0.102

0.166
0.166
0.166
0.167
0.167

0.110
0.110
0.111
0.111
0.111

0.154
0.158
0.161
0.165
0.169

0.103
0.105
0.107
0.110
0.113

0.186
0.186
0.187
0.187
0.188

0.124
0.124
0.124
0.125
0.125

0.171
0.175
0.179
0.183
0.188

0.114
0.116
0.119
0.122
0.125

0.209
0.209
0.210
0.210
0.211

0.139
0.139
0.140
0.140
0.140

22
24
26
28
30

0.161
0.171
0.182
0.195
0.209

0.107
0.114
0.121
0.130
0.139

0.168
0.169
0.170
0.170
0.171

0.112
0.112
0.113
0.113
0.114

0.179
0.190
0.202
0.217
0.233

0.119
0.126
0.135
0.144
0.155

0.189
0.190
0.191
0.192
0.193

0.126
0.126
0.127
0.128
0.128

0.199
0.211
0.226
0.242
0.262

0.132
0.141
0.150
0.161
0.174

0.212
0.213
0.215
0.216
0.217

0.141
0.142
0.143
0.144
0.144

32
34
36
38
40

0.226
0.245
0.268
0.293
0.324

0.150
0.163
0.178
0.195
0.216

0.172
0.173
0.174
0.175
0.176

0.115
0.115
0.116
0.116
0.117

0.253
0.275
0.301
0.331
0.366

0.168
0.183
0.200
0.220
0.244

0.194
0.195
0.196
0.197
0.198

0.129
0.130
0.130
0.131
0.132

0.284
0.310
0.340
0.375
0.416

0.189
0.206
0.226
0.250
0.277

0.218
0.220
0.221
0.222
0.223

0.145
0.146
0.147
0.148
0.149

42
44
46
48
50

0.357
0.392
0.429
0.467
0.506

0.238
0.261
0.285
0.311
0.337

0.176 0.117 0.404 0.269 0.199


0.177 0.118 0.443 0.295 0.200
0.178 0.119 0.485 0.322 0.201
0.179 0.119 0.528 0.351 0.202
0.180 0.120 0.573 0.381 0.204
Other Constants and Properties

0.132
0.133
0.134
0.135
0.135

0.459
0.503
0.550
0.599
0.650

0.305
0.335
0.366
0.399
0.432

0.225
0.226
0.227
0.229
0.230

0.150
0.150
0.151
0.152
0.153

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

665h

730
3

-1

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.336

0.223

0.375

0.250

0.420

0.280

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.119

0.0795

0.131

0.0872

0.144

0.0960

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.155

0.103

0.170

0.113

0.187

r y , in.
h

W14

0.125

1.74

1.73

1.71

4.69

4.62

4.55

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-76

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W14

W14

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.232 0.155

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.175 0.116

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.261 0.174

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.192 0.128

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.293 0.195

11
12
13
14
15

0.172
0.175
0.178
0.181
0.185

0.115
0.116
0.118
0.121
0.123

0.232
0.232
0.232
0.232
0.233

0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155

0.190
0.193
0.197
0.200
0.204

0.127
0.129
0.131
0.133
0.136

0.261
0.261
0.261
0.261
0.262

0.174
0.174
0.174
0.174
0.174

0.209
0.212
0.216
0.221
0.225

0.139
0.141
0.144
0.147
0.150

0.293
0.293
0.293
0.293
0.294

0.195
0.195
0.195
0.195
0.196

16
17
18
19
20

0.189
0.193
0.198
0.203
0.208

0.126
0.128
0.131
0.135
0.138

0.234
0.234
0.235
0.236
0.237

0.155
0.156
0.156
0.157
0.157

0.209
0.214
0.219
0.225
0.231

0.139
0.142
0.146
0.150
0.154

0.263
0.264
0.265
0.266
0.266

0.175
0.176
0.176
0.177
0.177

0.230
0.236
0.242
0.248
0.255

0.153
0.157
0.161
0.165
0.170

0.295
0.296
0.297
0.298
0.299

0.196
0.197
0.198
0.199
0.199

22
24
26
28
30

0.220
0.234
0.251
0.270
0.292

0.147
0.156
0.167
0.180
0.194

0.238
0.239
0.241
0.242
0.244

0.158
0.159
0.160
0.161
0.162

0.245
0.261
0.280
0.302
0.327

0.163
0.174
0.186
0.201
0.218

0.268
0.270
0.272
0.274
0.275

0.178
0.180
0.181
0.182
0.183

0.271
0.289
0.311
0.335
0.364

0.180
0.192
0.207
0.223
0.242

0.302
0.304
0.306
0.308
0.311

0.201
0.202
0.204
0.205
0.207

32
34
36
38
40

0.318
0.348
0.382
0.424
0.469

0.211
0.231
0.254
0.282
0.312

0.246
0.247
0.249
0.250
0.252

0.163
0.164
0.165
0.166
0.168

0.357
0.391
0.432
0.480
0.531

0.238
0.260
0.287
0.319
0.354

0.277
0.279
0.281
0.283
0.285

0.185
0.186
0.187
0.188
0.190

0.398
0.437
0.483
0.538
0.596

0.265
0.291
0.322
0.358
0.397

0.313
0.315
0.318
0.320
0.323

0.208
0.210
0.211
0.213
0.215

42
44
46
48
50

0.517
0.568
0.621
0.676
0.733

0.344
0.378
0.413
0.450
0.488

0.253 0.169 0.586 0.390 0.287


0.255 0.170 0.643 0.428 0.289
0.257 0.171 0.703 0.468 0.291
0.259 0.172 0.765 0.509 0.293
0.260 0.173 0.830 0.552 0.295
Other Constants and Properties

0.191
0.192
0.194
0.195
0.197

0.657
0.721
0.789
0.859
0.932

0.437
0.480
0.525
0.571
0.620

0.325
0.328
0.330
0.333
0.335

0.216
0.218
0.220
0.221
0.223

-1

455h
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.159 0.106

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

500h

550
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.470

0.313

0.525

0.349

0.586

0.390

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.159

0.106

0.175

0.116

0.192

0.128

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.206

0.137

0.227

0.151

0.249

r y , in.
h

Fy = 65 ksi

0.166

1.70

1.69

1.67

4.49

4.43

4.38

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-77

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W14

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.315 0.210

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.220 0.146

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.342 0.228

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.236 0.157

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.372 0.248

11
12
13
14
15

0.224
0.228
0.232
0.237
0.242

0.149
0.152
0.155
0.158
0.161

0.315
0.315
0.315
0.316
0.317

0.210
0.210
0.210
0.210
0.211

0.240
0.244
0.249
0.254
0.259

0.160
0.162
0.165
0.169
0.172

0.342
0.342
0.342
0.343
0.344

0.228
0.228
0.228
0.228
0.229

0.258
0.263
0.268
0.273
0.279

0.172
0.175
0.178
0.182
0.186

0.372
0.372
0.372
0.374
0.375

0.248
0.248
0.248
0.249
0.250

16
17
18
19
20

0.248
0.254
0.260
0.267
0.275

0.165
0.169
0.173
0.178
0.183

0.318
0.320
0.321
0.322
0.323

0.212
0.213
0.213
0.214
0.215

0.265
0.272
0.279
0.287
0.295

0.176
0.181
0.185
0.191
0.196

0.346
0.347
0.348
0.350
0.351

0.230
0.231
0.232
0.233
0.234

0.286
0.293
0.301
0.309
0.318

0.190
0.195
0.200
0.206
0.212

0.377
0.378
0.380
0.382
0.383

0.251
0.252
0.253
0.254
0.255

22
24
26
28
30

0.292
0.312
0.336
0.363
0.395

0.194
0.208
0.223
0.242
0.263

0.326
0.328
0.331
0.333
0.336

0.217
0.218
0.220
0.222
0.224

0.314
0.336
0.361
0.391
0.426

0.209
0.223
0.240
0.260
0.284

0.354
0.357
0.360
0.363
0.366

0.236
0.238
0.239
0.241
0.244

0.339
0.363
0.392
0.425
0.463

0.226
0.242
0.261
0.283
0.308

0.387
0.390
0.393
0.397
0.401

0.257
0.259
0.262
0.264
0.267

32
34
36
38
40

0.433
0.476
0.527
0.588
0.651

0.288
0.317
0.351
0.391
0.433

0.339
0.341
0.344
0.347
0.350

0.225
0.227
0.229
0.231
0.233

0.467
0.515
0.571
0.637
0.705

0.311
0.342
0.380
0.423
0.469

0.369
0.372
0.375
0.379
0.382

0.246
0.248
0.250
0.252
0.254

0.508
0.561
0.625
0.696
0.771

0.338
0.374
0.416
0.463
0.513

0.404
0.408
0.412
0.416
0.419

0.269
0.271
0.274
0.276
0.279

42
44
46
48
50

0.718
0.788
0.861
0.938
1.02

0.478
0.524
0.573
0.624
0.677

0.353 0.235 0.778 0.517 0.385


0.356 0.237 0.853 0.568 0.389
0.359 0.239 0.933 0.621 0.392
0.362 0.241 1.02
0.676 0.396
0.365 0.243 1.10
0.733 0.400
Other Constants and Properties

0.256
0.259
0.261
0.263
0.266

0.850
0.933
1.02
1.11
1.21

0.566
0.621
0.679
0.739
0.802

0.423
0.428
0.432
0.436
0.440

0.282
0.284
0.287
0.290
0.293

-1

370h
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.206 0.137

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

398h

426
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.631

0.420

0.682

0.454

0.741

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.206

0.137

0.220

0.146

0.236

0.157

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.267

0.178

0.285

0.190

0.306

0.204

r y , in.
h

W14

0.493

1.67

1.66

1.66

4.34

4.31

4.27

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-78

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W14

W14

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.408 0.271

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.281 0.187

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.454 0.302

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.308 0.205

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.506 0.336

11
12
13
14
15

0.279
0.284
0.289
0.295
0.302

0.186
0.189
0.192
0.196
0.201

0.408
0.408
0.408
0.409
0.411

0.271
0.271
0.271
0.272
0.274

0.309
0.314
0.320
0.327
0.335

0.205
0.209
0.213
0.218
0.223

0.454
0.454
0.454
0.457
0.459

0.302
0.302
0.302
0.304
0.305

0.339
0.345
0.352
0.360
0.368

0.226
0.230
0.234
0.239
0.245

0.506
0.506
0.506
0.509
0.511

0.336
0.336
0.337
0.338
0.340

16
17
18
19
20

0.309
0.317
0.326
0.335
0.345

0.206
0.211
0.217
0.223
0.230

0.413
0.415
0.417
0.419
0.421

0.275
0.276
0.277
0.279
0.280

0.343
0.352
0.361
0.372
0.383

0.228
0.234
0.240
0.247
0.255

0.461
0.464
0.466
0.468
0.471

0.307
0.308
0.310
0.312
0.313

0.377
0.387
0.398
0.410
0.423

0.251
0.258
0.265
0.273
0.281

0.514
0.517
0.520
0.523
0.526

0.342
0.344
0.346
0.348
0.350

22
24
26
28
30

0.368
0.394
0.426
0.462
0.505

0.245
0.262
0.283
0.307
0.336

0.425
0.429
0.433
0.437
0.441

0.283
0.285
0.288
0.291
0.294

0.409
0.440
0.475
0.516
0.565

0.272
0.292
0.316
0.344
0.376

0.476
0.481
0.486
0.491
0.496

0.316
0.320
0.323
0.327
0.330

0.451
0.485
0.525
0.572
0.626

0.300
0.323
0.349
0.380
0.417

0.532
0.538
0.544
0.551
0.557

0.354
0.358
0.362
0.366
0.371

32
34
36
38
40

0.555
0.613
0.684
0.762
0.844

0.369
0.408
0.455
0.507
0.562

0.446
0.450
0.455
0.459
0.464

0.297
0.300
0.303
0.306
0.309

0.622
0.689
0.770
0.858
0.951

0.414
0.459
0.512
0.571
0.633

0.501
0.507
0.513
0.518
0.524

0.334
0.337
0.341
0.345
0.349

0.691
0.766
0.857
0.955
1.06

0.459
0.510
0.570
0.635
0.704

0.564
0.571
0.578
0.585
0.592

0.375
0.380
0.384
0.389
0.394

42
44
46
48
50

0.931
1.02
1.12
1.22
1.32

0.619
0.680
0.743
0.809
0.878

0.469 0.312 1.05


0.697 0.530
0.474 0.315 1.15
0.765 0.536
0.479 0.319 1.26
0.837 0.543
0.484 0.322 1.37
0.911 0.549
0.489 0.325 1.49
0.988 0.556
Other Constants and Properties

0.353
0.357
0.361
0.365
0.370

1.17
1.28
1.40
1.52
1.65

0.776
0.852
0.931
1.01
1.10

0.600
0.608
0.616
0.624
0.632

0.399
0.404
0.410
0.415
0.421

-1

283h
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.254 0.169

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

311h

342
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

0.811

0.539

0.901

0.600

1.00

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.254

0.169

0.281

0.187

0.308

0.205

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.330

0.220

0.365

0.243

0.400

0.267

r y , in.
h

Fy = 65 ksi

0.665

1.65

1.64

1.63

4.24

4.20

4.17

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-79

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W14

Shape

257

233
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.563 0.374

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.375 0.250

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.629 0.418

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.414 0.276

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.703 0.468

11
12
13
14
15

0.374
0.381
0.389
0.398
0.407

0.249
0.254
0.259
0.265
0.271

0.563
0.563
0.563
0.567
0.570

0.374
0.374
0.375
0.377
0.379

0.414
0.422
0.430
0.440
0.450

0.275
0.281
0.286
0.293
0.300

0.629
0.629
0.630
0.634
0.638

0.418
0.418
0.419
0.422
0.425

0.458
0.467
0.476
0.487
0.499

0.305
0.311
0.317
0.324
0.332

0.703
0.703
0.705
0.710
0.715

0.468
0.468
0.469
0.472
0.476

16
17
18
19
20

0.417
0.429
0.441
0.454
0.468

0.278
0.285
0.293
0.302
0.312

0.574
0.577
0.581
0.584
0.588

0.382
0.384
0.386
0.389
0.391

0.462
0.475
0.488
0.503
0.519

0.307
0.316
0.325
0.335
0.346

0.642
0.647
0.651
0.656
0.660

0.427
0.430
0.433
0.436
0.439

0.512
0.526
0.542
0.558
0.577

0.341
0.350
0.360
0.372
0.384

0.720
0.726
0.731
0.737
0.742

0.479
0.483
0.486
0.490
0.494

22
24
26
28
30

0.501
0.540
0.585
0.638
0.700

0.333
0.359
0.389
0.424
0.466

0.595
0.603
0.611
0.619
0.627

0.396
0.401
0.406
0.412
0.417

0.556
0.600
0.650
0.710
0.781

0.370
0.399
0.433
0.472
0.519

0.669
0.679
0.688
0.699
0.709

0.445
0.452
0.458
0.465
0.472

0.618
0.667
0.724
0.792
0.872

0.411
0.444
0.482
0.527
0.580

0.754
0.766
0.778
0.790
0.803

0.501
0.509
0.517
0.526
0.535

32
34
36
38
40

0.773
0.859
0.963
1.07
1.19

0.514
0.572
0.641
0.714
0.791

0.635
0.644
0.653
0.662
0.671

0.423
0.428
0.434
0.440
0.447

0.863
0.962
1.08
1.20
1.33

0.574
0.640
0.717
0.799
0.886

0.719
0.730
0.742
0.753
0.765

0.479
0.486
0.493
0.501
0.509

0.966
1.08
1.21
1.35
1.49

0.643
0.717
0.804
0.896
0.993

0.817
0.831
0.845
0.860
0.876

0.543
0.553
0.562
0.572
0.583

42
44
46
48
50

1.31
1.44
1.57
1.71
1.86

0.872
0.957
1.05
1.14
1.24

0.681 0.453 1.47


0.976 0.778
0.691 0.460 1.61
1.07
0.790
0.701 0.466 1.76
1.17
0.804
0.712 0.473 1.92
1.28
0.817
0.722 0.481 2.08
1.38
0.832
Other Constants and Properties

0.517
0.526
0.535
0.544
0.553

1.65
1.81
1.97
2.15
2.33

1.09
1.20
1.31
1.43
1.55

0.892
0.908
0.925
0.943
0.962

0.593
0.604
0.616
0.628
0.640

-1

211
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.340 0.226

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W14

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.11

0.741

1.24

0.825

1.38

0.921

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.340

0.226

0.375

0.250

0.414

0.276

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.441

0.294

0.487

0.324

0.538

r y , in.

0.358

1.62

1.62

1.61

4.13

4.10

4.07

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-80

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W14

W14

Shape

193

176
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.772 0.514

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.496 0.330

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.856 0.570

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.550 0.366

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.955 0.635

11
12
13
14
15

0.500
0.510
0.521
0.533
0.546

0.333
0.339
0.347
0.354
0.363

0.772
0.772
0.775
0.781
0.787

0.514
0.514
0.516
0.520
0.524

0.550
0.560
0.572
0.586
0.600

0.366
0.373
0.381
0.390
0.399

0.856
0.856
0.860
0.868
0.875

0.570
0.570
0.572
0.577
0.582

0.610
0.622
0.636
0.651
0.667

0.406
0.414
0.423
0.433
0.444

0.955
0.955
0.960
0.970
0.979

0.635
0.635
0.639
0.645
0.651

16
17
18
19
20

0.560
0.576
0.593
0.611
0.632

0.373
0.383
0.394
0.407
0.420

0.794
0.800
0.807
0.814
0.820

0.528
0.533
0.537
0.541
0.546

0.616
0.634
0.653
0.673
0.696

0.410
0.422
0.434
0.448
0.463

0.883
0.891
0.899
0.907
0.916

0.588
0.593
0.598
0.604
0.609

0.685
0.704
0.726
0.749
0.775

0.456
0.469
0.483
0.498
0.515

0.989
0.999
1.01
1.02
1.03

0.658
0.664
0.671
0.678
0.685

22
24
26
28
30

0.677
0.731
0.795
0.870
0.959

0.451
0.487
0.529
0.579
0.638

0.834
0.849
0.864
0.879
0.896

0.555
0.565
0.575
0.585
0.596

0.747
0.808
0.879
0.964
1.06

0.497
0.538
0.585
0.641
0.707

0.933
0.951
0.969
0.989
1.01

0.621
0.633
0.645
0.658
0.671

0.832
0.901
0.981
1.08
1.19

0.554
0.599
0.653
0.716
0.790

1.05
1.07
1.10
1.12
1.15

0.699
0.714
0.730
0.746
0.763

32
34
36
38
40

1.06
1.19
1.33
1.48
1.65

0.707
0.791
0.887
0.988
1.09

0.912
0.930
0.948
0.966
0.986

0.607
0.618
0.630
0.643
0.656

1.18
1.32
1.48
1.65
1.83

0.786
0.880
0.987
1.10
1.22

1.03
1.05
1.07
1.10
1.12

0.685
0.700
0.715
0.731
0.747

1.32
1.48
1.66
1.85
2.05

0.879
0.986
1.11
1.23
1.36

1.17
1.20
1.23
1.26
1.29

0.781
0.800
0.819
0.840
0.861

42
44
46
48
50

1.81
1.99
2.18
2.37
2.57

1.21
1.32
1.45
1.58
1.71

1.01
0.669 2.02
1.34
1.15
1.03
0.683 2.22
1.47
1.18
1.05
0.698 2.42
1.61
1.21
1.07
0.713 2.64
1.75
1.24
1.10
0.729 2.86
1.90
1.27
Other Constants and Properties

0.765
0.783
0.802
0.822
0.843

2.26
2.48
2.71
2.95
3.21

1.50
1.65
1.81
1.97
2.13

1.33
1.37
1.40
1.44
1.49

0.884
0.908
0.934
0.961
0.989

-1

159
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.452 0.301

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.52

1.01

1.68

1.12

1.88

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.452

0.301

0.496

0.330

0.550

0.366

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.587

0.391

0.644

0.429

0.714

0.476

r y , in.

1.25

1.60

1.60

1.60

4.05

4.02

4.00

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-81

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W14

Shape

145

132
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.05
0.701

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.662 0.441

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.17
0.779

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.728 0.484

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.29
0.860

11
12
13
14
15

0.668
0.681
0.696
0.713
0.731

0.444
0.453
0.463
0.474
0.486

1.05
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08

0.701
0.701
0.706
0.714
0.721

0.744
0.761
0.780
0.801
0.823

0.495
0.506
0.519
0.533
0.548

1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.22

0.779
0.783
0.792
0.801
0.811

0.819
0.838
0.859
0.882
0.907

0.545
0.558
0.571
0.587
0.604

1.29
1.30
1.32
1.33
1.35

0.860
0.864
0.875
0.887
0.898

16
17
18
19
20

0.751
0.772
0.796
0.822
0.850

0.499
0.514
0.530
0.547
0.566

1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14

0.729
0.737
0.745
0.753
0.762

0.848
0.876
0.906
0.939
0.975

0.564
0.583
0.603
0.625
0.649

1.23
1.25
1.26
1.28
1.30

0.821
0.831
0.841
0.851
0.862

0.935
0.966
0.999
1.04
1.08

0.622
0.643
0.665
0.689
0.716

1.37
1.39
1.40
1.42
1.44

0.910
0.922
0.935
0.947
0.961

22
24
26
28
30

0.914
0.990
1.08
1.18
1.31

0.608
0.659
0.718
0.788
0.871

1.17
1.20
1.23
1.26
1.29

0.779
0.798
0.817
0.837
0.858

1.06
1.16
1.27
1.41
1.58

0.704
0.769
0.848
0.941
1.05

1.33
1.37
1.40
1.44
1.48

0.885
0.908
0.933
0.960
0.987

1.17
1.28
1.41
1.57
1.76

0.778
0.851
0.938
1.04
1.17

1.49
1.53
1.58
1.62
1.68

0.988
1.02
1.05
1.08
1.12

32
34
36
38
40

1.46
1.64
1.84
2.05
2.27

0.970
1.09
1.22
1.36
1.51

1.32
1.36
1.39
1.43
1.48

0.880
0.903
0.928
0.954
0.982

1.79
2.02
2.26
2.52
2.79

1.19
1.34
1.51
1.68
1.86

1.53
1.58
1.63
1.68
1.74

1.02
1.05
1.08
1.12
1.16

1.99
2.24
2.51
2.80
3.10

1.32
1.49
1.67
1.86
2.07

1.73
1.79
1.86
1.93
2.00

1.15
1.19
1.24
1.28
1.33

42
44
46
48
50

2.50
2.74
3.00
3.26
3.54

1.66
1.82
1.99
2.17
2.36

1.52
1.01
3.08
2.05
1.80
1.57
1.04
3.38
2.25
1.86
1.62
1.07
3.70
2.46
1.96
1.67
1.11
4.02
2.68
2.06
1.74
1.16
4.37
2.91
2.15
Other Constants and Properties

1.20
1.24
1.30
1.37
1.43

3.42
3.76
4.11
4.47
4.85

2.28
2.50
2.73
2.97
3.23

2.09
2.21
2.33
2.45
2.57

1.39
1.47
1.55
1.63
1.71

-1

120
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.602 0.400

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W14

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.06

1.37

2.43

1.61

2.69

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.602

0.400

0.662

0.441

0.728

0.484

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.781

0.520

0.859

0.573

0.944

0.630

r y , in.

1.79

1.59

1.67

1.67

3.98

3.76

3.74

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-82

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W14

W14

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.45
0.962

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.883 0.587

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.64
1.09

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.970 0.645

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.86
1.24

11
12
13
14
15

0.904
0.925
0.948
0.974
1.00

0.602
0.615
0.631
0.648
0.667

1.45
1.45
1.45
1.47
1.50

0.962
0.962
0.968
0.981
0.995

0.996
1.02
1.04
1.07
1.10

0.663
0.678
0.695
0.714
0.735

1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.67

1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.11

1.09
1.12
1.15
1.18
1.21

0.728
0.745
0.764
0.785
0.808

1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86

1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24

16
17
18
19
20

1.03
1.07
1.10
1.15
1.19

0.687
0.710
0.735
0.762
0.792

1.52
1.54
1.56
1.58
1.61

1.01
1.02
1.04
1.05
1.07

1.14
1.18
1.22
1.26
1.31

0.758
0.783
0.811
0.841
0.874

1.69
1.72
1.75
1.78
1.81

1.13
1.14
1.16
1.18
1.20

1.25
1.29
1.34
1.39
1.45

0.833
0.861
0.892
0.925
0.962

1.88
1.91
1.94
1.97
2.01

1.25
1.27
1.29
1.31
1.34

22
24
26
28
30

1.29
1.41
1.56
1.74
1.95

0.860
0.941
1.04
1.16
1.29

1.66
1.71
1.77
1.83
1.90

1.10
1.14
1.18
1.22
1.26

1.43
1.57
1.73
1.93
2.16

0.951
1.04
1.15
1.28
1.44

1.87
1.93
2.00
2.08
2.16

1.24
1.29
1.33
1.38
1.44

1.57
1.72
1.91
2.12
2.38

1.05
1.15
1.27
1.41
1.59

2.08
2.16
2.25
2.34
2.45

1.39
1.44
1.50
1.56
1.63

32
34
36
38
40

2.20
2.49
2.79
3.11
3.44

1.47
1.66
1.86
2.07
2.29

1.97
2.04
2.12
2.21
2.33

1.31
1.36
1.41
1.47
1.55

2.45
2.77
3.10
3.45
3.83

1.63
1.84
2.06
2.30
2.55

2.25
2.34
2.45
2.60
2.78

1.50
1.56
1.63
1.73
1.85

2.70
3.05
3.42
3.81
4.23

1.80
2.03
2.28
2.54
2.81

2.56
2.68
2.86
3.08
3.29

1.70
1.78
1.90
2.05
2.19

42
44
46
48
50

3.80
4.17
4.55
4.96
5.38

2.53
2.77
3.03
3.30
3.58

2.48
1.65
4.22
2.81
2.96
2.62
1.74
4.63
3.08
3.13
2.76
1.84
5.06
3.37
3.31
2.91
1.93
5.51
3.67
3.48
3.05
2.03
5.98
3.98
3.66
Other Constants and Properties

1.97
2.08
2.20
2.32
2.43

4.66
5.11
5.59
6.08
6.60

3.10
3.40
3.72
4.05
4.39

3.51
3.72
3.94
4.15
4.36

2.33
2.48
2.62
2.76
2.90

-1

90f
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.803 0.534

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

99f

109
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

3.01

2.01

3.47

2.31

3.98

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.803

0.534

0.883

0.587

0.970

0.645

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.04

0.694

1.15

0.764

1.26

0.839

r y , in.
f

Fy = 65 ksi

2.65

1.67

1.66

1.66

3.73

3.71

3.70

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-83

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W14

Shape

82

74
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

68
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.07
0.712

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.97
1.31

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.18
0.784

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.18
1.45

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.28
0.855

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
2.38
1.59

6
7
8
9
10

1.16
1.19
1.23
1.28
1.34

0.772
0.794
0.821
0.853
0.890

1.97
1.97
1.98
2.03
2.07

1.31
1.31
1.32
1.35
1.38

1.28
1.31
1.36
1.41
1.47

0.850
0.874
0.904
0.939
0.980

2.18
2.18
2.19
2.24
2.29

1.45
1.45
1.46
1.49
1.52

1.39
1.44
1.48
1.54
1.61

0.927
0.955
0.988
1.03
1.07

2.38
2.38
2.40
2.46
2.52

1.59
1.59
1.60
1.64
1.68

11
12
13
14
15

1.40
1.47
1.56
1.66
1.77

0.932
0.981
1.04
1.10
1.18

2.11
2.16
2.21
2.26
2.31

1.41
1.44
1.47
1.50
1.54

1.54
1.62
1.72
1.82
1.94

1.03
1.08
1.14
1.21
1.29

2.34
2.40
2.46
2.52
2.58

1.56
1.60
1.63
1.68
1.72

1.69
1.78
1.88
2.00
2.14

1.12
1.18
1.25
1.33
1.42

2.58
2.65
2.72
2.79
2.86

1.72
1.76
1.81
1.86
1.91

16
17
18
19
20

1.89
2.04
2.20
2.39
2.61

1.26
1.36
1.46
1.59
1.73

2.37
2.42
2.48
2.55
2.62

1.57
1.61
1.65
1.70
1.74

2.08
2.24
2.42
2.63
2.87

1.39
1.49
1.61
1.75
1.91

2.65
2.72
2.80
2.88
2.96

1.76
1.81
1.86
1.91
1.97

2.29
2.47
2.67
2.91
3.17

1.53
1.64
1.78
1.93
2.11

2.95
3.03
3.12
3.22
3.32

1.96
2.02
2.08
2.14
2.21

22
24
26
28
30

3.14
3.74
4.39
5.09
5.84

2.09
2.49
2.92
3.39
3.89

2.76
2.93
3.11
3.38
3.67

1.84
1.95
2.07
2.25
2.44

3.46
4.12
4.83
5.60
6.43

2.30
2.74
3.21
3.73
4.28

3.15
3.36
3.64
4.00
4.36

2.09
2.23
2.42
2.66
2.90

3.83
4.56
5.35
6.21
7.12

2.55
3.03
3.56
4.13
4.74

3.54
3.80
4.24
4.67
5.10

2.36
2.53
2.82
3.11
3.39

32
34
36
38
40

6.65
7.50
8.41
9.37
10.4

4.42
4.99
5.60
6.24
6.91

3.97
2.64
7.32
4.87
4.72
4.26
2.84
8.26
5.50
5.07
4.56
3.03
9.26
6.16
5.43
4.85
3.22
10.3
6.86
5.78
5.14
3.42
11.4
7.61
6.14
Other Constants and Properties

3.14
3.38
3.61
3.85
4.08

8.11
9.15
10.3
11.4
12.7

5.39
6.09
6.83
7.60
8.43

5.53
5.96
6.38
6.81
7.23

3.68
3.96
4.25
4.53
4.81

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W14

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

6.12

4.07

6.77

4.50

7.43

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.07

0.712

1.18

0.784

1.28

0.855

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.39

0.926

1.53

1.02

1.67

1.11

r y , in.

4.94

2.44

2.44

2.44

2.48

2.48

2.46

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-84

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W14

W14

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

48c

53

61
3

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.69
1.79

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.65
1.10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
3.15
2.09

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.85
1.23

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
3.50
2.33

6
7
8
9
10

1.56
1.61
1.66
1.73
1.80

1.04
1.07
1.11
1.15
1.20

2.69
2.69
2.71
2.78
2.85

1.79
1.79
1.81
1.85
1.90

1.88
1.98
2.09
2.22
2.39

1.25
1.31
1.39
1.48
1.59

3.15
3.25
3.35
3.46
3.58

2.10
2.16
2.23
2.31
2.38

2.09
2.19
2.32
2.47
2.65

1.39
1.46
1.54
1.64
1.76

3.50
3.62
3.74
3.88
4.02

2.33
2.41
2.49
2.58
2.67

11
12
13
14
15

1.89
1.99
2.11
2.24
2.40

1.26
1.33
1.40
1.49
1.60

2.93
3.01
3.09
3.18
3.28

1.95
2.00
2.06
2.12
2.18

2.58
2.81
3.08
3.41
3.80

1.72
1.87
2.05
2.27
2.53

3.71
3.85
3.99
4.15
4.32

2.47
2.56
2.66
2.76
2.88

2.87
3.13
3.44
3.80
4.24

1.91
2.08
2.29
2.53
2.82

4.17
4.34
4.52
4.71
4.92

2.78
2.89
3.01
3.14
3.28

16
17
18
19
20

2.57
2.77
3.00
3.27
3.57

1.71
1.85
2.00
2.18
2.38

3.38
3.49
3.60
3.72
3.85

2.25
2.32
2.39
2.48
2.56

4.26
4.81
5.40
6.01
6.66

2.84
3.20
3.59
4.00
4.43

4.51
4.71
4.94
5.28
5.67

3.00
3.14
3.28
3.51
3.77

4.77
5.38
6.03
6.72
7.45

3.17
3.58
4.01
4.47
4.96

5.16
5.41
5.79
6.26
6.74

3.43
3.60
3.85
4.17
4.48

22
24
26
28
30

4.32
5.14
6.03
6.99
8.02

2.87
3.42
4.01
4.65
5.34

4.14
4.59
5.13
5.66
6.20

2.75
3.05
3.41
3.77
4.13

8.06
9.60
11.3
13.1
15.0

5.36
6.38
7.49
8.69
9.98

6.44
7.22
7.99
8.76
9.53

4.29
4.80
5.32
5.83
6.34

9.01
10.7
12.6
14.6
16.8

6.00
7.14
8.38
9.72
11.2

7.69
8.64
9.59
10.5
11.5

5.12
5.75
6.38
7.01
7.65

32
34
36
38
40

9.13
10.3
11.6
12.9
14.3

6.07
6.86
7.69
8.57
9.49

6.74
4.48
17.1
11.3
10.3
7.27
4.84
7.81
5.20
8.34
5.55
8.87
5.90
Other Constants and Properties

6.85

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

8.36

5.56

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.44

0.955

1.65

1.10

1.82

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.86

1.24

2.14

1.42

2.36

r y , in.

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.44
0.955

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

12.5

8.29

14.0

9.30
1.21
1.58

2.44

3.07

3.06

2.45

1.92

1.91

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-85

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W14

Shape

38c

43

b x 10

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.11
1.40

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
3.94
2.62

6
7
8
9
10

2.38
2.49
2.63
2.79
2.99

1.59
1.66
1.75
1.86
1.99

3.96
4.10
4.25
4.41
4.58

11
12
13
14
15

3.24
3.54
3.90
4.32
4.83

2.16
2.36
2.59
2.88
3.21

16
17
18
19
20

5.45
6.15
6.90
7.68
8.51

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W14

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

-1

34c
b x 10

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.43
1.61

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
4.46
2.96

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.78
1.85

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
5.02
3.34

2.63
2.72
2.82
2.93
3.05

2.89
3.08
3.33
3.64
4.06

1.92
2.05
2.22
2.42
2.70

4.70
4.92
5.16
5.43
5.72

3.12
3.27
3.43
3.61
3.81

3.31
3.53
3.81
4.17
4.62

2.20
2.35
2.54
2.78
3.08

5.32
5.58
5.87
6.20
6.56

3.54
3.71
3.91
4.12
4.36

4.77
4.97
5.19
5.44
5.70

3.17
3.31
3.45
3.62
3.79

4.57
5.21
6.02
6.98
8.01

3.04
3.47
4.00
4.64
5.33

6.05
6.42
6.84
7.42
8.26

4.03
4.27
4.55
4.94
5.50

5.21
5.96
6.92
8.02
9.21

3.47
3.97
4.60
5.34
6.13

6.96
7.42
7.94
8.85
9.89

4.63
4.94
5.28
5.89
6.58

3.63
4.09
4.59
5.11
5.66

6.00
6.37
6.95
7.53
8.12

3.99
4.24
4.62
5.01
5.40

9.11
10.3
11.5
12.9
14.2

6.06
6.85
7.68
8.55
9.48

9.12
9.99
10.9
11.8
12.6

6.07
6.65
7.23
7.82
8.41

10.5
11.8
13.3
14.8
16.4

6.97
7.87
8.82
9.83
10.9

11.0
12.0
13.1
14.2
15.3

7.29
8.01
8.73
9.47
10.2

9.39
10.3
11.3
12.3
13.3

6.25
6.85
7.49
8.16
8.85

8.71
9.31
9.90
10.5
11.1

5.80
6.19
6.59
6.99
7.39

15.7
17.2
18.8
20.5
22.3

13.5
14.4
15.3
16.2
17.1

9.00
9.60
10.2
10.8
11.4

18.0
19.8
21.6
23.6
25.6

12.0
13.2
14.4
15.7
17.0

16.5
17.6
18.7
19.8
21.0

11.0
11.7
12.4
13.2
13.9

14.4
15.5
16.7
17.9
19.2

9.57
10.3
11.1
11.9
12.7

11.7
7.78
12.3
8.18
12.9
8.58
13.5
8.98
14.1
9.37
Other Constants and Properties

15.8

10.5

22.6

15.1

25.9

t y 103 (kips)-1

2.04

1.36

2.29

1.53

2.57

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.65

1.76

2.98

1.98

3.33

r y , in.

b x 103

-1

p 10

-1

10.4
11.5
12.5
13.6
14.8

-1

17.2
1.71
2.22

3.08

3.79

3.81

1.89

1.55

1.53

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-86

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W14

W14

Shape

c,f

26c,v

30

b x 10

p 10

-1

22c,v
b x 10

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
3.20
2.13

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
5.92
3.94

6
7
8
9
10

3.83
4.09
4.43
4.86
5.41

2.55
2.72
2.95
3.24
3.60

6.19
6.52
6.88
7.29
7.75

4.12
4.34
4.58
4.85
5.15

5.29
6.05
7.11
8.65
10.7

3.52
4.02
4.73
5.76
7.11

8.20
8.87
9.67
10.6
12.3

5.45
5.90
6.44
7.07
8.16

6.58
7.57
8.97
11.1
13.6

11
12
13
14
15

6.12
7.05
8.24
9.56
11.0

4.07
4.69
5.48
6.36
7.30

8.26
8.85
9.70
11.0
12.3

5.50
5.89
6.45
7.31
8.20

12.9
15.4
18.1
20.9
24.0

8.60
10.2
12.0
13.9
16.0

14.4
16.5
18.7
20.9
23.2

9.55
11.0
12.4
13.9
15.4

16.5
19.7
23.1
26.8
30.7

16
17
18
19
20

12.5
14.1
15.8
17.6
19.5

8.31
9.38
10.5
11.7
13.0

13.7
15.1
16.5
18.0
19.4

9.12
10.0
11.0
12.0
12.9

27.3
30.9
34.6

18.2
20.5
23.0

25.5
27.8
30.1

17.0
18.5
20.0

34.9
39.4

22
24

23.6
28.1

15.7
18.7

22.4
25.4

14.9
16.9

(kips)
ASD LRFD
3.78
2.51

-1

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
6.82
4.54

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
8.25
5.49

p 10

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

(kips)
ASD LRFD
4.65
3.09
4.38
5.03
5.97
7.36
9.08

10.2
11.1
12.2
13.6
16.4

6.76
7.38
8.11
9.05
10.9

11.0
13.1
15.3
17.8
20.4

19.2
22.3
25.4
28.5
31.8

12.8
14.8
16.9
19.0
21.2

23.2
26.2

35.1
38.4

23.3
25.6

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

31.4

20.9

49.5

32.9

62.4

t y 103 (kips)-1

2.90

1.93

3.34

2.22

3.96

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

3.77

2.51

4.33

2.89

5.14

r y , in.

41.5
2.63
3.42

3.85

5.23

5.33

1.49

1.08

1.04

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-87

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W12

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.454 0.302

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.287 0.191

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.510 0.340

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.314 0.209

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.570 0.379

6
7
8
9
10

0.271
0.275
0.279
0.285
0.291

0.180
0.183
0.186
0.190
0.194

0.454
0.454
0.454
0.454
0.454

0.302
0.302
0.302
0.302
0.302

0.299
0.304
0.309
0.316
0.323

0.199
0.202
0.206
0.210
0.215

0.510
0.510
0.510
0.510
0.510

0.340
0.340
0.340
0.340
0.340

0.328
0.333
0.339
0.346
0.354

0.218
0.221
0.225
0.230
0.235

0.570
0.570
0.570
0.570
0.570

0.379
0.379
0.379
0.379
0.379

11
12
13
14
15

0.298
0.306
0.315
0.325
0.335

0.198
0.204
0.209
0.216
0.223

0.455
0.457
0.459
0.461
0.463

0.303
0.304
0.305
0.307
0.308

0.331
0.340
0.350
0.361
0.374

0.220
0.226
0.233
0.240
0.249

0.511
0.514
0.516
0.518
0.521

0.340
0.342
0.343
0.345
0.347

0.363
0.373
0.384
0.397
0.411

0.241
0.248
0.256
0.264
0.273

0.571
0.574
0.577
0.580
0.583

0.380
0.382
0.384
0.386
0.388

16
17
18
19
20

0.348
0.361
0.375
0.392
0.409

0.231
0.240
0.250
0.261
0.272

0.465
0.467
0.469
0.471
0.473

0.309
0.311
0.312
0.313
0.315

0.387
0.403
0.419
0.438
0.458

0.258
0.268
0.279
0.291
0.305

0.523
0.526
0.528
0.531
0.533

0.348
0.350
0.351
0.353
0.355

0.426
0.444
0.462
0.483
0.507

0.284
0.295
0.308
0.322
0.337

0.586
0.589
0.592
0.595
0.598

0.390
0.392
0.394
0.396
0.398

22
24
26
28
30

0.450
0.500
0.560
0.633
0.724

0.300
0.333
0.373
0.421
0.482

0.477
0.481
0.485
0.490
0.494

0.317
0.320
0.323
0.326
0.329

0.506
0.563
0.633
0.719
0.824

0.337
0.375
0.421
0.478
0.548

0.538
0.544
0.549
0.555
0.560

0.358
0.362
0.365
0.369
0.373

0.560
0.626
0.705
0.803
0.922

0.373
0.416
0.469
0.534
0.613

0.604
0.611
0.617
0.624
0.631

0.402
0.406
0.411
0.415
0.420

32
34
36
38
40

0.824
0.930
1.04
1.16
1.29

0.548
0.619
0.694
0.773
0.856

0.499 0.332 0.937 0.624 0.566


0.503 0.335 1.06
0.704 0.572
0.508 0.338 1.19
0.789 0.578
0.513 0.341 1.32
0.879 0.584
0.518 0.344 1.46
0.974 0.590
Other Constants and Properties

0.376
0.380
0.384
0.388
0.392

1.05
1.18
1.33
1.48
1.64

0.698
0.788
0.883
0.984
1.09

0.638
0.645
0.652
0.660
0.667

0.424
0.429
0.434
0.439
0.444

-1

279h
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.260 0.173

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

305h

336
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.00

0.665

1.12

0.747

1.25

0.829

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.260

0.173

0.287

0.191

0.314

0.209

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.337

0.225

0.372

0.248

0.407

r y , in.
h

W12

0.271

1.85

1.84

1.82

3.47

3.42

3.38

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-88

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W12

W12

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.640 0.426

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.380 0.252

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.710 0.472

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.416 0.277

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
0.788 0.524

6
7
8
9
10

0.362
0.368
0.375
0.383
0.392

0.241
0.245
0.250
0.255
0.261

0.640
0.640
0.640
0.640
0.640

0.426
0.426
0.426
0.426
0.426

0.397
0.403
0.411
0.420
0.430

0.264
0.268
0.274
0.279
0.286

0.710
0.710
0.710
0.710
0.710

0.472
0.472
0.472
0.472
0.472

0.435
0.442
0.451
0.461
0.472

0.290
0.294
0.300
0.307
0.314

0.788
0.788
0.788
0.788
0.788

0.524
0.524
0.524
0.524
0.524

11
12
13
14
15

0.402
0.414
0.427
0.441
0.457

0.268
0.275
0.284
0.293
0.304

0.643
0.646
0.650
0.653
0.657

0.428
0.430
0.432
0.435
0.437

0.441
0.454
0.469
0.485
0.503

0.294
0.302
0.312
0.323
0.334

0.713
0.717
0.722
0.726
0.730

0.474
0.477
0.480
0.483
0.486

0.485
0.499
0.515
0.533
0.554

0.323
0.332
0.343
0.355
0.368

0.792
0.797
0.802
0.807
0.813

0.527
0.530
0.534
0.537
0.541

16
17
18
19
20

0.475
0.494
0.516
0.540
0.566

0.316
0.329
0.343
0.359
0.377

0.661
0.665
0.668
0.672
0.676

0.440
0.442
0.445
0.447
0.450

0.523
0.545
0.569
0.596
0.626

0.348
0.362
0.378
0.396
0.416

0.735
0.739
0.744
0.749
0.753

0.489
0.492
0.495
0.498
0.501

0.576
0.600
0.628
0.658
0.692

0.383
0.400
0.418
0.438
0.460

0.818
0.824
0.829
0.835
0.841

0.544
0.548
0.552
0.556
0.559

22
24
26
28
30

0.628
0.703
0.795
0.909
1.04

0.418
0.468
0.529
0.605
0.694

0.684
0.692
0.700
0.709
0.717

0.455
0.460
0.466
0.471
0.477

0.695
0.779
0.883
1.01
1.16

0.462
0.519
0.588
0.674
0.773

0.763
0.773
0.783
0.793
0.804

0.508
0.514
0.521
0.528
0.535

0.770
0.865
0.982
1.13
1.30

0.512
0.576
0.654
0.752
0.863

0.853
0.865
0.877
0.890
0.903

0.567
0.575
0.584
0.592
0.601

32
34
36
38
40

1.19
1.34
1.50
1.67
1.85

0.790
0.891
0.999
1.11
1.23

0.726 0.483 1.32


0.880 0.815
0.735 0.489 1.49
0.993 0.826
0.744 0.495 1.67
1.11
0.838
0.754 0.502 1.87
1.24
0.850
0.764 0.508 2.07
1.37
0.862
Other Constants and Properties

0.542
0.550
0.557
0.565
0.573

1.48
1.67
1.87
2.08
2.31

0.982
1.11
1.24
1.38
1.53

0.917
0.931
0.946
0.960
0.976

0.610
0.619
0.629
0.639
0.649

-1

210
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.347 0.231

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

230h

252
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.40

0.930

1.55

1.03

1.72

1.15

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.347

0.231

0.380

0.252

0.416

0.277

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.450

0.300

0.492

0.328

0.539

r y , in.
h

Fy = 65 ksi

0.360

1.81

1.80

1.80

3.34

3.31

3.28

Flange thickness greater than 2 in. Special requirements may apply per AISC Specification Section A3.1c.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-89

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W12

Shape

190

170
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.881 0.586

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.514 0.342

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
0.997 0.663

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.575 0.382

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.13
0.750

6
7
8
9
10

0.481
0.489
0.498
0.510
0.522

0.320
0.325
0.332
0.339
0.347

0.881
0.881
0.881
0.881
0.881

0.586
0.586
0.586
0.586
0.586

0.539
0.548
0.559
0.572
0.586

0.359
0.365
0.372
0.380
0.390

0.997
0.997
0.997
0.997
0.997

0.663
0.663
0.663
0.663
0.663

0.603
0.614
0.626
0.641
0.658

0.401
0.408
0.417
0.426
0.437

1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13

0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.751

11
12
13
14
15

0.537
0.553
0.571
0.591
0.614

0.357
0.368
0.380
0.394
0.409

0.887
0.893
0.900
0.906
0.913

0.590
0.594
0.599
0.603
0.607

0.603
0.621
0.642
0.666
0.692

0.401
0.413
0.427
0.443
0.460

1.00
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04

0.668
0.674
0.679
0.685
0.691

0.676
0.698
0.721
0.748
0.778

0.450
0.464
0.480
0.498
0.518

1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18

0.758
0.765
0.772
0.779
0.786

16
17
18
19
20

0.639
0.667
0.698
0.732
0.770

0.425
0.444
0.465
0.487
0.513

0.920
0.927
0.934
0.941
0.948

0.612
0.617
0.621
0.626
0.631

0.720
0.753
0.788
0.828
0.871

0.479
0.501
0.524
0.551
0.580

1.05
1.06
1.06
1.07
1.08

0.696
0.702
0.708
0.714
0.720

0.811
0.848
0.889
0.934
0.984

0.540
0.564
0.591
0.621
0.655

1.19
1.20
1.22
1.23
1.24

0.793
0.801
0.809
0.816
0.824

22
24
26
28
30

0.859
0.968
1.10
1.27
1.46

0.572
0.644
0.733
0.845
0.970

0.963
0.978
0.994
1.01
1.03

0.641
0.651
0.661
0.672
0.683

0.973
1.10
1.25
1.45
1.66

0.648
0.731
0.835
0.964
1.11

1.10
1.12
1.14
1.16
1.18

0.733
0.746
0.759
0.773
0.788

1.10
1.25
1.43
1.65
1.90

0.733
0.830
0.949
1.10
1.26

1.26
1.29
1.32
1.34
1.37

0.841
0.858
0.875
0.894
0.913

32
34
36
38
40

1.66
1.87
2.10
2.34
2.59

1.10
1.25
1.40
1.56
1.72

1.04
0.695 1.89
1.26
1.21
1.06
0.707 2.14
1.42
1.23
1.08
0.719 2.39
1.59
1.26
1.10
0.732 2.67
1.78
1.28
1.12
0.745 2.96
1.97
1.31
Other Constants and Properties

0.803
0.819
0.835
0.852
0.870

2.16
2.43
2.73
3.04
3.37

1.43
1.62
1.82
2.02
2.24

1.40
1.43
1.47
1.50
1.54

0.933
0.954
0.976
0.999
1.02

-1

152
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.459 0.305

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W12

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

1.92

1.28

2.18

1.45

2.47

1.64

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.459

0.305

0.514

0.342

0.575

0.382

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.595

0.397

0.667

0.444

0.746

r y , in.

0.497

1.79

1.78

1.77

3.25

3.22

3.19

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-90

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W12

W12

Shape

136

120
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.28
0.852

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.730 0.486

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.47
0.980

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.823 0.548

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
1.67
1.11

6
7
8
9
10

0.676
0.689
0.703
0.720
0.739

0.450
0.458
0.468
0.479
0.491

1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28

0.852
0.852
0.852
0.852
0.854

0.768
0.782
0.798
0.817
0.839

0.511
0.520
0.531
0.544
0.558

1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.48

0.980
0.980
0.980
0.980
0.984

0.867
0.883
0.902
0.923
0.949

0.577
0.587
0.600
0.614
0.631

1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.68

1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.12

11
12
13
14
15

0.760
0.784
0.812
0.842
0.877

0.506
0.522
0.540
0.560
0.583

1.30
1.31
1.32
1.34
1.35

0.862
0.871
0.880
0.889
0.899

0.864
0.893
0.924
0.960
1.00

0.575
0.594
0.615
0.639
0.665

1.50
1.51
1.53
1.55
1.57

0.995
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04

0.977
1.01
1.05
1.09
1.13

0.650
0.672
0.696
0.723
0.753

1.70
1.72
1.75
1.77
1.79

1.13
1.15
1.16
1.18
1.19

16
17
18
19
20

0.915
0.957
1.00
1.06
1.11

0.609
0.637
0.668
0.703
0.741

1.37
1.38
1.39
1.41
1.43

0.908
0.918
0.928
0.938
0.949

1.04
1.09
1.15
1.21
1.28

0.694
0.727
0.764
0.804
0.849

1.59
1.60
1.62
1.64
1.67

1.05
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.11

1.18
1.24
1.30
1.37
1.45

0.787
0.825
0.867
0.913
0.965

1.82
1.84
1.87
1.89
1.92

1.21
1.23
1.24
1.26
1.28

22
24
26
28
30

1.25
1.42
1.63
1.89
2.16

0.832
0.944
1.08
1.25
1.44

1.46
1.49
1.53
1.56
1.60

0.970
0.993
1.02
1.04
1.07

1.44
1.63
1.88
2.18
2.50

0.955
1.09
1.25
1.45
1.66

1.71
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.91

1.14
1.17
1.20
1.23
1.27

1.63
1.86
2.15
2.49
2.86

1.09
1.24
1.43
1.66
1.90

1.98
2.04
2.10
2.17
2.25

1.32
1.36
1.40
1.45
1.50

32
34
36
38
40

2.46
2.78
3.12
3.47
3.85

1.64
1.85
2.07
2.31
2.56

1.64
1.09
2.84
1.89
1.96
1.69
1.12
3.21
2.14
2.02
1.73
1.15
3.60
2.40
2.09
1.78
1.19
4.01
2.67
2.16
1.83
1.22
4.44
2.96
2.23
Other Constants and Properties

1.31
1.35
1.39
1.44
1.48

3.25
3.67
4.11
4.58
5.08

2.16
2.44
2.74
3.05
3.38

2.33
2.41
2.50
2.60
2.71

1.55
1.60
1.66
1.73
1.80

-1

106
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.644 0.428

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

2.80

1.86

3.21

2.14

3.65

2.43

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.644

0.428

0.730

0.486

0.823

0.548

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

0.835

0.557

0.947

0.631

1.07

r y , in.

0.712

1.77

1.76

1.76

3.16

3.13

3.11

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-91

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W12

Shape

96
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.86
1.24

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.00
0.668

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.08
1.38

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.11
0.737

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
2.32
1.54

6
7
8
9
10

0.959
0.977
0.999
1.02
1.05

0.638
0.650
0.664
0.681
0.700

1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.88

1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.25

1.06
1.08
1.10
1.13
1.16

0.704
0.717
0.733
0.751
0.772

2.08
2.08
2.08
2.08
2.09

1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.39

1.17
1.19
1.22
1.25
1.28

0.777
0.792
0.810
0.830
0.854

2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32

1.54
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.55

11
12
13
14
15

1.08
1.12
1.16
1.21
1.26

0.721
0.745
0.772
0.803
0.837

1.90
1.93
1.96
1.98
2.01

1.27
1.28
1.30
1.32
1.34

1.20
1.24
1.28
1.33
1.39

0.796
0.823
0.853
0.888
0.926

2.12
2.16
2.19
2.23
2.26

1.41
1.44
1.46
1.48
1.51

1.32
1.37
1.42
1.48
1.54

0.880
0.911
0.945
0.983
1.03

2.36
2.40
2.44
2.49
2.53

1.57
1.60
1.63
1.66
1.69

16
17
18
19
20

1.32
1.38
1.45
1.53
1.62

0.875
0.917
0.965
1.02
1.08

2.04
2.08
2.11
2.14
2.18

1.36
1.38
1.40
1.42
1.45

1.46
1.53
1.61
1.70
1.79

0.968
1.02
1.07
1.13
1.19

2.30
2.34
2.38
2.42
2.46

1.53
1.56
1.58
1.61
1.64

1.61
1.69
1.78
1.88
1.99

1.07
1.13
1.19
1.25
1.33

2.58
2.63
2.68
2.73
2.78

1.72
1.75
1.78
1.82
1.85

22
24
26
28
30

1.82
2.08
2.41
2.79
3.20

1.21
1.38
1.60
1.86
2.13

2.25
2.32
2.41
2.49
2.59

1.50
1.55
1.60
1.66
1.72

2.03
2.32
2.68
3.11
3.57

1.35
1.54
1.79
2.07
2.38

2.56
2.65
2.76
2.88
3.00

1.70
1.77
1.84
1.91
2.00

2.26
2.58
3.00
3.48
4.00

1.50
1.72
2.00
2.32
2.66

2.90
3.02
3.16
3.31
3.47

1.93
2.01
2.10
2.20
2.31

32
34
36
38
40

3.64
4.11
4.61
5.14
5.69

2.42
2.74
3.07
3.42
3.79

2.69
1.79
4.07
2.71
3.14
2.80
1.87
4.59
3.05
3.29
2.92
1.95
5.15
3.42
3.51
3.09
2.05
5.73
3.81
3.74
3.27
2.18
6.35
4.23
3.97
Other Constants and Properties

2.09
2.19
2.33
2.49
2.64

4.55
5.13
5.75
6.41
7.10

3.02
3.41
3.83
4.26
4.73

3.65
3.93
4.21
4.50
4.78

2.43
2.61
2.80
2.99
3.18

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.911 0.606

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

79f

87
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

4.06

2.70

4.54

3.02

5.09

3.38

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.911

0.606

1.00

0.668

1.11

0.737

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.18

0.788

1.30

0.868

1.44

r y , in.
f

W12

0.958

1.76

1.75

1.75

3.09

3.07

3.05

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-92

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W12

W12

Shape

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

58
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.22
0.810

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.61
1.74

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.35
0.895

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.99
1.99

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.51
1.01

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
3.17
2.11

6
7
8
9
10

1.28
1.31
1.34
1.37
1.41

0.855
0.871
0.891
0.913
0.939

2.61
2.61
2.61
2.61
2.61

1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74

1.42
1.45
1.48
1.52
1.56

0.945
0.963
0.985
1.01
1.04

2.99
2.99
2.99
2.99
2.99

1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99

1.63
1.68
1.74
1.80
1.88

1.09
1.12
1.16
1.20
1.25

3.17
3.17
3.19
3.26
3.34

2.11
2.11
2.12
2.17
2.22

11
12
13
14
15

1.46
1.51
1.56
1.63
1.70

0.969
1.00
1.04
1.08
1.13

2.61
2.66
2.71
2.76
2.81

1.74
1.77
1.80
1.84
1.87

1.61
1.67
1.73
1.81
1.89

1.07
1.11
1.15
1.20
1.25

2.99
2.99
3.04
3.10
3.17

1.99
1.99
2.02
2.06
2.11

1.97
2.07
2.18
2.31
2.46

1.31
1.37
1.45
1.54
1.64

3.42
3.50
3.59
3.68
3.78

2.27
2.33
2.39
2.45
2.51

16
17
18
19
20

1.78
1.87
1.97
2.08
2.20

1.18
1.24
1.31
1.38
1.47

2.87
2.93
2.99
3.05
3.12

1.91
1.95
1.99
2.03
2.07

1.98
2.08
2.19
2.31
2.45

1.31
1.38
1.46
1.54
1.63

3.23
3.30
3.38
3.46
3.54

2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
2.35

2.64
2.83
3.06
3.31
3.60

1.75
1.88
2.03
2.20
2.40

3.88
3.99
4.10
4.22
4.35

2.58
2.65
2.73
2.81
2.89

22
24
26
28
30

2.49
2.86
3.32
3.85
4.42

1.66
1.90
2.21
2.56
2.94

3.26
3.41
3.58
3.77
3.98

2.17
2.27
2.38
2.51
2.64

2.78
3.19
3.72
4.31
4.95

1.85
2.12
2.47
2.87
3.29

3.71
3.90
4.11
4.35
4.71

2.47
2.60
2.74
2.90
3.13

4.33
5.15
6.05
7.01
8.05

2.88
3.43
4.02
4.67
5.36

4.63
4.95
5.47
6.02
6.57

3.08
3.29
3.64
4.01
4.37

32
34
36
38
40

5.03
5.68
6.37
7.09
7.86

3.35
3.78
4.24
4.72
5.23

4.29
2.86
5.63
3.75
5.13
4.63
3.08
6.36
4.23
5.55
4.98
3.31
7.13
4.74
5.97
5.32
3.54
7.94
5.28
6.39
5.66
3.76
8.80
5.85
6.81
Other Constants and Properties

3.41
3.69
3.98
4.25
4.53

9.16
10.3
11.6
12.9
14.3

6.09
6.88
7.71
8.59
9.52

7.12
7.66
8.21
8.75
9.29

4.74
5.10
5.46
5.82
6.18

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

65f

72
3

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

5.80

3.86

6.74

4.48

8.43

5.61

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.22

0.810

1.35

0.895

1.51

1.01

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.58

1.05

1.75

1.16

1.96

r y , in.
f

Fy = 65 ksi

1.31

1.75

1.75

2.10

3.04

3.02

2.51

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-93

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W12

Shape

50

53

b x 10

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.65
1.10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
3.58
2.38

6
7
8
9
10

1.78
1.84
1.90
1.97
2.06

1.19
1.22
1.26
1.31
1.37

3.58
3.58
3.58
3.63
3.72

11
12
13
14
15

2.16
2.27
2.40
2.55
2.72

1.43
1.51
1.60
1.69
1.81

16
17
18
19
20

2.91
3.13
3.39
3.68
4.01

22
24
26
28
30

4.83
5.75
6.75
7.83
8.99

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W12

32
34
36
38
40

10.2
11.5
12.9
14.4
16.0

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.76
1.17

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
3.81
2.54

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.96
1.30

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
4.27
2.84

2.38
2.38
2.38
2.42
2.48

2.00
2.10
2.21
2.35
2.51

1.33
1.39
1.47
1.56
1.67

3.81
3.91
4.03
4.15
4.28

2.54
2.60
2.68
2.76
2.85

2.23
2.34
2.47
2.63
2.81

1.49
1.56
1.64
1.75
1.87

4.27
4.39
4.53
4.68
4.84

2.84
2.92
3.02
3.11
3.22

3.82
3.92
4.02
4.13
4.25

2.54
2.61
2.68
2.75
2.83

2.71
2.94
3.21
3.54
3.92

1.80
1.96
2.14
2.35
2.61

4.42
4.57
4.73
4.90
5.08

2.94
3.04
3.14
3.26
3.38

3.03
3.29
3.60
3.97
4.41

2.02
2.19
2.40
2.64
2.93

5.01
5.19
5.38
5.59
5.82

3.33
3.45
3.58
3.72
3.87

1.94
2.08
2.25
2.45
2.67

4.38
4.51
4.65
4.80
4.96

2.91
3.00
3.09
3.19
3.30

4.38
4.94
5.53
6.17
6.83

2.91
3.28
3.68
4.10
4.55

5.27
5.49
5.72
5.96
6.33

3.51
3.65
3.80
3.97
4.21

4.93
5.56
6.23
6.94
7.69

3.28
3.70
4.15
4.62
5.12

6.07
6.34
6.63
7.06
7.58

4.04
4.22
4.41
4.70
5.04

3.22
3.83
4.49
5.21
5.98

5.31
5.81
6.48
7.15
7.81

3.53
3.86
4.31
4.75
5.20

8.27
9.84
11.5
13.4
15.4

5.50
6.55
7.68
8.91
10.2

7.17
8.01
8.84
9.67
10.5

4.77
5.33
5.88
6.44
6.99

9.31
11.1
13.0
15.1
17.3

6.19
7.37
8.65
10.0
11.5

8.62
9.66
10.7
11.7
12.8

5.73
6.43
7.11
7.80
8.48

7.53

19.7

13.1

13.8

9.16

8.48
5.64
17.5
11.6
11.3
9.15
6.09
9.81
6.53
10.5
6.97
11.1
7.41
Other Constants and Properties

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

9.68

6.44

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.65

1.10

1.76

1.17

1.96

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.14

1.42

2.28

1.52

2.54

r y , in.

-1

6.80
7.68
8.61
9.59
10.6

-1

45
3

12.9

8.56

14.4

9.60
1.30
1.70

2.11

2.64

2.64

2.48

1.96

1.95

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-94

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W12

W12

Shape

35c

40

b x 10

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.22
1.48

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
4.81
3.20

6
7
8
9
10

2.50
2.62
2.77
2.95
3.16

1.67
1.75
1.84
1.96
2.10

4.81
4.96
5.13
5.31
5.50

11
12
13
14
15

3.41
3.71
4.06
4.48
4.98

2.27
2.47
2.70
2.98
3.31

16
17
18
19
20

5.57
6.29
7.05
7.85
8.70

3.71
4.18
4.69
5.23
5.79

Design
0

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

-1

30c
b x 10

p 10

b x 103

-1

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.58
1.71

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
5.35
3.56

(kips)
ASD LRFD
3.12
2.08

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
6.36
4.23

3.20
3.30
3.41
3.53
3.66

3.09
3.31
3.61
3.98
4.44

2.06
2.20
2.40
2.65
2.96

5.64
5.89
6.18
6.48
6.82

3.75
3.92
4.11
4.31
4.54

3.74
4.00
4.33
4.75
5.29

2.49
2.66
2.88
3.16
3.52

6.74
7.07
7.43
7.84
8.28

4.48
4.70
4.95
5.21
5.51

5.71
5.94
6.18
6.44
6.73

3.80
3.95
4.11
4.28
4.47

5.01
5.73
6.63
7.69
8.82

3.34
3.81
4.41
5.11
5.87

7.20
7.63
8.10
8.65
9.60

4.79
5.07
5.39
5.76
6.39

5.99
6.86
7.97
9.25
10.6

3.98
4.56
5.30
6.15
7.06

8.79
9.36
10.0
11.1
12.4

5.85
6.22
6.65
7.41
8.26

7.04
7.38
7.87
8.52
9.16

4.68
4.91
5.24
5.67
6.10

10.0
11.3
12.7
14.2
15.7

6.68
7.54
8.45
9.42
10.4

10.6
11.5
12.5
13.4
14.4

7.02
7.66
8.30
8.94
9.59

12.1
13.6
15.3
17.0
18.9

8.04
9.07
10.2
11.3
12.6

13.7
15.0
16.4
17.7
19.0

9.13
10.0
10.9
11.8
12.7

19.0
22.6

12.6
15.0

16.3
18.3

22.8
27.2

15.2
18.1

21.7
24.4

14.5
16.3

22
24
26
28
30

10.5
12.5
14.7
17.1
19.6

7.01
8.34
9.79
11.3
13.0

10.5
11.8
13.1
14.4
15.7

6.96
7.83
8.69
9.56
10.4

32

22.3

14.8

16.9

11.3

-1

10.9
12.2

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

16.3

10.9

23.8

15.9

28.7

t y 103 (kips)-1

2.20

1.46

2.49

1.66

2.92

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.85

1.90

3.24

2.16

3.79

r y , in.

19.1
1.94
2.53

2.64

3.41

3.43

1.94

1.54

1.52

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-95

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W12

Shape

c,f

b x 10

p 10

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

(kips)
ASD LRFD
4.34
2.89

1
2
3
4
5

3.70
3.76
3.85
3.98
4.17

2.46
2.50
2.56
2.65
2.77

7.48
7.48
7.48
7.48
7.48

4.97
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.98

4.40
4.60
4.96
5.54
6.44

2.93
3.06
3.30
3.69
4.28

9.35
9.35
9.63
10.5
11.4

6.22
6.22
6.41
6.96
7.61

5.31
5.55
6.00
6.71
7.83

3.53
3.70
3.99
4.47
5.21

11.1
11.1
11.5
12.6
13.9

6
7
8
9
10

4.40
4.71
5.09
5.57
6.19

2.93
3.13
3.39
3.71
4.12

7.85
8.25
8.71
9.21
9.78

5.22
5.49
5.79
6.13
6.50

7.87
10.1
13.2
16.7
20.6

5.23
6.70
8.75
11.1
13.7

12.6
14.1
16.3
19.6
23.0

8.40
9.38
10.8
13.0
15.3

9.59
12.5
16.3
20.6
25.5

6.38
8.30
10.8
13.7
16.9

15.5
17.5
21.2
25.7
30.4

10.3
11.7
14.1
17.1
20.2

11
12
13
14
15

6.97
7.97
9.28
10.8
12.4

4.63
5.30
6.18
7.16
8.22

10.4
11.1
12.2
13.8
15.4

6.93
7.42
8.12
9.19
10.3

24.9
29.6
34.7
40.3

16.6
19.7
23.1
26.8

26.5
30.0
33.5
37.1

17.6
20.0
22.3
24.7

30.8
36.7
43.0

20.5
24.4
28.6

35.2
40.1
45.1

23.4
26.7
30.0

16
17
18
19
20

14.1
15.9
17.8
19.8
22.0

9.36
10.6
11.8
13.2
14.6

17.1
18.8
20.6
22.3
24.1

11.4
12.5
13.7
14.9
16.0

21
22
23
24
25

24.2
26.6
29.1
31.6
34.3

16.1
17.7
19.3
21.0
22.8

25.9
17.2
27.7
18.4
29.5
19.6
31.3
20.8
33.1
22.0
Other Constants and Properties
22.8

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
7.48
4.97

34.3

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
3.69
2.45

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

-1

19c
3

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

22c

26
3

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
9.35
6.22

74.9

49.8

-1

(kips)
(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
5.23
3.48 11.1
7.38

92.0

7.38
7.38
7.67
8.38
9.25

61.2

t y 103 (kips)-1

3.36

2.23

3.96

2.64

4.61

3.07

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

4.36

2.90

5.14

3.43

5.98

3.99

r y , in.
c

W12

3.42

5.79

5.86

1.51

0.848

0.822

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-96

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W12

W12

Shape

c,v

14c,f,v

16

b x 10

p 10

-1

Design
Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry , or
Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

(kip-ft)
ASD
LRFD
13.6
9.07

ASD
6.43

LRFD
4.28

1
2
3
4
5

6.53
6.85
7.43
8.39
9.94

4.34
4.56
4.95
5.59
6.61

13.6
13.6
14.4
15.9
17.8

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)-1
ASD
LRFD
16.1
10.7

p 10

-1

(kips)

(kips)
ASD
7.57

LRFD
5.03

9.07
9.07
9.59
10.6
11.8

7.68
8.06
8.75
9.90
11.7

5.11
5.36
5.82
6.58
7.82

16.1
16.1
16.8
18.6
20.9

10.7
10.7
11.2
12.4
13.9

6
7
8
9
10

12.5
16.7
21.8
27.6
34.0

8.30
11.1
14.5
18.3
22.6

20.1
23.4
29.5
36.1
42.9

13.4
15.5
19.6
24.0
28.5

14.8
19.9
26.0
32.9
40.6

9.86
13.2
17.3
21.9
27.0

23.8
28.7
36.4
44.6
53.3

15.8
19.1
24.2
29.7
35.5

11
12

41.2
49.0

27.4
32.6

50.0
57.2

33.3
38.1

49.1
58.5

32.7
38.9

62.4
71.8

41.5
47.8

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

121

80.8

149

t y 103 (kips)-1

5.45

3.63

6.18

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

7.08

4.72

8.01

r y , in.

99.3
4.11
5.34

6.04

6.14

0.773

0.753

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet the h /t w limit for shear in AISC Specification Section G2.1(a) with F y = 65 ksi; therefore,
v = 0.90 and v = 1.67.

Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-97

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W10

Shape

112

100
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
1.86
1.24

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.877 0.583

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.11
1.40

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.988 0.657

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
2.43
1.61

6
7
8
9
10

0.836
0.857
0.882
0.911
0.945

0.556
0.570
0.587
0.606
0.629

1.86
1.86
1.86
1.88
1.90

1.24
1.24
1.24
1.25
1.26

0.941
0.965
0.993
1.03
1.07

0.626
0.642
0.661
0.683
0.709

2.11
2.11
2.11
2.13
2.15

1.40
1.40
1.40
1.41
1.43

1.06
1.09
1.12
1.16
1.20

0.706
0.724
0.746
0.772
0.801

2.43
2.43
2.43
2.45
2.48

1.61
1.61
1.61
1.63
1.65

11
12
13
14
15

0.983
1.03
1.08
1.13
1.20

0.654
0.684
0.717
0.755
0.798

1.91
1.93
1.95
1.97
1.99

1.27
1.29
1.30
1.31
1.33

1.11
1.16
1.22
1.28
1.36

0.739
0.772
0.811
0.855
0.905

2.17
2.20
2.22
2.25
2.28

1.45
1.46
1.48
1.50
1.51

1.26
1.31
1.38
1.46
1.54

0.835
0.874
0.919
0.969
1.03

2.51
2.55
2.58
2.61
2.65

1.67
1.69
1.72
1.74
1.76

16
17
18
19
20

1.27
1.35
1.45
1.55
1.67

0.846
0.901
0.963
1.03
1.11

2.01
2.04
2.06
2.08
2.10

1.34
1.35
1.37
1.38
1.40

1.44
1.54
1.65
1.77
1.91

0.961
1.02
1.10
1.18
1.27

2.30
2.33
2.36
2.39
2.42

1.53
1.55
1.57
1.59
1.61

1.64
1.75
1.88
2.02
2.18

1.09
1.16
1.25
1.34
1.45

2.68
2.72
2.76
2.80
2.84

1.79
1.81
1.84
1.86
1.89

22
24
26
28
30

1.96
2.34
2.74
3.18
3.65

1.31
1.55
1.82
2.11
2.43

2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
2.36

1.43
1.46
1.50
1.53
1.57

2.25
2.68
3.15
3.65
4.19

1.50
1.78
2.09
2.43
2.79

2.48
2.54
2.61
2.68
2.76

1.65
1.69
1.74
1.79
1.84

2.58
3.07
3.60
4.18
4.79

1.72
2.04
2.40
2.78
3.19

2.92
3.01
3.11
3.21
3.31

1.94
2.00
2.07
2.13
2.21

32
34
36
38
40

4.15
4.69
5.25
5.85
6.49

2.76
3.12
3.50
3.90
4.32

2.42
1.61
4.77
3.17
2.84
2.48
1.65
5.38
3.58
2.93
2.55
1.70
6.03
4.01
3.02
2.62
1.74
6.72
4.47
3.11
2.69
1.79
7.45
4.96
3.22
Other Constants and Properties

1.89
1.95
2.01
2.07
2.14

5.46
6.16
6.90
7.69
8.52

3.63
4.10
4.59
5.12
5.67

3.43
3.55
3.69
3.83
3.99

2.28
2.36
2.45
2.55
2.65

-1

88
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
0.781 0.520

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W10

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

3.96

2.63

4.49

2.99

5.16

3.43

t y 103 (kips)-1

0.781

0.520

0.877

0.583

0.988

0.657

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.01

0.675

1.14

0.758

1.28

r y , in.

0.855

1.75

1.74

1.71

2.68

2.65

2.63

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-98

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W10

W10

Shape

77

68
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

60
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.13
0.753

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
2.81
1.87

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.29
0.859

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
3.21
2.14

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.45
0.966

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
3.67
2.44

6
7
8
9
10

1.22
1.25
1.29
1.33
1.39

0.810
0.832
0.857
0.887
0.922

2.81
2.81
2.81
2.85
2.89

1.87
1.87
1.87
1.89
1.92

1.39
1.43
1.47
1.52
1.58

0.924
0.949
0.979
1.01
1.05

3.21
3.21
3.21
3.26
3.32

2.14
2.14
2.14
2.17
2.21

1.56
1.61
1.66
1.72
1.79

1.04
1.07
1.10
1.14
1.19

3.67
3.67
3.68
3.74
3.81

2.44
2.44
2.45
2.49
2.54

11
12
13
14
15

1.45
1.51
1.59
1.68
1.78

0.962
1.01
1.06
1.12
1.19

2.93
2.97
3.02
3.06
3.11

1.95
1.98
2.01
2.04
2.07

1.65
1.73
1.82
1.93
2.04

1.10
1.15
1.21
1.28
1.36

3.37
3.43
3.49
3.55
3.61

2.24
2.28
2.32
2.36
2.40

1.87
1.96
2.06
2.18
2.31

1.24
1.30
1.37
1.45
1.54

3.88
3.96
4.03
4.11
4.19

2.58
2.63
2.68
2.74
2.79

16
17
18
19
20

1.90
2.03
2.18
2.35
2.54

1.26
1.35
1.45
1.56
1.69

3.16
3.21
3.26
3.32
3.37

2.10
2.14
2.17
2.21
2.24

2.18
2.33
2.50
2.70
2.92

1.45
1.55
1.66
1.79
1.94

3.67
3.74
3.81
3.88
3.96

2.44
2.49
2.54
2.58
2.63

2.47
2.64
2.84
3.07
3.33

1.64
1.76
1.89
2.04
2.21

4.28
4.37
4.46
4.56
4.66

2.85
2.91
2.97
3.03
3.10

22
24
26
28
30

3.02
3.60
4.22
4.89
5.62

2.01
2.39
2.81
3.26
3.74

3.49
3.61
3.75
3.89
4.05

2.32
2.40
2.49
2.59
2.70

3.47
4.13
4.85
5.63
6.46

2.31
2.75
3.23
3.74
4.30

4.12
4.29
4.48
4.69
4.91

2.74
2.86
2.98
3.12
3.27

3.97
4.72
5.54
6.42
7.38

2.64
3.14
3.69
4.27
4.91

4.88
5.12
5.38
5.68
6.07

3.25
3.41
3.58
3.78
4.04

32
34
36
38
40

6.39
7.22
8.09
9.02
9.99

4.25
4.80
5.38
6.00
6.65

4.22
2.81
7.35
4.89
5.16
4.41
2.93
8.30
5.52
5.53
4.64
3.09
9.30
6.19
5.89
4.92
3.27
10.4
6.90
6.25
5.20
3.46
11.5
7.64
6.61
Other Constants and Properties

3.43
3.68
3.92
4.16
4.40

8.39
9.47
10.6
11.8
13.1

5.58
6.30
7.07
7.87
8.72

6.55
7.02
7.49
7.96
8.43

4.36
4.67
4.98
5.30
5.61

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

5.97

3.97

6.83

4.55

7.83

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.13

0.753

1.29

0.859

1.45

0.966

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.47

0.979

1.68

1.12

1.88

1.26

r y , in.

5.21

1.73

1.70

1.71

2.60

2.59

2.57

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-99

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W10

Shape

49f

54

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

45
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
4.13
2.75

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.78
1.19

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
4.66
3.10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.93
1.29

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
4.99
3.32

6
7
8
9
10

1.75
1.80
1.86
1.93
2.00

1.17
1.20
1.24
1.28
1.33

4.13
4.13
4.13
4.20
4.29

2.75
2.75
2.75
2.80
2.85

1.93
1.98
2.04
2.12
2.21

1.28
1.32
1.36
1.41
1.47

4.66
4.66
4.66
4.66
4.75

3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.16

2.18
2.28
2.40
2.54
2.71

1.45
1.52
1.60
1.69
1.80

4.99
5.09
5.22
5.35
5.50

3.32
3.38
3.47
3.56
3.66

11
12
13
14
15

2.09
2.20
2.31
2.45
2.60

1.39
1.46
1.54
1.63
1.73

4.38
4.47
4.56
4.66
4.77

2.91
2.97
3.04
3.10
3.17

2.31
2.42
2.55
2.70
2.88

1.53
1.61
1.70
1.80
1.91

4.85
4.96
5.08
5.20
5.32

3.23
3.30
3.38
3.46
3.54

2.91
3.15
3.42
3.75
4.14

1.94
2.09
2.28
2.50
2.75

5.65
5.81
5.98
6.16
6.35

3.76
3.86
3.98
4.10
4.22

16
17
18
19
20

2.78
2.97
3.20
3.46
3.75

1.85
1.98
2.13
2.30
2.49

4.88
4.99
5.11
5.24
5.37

3.25
3.32
3.40
3.49
3.57

3.07
3.29
3.55
3.84
4.17

2.04
2.19
2.36
2.55
2.77

5.46
5.60
5.74
5.90
6.06

3.63
3.72
3.82
3.92
4.03

4.60
5.15
5.78
6.44
7.13

3.06
3.43
3.84
4.28
4.75

6.55
6.76
6.99
7.24
7.51

4.36
4.50
4.65
4.82
4.99

22
24
26
28
30

4.48
5.33
6.25
7.25
8.33

2.98
3.55
4.16
4.83
5.54

5.66
5.97
6.33
6.82
7.42

3.76
3.98
4.21
4.54
4.94

4.99
5.94
6.97
8.08
9.28

3.32
3.95
4.64
5.38
6.17

6.41
6.81
7.31
8.03
8.75

4.27
4.53
4.87
5.35
5.82

8.63
10.3
12.1
14.0
16.0

5.74
6.83
8.02
9.30
10.7

8.15
9.06
9.96
10.9
11.7

5.42
6.03
6.63
7.22
7.82

32
34
36
38
40

9.47
10.7
12.0
13.4
14.8

6.30
7.12
7.98
8.89
9.85

8.01
5.33
10.6
7.03
9.47
8.60
5.72
11.9
7.93 10.2
9.19
6.11
13.4
8.89 10.9
9.77
6.50
14.9
9.91 11.6
10.4
6.89
16.5
11.0
12.3
Other Constants and Properties

6.30
6.77
7.24
7.71
8.18

18.3

12.1

12.6

8.41

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

8.80

5.86

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.63

1.08

1.78

1.19

1.93

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.11

1.41

2.31

1.54

2.51

r y , in.

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.63
1.08

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W10

10.1

6.69

13.5

8.98
1.29
1.67

1.72

1.73

2.14

2.56

2.54

2.01

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-100

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W10

W10

Shape

33f

39
b x 10

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.23
1.49

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
5.86
3.90

6
7
8
9
10

2.53
2.65
2.79
2.96
3.17

1.69
1.76
1.86
1.97
2.11

5.86
6.00
6.17
6.35
6.55

11
12
13
14
15

3.41
3.69
4.03
4.43
4.90

2.27
2.46
2.68
2.95
3.26

16
17
18
19
20

5.46
6.14
6.88
7.67
8.50

3.63
4.09
4.58
5.10
5.66

Design
0

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

-1

30
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.65
1.76

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
7.29
4.85

(kips)
ASD LRFD
2.91
1.93

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
7.49
4.98

3.90
3.99
4.11
4.23
4.36

3.02
3.16
3.34
3.55
3.81

2.01
2.10
2.22
2.36
2.53

7.29
7.29
7.52
7.78
8.05

4.85
4.85
5.01
5.18
5.36

3.78
4.15
4.63
5.25
6.03

2.51
2.76
3.08
3.49
4.01

8.09
8.47
8.89
9.36
9.88

6.75
6.97
7.21
7.46
7.73

4.49
4.64
4.79
4.96
5.14

4.11
4.47
4.89
5.40
6.00

2.73
2.97
3.26
3.59
3.99

8.34
8.66
9.00
9.36
9.76

5.55
5.76
5.99
6.23
6.49

7.02
8.31
9.76
11.3
13.0

4.67
5.53
6.49
7.53
8.64

10.5
11.1
11.8
13.0
14.3

8.01
8.33
8.66
9.03
9.47

5.33
5.54
5.76
6.01
6.30

6.71
7.58
8.49
9.46
10.5

4.47
5.04
5.65
6.30
6.98

10.2
10.7
11.2
12.1
13.0

6.78
7.10
7.44
8.04
8.63

14.8
16.7
18.7
20.8
23.1

9.83
11.1
12.4
13.9
15.4

15.6
16.8
18.1
19.4
20.7

10.4
11.2
12.1
12.9
13.8

27.9

18.6

23.2

15.4

22
24
26
28
30

10.3
12.2
14.4
16.7
19.1

6.84
8.14
9.56
11.1
12.7

10.7
11.9
13.2
14.4
15.6

7.13
7.95
8.77
9.58
10.4

12.7
15.1
17.7
20.6
23.6

8.44
10.0
11.8
13.7
15.7

14.8
16.5
18.3
20.1
21.9

9.82
11.0
12.2
13.4
14.5

32

21.8

14.5

16.8

11.2

26.8

17.9

23.6

15.7

5.38
5.63
5.92
6.23
6.57
6.96
7.39
7.88
8.65
9.50

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

15.9

10.6

20.5

13.7

31.0

20.6

t y 103 (kips)-1

2.23

1.49

2.65

1.76

2.91

1.93

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.90

1.93

3.43

2.29

3.77

2.51

r y , in.

2.17

2.16

3.20

1.98

1.94

1.37

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-101

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W10

Shape

26

22c
b x 10

p 10

-1

19c
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

p 10

-1

(kips)
ASD LRFD
3.44
2.29

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
8.76
5.83

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
4.11
2.74 10.5
7.01

(kips)
(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
4.73
3.15 12.7
8.44

1
2
3
4
5

3.46
3.53
3.65
3.82
4.06

2.30
2.35
2.43
2.54
2.70

8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
9.08

5.83
5.83
5.83
5.83
6.04

4.14
4.22
4.37
4.58
4.87

2.75
2.81
2.90
3.04
3.24

10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
11.0

7.01
7.01
7.01
7.01
7.34

4.80
5.03
5.43
6.09
7.16

3.20
3.34
3.61
4.05
4.76

12.7
12.7
13.0
14.0
15.2

8.44
8.44
8.62
9.30
10.1

6
7
8
9
10

4.41
4.85
5.42
6.15
7.08

2.93
3.23
3.61
4.09
4.71

9.53
10.0
10.6
11.2
11.9

6.34
6.67
7.03
7.44
7.90

5.25
5.78
6.50
7.41
8.58

3.50
3.85
4.32
4.93
5.71

11.6
12.3
13.1
14.0
15.0

7.74
8.20
8.71
9.29
9.95

8.71
11.0
14.3
18.1
22.3

5.80
7.32
9.50
12.0
14.8

16.6
18.3
20.4
24.2
28.2

11.0
12.2
13.6
16.1
18.8

11
12
13
14
15

8.27
9.80
11.5
13.3
15.3

5.50
6.52
7.65
8.88
10.2

12.7
13.5
15.0
16.7
18.4

8.42
9.01
9.96
11.1
12.2

10.1
12.0
14.1
16.4
18.8

6.72
8.00
9.38
10.9
12.5

16.1
17.7
20.1
22.5
25.0

10.7
11.8
13.4
15.0
16.6

27.0
32.1
37.7
43.7

18.0
21.4
25.1
29.1

32.3
36.4
40.5
44.6

21.5
24.2
26.9
29.7

16
17
18
19
20

17.4
19.7
22.1
24.6
27.2

11.6
13.1
14.7
16.3
18.1

20.1
21.8
23.6
25.3
27.0

13.4
14.5
15.7
16.8
18.0

21.4
24.1
27.0
30.1
33.4

14.2
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.2

27.4
29.9
32.4
34.9
37.4

18.2
19.9
21.6
23.2
24.9

21
22

30.0
32.9

20.0
21.9

28.7
30.5

19.1
20.3

36.8
40.4

24.5
26.9

39.9
42.4

26.5
28.2

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W10

-1

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

36.5

24.3

44.9

29.9

81.8

t y 103 (kips)-1

3.38

2.25

3.96

2.63

4.57

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

4.38

2.92

5.14

3.42

5.93

r y , in.

54.4
3.04
3.95

3.20

3.21

4.74

1.36

1.33

0.874

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.


Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-102

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W10

W10

Shape

15c

17

b x 10

p 10

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

-1

12c,f
b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
5.41
3.60 14.7
9.75

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
6.24
4.15 17.1
11.4

1
2
3
4
5

5.50
5.76
6.24
7.02
8.31

6.34
6.66
7.25
8.21
9.81

3.66
3.83
4.15
4.67
5.53

14.7
14.7
15.1
16.4
17.9

9.75
9.75
10.0
10.9
11.9

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
22.7 15.1

5.61
5.89
6.40
7.24
8.57

22.7
22.7
22.9
25.2
28.1

15.1
15.1
15.2
16.8
18.7

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
8.30
5.52

4.22
4.43
4.82
5.46
6.53

17.1
17.1
17.8
19.5
21.5

11.4
11.4
11.9
13.0
14.3

8.43
8.85
9.62
10.9
12.9

6
7
8
9
10

10.3
13.2
17.2
21.8
26.9

6.83
8.76
11.4
14.5
17.9

19.8
22.1
25.4
30.6
36.0

13.2
14.7
16.9
20.4
23.9

12.3
16.2
21.2
26.8
33.1

8.21
10.8
14.1
17.8
22.0

24.0
27.1
32.8
39.6
46.8

16.0
18.0
21.8
26.4
31.1

16.1
21.5
28.1
35.6
43.9

10.7
14.3
18.7
23.7
29.2

31.7
36.6
46.2
56.5
67.2

21.1
24.4
30.8
37.6
44.7

11
12
13
14

32.5
38.7
45.4
52.7

21.6
25.8
30.2
35.1

41.4
46.8
52.3
57.8

27.5
31.2
34.8
38.5

40.1
47.7
56.0

26.7
31.7
37.2

54.0
61.4
68.8

35.9
40.9
45.8

53.1
63.2
74.2

35.4
42.1
49.4

78.3
89.6
101

52.1
59.6
67.3

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

65.1

119

79.3

168

111

t y 103 (kips)-1

5.15

3.43

5.83

3.88

7.26

4.83

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

6.68

4.45

7.56

5.04

9.42

6.28

r y , in.
c

97.9

4.79

4.88

4.97

0.845

0.810

0.785

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-103

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W8

Shape

67

58
b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

b x 103

-1

p 10

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
3.91
2.60

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.50
1.00

(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD
4.58
3.05

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.82
1.21

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
5.59
3.72

6
7
8
9
10

1.46
1.51
1.58
1.67
1.77

0.968
1.01
1.05
1.11
1.18

3.91
3.93
3.98
4.04
4.09

2.60
2.62
2.65
2.69
2.72

1.68
1.75
1.83
1.93
2.05

1.12
1.16
1.22
1.29
1.36

4.58
4.62
4.69
4.76
4.84

3.05
3.07
3.12
3.17
3.22

2.04
2.13
2.23
2.35
2.50

1.36
1.42
1.48
1.57
1.66

5.59
5.65
5.76
5.86
5.98

3.72
3.76
3.83
3.90
3.98

11
12
13
14
15

1.89
2.02
2.18
2.37
2.59

1.25
1.35
1.45
1.58
1.72

4.15
4.21
4.27
4.33
4.39

2.76
2.80
2.84
2.88
2.92

2.19
2.35
2.54
2.76
3.02

1.46
1.56
1.69
1.84
2.01

4.92
5.00
5.08
5.17
5.26

3.27
3.32
3.38
3.44
3.50

2.67
2.87
3.11
3.39
3.71

1.78
1.91
2.07
2.25
2.47

6.10
6.22
6.35
6.48
6.62

4.06
4.14
4.22
4.31
4.40

16
17
18
19
20

2.84
3.14
3.51
3.91
4.33

1.89
2.09
2.33
2.60
2.88

4.46
4.53
4.60
4.67
4.74

2.97
3.01
3.06
3.11
3.16

3.33
3.68
4.12
4.59
5.08

2.21
2.45
2.74
3.05
3.38

5.35
5.45
5.55
5.65
5.76

3.56
3.62
3.69
3.76
3.83

4.10
4.55
5.09
5.67
6.28

2.72
3.02
3.39
3.77
4.18

6.76
6.91
7.07
7.24
7.41

4.50
4.60
4.71
4.82
4.93

22
24
26
28
30

5.24
6.23
7.31
8.48
9.74

3.48
4.15
4.87
5.64
6.48

4.90
5.06
5.24
5.43
5.64

3.26
3.37
3.49
3.61
3.75

6.15
7.32
8.59
9.96
11.4

4.09
4.87
5.71
6.63
7.61

5.98
6.23
6.50
6.79
7.11

3.98
4.14
4.32
4.52
4.73

7.60
9.05
10.6
12.3
14.1

5.06
6.02
7.06
8.19
9.40

7.78
8.20
8.66
9.20
9.92

5.18
5.45
5.76
6.12
6.60

32
34

11.1
12.5

7.37
8.32

5.86
6.10

3.90
4.06

13.0
14.7

8.66
9.77

7.45
7.93

4.96
5.28

16.1
18.2

10.7
12.1

10.6
11.3

7.08
7.55

-1

48
3

(kips)
ASD LRFD
1.30
0.868

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W8

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

8.38

5.58

9.82

6.54

t y 103 (kips)-1

1.30

0.868

1.50

1.00

1.82

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

1.69

1.13

1.95

1.30

2.36

1.75

r y , in.
2.12
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y greater than or equal to 200.

12.0

7.96
1.21
1.58

1.74

1.74

2.10

2.08

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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IV-104

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W8

W8

Shape

35f

40
b x 10

p 10

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)-1
ASD
LRFD
7.91
5.27

p 10

-1

(kips)

(kip-ft)
ASD
LRFD
6.89
4.58

(kips)
ASD
2.49

LRFD
1.66

ASD
2.20

LRFD
1.46

6
7
8
9
10

2.47
2.58
2.71
2.87
3.05

1.64
1.72
1.80
1.91
2.03

6.89
6.99
7.14
7.31
7.48

4.58
4.65
4.75
4.86
4.97

2.81
2.94
3.09
3.26
3.48

1.87
1.95
2.05
2.17
2.31

7.91
8.03
8.24
8.45
8.67

5.27
5.35
5.48
5.62
5.77

11
12
13
14
15

3.27
3.53
3.83
4.18
4.60

2.18
2.35
2.55
2.78
3.06

7.66
7.84
8.04
8.25
8.46

5.09
5.22
5.35
5.49
5.63

3.73
4.02
4.37
4.78
5.27

2.48
2.68
2.91
3.18
3.50

8.91
9.15
9.42
9.70
9.99

5.93
6.09
6.27
6.45
6.65

16
17
18
19
20

5.10
5.69
6.38
7.10
7.87

3.39
3.78
4.24
4.73
5.24

8.69
8.94
9.19
9.46
9.75

5.78
5.95
6.12
6.30
6.49

5.84
6.52
7.31
8.15
9.03

3.88
4.34
4.87
5.42
6.01

10.3
10.6
11.0
11.4
11.8

6.86
7.08
7.31
7.57
7.84

22
24
26
28
30

9.52
11.3
13.3
15.4
17.7

6.34
7.54
8.85
10.3
11.8

10.4
11.1
12.2
13.3
14.4

10.9
13.0
15.3
17.7
20.3

7.27
8.65
10.2
11.8
13.5

12.8
14.2
15.6
17.0
18.4

8.50
9.45
10.4
11.3
12.3

32
34

20.1
22.7

13.4
15.1

15.4
16.5

23.1

15.4

19.8

13.2

6.91
7.42
8.14
8.85
9.57
10.3
11.0

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

14.8

9.86

17.1

t y 103 (kips)-1

2.20

1.46

2.49

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

2.85

1.90

3.24

r y , in.

11.4
1.66
2.16

1.73

1.73

2.04

2.03

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-105

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W8

Shape

28

31

b x 10

p 10

-1

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W8

(kip-ft)
ASD
LRFD
9.32
6.20

ASD
2.81

LRFD
1.87

6
7
8
9
10

3.18
3.32
3.49
3.69
3.94

2.11
2.21
2.32
2.46
2.62

9.32
9.32
9.45
9.72
10.0

11
12
13
14
15

4.22
4.56
4.96
5.43
5.99

2.81
3.03
3.30
3.61
3.98

16
17
18
19
20

6.64
7.43
8.33
9.28
10.3

22
24
26
28
30
32

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)-1
ASD
LRFD
10.1
6.70

p 10

-1

(kips)

(kips)
ASD
3.11

LRFD
2.07

6.20
6.20
6.29
6.47
6.66

3.76
4.02
4.35
4.75
5.25

2.50
2.68
2.89
3.16
3.49

10.4
10.7
11.1
11.5
11.9

6.92
7.15
7.39
7.66
7.94

10.3
10.6
11.0
11.3
11.7

6.86
7.07
7.30
7.55
7.81

5.85
6.60
7.52
8.67
9.96

3.89
4.39
5.00
5.77
6.62

12.4
12.9
13.4
14.0
14.6

8.25
8.58
8.93
9.32
9.74

4.42
4.94
5.54
6.18
6.84

12.2
12.6
13.1
13.6
14.2

8.08
8.38
8.71
9.06
9.43

11.3
12.8
14.3
16.0
17.7

7.54
8.51
9.54
10.6
11.8

15.3
16.1
17.4
18.6
19.8

10.2
10.7
11.6
12.4
13.2

12.4
14.8
17.4
20.2
23.1

8.28
9.86
11.6
13.4
15.4

16.0
17.8
19.6
21.4
23.3

10.6
11.8
13.1
14.3
15.5

21.4
25.5
29.9

14.2
17.0
19.9

22.1
24.5
26.9

14.7
16.3
17.9

26.3

17.5

25.1

16.7

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

20.4

13.6

27.1

t y 103 (kips)-1

2.81

1.87

3.11

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

3.65

2.43

4.04

r y , in.

18.1
2.07
2.69

1.72

2.13

2.02

1.62

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y greater than or equal to 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-106

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force
W-Shapes

W8

W8

Shape

21

24

b x 10

p 10

-1

b x 10

p 10

b x 103

0
1
2
3
4
5

3.65
3.71
3.81
3.95
4.14

2.43
2.47
2.53
2.63
2.76

11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9

7.91
7.91
7.91
7.91
7.91

4.21
4.32
4.51
4.79
5.17

2.80
2.87
3.00
3.19
3.44

13.4
13.4
13.4
13.5
14.1

8.94
8.94
8.94
8.98
9.41

4.93
5.06
5.30
5.65
6.12

3.28
3.37
3.53
3.76
4.07

16.1
16.1
16.1
16.3
17.1

10.7
10.7
10.7
10.8
11.4

6
7
8
9
10

4.39
4.70
5.09
5.57
6.15

2.92
3.13
3.39
3.70
4.09

12.3
12.8
13.3
13.8
14.4

8.18
8.49
8.82
9.18
9.57

5.69
6.36
7.24
8.39
9.88

3.78
4.23
4.82
5.58
6.57

14.8
15.6
16.5
17.5
18.6

9.88
10.4
11.0
11.6
12.3

6.76
7.61
8.72
10.2
12.1

4.50
5.06
5.80
6.76
8.03

18.1
19.2
20.4
21.8
23.3

12.0
12.8
13.6
14.5
15.5

11
12
13
14
15

6.87
7.76
8.86
10.2
11.7

4.57
5.16
5.89
6.81
7.81

15.0
15.7
16.5
17.3
18.2

9.99
10.4
11.0
11.5
12.1

11.9
14.1
16.6
19.2
22.0

7.89
9.39
11.0
12.8
14.7

19.8
21.2
23.5
26.0
28.5

13.2
14.1
15.7
17.3
18.9

14.6
17.3
20.3
23.6
27.1

9.69
11.5
13.5
15.7
18.0

25.2
28.3
31.8
35.3
38.8

16.7
18.9
21.2
23.5
25.8

16
17
18
19
20

13.4
15.1
16.9
18.8
20.9

8.89
10.0
11.3
12.5
13.9

19.6
21.2
22.9
24.5
26.1

13.0
14.1
15.2
16.3
17.4

25.1
28.3
31.7
35.4
39.2

16.7
18.8
21.1
23.5
26.1

30.9
33.4
35.9
38.3
40.7

20.6
22.2
23.9
25.5
27.1

30.8
34.8
39.0
43.5
48.2

20.5
23.1
26.0
28.9
32.0

42.4
45.9
49.4
52.9
56.4

28.2
30.5
32.9
35.2
37.5

21
22
23
24
25

23.0
25.3
27.6
30.1
32.6

15.3
16.8
18.4
20.0
21.7

27.8
18.5
43.2
28.7
43.2
29.4
19.6
31.0
20.6
32.6
21.7
34.2
22.8
Other Constants and Properties

28.7

21.4

-1

p 10

(kips)
(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
4.88
3.25 16.1
10.7

32.1

-1

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
4.17
2.78 13.4
8.94

b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

-1

18
3

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
3.63
2.41 11.9
7.91

Design

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

Fy = 65 ksi

48.2

32.0

-1

58.8

39.1

t y 103 (kips)-1

3.63

2.41

4.17

2.78

4.88

3.25

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

4.71

3.14

5.41

3.61

6.34

4.22

r y , in.

2.12

2.77

2.79

1.61

1.26

1.23

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y equal to or greater than 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Return to Table of Contents

IV-107

Table 6-1 (continued)

Combined Flexure
and Axial Force

Fy = 65 ksi

W-Shapes
W8

Shape

15
b x 10

p 10

-1

Design

10c,f

13
3

Effective length, KL (ft), with respect to least radius of gyration, ry ,


or Unbraced Length, Lb (ft), for X-X axis bending

W8

-1

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
5.79
3.85 20.2
13.4

1
2
3
4
5

5.89
6.21
6.79
7.70
9.04

b x 10

p 10

-1

-1

(kips)
(kip-ft)
ASD LRFD ASD LRFD
6.69
4.45 24.0
16.0

b x 103

-1

(kip-ft)-1
ASD LRFD
32.4 21.6

6.30
6.61
7.15
8.03
9.39

32.4
32.4
32.4
34.9
38.4

21.6
21.6
21.6
23.2
25.6

p 10

(kips)
ASD LRFD
9.33
6.21

3.92
4.13
4.52
5.12
6.01

20.2
20.2
20.6
22.1
23.9

13.4
13.4
13.7
14.7
15.9

6.82
7.23
7.96
9.11
10.8

4.54
4.81
5.29
6.06
7.20

24.0
24.0
24.8
26.8
29.3

16.0
16.0
16.5
17.9
19.5

9.47
9.93
10.8
12.1
14.1

6
7
8
9
10

11.0
13.9
18.0
22.8
28.1

7.32
9.23
12.0
15.2
18.7

26.1
28.7
31.8
36.9
42.9

17.4
19.1
21.2
24.5
28.5

13.4
17.2
22.5
28.4
35.1

8.91
11.4
14.9
18.9
23.4

32.3
35.9
41.0
49.1
57.4

21.5
23.9
27.3
32.7
38.2

17.4
22.4
29.3
37.1
45.8

11.6
14.9
19.5
24.7
30.4

42.8
48.3
58.8
71.3
84.3

28.5
32.2
39.1
47.4
56.1

11
12
13
14

34.0
40.5
47.5
55.1

22.6
26.9
31.6
36.7

48.9
54.9
60.9
66.9

32.5
36.5
40.5
44.5

42.5
50.6
59.3
68.8

28.3
33.6
39.5
45.8

65.8
74.3
82.7
91.2

43.8
49.4
55.0
60.7

55.4
65.9
77.3
89.7

36.8
43.8
51.5
59.7

97.6
111
125
139

64.9
73.9
83.0
92.2

Other Constants and Properties


b y 103 (kip-ft)-1

68.3

127

84.8

t y 103 (kips)-1

5.79

3.85

6.69

4.45

t r 103 (kips)-1
r x /r y

7.51

5.00

8.68

5.79

r y , in.
c

103

177

118

8.68

5.78

11.3

7.50

3.76

3.81

3.83

0.876

0.843

0.841

Shape is slender for compression with F y = 65 ksi.

Shape does not meet compact limit for flexure with F y = 65 ksi.
Note: Heavy line indicates KL /r y greater than or equal to 200.

Design Examples V14.0


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION