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BASIC CONCEPTS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Dependent Variable and the Independent Variable



Definition:
By a Differential Equation (DE), we shall mean any equation that involves the derivatives
or differential of a function or functions.

The following are examples of differential equations:

Common symbols/notations used to denote the derivative of a function are:
The numerator y of
dy
dx
indicates the dependent variable and the denominator x is the
independent variable.

Example:
Identify the dependent variable (DV) and the independent variable/s (IV) of the following
equations.
DV IV

2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
3
2
2
dy
cos x
dx
d y
k y 0
dx
(x y )dx 2xydy 0
u u u
h
t x y
d y dy
7 8y 0
dx dx
=
+ =
+ =
| | c c c
= +
|
c c c
\ .
| |
+ =
|
\ .
' "
x x
df dy
D f , D y, , , y , y
dx dx
( )
2
2
2
'
da
1) 4ab b a b
db
dx d x
2) 5x x y x y
dy dy
dy
3) y cos x 4 y x
dx
y y
4) a b ab y a, b
a b
v v v
5) 0 v x, y, z
x y z
= +
+ +
= = +
c c
| | | |
+ =
| |
c c
\ . \ .
c c c
+ + =
c c c

Classification of Differential Equations

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) are equations on which the dependent variable
depends on only one independent variable.
The notations usually used to express ODE are:
Examples of ODE are the following:

Partial Differential Equations (PDE) are equations on which the dependent variable depends
on two or more independent variables.
The notation used to denote PDE are:
Examples of PDE are the following:








2
' "
2
dy d y df
, y , , y , , etc.
dx dx dw
( ) ( )
( )
" 2 '
2
2
2
dx
1) 2y x 0
dy
2) xy 1 x 2x 1 y 0
da
3) 5b 4
db
d y dy
4) 5x 3x ycos x 0
dx dx
5) ydx 2x xy 3 dy 0
| |
=
|
\ .
+ =
= +
| |
+ + =
|
\ .
+ + =
2
2
f y y
, .
x x x
c c c
c c c
2 2
2 2
2 2
z z
1) z
x y
u u u
2)
a b c
w
3) 10xy yz
x
y y
4) 4
t x
f f
5) x y 3f
x y
c c
= +
c c
c c c
+ +
c c c
c
= +
c
c c

c c
| | c c | |
+ =
| |
c c
\ .
\ .

Order and Degree of a Differential Equation


The ORDER of a differential equation is the order of the highest ordered derivative
involved in the equation.

Example: Give the order and degree of the following equations.
The DEGREE of a differential equation refers to the exponent of the highest ordered
derivative involved in the equation. If the exponent of the highest ordered derivative is one (1),
the degree of the equation is first degree. If the exponent is two (2), the degree is second degree.
If the exponent is three (3), the degree is third degree and so on.
If the differential equation is written as polynomial, then the highest power/exponent to
which the highest ordered derivative appears in the equation is called the degree of the equation.

Example: State the degree of the following equations.



( ) ( ) ( )
'
" ' 2
3
3
2
2
3 4
'" ' x
1) y 5xy 1 First order
2) y 2y 8y x cos x Second order
d y dy
3) 3 2y 0 Third order
dx dx
v v
4) 2xy 0 Second order
y x
5) y 5x y e 1 Third order
=
+ = +
| |
+ =
|
\ .
c c | |
=
|
c c
\ .
= + +
( ) ( )
( )
( )
3 5
'" " '
3
2 6
6
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
dy
1) xy cos x First degree
dx
2) y xy 2y y 0 First degree
dy
3) 3t sin t y 0 Third degree
dt
dy d y
4) 5x cos x 0 Sixth degree
dx dx
d y dy
5) 1
dx dx
d y dy
1
dx dx
d y dy dy
1 2
dx dx dx
+ =
+ + =
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
| |
=
| |
\ .
\ .
= +
| |
| |
= + |
|
|
\ .
\ .
= + +
2
First degree
| |
|
\ .

Linearity of Differential Equations

Linear Differential Equations are equations in which the dependent variable and its
derivative appear to the first degree only and the coefficients are either constant or function only
of the independent variable.


Example: Identify whether the equation is linear or non-linear.

PRIMITIVES OR SOLUTIONS

Concepts of Primitives
Definition:
Primitive or solution is any non-derivative relation between the variables of a
differential equation that satisfies the equation.

If a solution of an equation of order n involves n arbitrary constants, it is called the
general solution. Any solution that is obtained from the general solution by assigning values to
the arbitrary constants is called the particular solution.

Example:




( ) ( )
( )
2 '" 2 " ' x 2
2 ' 2
" ' x
4
" ' x
1) x y x 2 y sin x y e y x 1 Linear
dx x
2) 3 2y Linear
dy y
3) x y 2xy x 1 Non linear
4) y 5xy e y Linear
5) y 5x y e y Non linear
+ + + =
| |
+ =
|
\ .
= +
= +
= +
"
1) Show that y Acos 2x Bsin 2x is the general solution of y 4y 0, where A and Bare
arbitrary constants. Also find the particular solution of it.
Solution :
Since y Acos 2x Bsin 2x contains two arbitrary constants, it is the general soluti
= + + =
= +
'
on
of the second order differential equation, if it is a solution. We can see that it is a solution by
differentiating twice the given non derivative equation.
Differentiating the equation
y Acos 2x Bsin 2x
first derivative
y 2Asin 2x

= +
= 2Bcos 2x +




( )
"
"
"
"
secondderivative
y 4Acos2x 4Bsin2x
or
y 4 Acos2x Bsin2x
y 4y
y 4y 0
Hence, y Acos2x Bsin2xis asolution.
Particular solutioncanbeobtainedbyassigningvalues tothearbitraryconstants A
andB. For instance, lettingA 2
=
= +
=
+ =
= +
= andB 1, then
y 2cos2x sin2x
is a particular solutionof thegivendifferential equation.
=
= +

2x 3x " '
1 2 1 2
2x 3x
1 2
'
1
2)Showthat y Ce Ce is thegeneral solutionof y y 6y 0whereC andC are
arbitraryconstants.
Solution:
Sincetwoconstants aretobeeliminated, obtain thetwoderivatives of
y Ce Ce (1)
first derivative
y 2Ce

= + =
= +
=
2x 3x
2
" 2x 3x
1 2
1 2
2x 3x
' 2x 3x
" 2x 3x
2x 3x 2x
3x
3Ce (2)
secondderivative
y 4Ce 9Ce (3)
eliminatingC andC usingdet erminants
y e e
y 2e 3e 0 (4)
y 4e 9e
sincee ande cannot bezero, equation(4) maybewritten, with thefactors e
ande r


+
= +

=

'
"
' '
" "
emoved, as
y 1 1
y 2 3 0
y 4 9
re arranging
y 1 1 y 1
y 2 3 y 2 0
y 4 9 y 4

=


=


Condition:
If a relation between two variables involves "n" arbitrary constants, those constants are
essential if they cannot be replaced by a smaller number of constants.

For the following primitives, identify the number of essential constants, where x and y
are the variables. A, B, and C are the arbitrary constants.
In (1), there is only one essential arbitrary constant since A + B is no more than a single
arbitrary constant and can be replaced by a smaller number of constant, say L, without affecting
the given primitive, and it can be written as
y = L + x
2


In (2), again only one arbitrary constant is essential since y = Ae
(x+B)
can be written as
y = Ae
x
e
B
and Ae
B
is no more than a single arbitrary constant, and may be replaced by a smaller
number of constant, say G, then the given primitive can be reduced to
y = Ge
x


In (3), no constants can be combined and replaced by a single constant, then all of them
are essential.


Obtaining Differential Equation from the General Solution

Rule:
To find the differential equation, differentiate the given relation; differentiate the first
derived equation; differentiate the second derived equation; until the number of derived
equations is equal to the number of essential constants in the given relation.
Eliminate the constants using the given relation and the derived equations.

Reminder:
Before differentiating the given relation, count first the essential constants involved in
order to know the required number of derivatives.

number of constants = number of derivatives




( )
" ' " '
" '
" '
fromwhich thedifferential equation
18y 3y 4y 2y 12y 9y 0
30y 5y 5y 0
y y 6y 0
+ + + + =
+ =
=
( )
2
x B
2
1) y A B x
2) y Ae
3) y Ax Bx C
+
= + +
=
= + +
Example:









'
1) Solve the differential equation of
y Acos 2x
Solution :
y Acos 2x is a relation with one arbitrary constant, so only the first derivative is
necessary.
y Acos 2x (1)
first derivative
y 2Asin 2x (2)
from(1)
y
A
cos 2x
substitute the val
=
=
=
=
=
'
'
'
ue of A to (2), then simplify
y
y 2 sin 2x
cos 2x
sin 2x
y 2y 2y tan 2x
cos 2x
y 2y tan 2x 0 differential equation
| |
=
|
\ .
= =
+ =
4 2
4 2
' 3
" 2
'"
2) Solve the differential equation of
y x Ax Bx C
Solution :
y x Ax Bx C 3 constants, 3 derivatives
first derivative
y 4x 2Ax B
second derivative
y 12x 2A
third derivative
y 24x
The last equation does not contain any con
= + + +
= + + +
= + +
= +
=
'"
stant, therefore the differential equation of
the given relation is
y 24x differential equation =




x y

x + C


2x 2x
1 2
2x 2x
1 2
' 2x 2x 2x 2x
1 1 2 2
' 2x 2x
1 2
3) Solve the differential equation of
y C e cos3x C e sin3x
Solution :
y C e cos3x C e sin3x 2 constants, 2 derivatives
first derivative
y 3C e sin3x 2C e cos3x 3C e cos3x 2C e sin3x
y 2 C e cos3x C e sin3
= +
= +
= + + +
= +
( )
( )
2x 2x
1 2
' 2x 2x
1 2
' 2x 2x
1 2
" ' 2x 2x 2x 2x
1 1 2 2
" ' 2x 2x 2x
1 2 1
x 3C e sin3x 3C e cos3x
y 2y 3C e sin3x 3C e cos3x
y 2y 3C e sin3x 3C e cos3x
second derivative
y 2y 9C e cos3x 6C e sin3x 9C e sin3x 6C e cos3x
y 2y 9 C e cos3x C e sin3x 2 3C e sin3x
+
= +
= +
= +
= + + +
( )
( )
2x
2
" ' '
" ' '
" '
3C e cos3x
y 2y 9y 2 y 2y
y 2y 9y 2y 4y
y 4y 13y 0 differential equation
= +
= +
+ =
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
'
2 2
4) Solve the differential equation of
y xsin x C
Solution :
y xsin x C 1constant, 1derivative
y xsin x C (1)
first derivative
y x cos x C sin x C (2)
from(1)
y opposite
sin x C
x hypotenuse
by Pythagorean theorem
x y adja
cos x C
x
= +
= +
= +
= + + +
+ = =

+ = =
cent
hypotenuse

Families of Curves

An equation involving a parameter, as well as one or both of the coordinates of a point in
a plane, may represent a family of curves, one curve corresponding to each value of the
parameter.
For instance, the equation
x
2
+ (y-k)
2
= r
2

may be interpreted as the equation of a family of circles having its center anywhere on the y-axis
and its radius of any magnitude.
Figure below shows several members of this family of circles.



( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
'
' 2 2
' 2 2
' 2 2
2
2
' 2 2
2
' ' 2 2 2 2
2
2 ' ' 2 4 2 2
then
x y y
y x
x x
y
y x y
x
xy x x y y
xy y x x y
squaring both sides of the equation
xy y x x y
xy 2xyy y x x y
x y 2xyy y x x y differential equation
| |

= + |
|
\ .
= +
= +
=
=
+ =
+ =
If k and r in equation x
2
+ (y-k)
2
= r
2
are to be treated as arbitrary constants and
eliminated, the result will be a differential equation of the family of curves represented by that
equation. We shall eliminate both k and r and obtain a second order differential equation for the
family of circles.

Example:


2) Find the differential equation of the family of circles with centers on the line y = x.

Solution:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
'
'
" ' '
2
" '
'
1) Find the differential equation of the family of circles having an equation of
x y k r
Solution :
first derivative
2x 2 y k y 0
x y k y 0 (1)
second derivative
1 y k y y y 0
1 y k y y 0 (2)
from(1)
x
k y (3)
y
substitute (3)
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
= +
( )
( )
( )
2
" '
'
3
' " '
'
3
' " '
int o (2)
x
1 y y y y 0
y
y xy y
0
y
therefore the differential equation that will satisfy the equation for the family of circles is
y xy y 0 differential equation
| |
+ + + =
|
\ .
(
+
(

=
+ =
y = x
y
x


3) Find the differential equation of the family of central conics with center at the origin and
vertices on the coordinate axes.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
'
'
" ' '
The equation of the family of circles is
x h y k r
but h k sin ce y x; h and r being an arbitrary constants. We are dealing with two parameter family.
first derivative
2 x h 2 y h y 0
x h y h y 0 (1)
second derivative
1 0 y h y y y 0
+ =
= =
+ =
+ =
+ + =
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
" '
' '
'
'
'
2
" '
'
' '
2
" '
'
2
' " ' " ' ' '
'
1 y h y y 0 (2)
from(1)
x h yy hy 0
x yy
h (3)
1 y
substitute (3) int o (2)
x yy
1 y y y 0
1 y
y 1 y x yy
1 y y 0
1 y
1 y yy 1 y y x yy y 1 y
0
1 y
therefore the desired differential equat
+ + =
+ =
+
=
+
| | +
+ + =
|
+
\ .
(
+ +
( + + =
+
(

+ + + + + +
=
+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
' " ' " ' ' '
2
' ' "
ion is
1 y yy 1 y y x yy y 1 y 0
simplifying the result
1 y 1 y y x y 0 differential equation
+ + + + + + =
(
+ + + =
(




















( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 ' 2
2 ' 2
2
2 " 2 ' 2
Solution :
The equation of the family is
x y
1
a b
where a and b being an arbitrary constants. Re arranging the equation
x b y a a b
first derivative
2xb 2yy a 0
xb yy a 0 (1)
second derivative
b yy a y a 0 (2)
from(1
+ =

+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + =
( )
( )
( )
( )
' 2
2
' 2
2
" 2 ' 2
2
' 2 " 2 ' 2
2
2 ' " '
2
" ' '
)
yy a
b (3)
x
substitute (3) int o (2)
yy a
yy a y a 0
x
yy a xyy a x y a 0
a yy xyy x y 0
xyy x y yy 0 differential equation
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
+ + =
|
\ .
+ + =
(
+ + =
(

+ =
SOLUTION OF FIRST ORDER, FIRST DEGREE
ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION


SEPARATION OF VARIABLES
A first order, first degree differential equation is separable if it can be expressed in the
form
f
1
(x)dx + f
2
(y)dy = 0
where f
1
(x) is a function only of x and f
2
(y) is a function only of y.
The variables x and y can be replaced by any two other variables without affecting
separability.




3
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2 2
Example 1. Separate the var iables of
y
xy dx dy 0
cos x
Solution :
y
M xy and N
cos x
cos x
To separate the var iables, multiply the whole equatiion by .
y
y cos x
xy dx dy 0
cos x y
cos x y cos x
xy 0
cos x y y
x
+ =
= =
| || |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
1 2
cos xdx ydy 0,
var iables are separated where f (x) x cos x and f (y) ydy
Example 2. Separate the var iables of
5 t dx x 3 dt 0
Solution :
M 5 t and N x 3
To separate the var iables, divide the equation by 5 t x 3
5 t x 3
dx dt
5 t x 3 5 t x 3
+ =
= =
+ =
= = +
+
+
=
+ +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
0
dx dt
0
x 3 5 t
1 1
Variables are separated with f (x) and f (y)
x 3 5 t
=
+
= =
+









( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
Example 3. Separate the var iables of
4dy ydx x dy
Solution : Before separating the var iables, collect and combine first the coefficients of dx and dy.
4dy ydx x dy
4dy ydx x dy 0
4 x dy ydx 0 resulting equation,
M y and N 4 x
To se
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
= =
( )( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2
1 2
2
3 2
parate the var iables, divide the resulting equation by 4 x y
4 x
y
dy dx 0
4 x y 4 x y
dy dx
0
y
4 x
1 1
Variables are separated with f (x) and f (y)
y
4 x
Example 4. Separate the var iables of
x dy xydx x dy 2ydx
Solution : Collecti

+ =

+ =

= =

+ = +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2 3 2
3 2
ng the coeefficients of dy and dx, and combining it will give :
x x dy xy 2y dx 0
x x dy y x 2 dx 0 resulting equation
To separate the var iables, divide the resulting equation by y x x .
x x
y x 2
dy dx 0
y x x y x x
x 2
dy
d
y
x x
+ =
+ =


+ =

( )
( )
1 2
3 2
x 0
x 2
1
Variables are separated with f (x) and f (y)
y
x x
=

= =

The purpose of separating the variables is to make the equation integrable, since the
process of integration is to be used to obtain the solution of the equation. A solution containing
arbitrary constant(s) is called the general solution and solution containing no arbitrary
constant(s) is called the particular solution.






3
2
Example 1. Obta in the general solution of
y
xy dx dy 0
cos x
Solution :
Separating the var iable gives,
x cos xdx ydy 0
Integrating
x cos xdx ydy 0
x cos xdx int egration by parts
u x dv cos xdx
du dx v sin x
udv uv vdu
x cos xdx xsin
+ =
+ =
+ =

= =
= =
=
=
} }
}
} }
2
x sin xdx
xsin x cos x
x cos xdx ydy 0
y
xsin x cos x C general solution
2

= +
+ =
+ + =
} }
} }

( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
Example 2. Solve thegeneral solutionand the particular solutionif x 0, y 1.
dy x
dx y 2
Solution:
y 2 dy xdx
y 2 dy xdx 0
y 2 dy xdx 0
y x
2y C
2 2
y 4y x C general solution
= =
=
+
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
} }





( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
for x 0, y 1
1 4 1 0 C
C 5
then y 4y x 5 particular solution
= =
+ =
=
+ =
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
Example 3. Solve the general solution of
dy
xy 2x
dx
Solution :
Separating the var iables and factoring the right side of equation gives,
dy
x y 2
dx
dy x y 2 dx
dy x y 2 dx 0
dy
xdx 0
y 2
int egrating
dy
. xdx 0
y 2
x
ln y 2 C general s
2
= +
= +
= +
+ =
=
+
=
+
+ =
} }
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )( )
olution
Example 4. Solve the general solution of
5 t dx x 3 dt 0
Solution :
Separating the var iables
dx dt
0
x 3 5 t
dx dt
0
x 3 5 t
ln x 3 ln t 5 C
applying the properties of natural logarithms
ln x 3 5 t ln C
x 3 5 t C general soluti
+ =
=
+
=
+
+ + =
+ =
+ =
} }
on
HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS

A differential equation of the first order and first degree,

Mdx + Ndy = 0

is said to be homogeneous if M and N are homogeneous of the same degree in x and y.
We say that f(x,y), defines a homogeneous function of degree n in x and y if and only if

f(x,y) = k
n
f(x,y)

for all k>0.
A homogeneous equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 can be transformed to separable equation by
changing the variable.
Suggested substitution equations are:

y = vx or x = vy






2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
Example 1. Deter min e whether f (x, y) xy y is homogeneous and if so, find its deg ree.
Solution :
f (kx, ky) (kx)(ky) (ky) k (xy) k y
k (xy y ) k f (x, y)
The function is homogeneous of deg ree 2.
Example 2. Deter min e whether f (x, y)
= +
= + = +
= + =
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
x
3 2 y
x y is homogeneous and if so, find its deg ree.
Solution :
f (kx, ky) (kx) (ky) k x k y k (x y )
k x y kf (x, y)
The function is homogeneous of deg ree 1.
Example 3. Deter min e whether f (x, y) x xy e is homogeneous and if so
=
= = =
= =
= +
kx x
3 2 3 3 2 2 ky y
x x
3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 y y
, find its deg ree.
Solution :
f (kx, ky) (kx) (kx)(ky) e k x (kx)(k y )e
k x k xy e k (x xy e ) k f (x, y)
The function is homogeneous of deg ree 3.
= + = +
= + = + =




( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
Example 4. Solve the general solution of a given homogeneous equation
xdy y x dx
Solution :
Usin g the substitution equation
y vx and dy vdx xdv
then
xdy y x dx
x vdx xdv vx x dx
x vdx xdv x v 1 dx
vdx xdv v 1 dx 0
combining the coeffici
=
= = +
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
( )
ents of dx
v v 1 dx xdv 0
dx xdv 0 ; var iables are separable
int egrating term by term
dx
dv 0
x
ln x v C
y
but v
x
y
ln x C
x
x ln x y Cx general solution
+ + =
+ =
+ =
+ =
=
+ =
+ =
} }
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
Example 5. Solve the general solution of
xydy x y dy 0
Solution :
Usin g the substitution equation
y vx and dy xdv vdx
then
xydy x y dy 0
x vx xdv vdx x x v dx 0
x v xdv vdx x 1 v dx 0
v xdv vdx 1 v dx 0
vxdv v dx 1 v dx 0
+ =
= = +
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =

( )
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
combining the coefficients of dx
v 1 v dx vxdv 0
dx vxdx 0
separating the var iables
dx
vdv 0
x
dx
vdv 0
x
v
ln x C
2
2ln x v 2C C
y
but v
x
y
2ln x C
x
y
2ln x C
x
y 2x ln x Cx general solution
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ = =
=
| |
+ =
|
\ .
+ =
=
} }
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
Example 6. Solve the general solution of
x xy dy ydx 0
Solution :
Usin g the substitution equation
x vy and dx vdy ydv
then
x xy dy ydx 0
vy vy y dy y vdy ydv 0
vy vy dy y vdy ydv 0
vy y v dy y vdy ydv 0
y v v dy y vdy ydv 0
v v dy vdy y
+ =
= = +
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + ( )
( )
dv 0
combining the coefficients of dy
v v v dy ydv 0
vdy ydv 0
=
+ =
=




1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2
separating the var iables
dy dv dy dv
0 or 0
y y v
v
dy
v dv 0
y
int egrating
dy
v dv 0
y
ln y 2v C
x
but v
y
x
ln y 2 C
y
x
or ln y 2 C general solution
y

= =
=
=
=
=
| |
=
|
\ .
=
} }
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
Example 7. Solve the general solution of
xdy y x y dx 0
Solution :
Usin g the substitution equation
y vx and dy vdx xdv
then
x vdx xdv vx x x v dx 0
x vdx xdv vx x 1 v dx 0
x vdx xdv vx x 1 v dx 0
x vdx xdv x v 1 v dx 0
vdx xdv
+ =
= = +
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+
( )
( )
2
2
2
v 1 v dx 0
combining the coefficients of dx
v v 1 v dx xdv 0
1 v dx xdv 0
+ =
+ =
+ =







2
2
1
1
separating the var iables
dx dv
0
x
1 v
int egrating
dx dv
0
x
1 v
ln x sin v 0
y
but v
x
y
ln x sin C general solution
x

=
=
| |
=
|
\ .
} }
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
x x
y y
vy vy
y y
v v
v
Example 8. Solve the general solution of
x
1 2e dx 2e 1 dy 0
y
Solution :
Usin g the substitution equation
x vy and dx vdy ydv
then
vy
1 2e vdy ydv 2e 1 dy 0
y
1 2e vdy ydv 2e 1 v dy 0
1 2e vd
| |
| |
+ + = |
|
|
\ .
\ .
= = +
| |
| |
+ + + = |
|
|
\ .
\ .
+ + + =
+
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
v v
v v v v
v v
v
v
y 1 2e ydv 2e 1 v dy 0
combining the coefficients of dy
v 2ve 2e 2ve dy 1 2e ydv 0
v 2e dy 1 2e ydv 0
separating the var iables
1 2e
dy
dv 0
y
v 2e
+ + + =
+ + + + =
+ + + =
+
+ =
+

EQUATIONS REDUCIBLE TO HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS

Consider the differential equation having the form

(ax + by + c) dx + (ox + |y + c) dy = 0 (1)

Figure 1 shows two lines
ax + by + c = 0
ox + |y + c = 0 (2)
meeting at point (h,k); hence
ah + bk + c = 0
oh + |k + c = 0 (3)

y y ah + bk + c



oh + |k + c

(h,k)
x '



x

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
v
v
v
v
v
x
y
x
y
x
y
int egrating
1 2e
dy
dv 0
y
v 2e
ln y ln v 2e ln C
ln y v 2e ln C
y v 2e C
x
but v
y
x
y 2e C
y
x 2ye
y C
y
x 2ye C general solution
+
+ =
+
+ + =
+ =
+ =
=
| |
+ = |
|
\ .
| |
+ |
=
|
|
\ .
+ =
} }
If we refer these two lines to parallel axes with origin (h,k), by the translation

x = x + h y = y + k

the constant term must vanish. In fact applying the translation (4) to (1) we get

Equation (6) is homogeneous and can be solved by the method of frame 2. Then we must
use (4) in the result to replace x by x h, and y by y k, where h and k are found by solving
(3) for h and k.
Suggested substitution

y ' = vx and x = vy




( ) ( )
( ) ( )
ax' by' ah bk c dx' x' y' h k 0 (5)
and because of (3), (5) reduces to
ax' by' dx' x' y' dy' 0 (6)
+ + + + + o + | + o + | + c = ( (

+ + o + | =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
Example 1. Reduce the equation to homogeneous equation and solve the general solution of it.
2x 3y 4 dx 3x 2y 1 dy 0
Solution :
In this case
2h 3k 4 0, 3h 2k 1 0
from that
3 2h 3k 4 0
2 3h 2k 1 0
9k 4k 12 2 0
k 2
if k 2
2h 3(2) 4 0
h
+ + + =
+ = + =
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
=
=
+ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
The corresponding substitutions are
x x ' h x ' 1; dx dx '
y y' k y' 2; dy dy'
making the substitution
2 x ' 1 3 y' 2 4 dx ' 3 x ' 1 2 y' 2 1 dy' 0
2x ' 3y' dx ' 3x ' 2y' dy' 0
the resulting equation is homogeneous of deg ree 1.
=
= + = + =
= + = + =
+ + + + + + + = ( (

+ =



( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
Usin g the substitution equations
y' vx ' and dy' vdx ' x ' dv
then
2x ' 3vx ' dx ' 3x ' 2vx ' vdx ' x ' dv 0
x ' 2 3v dx ' x ' 3 2v vdx ' x ' dv 0
2 3v dx ' 3 2v vdx ' 3 2v x ' dv 0
combining the coefficients of dx '
2 3v 3v 2v dx ' 3 2v x ' dv 0
2 2v d
= = +
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
x ' 3 2v x ' dv 0
2 1 v dx ' 3 2v x ' dv 0
separating the var iables
3 2v dv
2dx '
0
x '
1 v
3 2v dv
2dx '
0
x '
1 v
3 2v dv
3 2v A B
1 v 1 v 1 v 1 v
1 v
3 2v A 1 v B 1 v
3 A B; 2 A B
1 5
A ; B
2 2
3 2v dv
dv 5dv
2 1 v 2 1 v
1 v
1 5
ln 1 v
2
+ =
+ =

+ =

+ =


= = +
+ +

= + +
= + =
= =

= +
+

= +
} }
}
} } }
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
ln 1 v
2
then
3 2v dv
2dx '
0
x '
1 v
1 5
2ln x ' ln 1 v ln 1 v ln C
2 2
4ln x ' ln 1 v 5ln 1 v ln C
+

+ =

+ + =
+ + =
} }

( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4 5
4 5
5
4
5
5
5
usin g the properties of natural logarithms
x ' 1 v
ln ln C
1 v
x ' 1 v
C
1 v
y'
but v
x '
y'
x ' 1
x '
C
y'
1
x '
simplifying
x ' y' C x ' y'
but x ' x 1 and y' y 2
x 1 y 2 C x 1 y 2
x y 3 C x y 1 general solution
+
=

+
=

=
| |
+
|
\ .
=
| |

|
\ .
+ =
= =
+ = +
+ = +
( ) ( )
Example 2. Solve the general solution of
2x 3y 1 dx 4 x 1 dy 0
Solution :
In this equation
2h 3k 1 0; h 1 0
from that equations
h 1 and k 1
the corresponding substitutions are
x x ' h x ' 1; dx dx '
y y' k y' 1; dy dy'
making the substi
+ + =
+ = + =
= =
= + = =
= + = + =
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
tution
2x ' 3y' dx ' 4x ' dy' 0
usin g the substitution equation
y' vx ' and dy' vdx ' x ' dv
2x ' 3vx ' dx ' 4x ' vdx ' x ' dv 0
combining coefficients of dx '
2x ' 3vx ' 4vx ' dx ' 4 x ' dv 0
2x ' vx ' dx ' 4 x ' dv 0
2 v dx ' 4x ' dv 0
+ =
= = +
+ + =
+ =
=
=

SIMPLE SUBSTITUTION

To solve a differential equation by simple substitution:
1. Identify the substitution equation/s.
2. Differentiate the substitution equations.
3. Eliminate all but two of the unknowns from the given differential equation and the results
of (1) and (2).
4. Solve the result from (3).
5. Return to the original variables.




( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4
4
4
4 3
4 3
4 3
separating the var iables
dx ' 4dv
0
x ' 2 v
dx ' 4dv
0
x ' 2 v
ln x ' 4ln 2 v ln C
ln x ' 2 v ln C
x ' 2 v C
y'
but v
x '
y'
x ' 2 C
x '
2x ' y' C x '
but x ' x 1 and y' y 1
2 x 1 y 1 C x 1
2x y 3 C x 1 general solution
=

+ =
=
=
=
| |
=
|
\ .
=
= + =
+ + = + (

+ = +
} }
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
Example 1. Solve the general solution of
x 2y 1 dx 3 x 2y dy 0 (1)
Solution :
To solve the general solution of
x 2y 1 dx 3 x 2y dy 0
let
a x 2y (2)
da dx 2dy (3)
from (3)
dx da 2dy (4)
+ + + =
+ + + =
= +
= +
=

( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
substitute (2) and (4) int o (1)
a 1 da 2dy 3ady 0
a 1 da 2 a 1 dy 3ady 0
combining the coefficients of dy
a 1 da 3a 2a 2 dy 0
a 1 da a 2 dy 0
separating the var iables
a 1
da dy 0
a 2
int egrating term by term
a 1
da dy 0
a 2
a 2 3
da
a 2
+ =
+ =
+ + =
+ + =

+ =
+

+ =
+
+
+
} }
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
dy 0
a 2
3
da da dy 0
a 2 a 2
a 3ln a 2 y C
but a x 2y
x 2y 3ln x 2y 2 y C
x 3y 3ln x 2y 2 C general solution
+ =
+
+ =
+ +
+ + =
= +
+ + + + =
+ + + =
} }
} } }
( )
( )
Example 2. Solve the general solution and the particular solution when x 1 and y 0
2 x y dx dy 0
Solution :
let
a x y (1)
da dx dy
dx da dy (2)
substitute (1) and (2) int o the given differential equation
2a da dy dy 0
2ada 2ady dy 0
comb
= =
+ =
=
=
= +
+ + =
+ + =
( )
( )
ining the coefficients of dy
2ada 2a 1 dy 0
separating the var iables
2ada
dy 0
2a 1
+ + =
+ =
+
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
int egrating term by term
2ada
dy 0
2a 1
2a 1 1
da dy 0
2a 1
2a 1 da
da dy 0
2a 1 2a 1
1
a ln 2a 1 y C
2
2a ln 2a 1 2y C
but a x y
2 x y ln 2 x y 1 2y C
2x 2y ln 2x 2y 1 2y C
2x ln 2x 2y 1 C general solution
+ =
+
+
+ =
+
+
+ =
+ +
+ + =
+ + =
=
+ + = (

+ + =
+ =
} }
} }
} } }



( )
( )
( )
3
3
3
3
2 4
2 4
2 4
2
4
Example3.Solve thegeneral solution of
xy xdy ydx 6y dy
Solution :
xy xdy ydx 6y dy (1)
let a xy (2)
da xdy ydx (3)
substitute(3) and(2) int o(1)
ada 6y dy
int egrating
ada 6y dy
a 6y
C
2 4
a 3y
C
2 2
a 3y C
but a xy
xy 3y C
+ =
+ =
=
= +
=
=
= +
= +
= +
=
= +
} }
general solution






( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Example4.Solve thegeneral solution of
y
dx dy x y 1 xdy ydx
x
Solution :
y
dx dy x y 1 xdy ydx (1)
x
y
let a ; b x y (2)
x
xdy ydx
da ; db dx dy (3)
x
x da xdy ydx
substitute(3) and(2) int o(1)
db b 1 a x da
db
1 a x
b
| |
+ = + +
|
\ .
| |
+ = + +
|
\ .
= = +

= = +
=
= +
= +
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
da (4)
from(3) and(2)
y
a ; y ax
x
b x y x ax x 1 a
b
x
1 a
b
x (5)
1 a
substitute(5) int o(4)
db b
1 a da
b
1 a
db
b da
b
db
da ; b db da 0
b
int egrating termby term
b db da 0
b 1
a C ; 2a C
2 b
returning to theorigi

= =
= + = + = +
=
+
=
+
(
= + (
+
(

=
= =
=
= =

} }
( )
2
nal var iables
1 y
2 C general solution
x
x y
| |
=
|
\ . +

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2 2
Example5.Solve the general solution of
dy x y 1 dx 2dx
Solution :
dy x y 1 dx 2dx (1)
let a x y 1 (2)
da dx dy ; dy da dx (3)
substitute(2) and(3) int o(1)
da dx a 2 dx
da a 2 dx dx
da a 2 1 dx a 1 dx
separating the var iables
d
= + +
= + +
= + +
= + =
=
= +
= + =
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
a
dx
a 1
int egrating
da
dx
a 1
da 1 a 1
ln
2 a 1 a 1
1 a 1
ln x C
2 a 1
returning to theoriginal var iables
x y 1 1
1
ln x C
2 x y 1 1
x y
1
ln x C general solution
2 x y 2
=

=
+

= +
+
+ +
= +
+ + +
+
= +
+ +
} }
}



EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

A differential equation M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy = 0 is exact if there exists a function g(x,y),
such that dg(x,y) = M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy.
If M(x,y) and N(x,y) are continuous functions and have continuous first derivative
(partial) on some rectangle of (x,y) plane, then the differential equation M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy = 0
is exact if and only if
M N
y x
c c
=
c c

In solving
M
y
c
c
set x variable as constant, and in solving
N
x
c
c
set y variable as constant.
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
Example1. Deter min e whether the differential equation
6x 4xy y dx 2x 2xy 3y dy 0 is exact or not.
Solution : For this equation
M 6x 4xy y and N 2x 2xy 3y
M
0 4x 2y 4x 2y
y
N
4x 2y 0 4x 2y
x
M N
sin ce 4x 2y ; th
y x
+ + + + =
= + + = +
c
= + + = +
c
c
= + = +
c
c c
= = +
c c
2
2
2 2
2
en the equation is exact.
Example 2. Deter min e whether the differential equation
dx x
dy 0 is exact or not.
y y
1 x
Solution : M and N
y y
M 1 N 1
and
y y x y
M N 1
sin ce ; then the equation is exact.
y x y
Example 3. Deter min e whe
=
= =
c c
= =
c c
c c
= =
c c
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
ther the equation
sin x cos ydx sin ycos xdy 0 is exact or not.
Solution : M sin x cos y and N sin ycos x
M
sin x sin y cos y 0 sin xsin y
y
N
sin y sin x cos x 0 sin xsin y
x
M N
sin ce ; then the equation is not exact.
y x
Example 4. De
=
= =
c
= + =
c
c
= + = (

c
c c
=
c c
( )
( )
( )
3 3
3 3
3 3
x 2 2 x
x 2 2 x
x 2 2 x
ter min e whether the equation
e 3x y x dx e dy 0 is exact or not.
Solution : M e 3x y x and N e
M
e 3x 0 3x e
y
+ =
= =
c
= =
c



( )
( )
( )
3 3
3
3 3
3
x 2 2 x
x
x 2 2 x
x
2 2
N
e 3x 3x e
x
M N
sin ce ; then the equation is exact.
y y
Example 5. Deter min e whether the equation in Example 4 is exact or not after dividing it by e .
Solution :
from Ex. 4
e 3x y x dx e dy 0
dividing it by e gives
3x y x d
c
= =
c
c c
=
c c
+ =

3
2 2
2 2
x
x dy 0
now M 3x y x and N 1
M
3x 0 3x
y
N
0
x
M N
sin ce ; then the equation is not exact if it is divided by e .
y x
NOTE:
To test for the exactness of a diferential equation, it is advisable the
equation.
+ =
= =
c
= =
c
c
=
c
c c
=
c c
not to manipulate
To Solve t
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
'
Method1:
1) Let F x M
2) Integrate 1 with respect to x y cons tan t
F x M
F M f y
3) Take the partial derivative of 2 with respect to y x cons tan t
F M
f y
y y
=
=
=
= +
=
c c
= +
c c
} }
}
he Solution of an Exact Differential Equation




( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
'
'
'
'
4) Equate N to 3 and solve for f y
F
N f y
y
F
f y N
y
5) Integrate f y to get f y
6) Substitute 5 int o 2 , the result is the general solution.
Method 2.
1) Let Fy N
2) Integrate (1) with respect to y x cons tan t
Fy N
Fy N f (x)
3) Take partial
c
= +
c
c
=
c
=
=
=
= +
} }
}
( )
'
'
'
'
derivative of (2) with respect to x y cons tan t
F N
f (x)
x x
4) Equate Mto (3) and solve for f (x)
N
M f (x)
x
N
f (x) M
x
5) Integrate (4) to get f (x)
6) Substitute (5) int o (2), the result is the general solution.
Method 3.
By Formul
=
c c
= +
c c
c
= +
c
c
=
c
( ) ( )
x y
a b
a
F M t, y dt N a, t dt C
M N
where a and b are the smallest number that will give a definite value for .
y x
NOTE:
Use the above methods (methods 1, 2, and 3) only if the differential equation is exact.
Adopt the method that is convinient
= + =
c c
=
c c
} }
to you.







( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
3 2 2
2 '
Example 6. Solve thegeneral solution of
6x 4xy y dx 2x 2xy 3y dy 0
Solution :
M N
The equation is exact sin ce .
y x
Method1.
1) Fx M 6x 4xy y
2) Fx 6x dx 4y xdx y dx
F 2x 2x y xy f (y)
F
3) 0 2x 2xy f (y)
y
4) N
+ + + + =
c c
=
c c
= = + +
= + +
= + + +
c
= + + +
c
c
=
} } } }
2 2 2 '
' 2
2
3
3 2 2 3
2 2
2 2
2 2 3
2 '
F
; 2x 2xy 3y 2x 2xy f (y)
y
f (y) 3y
5) f '(y) 3y dy
f (y) y
6) F 2x 2x y xy y C general solution
Method 2.
1) Fy N 2x 2xy 3y
2) Fy 2x dy 2x ydy 3y dy
F 2x y xy y f (x)
F
3) 4xy y f (x)
x
F
4) M ; 6x
x
+ = + +
c
=
=
=
= + + =
= = +
= +
= + +
c
= + +
c
c
=
c
} }
} } } }
( ) ( )
2 2 2 '
' 2
' 2
3
2 2 3 3
x y
a b
4xy y 4xy y f (x)
f (x) 6x
5) f (x) 6x dx
f (x) 2x
6) F 2x y xy y 2x C general solution
Method 3.
Usin g the formula
F M t, y dt N a, t dt C
+ + = + +
=
=
=
= + + =
= + =
} }
} }


( ) ( )
x y
2 2 2 2
0 o
x y
3 2 2 3
0 0
3 2 2 3
2
M N
4x 2y
y x
if a 0; b 0
M N
4(0) 2(0) 0
y x
therefore :
F 6t 4ty y dt 2a 2at 3t dt C
F 2t 2t y ty 0 0 t C
F 2x 2x y xy y C general solution
Example 7. Solve the general solution of
y 1
dx dy 0
x x
S
c c
= = +
c c
= =
c c
= = + =
c c
= + + + + =
= + + + + =
= + + =
=
} }
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
2
2
'
'
'
'
y 1
olution : M and N
x x
M 1 N 1
and
y x x x
the equation is exact.
Method1.
y
1) Fx M
x
1
2) Fx y dx y x dx
x
y
F f y
x
F 1
3) f y
y x
F 1 1
4) N ; f y
y x x
f (y) 0
5) f y 0 sin ce f y 0
y y
6) F C; C
x x
y
F C general solution
x

= =
c c
= =
c c
= =
= =
= +
c
= +
c
c
= = +
c
=
= =
= = =
= =
} } }



( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
' '
2 2
'
2 2
'
'
x y
a b
2
Method 2.
1
1) Fy N
x
1
2) Fy dy
x
y
F f y
x
F 1 y
3) y f x f x
x x x
F y y
4) M ; f x
x x x
f x 0
5) f x 0 sin ce f x 0
y
6) F C
x
y
F C general solution
x
Method 3.
Usin g the formula
F M t, y dt N a, t dt C
M N 1
y x x
= =
=
= +
c | |
= + = +
|
c
\ .
c
= = +
c
=
= =
= =
= =
= + =
c c
= =
c c
} }
} }
( )
x y
2
1 1
x y
2
1 1
x
y
1
1
if x 0 and y 0
M N 1
; undefined
y x 0
if x 1and y 1
M N 1
1
y x 1
then a 1and b 1
therefore :
y 1
F dt dt C
t a
F yt dt dt C
y
F t C
t

= =
c c
= =
c c
= =
c c
= = =
c c
= =
| |
= + =
|
\ .
= + =
= =
} }
} }



( )
y y
F y 1 C
x 1
y
F y y 1 C
x
y
F C 1
x
y
F C general solution
x
Example 8. Sol ve the general solution of
cos y 1
dx sin yln 5x 15 dy 0
x 3 y
cos y 1
Solution : M and N sin yln 5x 15
x 3 y
M sin y N 5
and sin y
y x 3 x 5x
| |
= =
|
\ .
= + + =
= =
= =
| |
+ =
|
+
\ .
= = + +
+
c c
= =
c + c +
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
'
'
'
'
sin y
0
5 x 3
M N sin y
sin ce , the equation is exact.
y x x 3
Method1.
cos y
1) Fx M
x 3
dx
2) Fx cos y
x 3
F cos yln x 3 f y
F
3) sin yln x 3 f y
y
F 1
4) N ; sin yln 5x 15 sin yln x 3 f y
y y
1
f y sin y ln5
y
dy
5) f y l
y
| |
+ =
|
+
\ .
c c
= =
c c +
= =
+
=
+
= + +
c
= + +
c
c
= + + = + +
c
=
=
} }
} }
( )
( )
n5 sin ydy
f y ln y ln5cos y
6) F cos yln x 3 ln y ln5cos y C
F cos y ln x 3 ln5 ln y C
F cos yln5 x 3 ln y C
F cos yln 5x 15 ln y C general solution
= +
= + + + =
= + + + =
= + + =
= + + =
}

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
' '
'
'
'
Method 2.
1
1) Fy N sin yln 5x 15
y
dy
2) Fy ln 5x 15 sin ydy
y
F cos yln 5x 15 ln y f x
F 5 cos y
3) cos y f x f x
x 5x 15 x 3
F cos y cos y
4) M ; f x
x x 3 x 3
f x 0
5) f x 0 sin ce f x 0
6) F cos yln 5x 15 ln y C general solution
Metho
= = + +
= + +
= + + +
c
= + = +
c + +
c
= = +
c + +
=
= =
= + + =
} } }
( ) ( )
x y
a b
x y
0 0
x y
0 0
x
0
d 3.
Usin g the formula
F M t, y dt N a, t dt C
M N sin y
y x x 3
if x 0 and y 0
M N sin 0
0
y x 0 3
then a 0 and b 0
cos y 1
F dt sin t ln 5a 15 dt C
t 3 t
cos y 1
F dt sin t ln15 dt C
t 3 t
F cos yln t 3
= + =
c c
= =
c c +
= =
c c
= = =
c c +
= =
| |
= + + + =
|
+
\ .
| |
= + + =
|
+
\ .
= + +
} }
} }
} }
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
y
0
ln15cos t ln t C
F cos y ln x 3 ln 0 3 ln15cos y ln y ln15cos 0 ln 0 C
F cos y ln x 3 ln3 ln15cos y ln y ln15 C
F cos y ln x 3 ln3 cos y ln3 ln15 ln y C ln15
F cos yln x 3 ln3cos y ln3cos y ln5cos y ln y C
F cos yln x 3 ln5cos y ln y
+ =
= + + + + + =
= + + + =
= + + + + = +
= + + + + =
= + + + = C
F cos yln 5x 15 ln y C general solution = + + =




( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
x 2
x 2 x
x 2 x
x x
x
Example 9. Solve the general solution of
e dy 2xydx 3x dx
Solution :
Combining the coefficients of dx
2xye 3x dx e dy 0
M 2xye 3x and N e
M N
2xe and 2xe
y x
M N
; the equation is exact.
y x
Method 2.
1) Fy N e
2)
+ =
+ =
= =
c c
= =
c c
c c
=
c c
= =
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
x
x
x '
x 2 x '
' 2
' 2
3
x 3
2
2
2
2
Fy e dy
F e y f x
F
3) 2xye f x
x
F
4) M ; 2xye 3x 2xye f x
x
f x 3x
5) f x 3 x dx
f x x
6) F ye x C general solution
Example10. Solve the general solution of
y y
dy x dx 0
x 2x
y
Solution : M x a
2x
=
= +
c
= +
c
c
= = +
c
=
=
=
= =
| |
+ =
|
\ .
=
} }
} }
2 2
2
y
nd N
x
M 2y y
y 2x x
N y
x x
=
c
= =
c
c
=
c




( ) ( )
x y
a b
2
x y
2
1 1
2 2
x y
1 1
x y
2 2 2
1 1
Method 3.
Usin g the formula
F M t, y dt N a, t dt C
if x 0 and y 0
M N 0
; undefined
y x 0
if x 1and y 1
M N 1
1
y x 1
then a 1and b 1
y t
F t dt dt C
2t a
y t
F t dt tdt C
2
y t t
F
t 2 2

= + =
= =
c c
= =
c c
= =
c c
= = =
c c
= =
| |
= + =
|
\ .
| |
= + =
|
\ .
= + =
} }
} }
} }
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 3
C
y x y 1 y 1
F C
2x 2 2 2 2 2
y x
F C
2x 2
F y x Cx general solution
If the differential equation
M x, y dx N x, y dy 0
is not exact, it can always be transformed to exact equation by multiplying it by an expresion
= + + =
= =
= =
+ =
INTEGRATING FACTOR
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
I x, y . The expression I x, y that makes the equation exact is called "int egrating factor ".
The equation
I x, y M x, y dx I x, y N x, y dy 0
is exact.
An int egrating factor of a non exact differential equation is an expression such that the
equatio
+ =

n becomes exact if it is multiplied by that factor.








( )
( )
Example1. Show that the equation is not exact and that the given I x, y is an int egrating factor.
2ydx xdy 0 I x, y x
Solution : M 2y and N x
M N
2 and 1
y x
M N
sin ce , then the equation is not exact. Multiplying the given equation by I
y x
+ = =
= =
c c
= =
c c
c c
=
c c
( )
( )
( )
2
2
x, y
2xydx x dy 0
this time M 2xy and N x
M N
2x and 2x
y x
M N
2x because of x, therefore I x, y x is an int egrating factor of the given
y x
non exact equation.
Example 2. Show that the equation is not exact and that the given I x, y is an
+ =
= =
c c
= =
c c
c c
= = =
c c

( )
( )
int egrating factor.
1
ydx x ln xdy 0 I x, y
x
Solution : M y and N x ln x
M N
1and 1 ln x
y x
M N
sin ce ; then the equation is not exact. Usin g the given I x, y , then
y x
y x ln x
dx dy 0
x x
y x ln x
this time M and N ln x
x x
M 1 N 1
and
y x x x
M
+ = =
= =
c c
= = +
c c
c c
=
c c
+ =
= = =
c c
= =
c c
c
c
( )
N 1 1
, therefore I x, y is the int egrating factor of the given non exact
y x x x
equation.
1
Example 3. Deter min e whether is an int egrating factor for
xy
ydx xdy 0
1
Solution : Multiplying the given differential equation by yields
xy
c
= = =
c


( )
y x
dx dy 0
xy xy
dx dy
or 0
x y
1 1
M and N
x y
M N
0 and 0
y x
M N 1
sin ce 0, then the given expression I x, y is an int egrating factor for
y x xy
the given non exact differential equation.
1
1) If
N
+ =
+ =
= =
c c
= =
c c
c c
= = =
c c
Determination of Integrating Factor
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
f x dx
g y dy
2
M N
f x , a function of x alone, then the int egrating factor is :
y x
I e
1 M N
2) If g y , a function of y alone, then the int egrating factor is :
M y x
I e
Example1. Solve the int egrating factor of
y y dx xdy 0
S

| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}
=
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}
=
+ =
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
olution : M y y and N x
M N
2y 1and 1
y x
M N
2y 1 1 2y 2 2 y 1
y x
2 y 1
1 M N
not a function of x alone
N y x x
2 y 1 2 y 1
1 M N
function of y alone
M y x y y y y 1
= =
c c
= =
c c
c c
= = =
c c
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
| | c c
= =
|
c c
\ .


( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
dy
g y dy
2ln y ln y y
2
2
2
2 2
therefore, the int egrating factor is :
I e e e e
1
I y
y
Example 2. Solve the int egrating factor of
4xy 3y x dx x x 2y dy 0
Solution : M 4xy 3y x and N x x 2y 2x 2xy
M N
4x 6y and 2x 2y
y x
M N
y x

}
}
= = = =
= =
+ + + =
= + = + = +
c c
= + = +
c c
c c

c c
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
dx
f x dx
2ln x
x
2
2
4x 6y 2x 2y 2x 4y 2 x 2y
2 x 2y
1 M N 2
function of x alone
N y x x x 2y x
therefore, the int egrating factor
I e e e
I x
Example 3. Solve the int egrating factor of
ydx xdy xy dx 0
Solution : Combining the co
= + = + = +
+ | | c c
= =
|
c c +
\ .
}
}
= = =
=
+ =
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
g y dy
efficients of dx gives
y xy dx xdy 0
M y xy and N x
M N
1 2xy and 1
y x
M N
1 2xy 1 2 2xy 2 1 xy
y x
2 1 2xy 2 1 2xy
1 M N 2
function of y alone
N y x y xy y 1 2xy y
therefore, the int egrating factor is
I e e

+ =
= + =
c c
= + =
c c
c c
= + + = + = +
c c
+ + | | c c
= = =
|
c c + +
\ .
}
= =
2
dy
2ln y y
2
2
e
1
I y
y

}
=
= =




The following examples will illustrate how to solve the general solution of a non exact
differential equation usin g int egrating factor.
Example1. Show that the equation is not exact; find an int egrating factor and then the general
solu

( )
( ) f x dx dx
x
tion of x y dx dy 0
Solution : M x y and N 1
M N
1and 0
y x
M N
the equation is not exact sin ce .
y x
For the int egrating factor
M N
1 0 1
y x
1 M N 1
1
N y x 1
then,
I e e e int egrating factor
multiply the equa
+ + =
= + =
c c
= =
c c
c c
=
c c
c c
= =
c c
| | c c
= =
|
c c
\ .
} }
= = =
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
x
x
x '
x x ' x x x '
' x
tion by I e
e x y dx e dy 0
this time, M e x y and N e
M N
e and e
y x
M N
e , the equation is now exact.
y x
Usin g Method 2.
1) Fy N e
2) Fy e dy
F e y f x
F
3) ye f x
x
F
4) M ; e x y ye f x ; xe ye ye f x ;
x
f x xe
=
+ + =
= + =
c c
= =
c c
c c
= =
c c
= =
=
= +
c
= +
c
c
= + = + + = +
c
=
} }
( ) ( )
' x x
x x x
5) f x dx xe dx; f x xe x (int egration by parts)
6) F ye xe e C general solution
= =
= + =
} }


( )
2
2
2
Example 2. Show that the equation is not exact; find an integrating factor and then the general
solution of y + xy dx xdy 0.
Solution : M y xy and N x
M N
1 2xy and 1
y x
M N
The equation is not exact sin ce
y
=
= + =
c c
= + =
c c
c c
=
c c
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
dy
g y dy
2ln y 2 y
2
.
x
Solving for the int egrating factor.
M N
1 2xy 1 2 2xy 2 1 xy
y x
2 1 xy
1 M N 2
; function of y alone
M y x y 1 xy y
the int egrating factor is
1
I e e e y
y
multiplying the given non exact equation


c c
= + = + = +
c c
+ | | c c
= =
|
c c +
\ .
}
}
= = = = =
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
'
2
1
by I gives
y
1 x
y xy dx dy 0
y y
1 x
this time M y xy and N
y y
M 1 N 1
and
y y x y
M N
the equation is now exact sin ce .
y x
Usin g Method1.
1
1) Fx M x
y
1
2) Fx dx xdx
y
x x
F f y
y 2
F x
3) f y
y y
4)
=
| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
| |
= + =
|
\ .
c c
= =
c c
c c
=
c c
= = +
= +
= + +
c
= +
c
} } }
( )
( )
'
2 2
'
F x x
N ; f y
y y y
f y 0
c
= = +
c
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
2
2 2
5) f y 0 simce f y 0
x x
6) F C general solution
y 2
Example 3. Show that the equation is not exact; find an int egrating factor and then the general
solution of y x y 1 dx x x 3y 2 dy 0.
Solution : M xy y y and N x 3xy 2x
M
x 2y 1and
y
= =
= + =
+ + + + + =
= + + = + +
c
= + +
c
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1
dy
g y dy
y ln y
N
2x 3y 2
x
M N
the equation is not exact sin ce .
y x
Solving for the int egrating factor,
M N
x 2y 1 2x 3y 2 x y 1
y x
x y 1
1 M N 1
function of y alone
M y x y x y 1 y
then,
I e e e y
mult
| |

|

\ .
c
= + +
c
c c
=
c c
c c
= + + + + = + +
c c
+ + | | c c
= =
|
c c + +
\ .
}
}
= = = =
( ) ( )
2
2 3 2 2 2
2 2
2 3 2
2 3
iplying the given non exact equation by I y gives,
y x y 1 dx xy x 3y 2 dy 0
this time M xy y y and N x y 3xy 2xy
M N
2xy 3y 2y and 2xy 3y 2y
y x
the equation is now exact.
Usin g Method1.
1) Fx M xy y y
2) Fx y xdx y d
=
+ + + + + =
= + + = + +
c c
= + + = + +
c c
= = + +
= +
} }
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
3 2
2 2 '
2 2 2 2 '
'
'
2 2 3 2
x y dx
y x
F xy xy f y
2
F
3) x y 3xy 2xy f y
y
F
4) N ; x y 3xy 2xy x y 3xy 2xy f y
y
f y 0
5) f y 0 sin ce f y 0
6) F x y 2xy 2xy C general solution
+
= + + +
c
= + + +
c
c
= + + = + + +
c
=
= =
= + + =
} }

Definition :
Linear Differential Equation is one in which the dependent var iable and its derivatives
appear to the first deg ree only and the coefficients are either a cons tan t or function only of the
indepen
LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
( ) ( )
dent var iable.
The differential equation
dy
yP x Q x
dx
is a linear first order differential equation sin ce only y and its derivative appear int o the equation
and they are only to the first power. As indicated in the equation above, P and Qar
+ =
( ) ( )
e functions of
x alone.
To solve the general solution of a linear differential equation, the first thing to do is to
reduce the given equation in the form
dy
yP x Q x
dx
which is the general formof a first order differential equation linear in y
+ =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
P x dx P x dx
G y dy G y dy
,
or in the form
dx
xG y H y
dy
which is the general formof a first order differential equation linear in x.
dy
1) yP x Q x ye Q x e dx C
dx
dx
2) xG y H y xe H y e dy C
dy
+ =
} }
+ = = +
} }
+ = = +
}
}
General Solution of a Linear Differential Equation



( ) ( )
( )
3
3
3
P x dx P x dx
dx dx
3
x x
Example 1. Solve the general solution of a given linear differential equation.
dy y
x 3
dx x
Solution :
dy y
x 3 linear in y
dx x
1
P and Q x 3
x
therefore the general solution is
ye Qe dx C
ye x 3 e dx
+ =
+ =
= =
} }
= +
} }
=
}
( )
( )
( )
ln x 3 ln x
3
4
5 2
5 2
C
ye x 3 e dx C
yx x 3 xdx C
xy x 3x dx C
x 3x
xy C
5 2
10xy 2x 15x C general solution
Example 2. Solve the general solution of a given linear differential equation
dx 3x
2y
dy y
Solution :
dx 3x
2y linear in x
dy y
G
+
= +
= +
= +
= +
= +
+ =
+ =
=
}
}
}
}
( ) ( )
( )
G y dy G y dy
3dy 3dy
y y
3ln y 3ln y
3 3
3 4
3
and H 2y
y
therefore the general solution is,
xe He dy C
the general solution is,
xe 2ye dy C
xe 2ye dy C
xy 2y y dy C
xy 2y dy C
=
} }
= +
} }
= +
= +
= +
= +
}
}
}
}
}

( ) ( )
5
3
3 5
P x dx P x dx
2y
xy C
5
5xy 2y C general solution
Example 3. Solve the general solution of a given linear differential equation
dy 2y
x 1
dx x
Solution :
dy 2y
x 1 linear in y
dx x
2
P and Q x 1
x
the general solution is,
ye Qe dx C
ye
= +
= +
= +
= +

= = +
} }
= +
}
( )
( )
( )
2dx 2dx
x x
2ln x 2ln x
2 2
2
2
2
2
3
x 1 e dx C
ye x 1 e dx C
yx x 1 x dx C
y 1
x dx C
x x
y 1
ln x C
x x
y x ln x x C general solution
Example 4. Solve the general solution of a given linear differential solution.
dy
x y x 3x
dx


} }
= + +
= + +
= + +
| |
= + +
|
\ .
= +
= +
= + +
}
}
}
}
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
P x dx P x dx
2x
Solution :
Reducing the given equation int o linear formgives,
dy y
x 3x 2
dx x
dy y
or x 3x 2 linear in y
dx x
1
P x and Q x x 3x 2
x
the general solution is,
ye Qe dx C

= + +
= +
= = +
} }
= +
}



































































































PHYSICAL APPLICATION OF FIRST ORDER
FIRST DEGREE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

It has been found experimentally that radioactive substance decompose at a rate propor -
tional to the quantity of substance present.
If we let Q(t) represent the quantity of substance at time t, then the statement above
Radioactive Decay
may
be expressed mathematically by the differential equation
dQ
kQ
dt
where k is the cons tan t of proportionality. Re arranging the equation gives
dQ
kdt
Q
int egrating both sides of the equation
dQ
kdt
Q
ln Q kt C working equation
Ex
=

=
=
= +
} }
ample1. Radiumdecomposes at a rate proportional to the amount present. If of 100 grams set
aside now there will be left 96 grams ten years hence. Find how much will be left after 20 years.
What is the half life of the radium?
Solution :
Q 100 wh

= en t 0
Q 96 when t 10
Q ? when t 20
Q 50 when t ?
Usin g the working equation
ln Q kt C
when Q 100, t 0
ln100 k(0) C; C ln100
when Q 96, t 10
ln96 k(10) ln100
ln96 ln100 10k
=
= =
= =
= =
= +
= =
= + =
= =
= +
=

1
96
ln 10k
100
1 96
k ln 0.00408
10 100
a) Q ? when t 20
ln Q ( 0.00408)(20) ln100
ln Q 4.524
Q ln (4.524) 92.16 grams
b) Q 50 when t ?
ln50 ( 0.00408)(t) ln100
ln50 ln100 0.00408 t
50
ln 0.00408 t
100
50
ln
100
t 169.89
0.00408

=
= =
= =
= +
=
= =
= =
= +
=
=
= =

0
0
0
0
0
0
years
Example 2. If 5%of the radioactive subs tan ce decompose in 5 years, what percentage will be
present at the end of 500 years?1000 years?
Solution :
Q Q when t 0
Q 0.95Q when t 50
Q xQ when t 500
Q xQ when t 1000
when Q Q , t 0
ln Q k
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
=
0
0
0 0
0 0
3
0
3
0 0
0 0
0
0
1
(0) C; C ln Q
when Q 0.95Q , t 50
ln 0.95Q k(50) ln Q
ln 0.95Q ln Q 50k
ln 0.95 50k
ln 0.95
k 1.03 x 10
50
a) Q xQ when t 500
ln xQ ( 1.03 x 10 )(500) ln Q
ln xQ ln Q 0.515
xQ
ln 0.515
Q
ln x 0.515
x ln ( 0.515) 0.59

+ =
= =
= +
=
=
= =
= =
= +
=
=
=
= = 75 or 59.75%

0
3
0 0
0 0
0
0
1
b) Q xQ when t 1000
ln xQ ( 1.03 x 10 )(1000) ln Q
ln xQ ln Q 1.03
xQ
ln 1.03
Q
ln x 1.03
x ln ( 1.03) 0.3570 or 35.70%
Example 3. If the half life of a radioactive subs tan ce is 1800 years, what percentage is present
at the en

= =
= +
=
=
=
= =

0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
d of 100 years? In how many years does only10%of the subs tan ce remain?
Solution :
Q 0.5Q when t 1800
Q Q when t 0
Q xQ when t 100
Q 0.10Q when t ?
when Q Q , t 0
ln Q k(0) C; C ln Q
when Q 0.5Q , t 1800
ln 0.5Q k(1800) ln Q
ln 05Q l
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= + =
= =
= +

0
0
0
4
0
4
0 0
0 0
0
0
1
0
4
0
n Q 1800k
0.5Q
ln 1800k
Q
ln 0.5
k 3.85 x 10
1800
a) Q xQ , t 100
ln xQ ( 3.85 x 10 )(100) ln Q
ln xQ ln Q 0.0385
xQ
ln 0.0385
Q
ln x 0.0385
x ln ( 0.0385) 0.9622 or 96.22%
b) Q 0.10Q , t ?
ln 0.10Q ( 3.85 x 10 )(t)

=
=
= =
= =
= +
=
=
=
= =
= =
= +
0
4
0 0
4 0
0
4
ln Q
ln 0.10Q ln Q ( 3.85 x 10 ) t
0.10Q
ln 3.85 x 10 t
Q
ln 0.10
t 5980.74 years
3.85 x 10

=
=
= =


0
0
0
0
0 0
Example 4. A certain radioactive subs tan ce has a half life of 38 hrs. Find how long it will take
for 90%of the radioactivity to be dissipated.
Solution :
Q Q when t 0
Q 0.5Q when t 38
Q 0.10Q when t ?
when Q Q , t 0
ln Q k(0) C; C ln Q
wh

= =
= =
= =
= =
= + =
0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0
en Q 0.5Q , t 38
ln 0.5Q k(38) ln Q
ln 0.5Q ln Q 38k
0.5Q
ln 38k
Q
ln 0.5
k 0.01824
38
therefore, when Q 0.10Q ; t ?
ln 0.10Q ( 0.01824)(t) ln Q
ln 0.10Q ln Q 0.01824 t
0.10Q
ln 0.01824 t
Q
ln 0.10
t 126.24 hr
0.01824
= =
= +
=
=
= =
= =
= +
=
=
= =

s.
Example1. A bacterial population P is known to have a rate of growth proportional to P itself .
If between noon and 2 pm, the population tripples, at what time, no control being exerted,
should P becomes 100 times it was at
Population Growth
o
noon?
Solution :
P initial population
P population at any time t
dP
rate of increase
dt
sin ce rate of increase is proportional to P itself then,
dP
kP
dt
dP
kdt
P

=
=


0
0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
int egrating both sides of the equation gives,
dP
k dt
P
ln P kt C working equation
when P P , t 0
ln P k(0) C; C ln P
when P 3P , t 2
ln3P k(2) ln P
ln3P ln P 2k
3P
ln 2k
P
ln3
k 0.5493
2
when P 100P , t ?
ln100P (0.5493)(t)
=
= +
= =
= + =
= =
= +
=
=
= =
= =
=
} }
0
0 0
0
0
ln P
ln100P ln P 0.5493 t
100P
ln 0.5493 t
P
ln100
t 8.38 pm
0.5493
Example 2. If the population of the city doubled in the past 25 years and the present population
is 100000, when will the city have a population of 500000?
Solution :
P
+
=
=
= =
= 50000 when t 0
P 100000 when t 25
P 500000 when t ?
Solution :
when P 50000, t 0
ln50000 k(0) C; C ln50000
when P 100000, t 25
ln100000 k(25) ln50000
ln100000 ln50000 25k
100000
ln 25k
50000
ln 2
k 0.02773
25
=
= =
= =
= =
= + =
= =
= +
=
=
= =

therefore; when P 500000, t ?
ln500000 (0.02773)(t) ln50000
ln500000 ln50000 0.02773 t
500000
ln 0.02773 t
50000
ln10
t 83 years
0.02773
then
t 83 25 58 years from now
Example 3. Express the following proposition as a different
= =
= +
=
=
= =
= =
0
ial equation : The population of the
city increases at a rate which is proportional to the current population and the difference bet.
200000 and the current population.
Solution :
P initial population
P population at any time t
dP
rat
dt

e of increase
the rate of increase is joint ly proportional to both P and (200000 P), then
dP
kP(200000 P) differential equation
dt
where k is the cons tan t of proportionality
Example 4. The initial population of the city is 100000 and aft

=
er 20 years, the population is
50000. What will be the population after 35 years, following the rate of increase given in ex. 3.
Solution :
fromex. 3,
dP
kP(200000 P)
dt
dP
kdt
P(200000 P)
int egrating both sides of the equation gives,
dP
P(
=
=

k dt
200000 P)
1 A B
P(200000 P) P 200000 P
1 A(200000 P) BP
=

= +

= +
} }


solving for A and B,
1
A B
200000
therefore;
dP dP
k dt
200000P 200000(200000 P)
1 1
ln P ln(200000 P) kt C
200000 200000
1 P
ln kt C working equation
200000 200000 P
when P 10000, t 0
1 10000
ln k(0) C
200000 200000 10000
1
20000
= =
+ =

= +
= +

= =
= +

} } }
5
5
5
6 5
7
7
ln 0.0526 C
0
C 1.4722 x 10
when P 50000, t 20
1 50000
ln k(20) 1.4722 x 10
200000 200000 50000
1
ln 0.3333 20k 1.4722 x 10
200000
5.493 x 10 1.4722 x 10 20k
k 4.6144 x 10
when t 35, P ?
1 P
ln 4.6144 x 10 (3
200000 200000 P

=
=
= =
=

=
+ =
=
= =
=

5
7 5
5) 1.4722 x 10
P
ln 200000[4.6144 x 10 (35) 1.4722 x 10 ]
200000 P
P
ln 0.28568
200000 P
P 114190 after 35 years

=











Newtons Law of Cooling

Experiments has shown that under certain conditions, a good approximation to the tempe -
rature of an object can be obtained by using Newton's Law of Cooling.
Newton ' s Law of Cooling stated that "the temperature of the body changes at a rate that
is proportional to the difference in temperature between the outside mediumand the body itself ".
We shall assume that the cons tan t of proportionality is the same whether the temperature
is increa sin g or
( )
( )
b
b m
b
m
b
b m
b
decrea sin g.
Expressin g the above statement int o mathematical equation give,
dT
k T T
dt
where :
T temperature of the body
T temperature of the outside medium
re arranging the equation and int egrating gives,
dT
kdt
T T
ln T
=

( )
m
o o
o
T kt C working equation
Example1. A thermometer reading18 Cis brought int o a room where the temperature is 70 C;
1min ute later the thermometer reading is 31 C. Find the temperature reading 5 mins. after the
thermometer is first brou
= +
( )
( )
( )
b m
b
b
b m
b m
b m
ght int o the room.
Solution :
T 18 when t 0; T 70
T 31 when t 1
T ? when t 5
when T 18, t 0, T 70
ln T T kt C
ln 18 70 k(0) C; C ln( 52)
when T 31, t 1, T 70
ln 31 70 k(1) ln( 52)
ln( 39) k ln( 52)
ln( 39) ln( 52) k
39
k ln
= = =
= =
= =
= = =
= +
= + =
= = =
= +
= +
=

= 0.2877
52
=


( )
( ) ( )
( )
b m
b
5
b
5
b
b
b
when T ?, t 5, T 70
ln T 70 ( 0.2877)(5) ln( 52)
39
ln T 70 ln 52
52
39
T 70 52
52
T 12.34 70
T 57.66 C
Example 2. A pie ois removed froma 350 C oven and placed in the kitchen with 70 C
sorrounding tempera
= = =
= +
| |
=
|

\ .
| |
=
|

\ .
= +
=
( )
( )
b m
b
b
b m
b m
ture. In half an hour, the pie has a temperature of 150 C. How soon
will it be at 100 C and thus ready to eat ?
Solution :
T 350 when t 0; T 70
T 150 when t 30
T 100 when t ?
when T 350, t 0, T 70
ln T T kt C
ln 350 70 k(0) C; C ln 280
whe
= = =
= =
= =
= = =
= +
= + =
( )
( ) ( )
b m
b m
n T 150, t 30, T 70
ln 150 70 k(30) ln 280
ln80 30k ln 280
ln80 ln 280 30k
80
ln 30k
280
80
ln
280
k 0.04176
30
when T 100, t ?, T 70
ln 100 70 0.04176 t ln 280
ln30 ln 280 0.04176t
30
ln 0.04176t
280
2.2336
t 53.4
0.04176
= = =
= +
= +
=
=
= =
= = =
= +
=
=

= =

9 min


Example 3. At 9: 00 AM, a thermometer reading 70 Cis taken outdoor where the temperature
is 15 C. At 9: 05 AM, the thermometer reading is 45 C. At 9:10 AM, the thermometer is taken
indoors where the temperature is fixed at 70 C. Find the readi
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
2
1
m m
b b
b b
b
b
b
ng at 9: 20 AM.
Solution :
outside T 15 inside T 70
T 70, t 0 T ?, t 0
T 45, t 5 T ?, t 10
T ?, t 10 ref . time : 9:10 AM
OUTSIDE
when T 70, t 0
ln 70 15 k(0) C; C ln55
when T 45, t 5
ln 45 15 5k ln55
ln30 ln55 5k
30
ln 5k
55
3
ln
k
= =
= = = =
= = = =
= =
= =
= + =
= =
= +
=
=
=
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
b
b
2
b
2
b
b
b
b
b
0
55
5
when T ?, t 10
30
ln
55
ln T 15 10 ln55
5
30
ln T 15 ln 55
55
30
T 15 55
55
T 31.36 C reading at 9:10 AM
INSIDE (ref . time is 9:10 AM)
when T 31.36, t 0
ln 31.36 70 k(0) C
ln 38.64 C
when T ?, t 10
ln T
= =
= +
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
=
= =
= +
=
= =

( ) ( )
30
ln
55
70 10 ln 36.84
5
= +


( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
2
b
2
b
b
30
ln T 70 ln 36.84
55
30
T 70 36.84
55
T 58.5 C reading at 9: 20 AM
Example 4. If the temperature of the air is 300 K and the subs tan ce cools from370 K to 340 K
in 15 min utes, find whe the temperature will be 310 K.
S
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
=
( )
( )
( )
b m
b
b
b
b
b
olution :
T 370 when t 0; T 300
T 340 when t 15
T 310 when t ?
when T 370, t 0
ln 370 300 k(0) C; C ln 70
when T 340, t 15
ln 340 300 15k ln 70
ln 40 ln 70 15k
40
ln
70
k 0.0373
15
when T 310, t ?
ln 310 300 0.0373t ln 70
ln10 ln
= = =
= =
= =
= =
= + =
= =
= +
=
= =
= =
= +
70 0.0373t
10
ln 0.0373t
70
10
ln
70
t
0.0373
t 52.15 min utes
=
=
=

=












0
Suppose that at time t = 0, a quantity Q of a subs tan ce is present in a container. Assume
that at time t 0, a fluid containing a concentration C of a subs tan ce is allowed to enter the
container at a cons tan t rate and that the m
o
=
o
Mixture Problems
ixture is kept at a uniformconcentration throughout
by a mixing device. Also assume that at t 0, the mixture in the container with concentration C
is allowed to escape at a cons tan t rate .
The problemis to det er min e the amt. Qof the subs ta
|
=
|
n ce in the container at any time t.
dQ
The rate of change of the amount of the subs tan ce in the container equals the rate at
dt
which a fluid enters the container times the concentration of the subs tan ce in the entering fluid
min us the rate at which a fluid leaves the container times the concentration of the subs tan ce in
the container.
entering leaving
rate rate
C concentration C concentration
dQ
entering leaving
dt
dQ
C C working equation
dt
Example1. Pure wat
o |
o |
o = | =
= =
=
= o |
er is poured at the rate of 3 gal / min int o a tan k containing 300 kg of salt
dissolved in 100 gallons of water and the solution, kept well stirred, pours out at 2 gal / min. Find
the amount of salt at the end of 100 min utes.
Given :
Required : Q when t 1 =
( )( )
00 min
Solution :
rate of filling 3 2 1gpm
number of gal l ons added at any time t
1gpm t t gallons
volume at any time t
100 t
= =
= =
= +

then, the concentration of the subs tan ce in the container at any time t is,
Q
C
100 t
Usin g the derived equation gives,
dQ Q
C C 3(0) 2
dt 100 t
dQ Q
2
dt 100 t
dQ 2Q
0
dt 100 t
separating the var iables,
dQ 2dt
0
Q 100 t
int egrating
|
o |
=
+
= o | =
+
=
+
+ =
+
+ =
+
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
term by term,
dQ dt
2 0
Q 100 t
ln Q 2ln 100 t C
ln Q 100 t C
Q 100 t C
when t 0, Q 300
300 100 0 C; C 300 100
therefore,
Q 100 100 300 100
300 100
Q 75 kg of salt
200
Example 2. A tan k initially holds 100 gallons of brine solution c
+ =
+
+ + =
+ =
+ =
= =
+ = =
+ =
= =
} }
ontaining1kg of salt. At t 0,
another brine solution containing1kg of salt per gallon is poured int o the tan k at the rate of
3 gpm, while the well stirred mixture leaves the tan k at the same rate.
Find the time at which the mixture contains 2 kg
=
of salt.
Given :









3 3
dt dt
100 100
3 3
t t
100 100
3 3
t t
100 100
3
t
100
Required : t when Q 2 kg
Solution :
Q
C
100
dQ Q
(3)(1) 3
dt 100
dQ Q
3 3
dt 100
dQ Q
3 3 linear differential equation
dt 100
Qe 3e dt C
Qe 3e dt C
Qe 100e C
Q 100 Ce
when t 0, Q 1
1 100 C; C
|

=
=
=
=
+ =
} }
= +
= +
= +
= +
= =
= +
}
}
3
t
100
3
t
100
99
therefore,
2 100 99e
98
e
99
3 98
t ln
100 99
t 0.338 min
Example 3. A tan k contains 80 gallons of pure water. A brine solution with 2 kg / gal of salt
enters at 2 gpm, and the well stirred mixture leaves at the same rate.
Find t

=
=
=
=
=
he time at which the brine leaving will contain 1kg / gal of salt.
Given :











dt dt
40 40
t t
40 40
t t
40 40
t
40
t
40
Required : t so that C 1kg / gal
Solution :
dQ Q Q
(2)(2) 2 4
dt 80 40
dQ Q
4 linear
dt 40
Qe 4e dt C
Qe 4e C
Qe 160e C
Q 160 Ce
when t 0, Q 0
0 160 C; C 160
therefore,
Q 160 160e
Q
when C 1 ; Q 8
80
|

|
=
= =
+ =
} }
= +
= +
= +
= +
= =
= + =
=
= = =
}
}
t
40
t
40
0
80 160 160e
e 0.5
t
ln(0.5)
40
t 27.73 min

=
=
=
=
















In this topic, we use the notation t, s, v, a, m, and F for time, dis tan ce, velocity, accele
ration, mass, and force respectively. Fromcalculus, we have
ds dv dv
v and a v
dt dt ds
If a particle of mass m moves in a strai

= = =
Motion in a Straight Line
( )
2 2 2
ght line under the inf luence of one or more forces
having resul tan t F, then, in accordance with Newton ' s law of motion, we have
d
F mv
dt
assu min g that mis cons tan t, then
dv a W dv
F m ma W
dt g g dt
where :
g 9.8 m/ s 98 cm/ s 32.2 ft / s
=
| |
= = = =
|
\ .
= = =
Example1. A boat with its load weighs 322 lbs. If the force exerted upon the boat by the motor
in the direction of the motion is equivalent to a cons tan t force of 15 lbs, if the resis tan ce (in lb)
to motion is equal numerically to twice the speed (
( )
( )
in ft / s), that is, 2v lb and if the boat starts from
rest, find the speed after 10 seconds.
Solution :
W dv
F
g dt
322 dv
15 2v
32.2 dt
dv
15 2v 10
dt
15 2v dt 10dv
10dv 5dv
dt
15 2v 7.5 v
int egrating
dv
dt 5
7.5 v
t 5ln 7.5 v
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
=
=
= =

=

= +
} }
C



( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0.0745
5
0.0745
5
when t 0, v 0
0 5ln 7.5 0 C
C 5ln 7.5
therefore,
10 5ln 7.5 v 5ln 7.5
10 5ln 7.5 5ln 7.5 v
0.0745 5ln 7.5 v
0.0745
ln 7.5 v
5
7.5 v e
v 7.5 e
v 6.48 ft / s
Example 2. An iceboat with load weighs 322 lbs. It is prope
= =
= +
=
= +
=
=

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( )
o
o
lled by a force of 2 v v lb when
moving at the rate of v ft / s in a v ft / s tail wind. There is a cons tan t resis tan ce to motion of
10 lbs. (a) Find the speed v at time t sec from rest in a 40 ft / s wind. (b) Find its speed after 10 s
from rest.
Solution :
(a) F

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
o
o
o
o
o
o
W dv
g dt
322 dv
2 v v 10
32.2 dt
dv
v v 5 5
dt
5dv
dt
v v 5
int egrating
5dv
dt
v v 5
t 5ln v v 5 C
when t 0, v 0 and v 40
0 5ln 40 0 5 C
C 5ln35
therefore,
t 5ln 40 v 5 5ln35
t 5ln 35 v 5ln35
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
=
=

=

= +
= = =
= +
=
= +
= +
} }

( )
( )
t
ln35
5
t
ln35
5
10
ln35
5
ln35 2
5ln35 t 5ln 35 v
t
ln 35 v ln35
5
35 v e
v 35 e
(b) when t 10
v 35 e
v 35 e
v 30.26 ft / s
Example 3. A boat is being towed at the rate of 20 kph. At the ins tan t (t 0) that the towing
line is cast off , a man in the b

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oat begins to row in the direction of motion exerting a force of
90 N. If the combined mass of the man and the boat is 225 kg and the resis tan ce is equal to
26.25v, find the speed of the boat after 1/ 2 min ute. [Ans. 3.5 m/ s]






























Example1. The rate of change of air pressure with altitude (distance above the earth) is propor -
tional to the air pressure. If the air pressure on the ground is 101KPa and if at an altitude of
3050 mit is 70 KPa, find the air
Other Rate Problems
pressure at an altitude of 4575 m.
Solution :
h 0 P 101KPa
h 3050 P 70 KPa
h 4575 P ?
dP
kP
dh
dP
kdh
P
int egrating
dP
kdh
P
ln P kh C working equation
when h 0, P 101
ln101 k(0) C; C ln101
when h 3050, P 70
ln 70 3050k ln101
ln 70 ln1
= =
= =
= =
=
=
=
= +
= =
= + =
= =
= +

} }
( )( )
4
4
4.065
01 3050k
70
ln
101
k 1.2 x 10
3050
when h 4575
ln P 1.2 x 10 4575 ln101
ln P 4.065
P e
P 58.28 Kpa
Example 2. Water leaks froma cylinder through a small orifice in its base at a rate proportional
to the square root of the volume rem

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aining at any time. If the cylinder contains 64 gallons ini
tially and15 gallons leaks out the first day, when will 25 gallons remain? How much will remain
at the end of four days?
Solution :
v 64 when t 0
v 49 when t 1

= =
= =


1
2
1
2
t ? when v 25
t 4 when v ?
water leaks at the rate proportional to the square root of the volume remaining at any
time, then
dv
k v
dt
separating the var iables and int egrating,
dv
kdt
v
v dv kdt
2v kt C
2 v kt C working equation
when

= =
= =
=
=
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= +
= +
} }
t 0, v 64
2 64 k(0) C; C 16
when t 1, v 64 15 49
2 49 k(1) 16
k 2(7) 16 2
when t ?, v 25
2 25 2t 16
2t 16 2(5)
t 3 days
when t 4, v ?
2 v 2(4) 16
2 v 8
v 16 gallons
= =
= + =
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=
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=