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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Chapter 2
Circuit Analysis Techniques
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
To formulate the node-voltage equations.
To solve electric circuits using the node voltage
method.
To introduce the mesh current method.
To formulate the mesh-current equations.
To solve electric circuits using the mesh-current
method.
Objectives
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Two Powerful Techniques for Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis,
Mesh Analysis,
based on a
systematic
application of
Kirchhoffs
current law
(KCL
based on a
systematic
application of
Kirchhoffs
voltage law
(KVL)
we can analyze almost any circuit by obtaining a set of simultaneous equations
that are then solved to obtain the required values of current or voltage.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Nodal Analysis
So far, we have been applying KVL and KCL as
needed to find voltages and currents in a circuit.
Good for developing intuition, finding things quickly
but what if the circuit is complicated? What if you get
stuck?
Systematic way to find all voltages in a circuit by
repeatedly applying KCL: Node Voltage Method
(Nodal Analysis).
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Branches and Nodes ( reminder from last part)
Branch: elements connected end-to-end,
nothing coming off in between (in series)
Node: place where elements are joinedincludes entire wire
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method :
Step 1
Select a node as the reference
node.
The reference node is commonly called the
ground since it is assumed to have zero
potential.
This is the reference Node
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method ( Cont.)
Step 2
Assign voltages v
1
, v
2
, . . . ,
vn1
to
the remaining n 1 nodes. The
voltages are referenced with respect
to the reference node.
Node 0 is the reference node (v = 0), while
nodes 1 and 2 are assigned voltages v
1
and v
2
.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method
( Cont.)
Step 3
Apply KCL to each of the n 1 non
reference nodes
add i
1
, i
2
, and i
3
as the currents through
resistors R
1
,R
2
, and R
3
, respectively. At
by applying KCL gives
node 1
node 2
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method
( Cont.)
Step 4
Use Ohms law to express the
branch currents in terms of node
voltages.
The key idea to bear in mind is that, since
resistance is a passive element, by the
passive sign convention, current
must always flow from a higher potential to
a lower potential.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method
( Cont.)
Step 5
Solve the resulting simultaneous
equations to obtain the unknown
node voltages.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Node Voltage Equations (Resistors)
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Example:
The voltage drop from node X to a reference node (ground) is
called the node voltage V
x
.
The current through resistors can be expressed as
R
Vb Va
Iab

=
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Example
Calculate the node voltages
Solution
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
At node 1
Multiply by 4
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
At node 2
Multiply by 12
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Example
Find the voltage at node 1, 2 & 3
Solve this example and handle it to me
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Conclusion for Nodal Analysis
Nodal analysis is simply writing KCL equations in a
systematic way assuming all currents leaving.
Nodes voltages are the circuit variables.
Currents are expressed in terms of nodes voltages.
The number of variables = Number of nodes - 1
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources
note that:
A current source produces constant current in a
give direction.
A Voltage source maintains the voltage constant
between its terminals.
No need to consider Va a circuit variable.
I
s
Va Vb
I
s
is leaving Va
- I
s
is leaving Vb
+
-
Vs
Va
Va = Vs
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
If a voltage source is
connected between the
reference node and a
non-reference node.
simply set the voltage at the non-reference
node equal to the voltage of the voltage
source
v1 = 10 V
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
If the voltage source
(dependent or independent) is
connected between two non-
reference nodes.
we apply both KCL and KVL to
determine the node voltages.
V
1
and v
2
are called a super-nodes as they enclose a (dependent or
independent) voltage source connected between them and any elements
connected in parallel.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources.
Step 1
Choose a reference node (ground, node 0)
Step 2
Define unknown node voltages (those not connected to ground by
voltage sources). Va, Vb,
Step 3
Write KCL equation at each unknown node.
How? Each current involved in the KCL equation will either come
from a current source (giving you the current value) or through a
device like a resistor.
If the current comes through a device, relate the current to the node
voltages using I -V relationship (like Ohms law).
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Step 4
Apply KCL to the supper node
Super-node
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Step 5
Apply KVL to the supper node
Step 6
Solve the set of equations (N linear KCL
equations for N unknown node voltages).
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Example
Choose a reference node.
Define the node voltages (except reference node and the one set
by the voltage source).
Apply KCL at the nodes Va and Vb with unknown voltage.
Solve for Va and Vb in terms of circuit parameters.
0
R
V V
R
V
R
V V
3
b a
2
a
1
1 a
=

+ +

node voltage set

V
a
V
b
reference node
R
4
V
1
R
2
+
-
I
S
R
3
R
1
S
4
b
3
a b
I
R
V
R
V V
= +

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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Example
Find the node voltage
Solution
Apply KCL at the super node
Multiply by 4
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Apply KVL to the loop
.1
.2
From 1 and 2
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Example
Calculate the power absorbed by
the 6 ohm resistor using nodal analysis
Apply nodal KCL at V
1
0
6 2
1
2 1 1
=

v v v
0 1
2 6
1 2 1
=

v v v
1
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
At Node V
2
0 4
7 6
2 2 1
=

v v v
0 4
7 6
2 1 2
= +

v v v
.2
Solve for 1 & 2
6
2
6
R i P =
W
v v
P 24
6
144
6
6
2
2 1
= =


=
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Example
Find I
o
using the Node-Voltage

=
6 3
4
2 1 1
v v v
2 1
4 i i + =
0 4
6 3
2 1 1
=

v v v
..........................................................1
At node V
1

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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
V
1
= 10.838 V
V
2
= 8.516 V
At node V
2
4 3
i i I
o
+ =


6
12
4 6
2 2 2 1
v v v v
0
6
12
4 6
2 2 1 2
=

v v v v
..2
Solve for 1 and 2
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Example
Use nodal analysis, find v
o
Solution
At Node V
1
5
2 1
+ = i i
5
2 1
0 1 1
+

v v v
5
2 1
40
0 1
+

v v
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
5
2 1
40
0 1
+

v v
Multiply by 2
( ) ( ) 10 80
0 1
+ = v v
( ) 70
0 1
= v v
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
At Node V
0
3 2
5 i i = +
( )

= +


8
20
4
5
2
0 0 0 1
v v v v
Multiply by 8
20 7 4
0 1
= v v
Solving for v
0
and v
1
V0 = 30v