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AUDIA_S_ABDAL_R_ASEDY AMEERA.J AL_ SWIDI


Basic Education College College of Education
Science Department Mathematics Department
Abstract:
In this paper we present a comparison between block and stream ciphers through
advantages and disadvantages of both .
1-Introduction:
In1999 the Bluetooth specification was published in the documents describing the new
short range link solutions the researchers presented a stream cipher called E0 which
was designed to provide the wireless connection with a strong protection against
eavesdroppingE0.
The E0 encryption system is built around a relatively simple key streamgenerator which
is initialized with a key of at most 128bit. See [ 1],[2],[5]
In this research a brief E0 algorithms is presented with two possible improvements are
listed.
2-Some Basic Concepts:
the cryptography system divided into crypto analysis (is the science of breaking the
cipher) and cryptography is divided into depending on encryption and decryption key
and Depending on Cryptographic Techniques :
1-Depending on encryption and Decryption Key :
A-Symmetric Algorithm
C=Ek(M) ,M=DK(C)
K is secret single key ,one key algorithm
i.e. the same key for encryption and decryption
Or the key of decryption .can be calculated from encryption key
B- Asymmetric Algorithm:(public key)Algorithm.
An advantages and disadvantages of
Block and StreamCipher
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Two key: one for encryption and the second for Decryption.
i.e. C=Ek1 (M) ,M=Dk2(c) ,normally ,k1, is public ,k2 is secret.
2- Depending on Cryptographic Techniques:
I:Block Cipher
Let M be a plaintext message .A block cipher breaks M into successive blocks
M1,M2,,and enciphers for each M1with the same key k,that is
EK(M)=EK(M1)EK(M2).
Each block is typically several characters long.
Example(on block cipher):
1-play fair cipher: it is a block cipher of size 2 letters .
2-Hill cipher :it is a block cipher of size d letters.
3-DEScipher: it is a block cipher of size 64bits .
4-Electronic code Book code book.(ECB)
Corresponding plain text block to a cipher block
Manually: choose 1000-10,000 plain text blocks in a two part book: one for
encipherment sorted on plain text the second part sorted on cipher text .
Electronic: each key has different code book, book size is bigger than of manual.
5-transposition with period d character.
6-simple substitution with 1character.
7-Homophonic substitution with 1character .
8-Knapsack of length n bits.
II:StreamCipher
It is breaks the message M into successive characters or bits M1,M2,,and
enciphers each Mi with the it element ki of a key stream K=K1K2 That is
EK(M)=EK1(M1)EK2(M2)
Example(on streamcipher):
1-one time bits and Running key ciphers are non periodic .
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2-vigenere cipher is periodic because plain text char are enciphered one by-one and
adjacent char are encipher with a different part of the key.
3-Auto key cipher: An Auto key cipher is example on self-synchronous such that the
key is derived from the message it encipher in vigeneres first cipher the key is formed
by appending the plain text M=m1m2 .to a "priming key" character ki ,the i-th key
character (i>1))starts with k1, next key ki=mi-1 or ci-1.
4-cipher feedback (CFB):it is another example on self- synchronous such that plain text
is encipher in small units (smaller than block size) .
A stream cipher is periodic if the key stream repeats after characters for some fixed d
otherwise it is no periodic.
III: There are two different approaches to streamencryption ,
1- Synchronous streamcipher: key streamis generated independently of the
plaintext stream.
2-Self-Synchronous streamcipher: each key character(or bit) is derived from a fixed
number n of preceding cipher text character (or bit),For more detail see [3],[4],[6]
IV:Linear Feedback Shift Registers
An n-stage liner Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR) consists of a shift register R=(rn,rn-1,.r1)
and a tap Sequence T=( tn,tn-1.,t1), where each ri and ti is one binary digit .At each
step ,bit ri is appended to the key stream ,bits rn,.r2 are shifted right ,and a new bit
derived from T and R is inserted into he left of the register .Letting R' =(r'n,r'n-1r'1)
denote the next state of R,we see that the computation of R' is thus :
r'i=r'i+1 i=1,.,n-1
r'n=TR= tiri mod 2=t1r1+t2r2+..tnrn
thus R'=HRmod 2, where His nn matrix
tn tn-1 tn-2 t3 t2 t1
1 0 0 0 0 0
H= 0 1 0 0 0 0
. . . . . .
0 0 0 0 1 0
An n-stage LFSR can generate pseudo random bit strings with a period of 2
n-1
.To
achieve this, the tap sequence before repeating .This will happen if the polynomial
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T(x)=tnx
n
+tn-1x
n-1
+..+t1x +1,Formed the form the elements in the tap sequence
plus the constant 1,is primitive A primitive polynomial of degree n is an
irreducible polynomial that device x
2 -1
+1 , but not x
d
+1 for any that divides
2
n
-1primitive trinomials of the form T(X) =X
n
+X
a
+1are particularly appealing
,because only two stages of the feedback register need be taped see[2],[5].
The polynomial T(X) =X
4
+X+1 is primitive, so the register will cycle through all 15
nonzero bit combination in GF(2
3
)before repeating . Now as T(x) =X
4
+X+1 , tap
sequence T=(1,0,0,1),i.e. x
4
=1,x
3
=0,x
2
=0,x=1. the matrix His given by
1 0 0 1
H= 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
Starting Rin the initial state 0001.we have
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1
1 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1
1 0 0 1
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
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The rightmost column gives the key streamk=100011110101100.for more detail
see [2],[3],[4]
3.Previous Attacks on E0:
As is usual in cryptanalysis ,we focus on known plaintext attacks, i.e.we assume
a situation in which the attacker is able to obtain a certain amount of decrypted
text in one way or another . The goal of a known plaintext attack is to use this
information to recover other (unknown) parts of the plaintext .In the case of
additive stream ciphers, this problem reduces to finding a way to predict the
entire key streamzt given a limited number of key streambits.
To derive the output bits of the key stream generator described in the previous
section ,at least two fundamentally different methods:
1:Correlation Attacks.
2: Guess and Determine Attacks.
4.Advantages of block cipher:
1-It is some what faster than stream cipher each time n characters
executed.
2-Transmission errors in one cipher text block have no affect on other
blocks.
3-Not sufficient in hardware but may be used to connect keyboard to
cpu(central process unit) because the keyboard is slowly and the
transmission data between keyboard and cpu passed through bandwidth
8-bit or 8-character.
4-Block ciphers can be easier to implement in software ,because the
often avoid time-consuming bit manipulations and they operate on data
in computer-sized blocks
5-More suitable In trading applications.
6-Short blocks at the end of a message must also be added with blank or
zero.
7-In the real world block ciphers seem to be more general (i.e. they can
be used in any of the four modes, the modes is ECB, CBC,OFB, CFB).
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5. disadvantages of block cipher: :
1-Identical blocks of plaintext produce identical blocks of cipher text .
2-Easy to insert or delete blocks .
3-modifying blocks .
4-Block encryption may be more susceptible to cryptanalysis than either
stream mode.
Because identical block of plain text yield identical blocks of cipher text.
5-Block encryption is more susceptible to replay than stream encryption if
each block is in dependently encipher while the same key one block can
be replayed for another.
6. advantages of streamcipher :.
1-Stream cipher that only encryption and decryption data one bit at a
time are really suitable For hard ware implementation .
2-Stream cipher it is lase than susceptible to cryptanalysis than either
block mode because identical parts of M are encipher with different parts
of the key streams.
3-Streamcipher is lase than to vulnerable to insertion or deletion of block.
4-Easy to analyze mathematically .
5-The key stream is generated independently of the message stream.
6-More suitable in military applications.
7-Synchronous stream cipher protect against cipher text searching
because identical block of characters in the message stream are
enciphered under a different part of the key stream.
8-In self-synchronous stream cipher each key character is derived from a
fixed number n of preceding cipher text characters( or bits).
9-Self-synchronous streamciphers are non-periodic because each key
character is function dependent on the entire preceding message stream.
10-Self synchronous cipher protect a against cipher text searching
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because different parts of the message streamare enciphered under
different parts of the key stream.
11-Self synchronous cipher protect against all type of authenticity threats
because any change to the cipher text affects the key streamindeed the
last block of cipher text is functionally dependent on the entire message
serving as a checksumfor the entire message.
7.Disadvantage of streamcipher:.
1-Transmission error in 0ne cipher text block have affect on other block
such that if a bit lost or a altered during transmission the error affect the n
character and cipher resynchronous it self after n correct cipher text char.
2-It is slower than block but we can make it more fast by implemented in
special purpose hardware capable of encryption several million bits for
second.
3-If the key short length it is mean repeat faster ,so it is because same
block .
4-Not suitable in the software .
5-In synchronous stream cipher if a cipher text character is lost during
transmission the sender and receiver must resynchronous their key
generators before they can proceed further.
6-In self synchronous stream if a cipher text character is lost or altered
during transmission ,the error propagates forward for n characters. But the
cipher resynchronous by itself after n correct cipher text characters have
been received.
7-Synchronous stream cipher is periodic because key stream is repeater
after d character.
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8.Conclusions:
1-The statistical attack cannot be applied to the actual E0 algorithm ,as
it assumes sequences of consecutive key streambits which are
considerably longer than the maximumpacket size.
2-so that to determine which is better to use the block or streamcipher
is depends on the requirement of the particular application we can
make some general observation about the efficiency and security of
the different approaches.
3-we notice that in Bluetooth method the stream cipher is used
because the transmission is wireless and for the security side the
connection between two person for sent information( message ,picture
and phone number,.etc) i.e. between two mobile or between two pc
computer or between pc computer and mobile such that in this
method the mobile is work same flash Rom, using method of
cryptography (Correlation, Guess methods) for this purpose .
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Reference
[1] Bruces. Applied cryptography, second edition,
published by john Wiley and sons ,inc.1996.
[2] Christophe De Canniere ,Thomas Tohansson and Bart
preneel cosic internal report- "Cryptanalysis of the blue
tooth stream cipher"2001.
[3] J EAN_PAUL TREMBLAY ,PAUL G.SOR ENSON AN
introduction to data structures with application by mc
Graw_Hill,inc,1984.
[4] J ennifer s. and J osef p.cryptography:An introduction to
computer security,1989 by prentice Hall of Astralia pty lid.
[5] Shimada M.Another practical public key
cryptosystem,Electronics letters,vol. no.23,1992,p.2146-
2147.
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