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CHEMISTRY- Chemistry is a central science

DEFINITION OF CHEMISTRY-

------ to 600 BC “Practical Arts

- started in Egypt and Mesopotamia


- during this period, they weren’t concerned with composition, only survival
- no scientific principles
- production of fire
- hunting, tools, and weapons, pottery or baking, production of ores

600 BC to 300 BC “Greek Theory”

- Greece
- Two major ideas
1. Aristotle- fire, earth, water, air
2. Leucipus and Democritus
Matter is made up of “atoms”
- nature of the substances
- Plato = shape

300 BC to 1650 AD “Alchemy Period”

- Egyptians and Greeks


1. Philosopher’s Stone
a. Cheap metals and gold. (Rise of Metallorgy)
2. Elixir Of Life
a. Immortality
- Bubonic Plague
o Iatrochemistry
 Paracelsus
- Robert Boyle put and end to the Alchemy Period
o Based on Evidences
o Scientific Method

1650 to 1799 AD “Phlogiston Theory”

- Georg Ernot Stent and Johan Becher


- Phlogiston- present in all flammable materials, evolved or released
- Calx – residue or left after burning (retained)

1799- 1990 “Modern Chemistry”

- Joseph Prestly
o Dephlogisticated air or oxygen
- Antoine Lavosier
o Father of Modern Chemistry
- Law of Conservation of Mass
- Quantitative data
o Mb = Ma (mass before = mass after)

2000 – present

- the use of nano technology

SCIENTIFIC TRAITS
- curiosity
- resourcefulness
- creativeness
- innovativeness
- inventiveness
- open- mindedness
- critical thinking
- intellectual honesty
- skepticism
- perseverance
- dedication
- rationalize

BRANCHES OF CHEMSITRY
1. Organic Chemistry
- concerned with elements containing carbon (all living organisms contain at least some amount of
carbon in their body)
- hydrocarbon (compounds whose main feature is a long chain of carbon atoms bonded to
hydrogen atoms)
- Pharmaceutical, petrochemical, and textile industries.

2. Inorganic Chemistry
- concerned with elements not containing carbon (minerals of the earth’s crust and non- living
matter)
- nuclear science and energy, geo chemistry, dietary minerals (Ca, Cl, Mg, P, K, Na)

3. Physical Chemistry
- behavior of chemical substances
- deals with the relations between physical properties of substances and their chemical formations
along with their changes

4. Biochemistry
- concerned with the chemistry of life processes and living organisms
- also called physiological chemistry or biological chemistry
- study the property of molecules, metabolism, vitamins, etc.

5. Analytical Chemistry
- deals with composition of substances
- quantitative and qualitative methods

SCIENTIFIC TOOLS
1. Bunsen Burner
- used for heating using high tempretures
2. Test tube
- used for containing substances only
3. Test tube holder
- used for holding test tubes
4. Test Tube Rack
- holds many test tubes
5. Rubber Stopper or Cork
- stops the release of gas
- used for shaking
- use cork for acidic substances
6. Graduated Cylinder
- used for measuring the exact volume of liquids

7. Beaker
- used to contain or hold liquids
8. Wire Gauze
- used to aid in heating
- used to spread heat evenly
9. Triple Beam Balance
- measures mass
10. Funnel
- only for liquids
- transferring of liquids
11. Stirring Rod
- used for mixing
12. Thermometer
- used for taking temperatures
13. Florence Flask
- used for distillation or heating
14. Erlenmeyer Flask
- used for mixing
15. Volumetric Flask
- used to measure exact volume
- used for mixing solutions
16. Pipettes
- used to measure a small amount of liquid accurately
17. Burettes
- for filtration
- for acids or bases
18. Dessicator
- used to absorb moisture
19. Mortar and Pestle
- use to pound substances
20. Evaporating dish
- used for evaporation
21. Watch Glass
- used to watch or observer substances
22. Iron Ring
23. Utility Clamp
- used to hold the burette and the Florence flask on the iron ring
24. Crucible and Cover
- used for heating solids at high temperatures

MEASUREMENT:
- process of finding how many measuring units there are in something.
- Quantitative information about the physical world
- SI system – use of prefixes and rootwords
o Giga (9 right)
o Mega (6 right)
o Kilo (3 right)
o Hector (2 right)
o Deca (1 right)
o Deci (1 left
o Centi (2 left
o Mili (3 left
o Micro (6 left)
o Nano (9 left)

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
- also referred to as exponential notation
- notation based on powers of the base number
N x 10
Where N = number greater than 1 but less than 10
X= exponent is 10
RULES OF SCIENTIFIC FIGURES:
1. All non- zero digits are significant
2. Zeroes between non zero digits are significant
3. Zeros before the first non zero digit are non significant. These are called leading zeroes
4. Zeros after the last non zero digit nay or may not be significant. These are called trailing zeros
5. Exact numbers are considered to have an infinite number of significant figures.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
- Observe
- State the problem
- Hypothesis
- Experiment
- Record Data
- Analyze
- Conclude/ Give reason of disapproval

MATTER
- has five states (from most dense to least dense
o BEC – super un-excited, low temp
o Solid – compact particles
o Liquid – no definite shape
o Gas – Free moving particles
o Plasma – ionized gas
- Changes
o Physical – varies on temperature, pressure, and is reversible
 Solid to…
• Liquid – melting
• Gas - sublimation
 Liquid to…
• Solid – freezing
• Gas – evaporation
 Gas to…
• Liquid – condensation
• Solid – Deposition
• Plasma – Ionization
 Plasma to..
• Gas – Deionization

o Chemical – the complete change of a substance’s chemical makeup, irreversible


 Exothermic – release of heat
 Endothermic – absorbtion of heat
 Can be identified if
• Formation of bubbles
• Release of gas
• Change in temp
• Light
• Smoke

- Properties
o Physical – visible
 Intensive – not affected by quantity
 Extensive – affected by quantity
o Chemical – observable only during a reaction
 Corrosiveness
 Electronegativity
 Ionization potential
 pH balance
 Reactivity
 Heat of combustion
 Enthalpy of formationj
 Toxicity
 Chemical stability
 Flammability
 Oxidation
 Coordination number
- Classification
o Pure Substance
 Elements – substances with only one type of atom
 Compounds – mixture of elements
o Mixtures
 Homogenous – cannot define the components used
• Solutions – the pattern between components Is uniform
 Heterogeneous – easily separated
• Colloid – large components
• Suspension – smaller components

SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
- Decantation – separation by pouring / colloids
- Filtration – separation with the use of a filter / suspension
- Centrifugation – separation with the use of a centrifuge and the spinning force / suspension
- Evaporation – separation by evaporating / solution
- Crystallization – separation by heating first followed by cooling / solutions
- Distillation - separation by using a combination of evaporation and condensation
- Fractional Distillation – similar to distillation but with the exception of antibumping granules,
fractionating column and glass beads/ liquid solutions
- Chromatography - separation using the different physical properties of the components such as
absorbtion, solubility, etc. / solution

ATOM
- Contributions (bold letters are the models)
o John Dalton
 Came up with the Billiard ball-like atomic model
 No sub atomic particles
 Indivisible and indestructible
o Micheal Faraday
 Studied the electrical decomposition of numerous compounds
 Proposed the quantative law
 Suggested the suggested the existence of fundamental unit of electricity to
account for his results involving the electrolysis of solutions of aqueous acids
and salts.
o Joseph John Thomsom
 an English physicist who established the particle nature of cathode rays.
 determined the charge-to-mass-ratio of the particles in the cathode ray.
 cathode rays are negatively charged particles called electrons.
 Proposed the Plum Pudding Model, where negatively charged particles were
embedded in a positive mass. The neutralization of the two formed neutral
atoms
o Robert Millikan
 Determined the charge of electrons with the oil drop experiment

o Eugen Goldstein
 Studied electrical phenomena of gases
 Canal rays are positively charged massive rays left after the electrons are
discharged from an atom, a.k.a. ions, or charged particles
o Henri Becquerel
 Accidentally discovered radioactivity from uranium, coined Becquerel rays, now
known as X-rays
 Overthrew the idea of the atoms indestructibility
o Marie and Pierre Curie
 Discovered polonium in a radium
o Ernest Rutherforf
 Gold foil experiment
 Discovered positive alpha, negative beta, and neutral gamma rays in the
Becquerel rays
 Made the Nuclear Model, a positive mass surrounded by a negative coat
o James Chadwick
 Discovered neutrons, and proposed that an atom’s mass is concentrated in the
nucleus
o Niel Bohr
 Proposed the orbital model, or the Bohr model, which had electrons revolving
around defined paths around the nucleus
o Erwin Schrodinger
 Quantum Mechanical model, similar to the orbit model but with the
electron’s position not pinpointed, but are found in electron clouds
- Sub-atomic particles
o Proton
 Common to all atoms of an element. Positive charged
o Neutron
 Found with the protons in the nucleus. No charge
o Electrons
 Orbits around the nucleus. Negative Charged
- Atom values
o Atomic Mass (A) – the superscripted number before a element. A = P + N
o Atomic Number (Z) – the subscripted number. Z = P = N
o Charge – the exponent. If positive, the proton number is added with the exponent.
Electron if negative
- Quantum numbers
o n – energy level, principal quantum number
o L – azimuthal quantum number. Dependent on n. If n 5, the L is 0,1,2,3, and 4
o mL - magnetic quantum number . if l is 3, then ml is -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, and 3
o ms - spin projection quantum. only has 2 values: 1/2, and -1/2. The number of 1/2 is
determined by the orbitals, and the number of -1/2’s is the difference between the # of
orbitals and the maximum number of electrons

Main Energy No. of Sublevel Identity of Sublevels No. of Orbitals Max. No. of
Level (L) (n2) Electrons
(n) (2n2)
1 1 1s (l=0) 1 2
2 2 2s (L=0) 1 2
2p(L= -1,0,1) 3 6
3 3 3s (l=0) 1 2
3p(L= -1,0,1) 3 6
3d(L= -2, -1,0,1, 2) 5 10
4 4 4s (l=0) 1 2
4p(L= -1,0,1) 3 6
4d(L= -2, -1,0,1, 2) 5 10
4f(L=-3, -2, -1,0,1, 7 14
2,3)