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5-7-2009
Te Cadenza in Cello Concertos - History,
Analysis, and Principles of Improvisation
Boyan Bonev
Florida State University
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Recommended Citation
Bonev, Boyan, "Te Cadenza in Cello Concertos - History, Analysis, and Principles of Improvisation" (2009). Electronic Teses,
Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 3603.
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF MUSIC





THE CADENZA IN CELLO CONCERTOS

HISTORY, ANALYSIS, AND PRINCIPLES OF IMPROVISATION





By

BOYAN BONEV





A Treatise submitted to the
College of Music
in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Music





Degree Awarded:
Summer Semester 2009





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The members of the Committee approve the Treatise of Boyan Bonev defended on May
7, 2009.


__________________________________
Gregory Sauer
Professor Directing Treatise

___________________________________
Jane Piper Clendinning
Outside Committee Member

__________________________________
Eliot Chapo
Committee Member













The Graduate School has verified and approved the above named committee members.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to thank my major professor Gregory Sauer, and my committee members
Jane Piper Clendinning and Eliot Chapo, for their help and support.



































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TABLE OF CONTENTS


List of Figures... v

Abstract. vi

INTRODUCTION... 1

I. HISTORY OF CADENZAS IN CELLO CONCERTOS ..... 4

II. ANALYSIS OF AD LIBITUM CADENZAS .. 15

Biographical Sketch of the Authors of the Cadenzas.... 18
Analyses of Cadenzas for the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major by
Joseph Haydn.... 19
Analyses of Cadenzas for the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in D Major by
Joseph Haydn.... 22

III. PRINCIPLES OF IMPROVISATION.... 30

CONCLUSION. ... 40

APPENDICES... 41

1. CADENZAS FOR THE CONCERTO FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRA IN C MAJOR BY
JOSEPH HAYDN 41

2. CADENZAS FOR THE CONCERTO FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRA IN D MAJOR BY
JOSEPH HAYDN, MOVEMENT I.. 43

3. CADENZAS FOR THE CONCERTO FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRA IN D MAJOR BY
JOSEPH HAYDN, MOVEMENTS II AND III 55

4. COPYRIGHT PERMISSION LETTERS. 60

BIBLIOGRAPHY 65

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 67





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LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1a: Pyotr Ilych Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations for Cello and Orchestra,
Op.33, cadenza.. 5

Figure 1b: Russian folk song Dark Eyes 6

Figure 2: Arthur Honegger, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra,
cadenza by Maurice Marchal... 9

Figure 3: Gyrgy Ligeti, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Cadenza. 12

Figure 4: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Movement III, lead-in by Enrico
Mainardi. 31

Figure 5: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, first theme,
mm. 22-26. 34

Figure 6: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, second
theme, mm. 36-39. 34

Figure 7: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, closing
theme, mm. 42-45.... .... 34

Figure 8a: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, virtuoso
passage in development section, mm. 67-73. 35

Figure 8b: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, virtuoso
passage in recapitulation, mm. 107-113 35

Figure 9: Boyan Bonev, cadenza to the first movement of Joseph Haydns Concerto for Cello
and Orchestra in C Major.. 36

Figure 10: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement II, theme I,
mm. 16-24. 38

Figure 11: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement II, theme II,
mm. 35-41..... 38

Figure 12: Boyan Bonev, cadenza to the second movement of Joseph Haydns Concerto for
Cello and Orchestra in C Major........ 39




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ABSTRACT


This treatise explores the topic of cadenzas in concertos for cello and orchestra with four
goals in mind. First, it provides an historical background of the development of the cadenza in
cello concertos from the eighteenth century to the twentieth century. Next, it discusses the
different functions and locations of the cadenzas in works of the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries in order to establish where an improvised cadenza is appropriate, and where the
cadenza provided by the composer should be performed. The third element is a survey and
analysis of the compositional procedures in existing cadenzas for the cello concertos by Joseph
Haydn in terms of style, form, and relationship to the musical material of the movement of the
concerto. Finally, the treatise includes guidelines for creating cadenzas.
The treatise is organized in three chapters. Chapter one, History of Cadenzas in Cello
Concertos, presents an historic overview of the cadenzas in cello concertos. It includes a
discussion of the evolution of the cadenza from a simple improvisatory penultimate section of a
movement (Concerto for Cello and Orchestra Nos. 1 and 2 by Joseph Haydn) to a separate
movement in a concerto (Concerto for Cello and Orchestra Op. 107 by Dmitri Shostakovich). In
this chapter I discuss also the places cadenzas can appear the beginning, middle or end of fast
or slow movements and the different stylistic characteristics associated with them. Chapter
two, Analysis of Ad libitum Cadenzas, includes an analysis of harmonic progressions, use of
thematic and non-thematic musical materials, the length of the cadenza, keys alluded to,
structure, form, style, and interpretation of selected cadenzas for the cello concertos by Joseph
Haydn. The chapter also includes a discussion and comparison instructions for improvising
cadenza from selected eighteenth-century treatises. In chapter three, Principles of
Improvisation, I discuss the principles of improvising cadenzas for cello concertos. I examine
the choices of thematic materials from the movement and the possibilities for improvisation.
Those principles however are not limited to classical concertos. They can be applied to the
improvisation of any ad libitum cadenza.

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INTRODUCTION


This treatise explores the topic of cadenzas in concertos for cello and orchestra with four
goals in mind. First, it provides an historical background of the development of the cadenza in
cello concertos from the eighteenth century to the twentieth century. Next, it discusses the
different functions and locations of the cadenzas in works of the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries, in order to establish where an improvised cadenza is appropriate, and where the
cadenza provided by the composer should be performed. The third element is a survey and
analysis of the compositional procedures of existing cadenzas for the cello concertos by Joseph
Haydn in terms of style, form, and relationship to the musical material of the movement of the
concerto. Finally, the treatise includes guidelines for creating cadenzas. The introduction
provides an outline of the treatises chapter organization and survey of literature.
The treatise is organized in three chapters. Chapter one, History of Cadenzas in Cello
Concertos, presents an historic overview of the cadenzas in cello concertos. It includes a
discussion of the evolution of the cadenza from a simple improvisatory penultimate section of a
movement (Concerto for Cello and Orchestra Nos. 1 and 2 by Joseph Haydn) to a separate
movement in a concerto (Concerto for Cello and Orchestra Op. 107 by Dmitri Shostakovich). In
this chapter I discuss also the places cadenzas can appear the beginning, middle or end of fast
or slow movements and the different stylistic characteristics associated with them. Chapter
two, Analysis of Ad libitum Cadenzas, includes an analysis of harmonic progressions, the use
of thematic and non-thematic musical materials, and other aspects such as the length of the
cadenza, keys alluded to, structure, form, style, and interpretation of selected cadenzas for the
cello concertos by Joseph Haydn. The chapter also includes a discussion and comparison
instructions for improvising cadenzas from selected eighteenth-century treatises. In chapter three,
Principles of Improvisation, I discuss the principles of improvising cadenzas for cello
concertos. I examine the choices of thematic materials from the movement and the possibilities
for improvisation.
Many performers, pedagogues, composers, critics, historians, and theorists throughout
the centuries wrote about the cadenza. Some of them developed rules and principles of
improvisation, while others observed and described the practice of writing cadenzas of their

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time. Writings about cadenzas can be found in Jean-Jacques Rousseaus Dictionnaire de
Musique (1768), Pietro Aarons Thoscanello de la Musica (1523), Giovanni Bassanos Ricercate
Passaggi et Cadentie per Potersi Essercitar nel Diminuir (1585), Michael Pretorius Syntagma
Musicum (1618), An Essay by Girolamo Frescobaldi (1615), Giuseppe Tartinis Trait des
agrments (1771), Pier Francesco Tosis Opinioni de Cantori Antichi e Moderni (1723), Johann
Joachim Quantz Versuch einer Anweisung die Flte traversiere zu spielen (1752), Carl Philip
Emanuel Bachs Versuch ber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (1753), Daniel Gottlob
Trks Klavierschule (1789), Augustus Frederic Christopher Kollmanns An Essay in Practical
Musical Composition (1799), among others.
Current research on cadenzas includes the doctoral treatises A Study of the Classical
Cadenza and a Manual for Writing Cadenzas for Classical Wind Concertos (1986) by Brian K.
Kershner, A Collection and Study of the Published Cadenzas for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts
Concerto in G Major for Flute and Orchestra, K. 313 (2002) by Sarah M. Gill, and the book
Unpremeditated Art: the Cadenza in the Classical Keyboard Concerto (1991) by Philip
Whitmore.
Brian K. Kershner surveys cadenzas for classical wind concertos, Mozarts cadenzas for
his piano concertos, and provides guidelines for writing cadenzas. In the process of writing
cadenzas he incorporates his original thematic material composed in the style of the classical
period. The author does not examine the eighteenth-century treatises, nor does he follow the
rules and descriptions of cadenza they establish. Instead, the principles for improvisation are
drawn from Mozarts piano concerto cadenzas.
Sarah M. Gill offers a case study of the published cadenzas by twentieth-century flute
performers for Mozarts flute concerto in G major, K. 313. She examines in detail and compares
the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century treatises by Johann Quantz, Daniel Trk, and Johann
Tromlitz. The analyses of the cadenzas are based on the descriptions, rules, and principles
outlined in those treatises.
Philip Withmore presents a comprehensive study of the art of improvising cadenzas.
The book includes a history, analysis, and classification of the classical keyboard cadenzas. The
author compares and examines in great detail the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century treatises,
and offers a thorough discussion of the performance practices of the classical cadenza.

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The current treatise extends this research to the study of cadenzas for cello concertos. It
offers an historical overview of the development of cadenzas for the cello concerto, discussion of
the eighteenth-century treatises by Johann Quantz, Daniel Trk, and Giuseppe Tartini, analysis
of cadenzas for the cello concertos by Joseph Haydn, and principles of improvisation. Although
the treatise includes analyses of selected cadenzas for the cello concertos by Haydn and uses one
of the concertos (Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major by Joseph Haydn) for establishing
the principles of improvisation, it should not be considered a case study. The cadenzas and the
concerto are simply included in order to provide a foundation for the study of the principles of
improvisation, which can be applied to the improvisation of cadenza for any other concerto.
Many cellists have also composed cadenzas, including Jascha Bernstein, Emanuel
Feuermann, Franois-Auguste Gevaert, Franco Mannino, Benedetto Mazzacurati, David Popper,
Fritz Reitz, Leonard Rose, Franz Schmidt, Gerhard Silwedel, and Jnos Starker. Both writers and
performers provide useful material for research on the specifics of the cadenzas for cello
concertos.














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CHAPTER I

HISTORY OF CADENZAS IN CELLO CONCERTOS


The cadenza, an important part of the concerto, has undergone much change from the
eighteenth century until today. In the cadenza the soloist is left without orchestral
accompaniment to display his or her improvisational abilities, technical wizardry, or both. In this
chapter, I examine the different types, functions and locations of the cadenzas in works for cello
and orchestra of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. The chapter concludes with a
discussion of the performance practices of improvising cadenzas in the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries. The discussion of both history and performance practices is important for the topic of
the treatise because it establishes where an improvised cadenza is appropriate, and where the
cadenza provided by the composer should be performed.
During the eighteenth century, in the cello concertos by Luigi Boccherini and Joseph
Haydn, for example, the cadenza was an improvisatory penultimate section of the first and
second movements after the cadential six-four chord. This type of cadenza is called ad libitum,
where the composer did not write a cadenza and only indicated where it should be inserted,
giving the performer an opportunity to improvise one. In a rondo form movement, usually the
third movement in a concerto, there is a cadenza-like passage known as the Eingnge (lead-in).
These improvisatory passages occur at the end of the re-transition from the episode sections to
the refrain of the rondo and do not include thematic material. Their function is simply to connect
the two sections and not to elaborate on the themes from the movement.
In the Romantic Era, cadenzas began to appear in different parts of the concerto, thus
accepting a new function. These cadenzas became known as obligato. The cadenza is included in
the score of the movement by the composer at the place where it is expected to be performed,
and cannot be substituted with a different one. Obligato cadenza at the beginning of the concerto
can be found in the Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra Op. 102 by Johannes Brahms. The
function of this cadenza is no longer simply to elaborate the musical material but rather to open
the concerto, present the two solo instruments, and establish the mood of the movement. This
cadenza initiates the movement and does not result from it.

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In the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra Op. 104 by Antonin Dvork the cadenza is in the
middle of the second movement. This cadenza is placed at the return of the A section of the
ternary form of the movement. The unique function here is that the cadenza is at the beginning of
a section rather than at the end.
The cadenza is part of variations in the Rococo Variations for Cello and Orchestra Op. 33
by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. The idea of having a cadenza as a part of variations is unusual. The
concept of variations is based on a theme being varied and modified. With the inclusion of a
cadenza Tchaikovsky presents a new view of the form. His cadenza thus does not include
elements from the theme but sets the mood for the next variation. The cadenza and the variation
that follows are the emotional center of the piece. Through a series of diminished and major-
minor seventh chords, Tchaikovsky creates tension and at the end of the cadenza introduces new
thematic material from the Russian folk song Ochi Chernye (Dark Eyes).


Figure 1a: Pyotr Ilych Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations for Cello and Orchestra, Op.33, cadenza

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Figure 1b: Russian folk song Dark Eyes


In the cadenza (Figure 1a: lento) Tchaikovsky includes a quotation of the opening motif
from the song Dark Eyes (Figure 1b: mm. 1-2). It is interrupted by pizzicato chords further
increasing the tension and delaying the resolution. The dramatic tension finally resolves at the
beginning of variation six. The composer uses the cadenza to connect variations five and six both
tonally and emotionally as well as to introduce a brand new melodic idea that serves as a climax
of the composition. There are more examples of this type of cadenza that set up the mood of the
following movement in the discussion of the twentieth centurys cadenzas where composers
began to use the cadenza more often as a section connecting movements.

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In the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra Op.129 by Robert Schumann the cadenza is
before the coda in the last movement. In this cadenza, the composer does not incorporate musical
material from the movement but rather borrows thematic material from the transition section in
the exposition of the first movement. This creates the tonally unstable character of the cadenza.
The function here is to prepare the coda and not to elaborate the thematic material from the
movement. The cadenza has an unusual tonal plan. It begins with a B-flat major chord in first
inversion in the orchestra that is the Neapolitan chord in the key of the movement (A major),
followed by improvisation on the material from the first movement. The improvisation leads to a
D minor-major-seventh chord in second inversion in the orchestra followed by another
improvisation using the same melodic material. The second improvisation leads to the D minor-
major-seventh chord in root position functioning as a dominant that resolves in the key of G
minor. The cadenza has a unique and unusual tonal plan: B-flat major modulating to G minor.
Unlike the cadenza ad libitum in the Classical period the tonal plan of this cadenza reinforces the
subdominant function with the use of the Neapolitan chord and escapes to the key of G minor,
which is distantly related to the key of the coda A major. With this tonal plan Schumann
increases the tension and further delays the resolution. In the following section the key of A
major is reestablished and it merges with the coda. This cadenza is unusual because the musical
material for the improvisation is borrowed from another movement, and because of its unique
formal and tonal plan. Not only did composers diversify the places where cadenzas occurred,
their function (initiative rather than resulting), the type of compositions in which they were
included, and the tonal plan of the cadenzas, but they also eliminated the role of the cadential
six-four chord as the lead-in to the cadenza.
In the twentieth century, composers continued to seek new ways to integrate the cadenza
into the formal structure of the concerto. Although they are of great variety, the cadenzas written
in the twentieth century can be grouped into three types according to their place and function in
the movement of the concerto: cadenza ad libitum and obligato, cadenza movement (cadenza
as a separate movement), and cadenza attacca (cadenza connecting two movements).
The first type consists of cadenzas with similar function to those written and performed
in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: cadenza ad libitum where the performer displays his
or her artistic and virtuosic abilities, and cadenza obligato included in the score of the concerto
by the composer.

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An example of cadenza ad libitum can be found in Concerto for Cello and Orchestra by
Arthur Honegger at the end of the second movement. Following the eighteenth-century tradition,
the composer only indicated the place where the cadenza should be played and left the task of
writing one to the performer. The first cadenza for this concerto was provided by Maurice
Marchal to whom the concerto was dedicated. In the cadenza Marchal displays his own unique
view of the musical material. He uses in the cadenza not only the melodic material but also
figures from the accompaniment and organizes his cadenza by alternating them. In the opening
Marchal juxtaposes the two elements of the orchestral accompaniment: the chords in the low
strings, and the sixteenth followed by dotted eighth rhythmic figure in the violins. These
elements are heard simultaneously at the beginning of the concerto. Then he elaborates the main
theme from the first movement of the concerto using parallel fifths and natural harmonics and
creates unique sonorities. Following is the accompaniment figure and the theme from the second
movement.
The cadenza has an important function in this concerto. It separates the second from the
third movement and thus makes the movements division clearer by exploring the various
musical materials from the first and second movements and presenting a summary of the
movements and helping the listener to better understand and articulate the two different
movements, since the concerto is composed without a formal separation of movements.

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Figure 2: Arthur Honegger, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, cadenza by Maurice Marchal


It can be argued that Marchals cadenza is the highest manifestation of the collaboration
between composer and performer. Although most of the recordings and performances of
Honneggers concerto include Marchals cadenza, the performer should not feel obligated to
include the concertos first composed cadenza, but instead he or she should improvise their own
and respect the composers original intent to create and extend this opportunity to them.

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Cadenzas from this type are very rare for the concertos in the twentieth century where the
composers gained the most control over the interpretation of their works.
The cadenza from the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 1, Op. 49 by Dmitri
Kabalevsky is an example of an obligato cadenza. The cadenza is in the second movement and it
has an interesting function for the formal design and development of the musical material. The
movement is based on a simple tune with folk-like character, which is heard four times, each one
a variation. The fourth time is in the cadenza where the process of variation naturally continues
and reaches the culmination. The first and second times the tune is in duet with the bassoon. The
third time the duet is with the French horn. The effect of a cadenza is reinforced by eliminating
the duet and leaving the cello with the theme alone.
A second type of cadenza found in the cello concertos written in the twentieth century is
the cadenza as a separate movement. This type is a combination between the genres of the
concerto and the solo cello music. The cadenza itself can be performed and functions as a
movement from a sonata or a suite for solo cello, genres that gained great popularity in the
twentieth century. This type can be called cadenza movement.
An example of this type can be found in the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 1, Op.
107, by Dmitri Shostakovich. The cadenza is the third movement and can function as a separate
musical entity with a unique formal design. Its themes are presented in a retrograde version of
the first two movements. The themes are introduced in reverse order as if the composer is
rewinding the memories then fast-forwarding to the present to start the last movement.
Through this design Shostakovich creates two parallel sound spheres: one bringing back the past
and the other jumping to the future. This cadenza changes the listeners idea of time and space by
going forward while rewinding. It provides great opportunities for the performer both to display
virtuosity and to show the beauty and depth of the sonority of the cello.
Concerto for Cello and Orchestra sotto voce concerto (1994) by Rodion Shchedrin is
another example for cadenza movement. In this concerto the cadenza is the third movement and
it is approached differently. The composer labels the movement as Scherzo-cadenza. The
cadenza does not elaborate on the thematic material from the previous two movements but
instead it is composed to function independently. The movement offers a variety of virtuosic
passages created through the use of arpeggio figures, left hand pizzicato, sul ponticello, and

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double stops. All those elements, along with the tempo marking presto, present a challenge to the
performer.
The third type of twentieth century cadenza functions as a connection between
movements, and can be called cadenza attacca. These cadenzas often include musical material
from the movement they are a part of as well as some glimpse of the character and themes of the
movement that follows.
In Symphony for Cello and Orchestra Op. 68 by Benjamin Britten the cadenza is an
improvisation on the different thematic ideas from the third movement, connecting to the fourth
movement. In the first stage of the cadenza the cello is accompanied by a timpani roll that is later
taken over by the cello with a pizzicato roll. As the cadenza continues fragments from the themes
are compressed together. In the last section Britten introduces a left hand ostinato pizzicato on A
as an accompaniment to the mixture of fragments that sets the pulse and leads to the next
movement Passacaglia.
In Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 2 by Alfred Schnittke, movements three, four
and five are connected with cadenzas. The cadenza at the end of the third movement is an
example of the new connecting function that composers developed in the twentieth century. It
elaborates the musical material from the movement and connects it though the use of an
ascending chromatic scale that gradually becomes a glissando to the next movement. The
cadenza at the end of the fourth movement similarly uses an ascending glissando as a connection
devise to the fifth movement.
There are cadenzas that cannot be described using the three types describes above. In
Concerto for Cello and Orchestra (1966) by Gyrgy Ligeti the cadenza is at the end of
composition. It follows a descending scale-like pattern in the double basses. Ligeti abandons the
traditional notation and replaces it with a graphic notation to better express his idea of the
cadenza. The composer explains in the score how the cadenza ought to be performed: Whisper
cadenza: sempre prestissimo, quasi perpetuum mobile (no relaxation of tempo right to the end!).
Use C and G strings only; finger various notes, but play unvoiced. As the cadenza continues
Ligeti indicates in the score: While proceeding with this in a similar fashion (arco) gradually
introduce the following: play with the pads of the fingers (left hand) too, barely audibly,
prestissimo, with light pressure so as not to produce any tone. The final remark in the score is:
Left hand continues while the arco-work disappears, followed by ten seconds silence.

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Figure 3: Gyrgy Ligeti, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Cadenza


Ligeti elevates the concept of cadenza to a new level. In the cadenza he creates an effect
of an apparatus that is gradually shutting down. It begins with the sounds substitution by a static
noise created by the use of very little bow pressure and fast speed, followed by the shutting down

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of the arco-work in the right hand. The last physical movement to stop is the clapping of the
fingers of the left hand.
There are examples of concertos with more than one cadenza included in the same
movement. In the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra by John Harbison there are two cadenzas in
the second movement: one of which elaborates different thematic material, and the second
cadenza leads into the last movement.
During its history the cadenza evolved from its classical roots as a simple improvisation
at a prescribed point in the movement, to a diverse and unique part of the concerto in the
twentieth century. The cello concertos from the Classical Era offer more opportunities for
performers to create their own cadenzas as well as express their virtuosity and understanding of
the piece. In the concertos written in the nineteenth and twentieth century, the creative role of the
performer became more and more limited, as composers provided their own cadenzas, with the
expectation that the performer would play the cadenza as notated. Chapter one continues with a
discussion of performance practices of improvising cadenzas in the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries.
Some performers took the opportunity to compose their own cadenzas where the
composer wrote one. Janos Starker wrote cadenzas for the Rococo Variations for Cello and
Orchestra Op. 33 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra Op. 129
by Robert Schumann. Pierre Fournier wrote a cadenza for the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra
Op. 129 by Robert Schumann. Other cellists went even further by creating a cadenza where the
composer did not intend the concerto to have one, thus inevitably changing the composers
original composition. David Popper and Jascha Bernstein both inserted a cadenza before the coda
in the last movement of the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 1, Op. 33 by Camile Saint
Sans. The composers original composition did not include a cadenza. These performance
practices provide strong evidence of how important the role of the performers is for the
presentation of the cello concertos. By providing their own cadenzas, to replace the cadenzas
written by the composer, the cellists perhaps unintentionally departed from the original intent of
the composer. Even more so, the inserted cadenza in the Saint-Sans Cello Concerto is an
example of how performers can interfere with or even destroy the composers design and
structure of the piece, in order to satisfy their needs for virtuosic display.

14

The ability to improvise and create a cadenza is essential for the artistic development of
every performer. It provides not only a medium of expressing ones own ideas about a particular
composition, but also gives a deeper understanding of the musical content, structure, and
compositional procedures of the concerto. In order to compose their own cadenzas, performers
have to understand the style, the tradition at the time when the particular concerto was written,
and the thematic material of the movement.
The understanding of the evolution of the cadenza in cello concertos and its
diversification from simple improvisatory section to a unique and integrated part of the
concertos formal design is of great importance not only for the interpretation of the cadenzas but
also the performance of the concerto as a completed work. The performers were inevitably
influenced by the evolution of the cadenza, and the new approach to the cello concerto offered
by the composers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This influence can be sometimes
negative and contradictory especially when applied to improvising cadenzas for concertos
composed in the eighteenth century. In some instances cellists provided cadenzas for those
concertos without any consideration for the style of the original composition. They simply
applied the style that was fashionable in their time to music composed decades earlier. The single
purpose of the cadenza in those instances was to be a medium for a virtuosic display. The rise of
the cello as a concert instrument in the twentieth century, and the increase of the repertory for the
instrument also gave the soloists the necessary artistic independence and enabled them to provide
their own cadenzas even in concertos where the composer included one to be performed at the
exact place in the score where it was indicated.











15


CHAPTER II

ANALYSIS OF AD LIBITUM CADENZAS


This chapter consists of a discussion and comparison of the writings the about cadenza in
the eighteenth-century treatises Versuch einer Anweisung die Flte traversie zu spielen (the Art
of Playing the Flute) (1752) by Johann Quantz, Klavierschule (School of Clavier Playing) (1789)
by Daniel Trk, and Trait des agrmens de la musique (1771) by Giuseppe Tartini. It continues
with a survey and analysis of the compositional procedures of existing cadenzas for the cello
concertos by Joseph Haydn in terms of style, form and relationship to the thematic material of
the movement of the concerto. The analyses of the cadenzas are based on the descriptions, rules,
and principles outlined in the treatises of Quantz and Trk.
There are different discussions in the eighteenth century about the improvisation of
cadenza. Johann Quantz and Daniel Trk considered that the cadenza should reflect and use for
the improvisation thematic materials from the movement. Giuseppe Tartini argued that it should
be a free improvisation.
Versuch einer Anweisung die Flte traversie zu spielen (the Art of Playing the Flute)
(1752) by Johann Joachim Quantz is arguably the first treatise to include a discussion of
cadenzas in a separate chapter. Quantz offers both observations of the performance practice of
cadenzas in the eighteenth century and instructions for the improvisation of a cadenza. He argues
that a cadenza should be based on the thematic material from the parent movement. The
performer should avoid the use of regular meter in the improvisation. The cadenzas should be
improvised applying detached musical ideas and fragments, and not simply quotations of the
melodies in their entirety. The musical idea should not be repeated in the same key. Short
cadenzas should maintain the main tonality and not include chromatic notes, while longer
cadenzas can modulate to related keys without departing too far from the tonic. Dissonances and
chromatic notes must be resolved according to the rules of voice leading. Quantz comments also
on the length of the cadenza specifically addressing the string players: String-players may make
their cadenzas as long as they like, provided they are able to sustain interest.
1
Although this

1
Johann Joachim Quantz, The Art of Playing the Flute, trans. Edward Reilly (New York: Schirmer, 1985),
185.

16

remark does not provide a great detail about the particular length of a cadenza it implies that the
performer should avoid too much repetition and constantly seek new ways to sustain the interest
of the listener.
Daniel Gottlob Trk continues Quantz discussion of cadenza in his treatise
Klavierschule (School of Clavier Playing) (1789). He summarizes Quantz ideas and instructions
into a set of ten rules for improvising cadenza.
Rule One: The cadenza, among other things, should particularly reinforce the impression
the composition has madeand present the most important parts of the whole
composition in the form of a brief summary or in an extremely concise arrangement.

Rule Two: The cadenza, must consist not so much of intentionally added difficulties as of
such thoughts which are most scrupulously suited to the main character of the
composition.

Rule Three: Cadenzas should not be too long, especially in compositions of a melancholy
character.

Rule Four: Modulations into other keys, particularly to those which are far removed,
either do not take place at all for example, in short cadenzas or they must be used
with much insight and, as it were, only in passing. In no case should one modulate to a
key which the composer himself has not used in the composition.

Rule Five: Just as unity is required for a well-ordered whole, so also is variety necessary
if the attention of the listener is to be held. Therefore as much of the unexpected and the
surprising as can possibly be added should be used in the cadenza.

Rule Six: No thought should be repeated in the same key or in another, no matter how
beautiful it may be.

Rule Seven: Every dissonance which has been included, even in single-voiced cadenzas,
must be properly resolved.

Rule Eight: A cadenza does not have to be erudite, but novelty, wit, an abundance of
ideas and the like are so much more its indispensable requirements.

Rule Nine: The same tempo and meter should not be maintained throughout the cadenza;
its individual fragments must be skillfully joined to one another. For the whole cadenza
should be more like a fantasia which is fashioned out of an abundance of feelings, rather
than a methodically constructed composition.

Rule Ten: From what has been said it follows that a cadenza which perhaps has been
learned by memory with great effort or has been written out before should be performed
as if it were merely invented on the spur of the moment, consisting of a choice of ideas

17

indiscriminately thrown together which had just occurred to the player.
2

In Trait des agrmens de la musique (1771) Giuseppe Tartini argues that the cadenza
should be a free improvisation. His discussion is based on the Italian violin concerto and the
tradition of virtuosity. He argues that modi artificiali di buon gusto (tasteful artificial figures)
should be applied in the improvisation instead of thematic material from the movement of the
concerto. Tartini offers also a number of different written-out examples of cadenzas applying
various artificial figurations.
The chapter continues with analysis of selected cadenzas for the concertos for cello and
orchestra by Joseph Haydn. This section consists of information about the concertos, a short
biographical sketch of each author of cadenza, and analyses.
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) composed concertos for different instruments early in his
career, including two for cello and orchestra. He was perhaps inspired by some of the
outstanding players of the orchestra at the court of Prince Esterhzy, where he was employed as
a Kapellmaster from 1761 until 1790. The exact date of composition of the Concerto for Cello
and Orchestra in C major is unknown. The Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in D major was
composed in 1783. In the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C major the first and second
movements include cadenzas. In the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in D major the first and
second movements includes cadenza, while in the third movement the section designated for an
ad libitum improvisation is Eingnge (lead-in). Examples of the cadenzas are included in the
appendices: Appendix I has Cadenzas for the Cello Concerto in C major; Appendix II includes
Cadenzas for the Cello Concerto in D major I movement; and Appendix III shows Cadenzas for
the Cello Concerto in D Major II and III movements. The cadenzas by Benjamin Britten,
Benedetto Mazzucarati, Fritz Reitz, Leonard Rose, and Jnos Starker are not included in the
appendices for copyright reasons. The following analyses as well as the examples in the
appendices are presented in alphabetical order.

2
Johann Gottlob Trk, School of Clavier Playing, ed. and trans. Raymond H. Hagg, (Lincoln, NE:
university of Nebraska Press, 1982) 298-301.


18

Biographical Sketch of the Authors of the Cadenzas

There is biographical data available which is presented here for the following musicians:
Benjamin Britten, Jascha Bernstein, Emanuel Feuermann, Franois-Auguste Gevaert, David
Popper, Leonard Rose, Franz Schmidt, and Jnos Starker. Biographical was unavailable
information in both printed and electronic sources for Franco Mannino, Benedetto Mazzacurati,
and Fritz Reitz.
Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) was an English composer, conductor and pianist. Britten
studied with the English composer Frank Bridge before spending three years at the royal College
of Music (London). Among his teachers at the college were John Ireland (composition) and
Arthur Benjamin (piano). Britten also studied piano with Harold Samuel. Britten was a versatile
composer of operas, orchestral, chamber, choral, and vocal music. His close friendship form the
1960s with the Russian cellist, Mstislav Rostropovich and his wife Galina Vishnevskaya,
prompted a renewed interest in instrumental music (Sonata for Cello and Piano (1961),
Symphony for Cello and Orchestra (1963), three cello suites (1965, 1967, 1972), as well as
settings of six poems by Alexander Pushkin.
Jascha Bernstein was a Lithuanian cellist. The biographical information about Jascha
Bernstein does not include a time framework, but it can be concluded however from
circumstantial evidence, such as the orchestras he was member of and the conductors he worked
with, that he was active as a performer at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the
twentieth centuries. Bernstein studied at the Moscow Conservatory with Professor von Glehn
and at the Leipzig Conservatory with Professor Julius Klengel. He was soloist with major
European and American Orchestra, and served as solo cellist of the Israeli Philharmonic under
Arturo Toscanini at whose request he came to the United States. Bernstein was also member of
the NBC Symphony, the New Friends Piano Quartet, and faculty of the Manhattan School of
Music.
Emanuel Feuermann (1902-1942) was an Austrian cellist, active in the USA.
Feuermann was responsible for revolutionizing the cello technique. His astonishing technical
facility made him the first cellist to play with the ease of a violinist. He collaborated frequently
with the violinst Jasha Heifetz, and was a member of a renowned trio with Heifetz and pianist
Artur Rubinstein.

19

Franois-Auguste Gevaert (1828-1908) was a Belgian historian, theorist, and composer.
Gevaert was best known as director of the Brussels Conservatoire and for his treatise on
instrumentation. He succeeded Ftis at the conservatoire. His Traite Gnral dinstrumentation
was published in 1885.
David Popper (1843-1913) was an Austrian cellist and composer. As a cellist Popper
displayed a superior technique and a warm, powerful tone. He composed mostly for his own
instrument. Popper wrote the Hohe Schule des Violoncello-Spiels, a set of 40 studies that
examine the positions of the left hand.
Leonard Rose (1918-1984) was an American cellist and teacher. Rose served as assistant
principal cellist of the NBC Symphony Orchestra, principal cellist of the Cleveland Orchestra,
and was a solo cellist of the New York Philharmonic. He taught at the Juilliard School from 1947
and at the Curtis Institute from 1951 until 1962; his pupils included Lynn Harrell, Ronald
Leonard, Yo-Yo Ma, Stephen Kates and the principal cellists of many leading American
orchestras.
Franz Schmidt (1874-1939) was an Austrian composer, pianist, cellist and conductor.
Schmidt was a cellist in the Vienna Philharmonic and the orchestra of the Hofoper. He taught at
the Vienna Conservatory cello from 1901, piano from 1914, and counterpoint and composition
from 1922.
Jnos Starker (1924) is an American cellist of Hungarian birth. Starker served as
principal cellist of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra, the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, and the
Chicago Symphony Orchestra. In 1958 he was appointed professor of cello at Indiana
University-Bloomington.
Analyses of Cadenzas for the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major by
Joseph Haydn

First Movement

Benjamin Britten
It is of great interest to analyze the cadenzas composed by Britten for Haydns Cello
Concerto in C major because is a rare example of a composer creating cadenzas for a concerto by
another composer. The cadenzas are dedicated to the Russian cellist Mstislav Rostropovich.

20

The cadenza begins with the dotted motive from the first theme. It is applied in a
modulation that leads to a C-sharp diminished chord. It continues with the triplet arpeggio figure
from the recapitulation that merges to an improvisation on the second theme. The theme is
gradually shortened and fragmented then transitions to an ascending scale-like run based on the
dotted figure from the opening.
In the cadenza, Britten never quotes themes from the movement in their entirety. Instead
he builds the improvisation by applying fragments that create modulations. The musical
language of the cadenza is highly chromatic.
Franco Mannino
The cadenza begins with a presentation of the principal theme of the movement,
ornamented with double stops and arpeggios. Mannino also includes part of the orchestral
accompaniment of the theme (second half of the second line). The cadenza continues with
quotation of the second theme in the key of A minor. The theme is ornamented similarly to the
principal theme with double stops and arpeggios. The last section of the cadenza returns to the
phrase of orchestral accompaniment used at the beginning with added scale-like passages. The
scale-like material gradually takes over the accompaniment figure and leads to the final trill. The
cadenza is composed without bar lines. However it lacks connections between the different
sections. The first section ends with a half cadence in the key of C major (third line) that by no
means prepares harmonically the second section in A minor. Similarly, the second section ends
with a cadence in A minor (the end of the fifth line) and the third section abruptly returns to C
major. The final trill is notated incorrectly as a trill over E followed by D in parenthesis. It
should be notated as a trill over D preceded by E as a grace note. This mistake is probably due to
the author intending to emphasis that the trill should not start from the principle note.
Jnos Starker
The cadenza can be divided in three sections, based on the thematic material from the
movement used for the improvisation. In section one the first theme is presented using
diminished triads, followed by a bridge to the second section. The musical material for
improvisation in this section is from the theme in double stops from the second theme group.
In the second section, Starker incorporates a combination of the sextuplet passage from
the development and the similar passage from the recapitulation. Section three consists of the

21

return of the theme in double stops followed by trills and a scale. The cadenza ends with a
similar cadential formula from the end of the development section.
The cadenza maintains the key of C major with brief modulations to D minor and G
major. The beginning of the cadenza and its diminished harmony departs stylistically from the
movement. Moreover, the modulation following ends in the key of D minor, which cannot be
found in the movement. The modulation in mm 5-7 from G major to C major is somewhat
questionable: last beat of m 6 should be a D minor chord not D major, also the use of the
augmented and diminished chords in mm 7 and 8 is not characteristic for the style of Haydn.
There are no references of the second theme and the cadenza is with bar lines.
Second Movement

Benjamin Britten
Similarly to the cadenza for the first movement, Britten applies fragments from the
themes in the improvisation. The cadenza opens with a fragment from the main theme of the
movement. It outlines the tonic triad (F major). The next fragment is from the theme from the B
section. It is applied as a cadential six-four chord extension, and through a series of descending
chromatic broken thirds leads to the final trill.
Franco Mannino
This cadenza consists of an elaboration of the theme from the A section. It is preceded
and followed by figurations outlining arpeggios. At the beginning of the cadenza, the sixteenth-
note passage is a falling-thirds sequence starting on F and ending on C. It provides a smooth
connection between the tonic and the dominant. The cadenza continues with a quotation of the
main theme, ornamented with double stops, an arpeggio, and scale-like passages. The double
stops serve as an accompaniment and also evoke the double stops from the theme in section B of
the movement. The voice-leading of the second double stop fragment (middle of the second line)
is problematic, because with the last of the ascending broken thirds it anticipates the following
resolution, thus diminishing the feeling of a resolution.
Jnos Starker
This cadenza is freely composed. It does not contain musical material from the movement
and is notated with bar lines. The cadenza consists of a long elaboration of the cadential six-four
chord.

22

Analyses of Cadenzas for the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in D Major by
Joseph Haydn

First Movement

Jascha Bernstein
The cadenza is written with measures. The rhythmic notation is not consistent with that
of the movement, as all of the note durations are twice as long. It begins with extension of the
cadential six-four chord in double stops followed by a sixteenth-note arpeggio. After that there is
quotation of the triplet scale from the exposition, followed by the second theme in D major,
ornamented with double stops. Then there is a quotation of the lyrical theme in B minor from the
development section, followed by thematic material from the beginning of the same section. The
final section of the cadenza consists of musical material from the orchestral section that is not
played by the solo cello in the concerto, followed by a sixteen-note passage with some chromatic
elaborations.
Emanuel Feuermann
The sole purpose of the creation of this cadenza is to provide a medium for a virtuosic
display. Feuermann presents a variety of technical wizardry. It includes double stops: thirds,
sixths, octaves, and tenths; scales; arpeggios; big leaps. The musical materials applied in the
improvisation are from the first and second themes, the arpeggio figure from the development
section, and the broken thirds passage from the recapitulation. The quotation of the second theme
showcases the ability of the performer to voice a melody and simultaneously accompany it.
Franois-Auguste Gevaert
In the cadenza Gevaert explores the virtuosic limits of the cello. It does not comply with
any of the stylistic requirements for a cadenza for classical concerto as established in the
eighteenth-century treatises. The cadenza presents a variety of technical challenges to the
performer. There are passages applying a staccato stroke under one bow, double stops,
arpeggios, chords, and scale-like passages.
The improvisation in the cadenza includes musical materials from the first and second
themes. The cadenza maintains the key of D minor almost all the way. The cadenza also
includes unlikely allusion to the key of E-flat major (Neapolitan in the key of D major). At the
end instead of the final trill there is a descending scale.

23


Franco Mannino
The cadenza is of an appropriate length. Mannino quotes the first theme from the
movement, elaborated with double stops, thirds, and arpeggios. There is also thematic material
from the recapitulation: the gruppeto ornamental figure followed by the ascending broken-thirds
scale. The cadenza uses the same ending as the solo cello part at the end of the recapitulation that
is right before the cadenza. The cadenza maintains the key of D major throughout, and does not
include modulations and nor does it allude to other keys.
The cadenza includes a quotation from a different concerto. Mannino quotes a measure
from the second movement of the Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 5 by Mozart.
Benedetto Mazzacurati
The cadenza is written without measures, which creates confusion at times regarding the
beat groupings. It begins with elaboration of the first theme in double stops in the key of D
Major. Then it continues with repetition of the opening of the cadenza in D minor. After
establishing the key of D minor it stays for a long time in that key. This section combines new
musical material with the triplet sixteenth-note figure from the second theme group. There are
several ambiguities in this section that depart from the style of the concerto: the grouping of five
sixteenth notes, the use of left hand pizzicato, and the key of D minor itself. Then there is a
quotation of the second theme in double stops (thirds) in the key of B-flat major, followed by
passage using material from the closing theme, which modulates back to the key of D major. In
the closing section of the cadenza Mazzacurati repeats exactly the opening line of the cadenza,
followed by a chromatic ascent from A to C-sharp followed by a trill and double stops to end the
cadenza.
The whole classical concept is misunderstood in this cadenza. First, it is too repetitive
and either quotes or barely ornaments the themes from the concerto. The entire middle section of
the cadenza is in the key of D minor, which creates the perception that indeed the movement is in
D minor. There is no single reference to the key of D minor in the first movement. The second
theme is not ornamented, but instead it is doubled in thirds and presented in the key of B-flat
major (again no reference of that key in the movement). The last line of the cadenza by with its
use of the double stops and trills (the final trill goes from C-sharp down to B) by no means
prepares the orchestral closing section. Last but not least, although notated following the

24

tradition of the classical period, without bar lines, some of the note groupings are ambiguous. It
lacks clarity of the pulsation and rhythmic organization.
David Popper
The cadenza is rather long and can be divided in three sections. The sections are
connected with thirty-second-note passages. In the first section, Popper uses musical material
from the first theme, and thematic material that appears only in the orchestral opening of the
concerto. The next section begins with a quotation of the second theme, accompanied by triplets
in the key of E-flat major. The section continues with a sequential passage applying the opening
motive of the first theme, followed by the thirty-second-note scale-like passage. The final section
consists of fragmentation of the opening gesture of the first theme followed by a thirty-second-
note scale-like passage, which is an extended version of the passage from the beginning. The
cadenza ends with a chromatic ascending trills (A-C-sharp) followed by a leap (C-sharp-A) and a
double stop (E, C-sharp) leading finally to the resolution (D).
The improvisation involves the use of double stops, chords, and left-hand pizzicato. The
musical language of the cadenza is highly chromatic. Popper uses both measured and free
notation. The improvisation of the first and second themes is notated in measures. The thirty-
second-note scale-like passages are notated without measures.
Fritz Reitz
The cadenza begins with quotation of the first theme in D major followed by a mixture of
arpeggio and a scale-like passage. The section is repeated in D minor. Once having established
the key of D minor, Reitz continues with a harmonically-unstable section that applies musical
material from the development section of the movement. The harmonic progression in this
section is expansive and it includes the keys of B-flat major, E-flat major, A-flat major, and C
minor (bII, Neapolitan, bV, and bvii, in the key of D major). After this rollercoaster of keys, the
cadenza finally reaches the key of D major. The cadenza ends with a long passage elaborating
the first theme in double stops.
The main problem in this cadenza is the middle section, where the music modulates to
keys unrelated to D major. Thus the author creates a rather lengthy cadenza that departs from the
style of the movement. The cadenza does not include the second theme.



25

Leonard Rose
At the beginning of the cadenza Leonard Rose applies a fragment from the opening
theme to create a modulation to the key of G minor. Following is musical material from the
beginning of the recapitulation, which is a mirror version of the opening fragment from the first
theme. The material is in the low register while originally in the movement it is in the high
register of the cello. Repetition of the material a half step higher leads to the return of the
opening fragment. The improvisation in the final section applies double stops and ends with an
ascending scale instead of a trill.
In the final section there are accidentals unusual for the key of D major and the style of
Haydn: D-sharp, A-sharp, and B-sharp. They appear as passing tones and create more chromatic
and romantic sonority that departs from the musical language of the movement.
The second cadenza to the first movement, as well as the cadenzas to the second and third
movements offered in Leonard Roses edition of Joseph Haydns Cello Concerto in D major, are
composed by Emanuel Feuermann.
Franz Schmidt
The cadenza begins with a quotation of a fragment from the principle theme in double
stops (sixths) in the original key of D major. Then it repeats the phrase in the key of D minor that
connects with key of B-flat major. In that key, the second theme is presented with the
accompaniment of chords and arpeggios. After that the cadenza returns to the key of D minor
and presents the musical material from the second theme group followed by the quotation of
sixteenth-note passage from the recapitulation. In the next section the cadenza continues in the
key of D major with sixteenth-note variation of the principle theme. The final section of the
cadenza consists of scale-like prolongation of the cadential six-four chord, ending with double
trills.
While the final section of the cadenza is appropriate and convincing, the extensive
passage in the key of D minor and the initial presentation of the second theme on the key of B-
flat major are not. The variation of the principle theme using broken thirds in the key of D major
is also not very appropriate, because the melody is compromised.
Gerhard Silwedel
The cadenza begins with the principal theme of the movement in double stops in the key
of D major. Then the theme is presented in the very distant key of F minor. Next is the thirty-

26

second-note arpeggio section from the development, starting in the key of B minor, which is an
unusual harmonic connection to make from B minor. After a modulation using the arpeggio
passage there is an appearance of the second theme, in B-flat major. Silwedel uses the musical
material from the second theme to construct a modulation back to the original key of D major.
This brings the final section of the cadenza, which is based on the first theme from the
movement. The last four measures of the cadenza that lead to the orchestral conclusion of the
movement are in 3/8 meter signature. The rest of the cadenza and whole movement are in
common time.
Jnos Starker
It is a long cadenza notated with bar lines similar to Starkers cadenzas for the Cello
Concerto in C major by Joseph Haydn. In the beginning Starker explores the closing theme of
the exposition that does not appear in the recapitulation. The theme at the end of the exposition is
in A major, and in the cadenza it is in the main key of the movement D major, followed by D
minor. Next the cadenza explores the thirty-second-note arpeggio passage from the development
section. This passage leads to the first appearance in the cadenza of the principal theme in the
key of E minor. This is somewhat unusual decision because although related to D major,
modulation to the key of E minor cannot be found in the movement. After a modulation
applying fragments from the musical material of the principal theme, the second theme appears.
It is in the key of G major, and it is accompanied by thirty-second notes imitating the orchestra
accompaniment. At the end of the cadenza there is an arpeggiation of the cadencial six-four
chord, followed by double-stop trills.
Second Movement

Emanuel Feuermann
The cadenza is short, simple, and appropriately compliments the movement. It does not
include thematic material. The cadenza begins with a sixteenth-note figure outlining the
cadential six-four chord, followed by a scale ending on the leading tone G-sharp. The cadenza
ends with more sixteenth-note figuration that leads to the closing trill.
Franco Mannino

27

The cadenza opens with an ascending A major scale. Following is a quotation of the main
theme from the movement. It is accompanied by double stops, which imitate the orchestral
accompaniment.
The cadenza has the same ending as the solo cello part, similar to the cadenza for the first
movement. Another similarity with the previous movement is that the cadenza maintains entirely
the key of A major.
Fritz Reitz
Unlike the cadenza for the first movement of the concerto, the cadenza for the second
movement is short and without any modulations. It consists of the cadential six-four chords
arpeggio, a modified quotation of the main theme, and a scale-like passage that leads to the final
trill. The cadenza is in the style of the movement. The only problematic place is the use of the F-
sharp in the cadential six-four chord arpeggio at the beginning. The F-sharp as a non-chord tone
decreases the tension in the cadential six-four chord by changing the suspended sound of the
interval of the perfect fourth between E and A, to less suspended minor third (F-sharp and A).
Jnos Starker
The cadenza is written with bar lines. It consists of ascending cadential six-four arpeggio
(in the key of the movement A major), followed by quotation of the theme from the A section,
and ending with broken-thirds scale with a trill.
Gerhard Silwedel
The cadenza begins with alternating a fragment from the main theme of the movement
with ornamentation of the dominant and cadential six-four chords in pizzicato. Then there is a
long descending scale with suspensions.
Third movement Lead-in

The last movement of the concerto does not call for a cadenza but a lead-in. It should not
include an improvisation of thematic material from the movement because its function is to
connect the episode with the refrain of the rondo. All of the performers discussed in this chapter
offered a cadenza instead.
Emanuel Feuermann
The cadenza opens with musical material from the refrain of the rondo with an A pedal
point. It continues with a sixteenth-note variation. The final section of the cadenza alternates the

28

refrains theme with a pizzicato ostinato A that creates a hesitation effect and increases the
anticipation of the return of the refrain.
Fritz Reitz
The cadenza begins with musical material from the transition between the refrain and B
section. In the movement this phrase is in A major, but here in the cadenza it is in D minor. The
cadenza continues with melodic material from the B section of the rondo. It is again transformed
from major to minor in order to reflect the key of the C section after which the cadenza occurs.
The last line of the cadenza consists of ornamentation of the dominant of D major (which is the
key of the rondo) followed by an ascending scale. The scale starts diatonic and then is
transformed to chromatic, thus increasing the tension before the final arrival of the refrain
section of the rondo. This last line alone may as well serve as a lead-in to the refrain. It
emphasizes the dominant and with the gradual change from diatonic to chromatic scale logically
connects to the refrain of the rondo.
Gerhard Silwedel
The cadenza begins with A major arpeggio followed by a inverted quotation of the refrain
theme in D minor. Then there is a D major arpeggio followed by the refrain theme in D major.
The next section explores musical material from the transition from the refrain to the B section.
It starts in the key of E-flat major, and modulates back to the key of D major. In that section not
only does the composer disturbs the harmonic flow of the cadenza starting it from the key of E-
flat major, but also there are a series of parallel fifths, an interval very unlikely to be used in
parallel motion in the classical period. The cadenza ends with an extension of the dominant
seventh chord and double-stops trills.
The function of the cadenza in the last movement of the concerto is to simply extend and
elaborate the dominant harmony, and lead to the final return of the refrain of the rondo. This
particular cadenza would have made a lot more sense without its middle section.
Jnos Starker
The cadenza is based on the thematic material from the A section (or the refrain) of the
rondo. The theme is in D minor with connects the cadenza with the preceding C section that is
also in D minor. It begins with an inverted version of the main theme, and continues with an
ornamentation of the descending bass line D, C, B-flat, and A. the cadenza ends with an
ascending chromatic scale, which leads to the final appearance of the refrain section of the

29

rondo. The cadenza is very well organized, and presents a logical extension of the cadential six-
four chord.
Although the chapter includes analyses of selected cadenzas for the cello concertos by
Joseph Haydn, the treatise should not be considered a case study. The analyses of cadenzas are
simply included in order to provide a foundation for the study of the principles of improvisation,
which are discussed in chapter three.
































30


CHAPTER III

PRINCIPLES OF IMPROVISATION


This chapter concludes the topic of cadenzas for cello concertos. It presents a discussion
of the principles of improvising cadenzas for cello concertos based on both the treatises and
analyses of cadenzas from chapter two. The chapter consists of two sections. First I summarize
the different approaches and improvisatory techniques in the cadenzas analyzed in chapter two.
This section begins with a discussion of the principles of improvisation in Eingnge (Lead-in),
followed by the discussion of cadenzas to the first and second movements of Haydns cello
concertos. In the second section of the current chapter I present my process of improvising
cadenzas. I use the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major by Joseph Haydn and describe
the process of improvisation of cadenzas to the first and second movements. The concerto is
simply included in order to provide a foundation for the study of the principles of improvisation,
which can be applied to the improvisation of cadenza for any other concerto.
In the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C major by Joseph Haydn the first and second
movements include cadenzas. In the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in D major by Joseph
Haydn the first and second movements include cadenzas, while in the third movement the
section designated for an ad libitum improvisation is Eingnge (Lead-in). Many cellists
misunderstood and treated the Eingnge as a cadenza. They included an improvisation applying
thematic material from the movement while the function of the lead-in is simply to connect the
episode of the rondo with the refrain. The lead-in usually consists of a simple scale-like passage
or an arpeggio, and should not incorporate musical material from the movement. The cellist who
recognized and applied the correct function of the lead-in in his improvisation is Enrico
Mainardi. His lead-in includes an A major arpeggio and properly serves its purpose to connect
the episode with the refrain.



31

Figure 4: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Movement III, lead-in by Enrico
Mainardi


The chapter continues with a summary of the mistakes the performers made in
improvising cadenzas followed by a summary of different approaches and improvisatory
techniques. The mistakes are based on departure from the rules and observation from the
treatises by Quantz and Trk.
The mistakes in the selected cadenzas analyzed in chapter two can be summarized into
four categories: I. Notation, both pitch and rhythm; II. Melodic material; III. Harmonic
progressions and keys alluded to; IV. Extended techniques and virtuosic passages.
I. The most common mistakes in the pitch and rhythmic notation include: 1) Writing the
cadenza using bar lines. Although the bar lines can to provide an organization they can also ruin
the improvisatory character of the cadenza; 2) Notating cadenzas in augmentation or diminution.
The performer must follow the composers note values; 3) Use of different rhythmic subdivision
especially irregular subdivisions such as quintuplets and septuplets. The performer must use in
the improvisation only the rhythmic subdivisions, applied by the composer in the movement.
II. Melodic material. The cadenza must include melodic material only from the parent
movement. In improvising cadenzas the performer must keep as close as possible to the
composers musical language by applying the ornamentation from the movement. In some
instances the performers substitute the final trill with an ascending or descending scale, or some
other passage to end the cadenza. The cadenza must end with a trill on second scale degree
because one is always indicated by the composer in the score. In concertos from the classical
period the composer always indicated the first (one of the notes of the cadential six-four chord)
and the last note of the cadenza (in earlier examples of Classical concertos it was always a trill
on second scale degree) in the score of the work.
III. The harmonic progression must include only the keys alluded to in the movement.
Many cadenzas include not only modulations to keys not included in the movement, but also
non-related keys.

32

IV. Extended techniques and virtuosic passages. Some cadenzas include only passages
displaying virtuosity. This ruins the balance necessary to keep the listener involved in the
process of improvisation. There is also inappropriate use of extended techniques such as sul
ponticello and left-hand pizzicato.
A majority of the cadenzas for the first movements of Haydns cello concertos, discussed
in chapter two, consist of three sections. This formal structure is applied as a base for the
discussion of improvising cadenzas in the second section of this chapter. All of the cadenzas
analyzed include a harmonic progression beginning with the cadential six-four chord and its
resolution at the end to the dominant chord in root position. The first section initiates the
improvisation with a harmonic prolongation of the cadential six-four chord based on musical
material from the first theme from the movement. The second section includes fragments from
the other themes from the movement and it is harmonically unstable. It is either a modulation or
sequence. In the third section the cadential six-four chord is reestablished, resolved to the
dominant chord, and the cadenza ends with the trill on a second scale degree. In this section the
improvisation may return to the first theme. There can be passages that connect the different
sections of the cadenza. The sections can also transition to one another with each ending
functioning as a connection to the next.
Any theme from the movement can be included in the cadenza. Some of the cadenzas
include also a presentation of a theme that has been heard only in the orchestra. This gives the
performer the opportunity to include in the cadenza a thematic material that the composer did not
intend the soloist to play and present it differently from the way it is in the movement. The first
theme, however, is the most prominent throughout the cadenza because it is the principle theme
in the movement. Some of the performers include only the first theme in their improvisation. The
cadenzas include also passages from the movement to display the performers virtuosic abilities.
The themes are almost never presented in their entirety but instead are fragmented. The
fragmentation of the musical material is the main tool in the creation of the modulation and
sequential developments in the second section. A common technique in the improvisation is
variation. The themes are varied using ornaments, arpeggios, and scales.
The techniques applied in improvisation of cadenzas from an instrumental point of view
can include double stops, a presentation of a theme with its accompaniment simultaneously,
scales, arpeggios, and passages performed with various bow strokes displaying virtuosity. All the

33

variations, modulation sequence, and passages included in the cadenza should first help display
the virtuosic abilities of the performer, and secondly, in terms of harmony, should increase the
dissonant sonority of the cadential six-four chord and reinforce its resolution to the dominant
chord at the end of the cadenza.
The cadenzas for the slow (second) movements incorporate a different formal design.
They are typically shorter than the cadenza in the first movement and include a single musical
idea. It is a fragment from a theme with ornaments, or simply a cadential six-four arpeggio with
ornamentation leading to the final trill on the second scale degree.
The chapter continues with a presentation of my approach to the process of improvisation
of cadenzas for the first and second movement of the concerto.
The creation of a cadenza can be summarized in four steps: 1) Analyze the thematic
material from the movement, its harmonic progressions and the keys associated with the different
themes. 2) Examine the ornaments, developmental and variation techniques applied by the
composer in the movement. These techniques will play an important role in the improvisation in
the cadenza. 3) Identify the musical material suitable to display virtuosity from the movement. 4)
Last but not least important, determine the appropriate and logical formal structure that can
successfully support the improvisation. Although the three section formal design is not the only
possible structure, it is a very appropriate because it has a designated section for each of the
thematic elements from the movement. In sections one and two there can be improvisation of the
first and second themes followed in the final section by passages that displays the virtuosic
abilities of the performer. The virtuoso passages are presented at the end of the cadenza in order
to sustain the listeners interest. Virtuosic display at the beginning or middle of a cadenza can
displace the climax and spoil the audiences expectations.
Following are examples of thematic material, possibilities for improvisation, and
information regarding creating cadenzas for the first and second movement of the Concerto for
Cello and Orchestra in C Major by Joseph Haydn. The first movement is in sonata form. The
keys employed are C major, G major, and A minor. There is also a brief tonicization of F major
during the presentation of the second theme in the recapitulation but the key remains within its
subdominant function.

34


Figure 5: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, first theme,
mm. 22-26



Figure 6: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, second
theme, mm. 36-39



Figure 7: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, closing
theme, mm. 42-45

35


Figure 8a: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, virtuoso
passage in development section, mm. 67-73



Figure 8b: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement I, virtuoso
passage in recapitulation, mm. 107-113


Following is a description of the process of my improvisation of a cadenza to the first
movement of the concerto. The chord section alternating the tonic and dominant from the first
theme can be applied in the opening of the cadenza because it both establishes and prolongs the
cadential six-four chord. The two phrases of the first theme can be used to frame the cadenza at
the beginning and end. The second theme can be presented with double-stop accompaniment and

36

ornamented. The sequential structure of the closing theme can be applied in modulations to
explore other keys or to return to the tonic. Throughout the movement there are several passages
that display virtuosity. They include ascending scales, arpeggios, and thirty-second note passages
outlining triads.


Figure 9: Boyan Bonev, cadenza to the first movement of Joseph Haydns Concerto for Cello
and Orchestra in C Major

37



Figure 9 (cont.): Boyan Bonev, cadenza to the first movement of Joseph Haydns Concerto for
Cello and Orchestra in C Major


The procedures for the improvisation of a cadenza in a slow (second) movement are
similar to the first movement. There is no need for virtuoso passages because in the cadenza the
performer should present the beauty of the sound and the singing qualities of the instrument. The
main focus of the preparatory work should be finding an appropriate fragment(s) from the
melodic materials of the movement that can be applied to create an improvisation.

38

The movement is in ternary form (ABA). The A section includes two themes which in
the examples below appear as theme I and theme II. The B section does not include specific
thematic material. It is harmonically unstable and presents a modulation from the key of C major
to the main key of the movement of F major. The keys alluded to in the second movement are F
major, C major, and D minor.

Figure 10: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement II, theme I,
mm. 16-24


Figure 11: Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in C Major, movement II, theme II,
mm. 35-41


Following is a description of the process of my improvisation of a cadenza to the second
movement of the concerto. Both themes I and II can be fragmented and juxtaposed. The opening
measure of theme I can be applied to outline the cadential six-four chord, while double-stop
gesture from opening of theme II can serve as an extension of the chord. The thirty-second-note
motives from the theme I can be presented in the different registers of the cello high, middle
and low leading to the closing trill.

39


Figure 12: Boyan Bonev, cadenza to the second movement of Joseph Haydns Concerto for
Cello and Orchestra in C Major


































40


CONCLUSION


The cadenza, an important part of the concerto, has undergone much change from the
eighteenth century until today. It gradually lost its initial designation as a section in the concerto
where the performer can improvise and display his or her virtuosic abilities, becoming an
integral part of the composers formal design of the movement.
The concertos for cello by Luigi Boccherini and Joseph Haydn are among the few
compositions that present an opportunity for improvising a cadenza. This task should be taken
with great consideration and every performer should be encouraged to improvise a cadenza
where it is appropriate. When creating a cadenza the soloist should have extensive knowledge of
three facets: the rules for improvisation established in the treatises, thematic material of the
work, and musical language of the composer. The improvisation of a cadenza brings a new level
to the interpretation of the concerto, allowing the performer to not only present his or her
interpretation of the work, but also to assume a creative role in the composition.
The current treatise offers analysis and principles of improvisation for the cadenzas to the
cello concertos by Joseph Haydn. Those principles however are not limited to the classical
concertos. They can be applied to the improvisation of any ad libitum cadenza for any period.
Further research of this topic can include analyses of the stylistic characteristics of
cadenzas and how they reflect their authors abilities as a performer. There can be further
investigation of the performance practices in improvising cadenzas for cello concertos, and
comparative analyses of the different approaches of improvisation in the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries. The research can be extended to comparative analyses of cadenzas by
different string performers from the same time period in order to establish the particularities for
each instrument in the art of improvisation. All of the above possibilities for research can be
combined and could lead to the creation of a method book designed to teach the art of
improvising cadenzas to young string players.





41


APPENDIX 1

CADENZAS FOR THE CONCERTO FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRA IN C
MAJOR BY JOSEPH HAYDN


First Movement

Franco Mannino


42

Second Movement

Franco Mannino






43


APPENDIX 2

CADENZAS FOR THE CONCERTO FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRA IN D
MAJOR BY JOSEPH HAYDN, MOVEMENT I


Jascha Bernstein



44

Emanuel Feuermann


C

45



46

Franois-Auguste Gevaert C


47
































48

Franco Mannino


49

David Popper


50



51

Franz Schmidt


52



53

Gerhard Silwedel


54














55


APPENDIX 3

CADENZAS FOR THE CONCERTO FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRA IN D
MAJOR BY JOSEPH HAYDN, MOVEMENTS II AND III


Second Movement

Emanuel Feuermann











56

Franco Mannino




57

Gerhard Silwedel











58

Third Movement, Lead-in

Emanuel Feuermann





59

Gerhard Silwedel




60

APENDIX 4

COPYRIGHT PERMISSION LETTERS





61





62





63




64






65

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Books and Treatises

Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel. Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1949.

Drummond, Pippa. The German Concerto. Five Eighteen-Century Studies. Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1980.

Gill, Sarah M. A Collection and Study of the Published Cadenzas for Flute for Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozarts Concerto in G Major for Flute and Orchestra, K. 313. Treatise,
Florida State University, 2002.

Kershner, Brian K. A Study of the Classical Cadenza and a Manual for Writing Cadenzas for
Classical Concertos. Treatise, Florida State University, 1986.

Kollmann, Augustus Frederic Christopher. An Essay on practical Musical Composition. New
York: Da Capo Press, 1973.

Quantz, Johann Joachim. On Playing the Flute. Translated by Edward Reilly. New York:
Schirmer, 1985.

Roeder, Michael Thomas. A History of the Concerto. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, 1994.

Tartini Giuseppe, Treatise on Ornaments of Music. Translated and Edited by E. Jacobi.
New York: Celle, 1961.

Tosi, Pier Francesco. Observations on the Florid Song; or Sentiments on the Ancient and
Modern Singers. Geneve: Minkoff Reprint, 1978.

Trk, Daniel Gottlob. School of Clavier Playing. Translated and Edited by Raymond H. Haggh.
Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press: 1982.

Veinus, Abraham. The Concerto. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company,
Inc., 1944.

Whitmore, Philip. Unpremeditated Art. The Cadenza in the Classical Keyboard Concerto.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

Scores

Bernstein, Jascha. Cadenzas for Violoncello Concerti by Boccherini, Haydn, Schumann, Saint-
Sans. New York: Violoncello Society, 1968.


66


Britten, Benjamin. Cadenzas to Haydn's cello concerto in C. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1966.

-------. Symphony for Cello and Orchestra. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1963.

Harbison, John. Cello Concerto. New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1994.

Haydn, Joseph. Concerto in C Major, Hob. VIIb, n. 1 for Cello and Orchestra. New York:
International Music Co., 1967.

-------. Concerto in D Major, n. 2 for Cello and Orchestra. New York: International Music Co.,
1960.

Honegger, Arthur. Concerto pour Violoncelle et Orchestre. Paris: Edition Maurice Senart, 1931.

Kabalevsky, Dmitri. Cello Concerto No. 1. Boca Raton: Edwin F. Kalmus & Co., Inc.,

Ligeti, Gyorgy. Konzert fur Violoncello und Orchester. Frankfurt: C.F.Peters, 1966.

Mannino, Franco. 2 cadenze per il Concerto in Re Maggiore per Violoncello ed Orchestra di
Joseph Haydn. Roma: Boccaccini & Spada, 1987.

Mazzacurati, Benedeto. Vier Cadenzen. Berlin: Musikverlag Ferraresi, 1981.

Popper, David. Fnf Kadenzen fr Violoncell. New York: Universal-Edition, 1924.

Schnittke, Alfred. Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra No. 2. Hamburg: Edition Sikorski,
1990.

Schumann, Robert. Concerto for Cello and Orchastra, Op. 129. New York: E.F. Kalmus, 1972.

Shchedrin, Rodion. Konzert fur Violoncello und Orchester sotto voce concerto. Maintz:
Schott, 1994.

Shostakovich, Dmirti. Concerto for Cello and Orchastra, Op. 107. New York: Leeds Music
Corp., 1960.

Silwedel, Gerhard. Drei Kadenzen zum Violoncello-Concert D Dur von Joseph Haydn.
Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1950.

Starker, Janos. Cadenzas for Violoncello. New York: Peer International Corporation, 1976.

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich. Variations on a Theme Rococo, Op. 33, for Cello and Orchestra.
NewYork: International Music Co., 1952.



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Cellist Boyan Bonev is a native of Bulgaria. He received a Bachelor of Music degree
from the National Music Academy in Sofia, Bulgaria in 1999, and a Master of Music degree
from the Florida State University in 2004. He completed a Doctor of Music degree at the Florida
State University in 2009. His cello teachers include Gregory Sauer, David Bjella, Lubomir
Georgiev, Anatoli Krastev, Venzeslav Nikolov, and Tatcho Tatchev. Bonev has participated in
master classes with Jon Kimura Parker, Andrs Daz, Felix Wang, Christopher Rex, Norman
Shetler, Carsten Ecker, Christoph Richter, Robert Cohen, and Michail Homitzer, and music
festivals in Europe and the United States. He is an active performer of solo and chamber music,
took part in various concert and educational programs for the Bulgarian National Television and
National Radio, and is a prize winner of the international competition "Music and Earth" in
Sofia, Bulgaria, and the Bulgaria National Competition for Singers and Players. He was featured
as a soloist of Florida Lakes Symphony Orchestra, Stara Zagora Symphony Orchestra, and
performed at Carnegie Hall, Weill Recital Hall. Currently, Bonev serves as a principal cellist of
Albany Symphony Orchestra, and performs with Tallahassee Symphony Orchestra and Florida
Lakes Symphony Orchestra.