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SPEED CONTROLLER OF INDUCTION MOTOR

USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS

A Thesis

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

Requirements for the award of the Degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

In

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

(POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING)

By

D. NAGESWARA RAO

11011D4318

Under the esteemed guidance of

Dr. A. JAYA LAXMI

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

(AUTONOMOUS)

HYDERABAD 500085

ANDHRA PRADESH

Year 2011 - 2013

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 2

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

(AUTONOMOUS)

HYDERABAD 500 085

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is a bonafide record of the dissertation work entitled, SPEED CONTROLLER OF

INDUCTION MOTOR USING GENETIC ALGORITHM, done by D. NAGESWARA RAO bearing Admn.

No: 11011D4318 submitted to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the Degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY with specialization in POWER ELECTRONICS

ENGINEERING from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, College of Engineering

(Autonomous), Hyderabad.

Signature of the Head of the Department

Dr. M. SUSHAMA

M Tech, Ph.D(JNTUH),M.I.S.T.E

M.S.S.I,M.I.E.T.E

Professor & Head, JNTUCEH

Signature of the Supervisor

Dr. A. JAYA LAXMI

M. Tech, Ph. D, M.I.E,M.I.S.T.E

Professor

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 3

ABSTRACT

In the power system, some things like testing process, operator training, apparatus modeling, costly

failures, integrating a subsystem into the system without any fault are some of the concerns of engineers that

can be harmful and cost effective. Research on high level modeling, new converter-inverter topologies and

control strategies are the major research areas in electrical drives. So according to expressed problems there are

some rational reasons for creating digital control on electrical machines and drives. A particular merit of this

approach is that it even permits a gradual change from simulation to actual application, as it allows to start from

a pure simulation and to gradually integrate real electrical and mechanical subsystems into the loop as they

become available. A simulation can help reduce development cycles, cut overall cost, prevent costly failures,

increase repeatability through controlled environment and test a subsystem exhaustively before integrating it

into the system.

Today, it is more common to test controllers using simulated motor models in a real-time environment.

This methodology offers several distinct advantages. For example, the simulated motor drive can be tested with

borderline conditions that would damage a real motor, often a costly prototype. While testing, a controller is

interfaced with the real-time simulated motor drive through a set of proper I/Os. Such motor drive simulation is

required for motor drive manufacturers to accelerate development and testing time, by using real-time

simulation before making tests on physical prototypes.

The project involves Simulation of Induction Motor drive Using Genetic Algorithms with compared

Artificial Intelligence Techniques Such as Fuzzy and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS).

The dissertation work entries the following:

(a) Mathematical modeling and Simulation of Induction Machine Drives with conventional controller

using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

(b) Static and Dynamic Analysis of Induction Motor, using conventional controller.

(c) Implementation of simulation of Induction Machine drives using speed controlled of induction motor

using genetic algorithms, fuzzy, ANFISN are presented in this thesis.

(d) Comparison of dynamic performance of induction motor drive using artificial intelligence controller

such as fuzzy, ANFIS, genetic algorithm.

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe a great many thanks to great peoples who helped and supported me during the project. This

acknowledgement is not just a position of words but also an account of confession.

I would like to express my deepest respect and sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. A Jaya Lakshmi for

guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care.

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. M. SUSHAMA Professor and Head of electrical and electronic

engineering College of JNTUH for providing me an opportunity to do my project work.

I thank Mr. Prashant Menghal one of my best friends for sharing his valuable time and for giving me helpful

information to finish this project. Thank you.

Last but not least I wish to avail myself of this opportunity, express a sense of gratitude towards my parents for

their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped me in completion of this project. I don't always show

it but they know that I do appreciate how much the both of them have helped me with my life, and given me all

of the things that have gotten me here. Thank you Mom and Dad.

D.NAGESWARA RAO

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 5

D. NAGESWARA RAO

Contents

CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................................................ 11

INTRODUCTION TO INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES ....................................................................................................11

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE ................................................................................................................. 12

1.2 SYNCHRONOUS SPEED ............................................................................................................................................................... 12

1.3 SLIP ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

1.4 TORQUE CURVE ............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

1.4.1 LOCKED ROTOR TORQUE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15

1.4.2 PULL-UP TORQUE ...................................................................................................................................................................... 15

1.4.3 BREAKE-DOWN TORQUE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15

1.4.4 FULL-LOAD TORQUE ............................................................................................................................................................... 15

1.5 OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

1.6 CHAPTER BREAK UP ..................................................................................................................................................................... 16

1.7 SPEED CONTROL METHOD .......................................................................................................................................................... 17

A) POLE CHANGING METHOD ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

B) STATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL ..................................................................................................................................................... 19

C) VARIABLE FREQUENCY CONTROL .......................................................................................................................................... 20

D) EDDY CURRENT CONTROL .......................................................................................................................................................... 21

E) ROTOR RESISITANCE CONTROL ................................................................................................................................................ 21

F) SLIP ENERGY RECOVERY SCHEME .......................................................................................................................................... 22

1.8 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................................................23

CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................................................................... 24

DYNAMIC MODELLING & SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES .........................................................24

2.1 DYNAMIC MODELLING OF INDUCTION MOTOR ...............................................................................................25

2.2 DYNAMIC MODEL OF INDUCTION MOTOR .......................................................................................................................... 26

2.3 INDUCTION MOTOR INDUCTANCE MATRIX CALCULATION .......................................................................................... 27

2.4 PARKS TRANSFORMATION........................................................................................................................................................ 30

2.5 INDUCTION MOTOR TORQUE CALCULATION ...................................................................................................................... 30

2.6 INDUCTION MOTOR CURRENT CALCULATION ................................................................................................................... 31

2.7 INDUCTION MOTOR ROTOR SPEED .......................................................................................................................................... 33

2.8 SIMULATION OF A THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING MATLAB-SIMULINK .............................................. 33

2.8.1 AC SOURCE .................................................................................................................................................................................. 35

2.8.2 ABC TO DQ0 PARKS TRANSFORMATION .......................................................................................................................... 36

2.8.3 INDUCTION MOTOR IN D-Q MODEL .................................................................................................................................... 37

2.8.4 STATOR FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS ....................................................................................................... 37

2.8.5 ROTOR FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS ........................................................................................................ 38

2.8.6 STATOR FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN D-AXIS ....................................................................................................... 38

2.8.7 ROTOR FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN D-AXIS ........................................................................................................ 39

2.8.8 STATOR CURRENT CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS ................................................................................................................. 39

2.8.9 ROTOR CURRENT CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS .................................................................................................................. 40

2.8.10 MUTUAL FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS .................................................................................................. 40

2.8.11 ROTOR CURRENT CALCULATION IN D-AXIS .................................................................................................................. 41

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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2.8.12 STATOR CURRENT CALCULATION IN D-AXIS ............................................................................................................... 41

2.8.13 MUTUAL FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN D-AXIS .................................................................................................. 42

2.8.14 ELECTRICAL TORQUE CALCULATION ............................................................................................................................ 42

2.8.15 ROTOR SPEED CALCULATION ............................................................................................................................................ 43

2.8.16 INVERSE PARKS TRANSFORMATION .............................................................................................................................. 43

2.9 DISCUSSION AND SIMULATION RESULTS ........................................................................................................................... 44

CHAPTER THREE .................................................................................................................................................. 46

SPEED CONTROLLER OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES .............46

3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................................. 47

3.2 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER IN SIMULINK .......................................................................................................................... 47

3.3 SPEED CONTROLLER .................................................................................................................................................................... 50

3.4 PWM INVERTER ............................................................................................................................................................................. 51

3.5 PWM OUTPUTS ................................................................................................................................................................................ 52

3.6 FLOW CHART OF FUZZY CONTROLLER ................................................................................................................................. 53

3.7 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS .......................................................................................................................... 54

3.8 INTRODUCTION TO ANFIS .......................................................................................................................................................... 55

3.9 OVERVIEW OF ANFIS .................................................................................................................................................................... 57

3.10 SIMULATION MODEL OF ANFIS .............................................................................................................................................. 58

3.11 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................... 61

CHAPTER FOUR ..................................................................................................................................................... 62

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES & GENETIC ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................62

4.1 OPTIMIZATION ................................................................................................................................................................................ 63

4.2 TRADITIONAL METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION ....................................................................................................................... 63

4.3 NON TRADITIONAL METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION ............................................................................................................. 64

4.4 HISTORY OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS ...................................................................................................................................... 67

4.5 FUNCTIONING OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS ............................................................................................................................ 68

4.6 GENETIC PARAMETERS ............................................................................................................................................................... 71

4.7 BASIC OPERATION AND STAGES IN TYPIC GENETIC ALGORITHMS ...........................................................72

4.7.1 SELECTION ................................................................................................................................................................................... 72

4.7.2 CROSS OVER ................................................................................................................................................................................ 76

4.7.3 MUTATION .................................................................................................................................................................................... 79

4.8 STAGES IN GENETIC ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................................................................ 80

4.9 STEPS IN GENETIC ALGORITHMS ............................................................................................................................................. 82

4.10 WHEN IN USE GENETIC ALGORITHMS .................................................................................................................................. 83

4.11 GENETIC ALGORITHMS APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................................................... 84

4.12 ADVANTAGES OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS .......................................................................................................................... 85

4.13 APPLICATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO HYBRID SYSTEMS .............................................................................. 85

CHAPTER FIVE ....................................................................................................................................................... 87

GENETC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE.....................................................87

5.1 SIMULATION OF GA BASED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE ................................................................................................ 87

5.2 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION WITH GA BASED FUZZY CONTROLLER .............................................. 89

5.3 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION WITH GA,ANFIS,FUZZY ............................................................................. 90

5.4 COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO DIFFERENT AI BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR ............................ 91

5.5 CONTINUOS GENETIC ALGORITHM MATLAB CODE APPIXA ....................................................................................... 95

5.6 TEST FUNCTION MATLAB CODEAPPIXB ........................................................................................................................... 97

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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5.7 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................................................................. 97

5.8 THE SCOPE OF THE FUTURE WORKS ...................................................................................................................................... 97

APPENDIXC ............................................................................................................................................................................98

REFERENCE..............................................................................................................................................................................99

Figures

CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................................................ 11

INTRODUCTION TO INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES .....................................................................................................11

Fig. 1.1 Conceptual diagram of an induction machine ......................................................................................................................... 13

Fig. 1.2 Conventional per-phase equivalent circuit .............................................................................................................................. 13

Fig. 1.3 Torque speed curve ................................................................................................................................................................. 15

Fig. 1.4 Static and dynamic inductance definitions .............................................................................................................................. 16

Fig. 1.5 Stator phase connections for six poles ...................................................................................................................................... 18

Fig. 1.6 Speed-Torque curves ................................................................................................................................................................. 18

Fig. 1.7 Torque-speed curves at various voltages ................................................................................................................................. 19

Fig. 1.8 Torque-Speed characteristics for variable frequency control ................................................................................................. 20

Fig. 1.9 Slip ring induction motor with external rotor resistors ............................................................................................................ 21

Fig. 1.10 Torque versus speed at various rotor resistances ................................................................................................................... 22

Fig. 1.11 Static Kramer method .............................................................................................................................................................. 23

CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................................................................... 24

DYNAMIC MODELLING & SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE ...........................................................24

Fig. 2.1 The d-q equivalent circuit of an induction motor ..................................................................................................................... 25

Fig. 2.2 Definition of d-axis and q-axis on an arbitrary reference frame ............................................................................................. 26

Fig. 2.3 Principle of the control system .................................................................................................................................................. 34

Fig. 2.4 Induction model with conventional controller ......................................................................................................................... 34

Fig. 2.5 AC source of main model ......................................................................................................................................................... 36

Fig. 2.6 abc to DQ0 Parks transformation model ................................................................................................................................. 36

Fig. 2.7 Induction motor in d-q model ................................................................................................................................................... 37

Fig. 2.8 Flux linkage calculation model overall view ........................................................................................................................... 37

Fig. 2.9 Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis .................................................................................................................................. 38

Fig. 2.10 Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis ................................................................................................................................. 38

Fig. 2.11 Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis ................................................................................................................................. 39

Fig. 2.12 Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis ................................................................................................................................. 39

Fig. 2.13 Stator, rotor and mutual flux linkage calculation in q-axes ................................................................................................... 40

Fig. 2.14 Stator current calculation in the q-axis ................................................................................................................................... 40

Fig. 2.15 Rotor current calculation in the q-axis ................................................................................................................................... 40

Fig. 2.16 Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis ........................................................................................................................ 41

Fig. 2.17 Stator, rotor and mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis ............................................................................................. 41

Fig. 2.18 Rotor current calculation in the d-axis ................................................................................................................................... 41

Fig. 2.19 Stator current calculation in the d-axis ................................................................................................................................... 42

Fig. 2.20 Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis ......................................................................................................................... 42

Fig. 2.21 Electrical Torque calculation ................................................................................................................................................... 43

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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Fig. 2.22 Rotor speed calculation ........................................................................................................................................................... 43

Fig. 2.23 D-Q to abc inverse Parks transformer produce rotor and stator currents ............................................................................ 44

Fig. 2.24 Torque result from conventional simulation ......................................................................................................................... 45

Fig. 2.25 Speed result from conventional simulation ........................................................................................................................... 45

Fig. 2.26 Stator current result from conventional simulation ............................................................................................................... 45

Fig. 2.27 Rotor current result from conventional simulation ............................................................................................................... 45

CHAPTER THREE ..................................................................................................................................................... 46

SPEED CONTROLLER OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES .............46

Fig. 3.1 Overall view of Fuzzy-logic based controller .......................................................................................................................... 47

Fig. 3.2 The Fuzzy Controller model ...................................................................................................................................................... 49

Fig. 3.3 Controllable frequency sin wave generator ............................................................................................................................. 50

Fig. 3.4 Speed control model .................................................................................................................................................................. 50

Fig. 3.5 PWM inverter circuit ................................................................................................................................................................ 51

Fig. 3.6 Outage block .............................................................................................................................................................................. 52

Fig. 3.7 IGBTs gating signals ................................................................................................................................................................. 52

Fig. 5.8 PWM inverter output ................................................................................................................................................................ 52

Fig. 3.9 Simulation process flow chart ................................................................................................................................................... 53

Fig. 3.10 Speed response with fuzzy ...................................................................................................................................................... 54

Fig. 3.11 Torque response with fuzzy ..................................................................................................................................................... 54

Fig. 3.12 Stator currents with fuzzy ........................................................................................................................................................ 54

Fig. 3.13 Rotor currents with fuzzy ........................................................................................................................................................ 54

Fig. 3.14 ANFIS architecture ................................................................................................................................................................. 57

Fig. 3.15 Overall Neuro-Fuzzy simulation model ................................................................................................................................ 58

Fig. 3.16 Neuro-Fuzzy ............................................................................................................................................................................. 60

Fig. 3.17 Speed characteristics with ANFIS .......................................................................................................................................... 61

Fig. 3.18 Torque characteristics with ANFIS ......................................................................................................................................... 61

Fig. 3.19 Stator currents with ANFIS controller .................................................................................................................................. 61

Fig. 3.20 Rotor currents with ANFIS controller .................................................................................................................................. 61

CHAPTER FOUR ........................................................................................................................................................ 62

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES & GENETIC ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................62

Fig. 4.1 Block diagram of genetic algorithm ......................................................................................................................................... 70

Fig. 4.2 General scheme of a genetic algorithm .................................................................................................................................... 70

Fig. 4.3 Roulette- wheel selection .......................................................................................................................................................... 74

Fig. 4.4 Rank selection diargam ............................................................................................................................................................. 75

Fig. 4.5 Single point crossover ................................................................................................................................................................ 77

Fig. 4.6 Two point crossover ................................................................................................................................................................... 77

Fig. 4.7 Uniform crossover ...................................................................................................................................................................... 78

Fig. 4.8 Stages in a typical genetic algorithm......................................................................................................................................... 81

Fig. 4.9 Typical genetic algorithm representation .................................................................................................................................. 83

CHAPTER FIVE ......................................................................................................................................................... 87

GENETIC ALGORITHMS BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE ................................................87

Fig. 5.1 speed controller of induction motor with genetic algorithm ..................................................................................................... 88

Fig. 5.2 Speed characristics with GA controller ....................................................................................................................................... 89

Fig. 5.3 Torque characristics with GA controller ..................................................................................................................................... 89

Fig. 5.4 Stator currents with GA controller ............................................................................................................................................. 89

Fig. 5.5 Rotor currents with GA controller .............................................................................................................................................. 89

Fig. 5.6 GA optimization values............................................................................................................................................................... 90

Fig. 5.7 Speed with GA controller ........................................................................................................................................................... 90

Fig. 5.8 Torque with GA controller.......................................................................................................................................................... 90

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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Fig. 5.9 Speed with ANFIS controller ..................................................................................................................................................... 91

Fig. 5.10 Torque with ANFIS controller ................................................................................................................................................. 91

Fig. 5.11 Stator current with ANFIS ........................................................................................................................................................ 91

Fig. 5.12 Rotor currents with ANFIS ....................................................................................................................................................... 91

Fig. 5.13 Speed response of conventional controller with fuzzy ........................................................................................................... 92

Fig. 5.14 Speed response of FUZZY controller ...................................................................................................................................... 92

Fig. 5.15 Speed response of ANFIS controller ........................................................................................................................................ 92

Fig. 5.16 Speed with GA controller ......................................................................................................................................................... 92

Fig. 5.17 Torque with GA controller........................................................................................................................................................ 92

Fig. 5.18 Torque response of conventional controller ............................................................................................................................ 93

Fig. 5.19 Torque response of ANFIS ....................................................................................................................................................... 93

Fig. 5.20 Torque response of fuzzy controller........................................................................................................................................ 93

Fig. 5.21 Speed response of GA controller .............................................................................................................................................. 94

Fig. 5.22 Torque response of GA controller ............................................................................................................................................ 94

Tables

Table 4.1 Population and fitness. ............................................................................................................................................................ 75

Table 7.1 Speed comparison between Conventional, Genetic algorithm, fuzzy and ANFIS ............................................................ 93

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS

R

s

The stator resistance

R

r

The rotor resistance

L

m

The magnetizing inductance of the motor

L

ls

The stator leakage inductance

L

lr

The rotor leakage inductance

r

The slip frequency which is the frequency of the actual rotor current

L

lr

The rotor leakage inductance referred to stator side

Rr The rotor resistance referred to stator side

qs ,

ds

Q-axis and d-axis components of stator flux

qr ,

dr

Q-axis and d-axis components of rotor flux

i

qs ,

i

ds

Q-axis and d-axis components of stator current

i

qr ,

i

qr

Q-axis and d-axis components of rotor current

v

qs ,

v

ds

Q-axis and d-axis components of stator voltage

v

qr ,

v

qr

Q-axis and d-axis components of rotor voltage

p Number of poles

The angular position of the rotor

a

Reference frame rotating speed

J Moment of inertia (kg/m

2

)

T

e

Electrical torque

T

l

Load torque

e (k) Control error

r (k) Reference signal

y (k) Output signal

e(k) Changed error

u(Ri) The crisp u value corresponding to the maximum membership degree

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION TO INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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1.1 INTRODUCTION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

In the industrial sector especially in the field of electric drives & control, induction motors play a vital role.

Without proper controlling of the speed, it is virtually impossible to achieve the desired task for a specific

application. Basically AC motors, such as Induction Motors are of Squirrel-Cage type. They are simple,

reliable, low cost and virtually maintenance-free electrical drives. Based on the inability of conventional control

methods like PI, PID controllers to work under wide range of operation, artificial intelligent based controllers

are widely used in the industry like ANN, Fuzzy controller, ANFIS, expert system, genetic algorithm. The main

problem with the conventional fuzzy controllers is that the parameters associated with the membership

functions and the rules depend broadly on the intuition of the experts. To overcome this problem, GA based

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy controller and Fuzzy Logic controller are proposed in this dissertation .

In most of the industries, induction motors play very important and that is the reason they are manufactured in

large numbers. About half of the electrical energy generated in a developed country is ultimately consumed by

electric motors, of which over 90 % are induction motors. For a relatively long period, induction motors have

mainly been deployed in constant-speed motor drives for general purpose applications. The rapid development

of power electronic devices and converter technologies in the past few decades, however, has made possible

efficient speed control by varying the supply frequency, giving rise to various forms of adjustable-speed

induction motor drives. In about the same period, there were also advances in control methods and Artificial

Intelligence (AI) techniques. Artificial Intelligent techniques mean use of expert system, fuzzy logic, neural

networks and genetic algorithm. Researchers soon realized that the performance of induction motor drives can

be enhanced by adopting artificial-intelligence-based methods. Since the 1990s, AI-based induction motor

drives have received greater attention. Among the existing control technologies, intelligent control methods,

such as fuzzy logic control, neural network control, genetic algorithm, and expert system, have exhibited

particular superiorities. Artificial Intelligent Controller (AIC) could be the best controller for Induction Motor

control. Over the last two decades, researchers have been working to apply AIC for induction motor drives [1-

6]. This is because that AIC possesses advantages as compared to the conventional PI, PID and their adaptive

versions. Since the unknown and unavoidable parameter variations, due to disturbances, saturation and change

in temperature exists; it is often difficult to develop an accurate system mathematical model. High accuracy is

not usually of high importance for most of the induction motor drive. During the operation, even when the

parameters and load of the motor varies, a desirable control performance in both transient and steady states must

be provided. Controllers with fixed parameters cannot provide these requirements unless unrealistically high

gains are used. Therefore, control strategy must be robust and adaptive. As a result, several control strategies

have been developed for induction motor drives within last two decades. The main idea for such a hybrid

controller is that with a combination of fuzzy logic and neural network, such as uncertainty or unknown

variations in plant parameters and structure can be dealt more effectively. Hence, the robustness of the control

of induction motor is improved. Conventional controllers have on their side well established theoretical

backgrounds on stability and allow different design objectives such as steady state and transient characteristics

of the closed loop system to be specified. Much research work is in progress in the design of such hybrid

control schemes. Fuzzy controller conventionally is totally dependent to memberships and rules, which are

based broadly on the intuition of the designer.

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The induction motor, which is the most widely used motor type in the industry, has been favored

because of its good self-starting capability, simple and rugged structure, low cost and reliability, etc. Along with

variable frequency AC inverters, induction motors are used in many adjustable speed applications which do not

require fast dynamic response.

In induction and synchronous motors, the stator is powered with alternating current (poly phase

current in large machines) and designed to create a rotating magnetic field which rotates in time with the AC

oscillations. In a synchronous motor, the rotor turns at the same rate as the stator field. By contrast, in an

induction motor the rotor rotates at a slower speed than the stator field. Therefore the magnetic field through the

rotor is changing (rotating). The rotor has windings in the form of closed loops of wire. The changing magnetic

flux induces currents in the windings as in a transformer, and these currents create their own magnetic fields.

These interact with the stator field to create torque to turn the rotor.

For these currents to be induced, the speed of the physical rotor must be lower than that of the stator's

rotating magnetic field (n

s

), or the magnetic field would not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no

currents would be induced. As the speed of the rotor drops below synchronous speed, the rotation rate of the

magnetic field in the rotor increases, inducing more current in the windings and creating more torque. The ratio

between the rotation rate of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (slip speed) and the rotation rate of the

stator's rotating field is called "slip". Under load, the speed drops and the slip increases enough to create

sufficient torque to turn the load. For this reason, induction motors are sometimes referred to as asynchronous

motors.

1.2 SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

The synchronous speed of an AC motor is the rotation rate of the rotating magnetic field created by the

stator. It is always an integer fraction of the supply frequency. The synchronous speed n

s

in revolutions per

minute (rpm) is given by:

n

s

=

60

p

where f is the frequency of the AC supply current in Hz and p is the number of magnetic pole pairs per

phase. For example, a small 3-phase motor typically has six magnetic poles organized as three opposing pairs

120 apart, each powered by one phase of the supply current, so there is one pole pair per phase and p = 1. For

60 Hz supply frequency, its synchronous speed is thus 3600 RPM. Under no-load conditions, when the only

load on the motor is its friction, the speed approaches synchronous speed.

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The concept of vector control has opened up a new possibility that induction motors can be controlled to

achieve dynamic performance as good as that of DC or brushless DC motors.

In order to understand and analyze vector control, the dynamic model of the induction motor is

necessary. In this project as a first step, an induction motor model is derived in relatively simple terms by using

the concept of space vectors and d-q variables.

Fig. 1.1 Conceptual diagram of an induction machine.

Traditionally in analysis and design of induction motors, the per-phase equivalent circuit of induction

motors shown in Fig. 1.1 has been widely used. In the circuit note that all rotor parameters and variables are not

actual quantities but are quantities referred to the stator, parameters are defined by:

Ls Lsr Rrs

Fig. 1.2 Conventional per-phase equivalent circuit

Rs: stator resistance

Rr: rotor resistance

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Lm: magnetizing inductance of the motor

Ls: stator inductance

Lr: rotor inductance

Lrs: rotor inductance referred to the stato

It is also known that induction motors do not rotate synchronously to the excitation frequency. At rated load, the

speed of induction motors are slightly less than the synchronous speed.

1.3 SLIP

Slip s is the ratio of the rotation rate of the rotor magnetic field to the rotation rate of the stator magnetic

field.

s =

N

s

N

r

N

s

Where n

r

is the rotor rotation speed in rpm. It is zero at synchronous speed and one (100%) when the rotor is

stationary. The slip determines the motor's torque. Since the short-circuited rotor windings have small

resistance, a small slip induces a large current in the rotor and produces large torque.

1.4 TORQUE CURVE

The torque exerted by the motor as a function of slip is given by a torque curve. Over a motor's normal

load range, the torque line is close to a straight line, so the torque is proportional to slip. As the load increases

above the rated load, increases in slip provide less additional torque, so the torque line begins to curve over.

Finally at a slip of around 20% the motor reaches its maximum torque, called the "breakdown torque". If the

load torque reaches this value, the motor will stall. At values of slip above this, the torque decreases. In 3-phase

motors the torque drops but still remains high at a slip of 100% (stationary rotor), so these motors are self-

starting. The starting torque of an induction motor is less than other types of motor, but still around 300% of

rated torque. In 2-pole single-phase motors, the torque goes to zero at 100% slip (zero speed), so these require

alterations to the stator such as shaded poles to provide starting torque.

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Fig. 1.3 Torque speed curve

1.4.1 LOCKED ROTOR TORQUE: The minimum torque that a motor will develop at rest for all angular

positions of the rotor is called locked rotor torque or starting torque.

1.4.2 PULL-UP TORQUE: The minimum torque delivered by an AC motor during the period of acceleration

from zero to the speed at which breakdown occurs.

1.4.3 BREAK-DOWN TORQUE: It is the point at which an excessive load on the motor will cause it to stop.

1.4.4 FULL-LOAD TORQUE: The torque a motor produces at its rated horsepower and full-load speed.

As I said

r

is called the slip frequency which is the frequency of the actual rotor current. In the steady-

state AC circuit, current and voltage phasors are used and they are denoted by the overline. In Fig. 1.2, power

consumption in the stator is interpreted as Is

2

Rs, while Ir

2

Rrs represents both power consumption in the rotor

and the mechanical output (torque). By subtracting rotor loss Ir

2

Rr from Ir

2

Rrs, produced torque (mechanical

power divided by the shaft speed) is given by:

I =

p

m

By definition, two kinds of analysis of induction motors are considered in the literature:

1) The static inductance: that the slope of the straight line (OA) from the origin through the actual

operating point A on the magnetizing curve Fig. 1.4. The static inductance is therefore the division of

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the flux by the magnetizing current. This value is used for steady state condition or when operation of

the machine changes from one to another steady state situation and the transients are not so important.

Static inductance

Fig. 1.4 static and dynamic inductance definitions

2) The dynamic inductance: that the slope of the tangent line (AC), to the magnetizing curve at the same

operating point A, as represented in Fig. 1.4.

1.5 OBJECTIVES

Induction Motors have many applications in the industries, because of the low maintenance and

robustness. The speed control of induction motor is more important to achieve maximum torque and efficiency.

This thesis presents an integrated environment for speed control of induction motor (IM) including simulation.

The integrated environment allows users to compare simulation results between classical and genetic algorithm

controllers i.e. Fuzzy and ANFIS. It is due to its unique characteristics like high efficiency, good power factor

and extremely rugged nature of Induction motor. The genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic controller and artificial

neuro-fuzzy controllers are also introduced to the system for keeping the motor speed to be constant. The

performance of genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic and artificial neuro-fuzzy based controllers is compared with

that of the conventional proportional integral controller. The dynamic modeling of Induction motor is done and

the performance of the Induction motor drive has been analyzed.

1.6 CHAPER BREAK UP

In the first chapter the basic knowledge required to understand the Induction motor operation is briefly

covered.

In the second chapter the dynamic model of Induction motor is fully formulated and its mathematical

equations are clearly proven.

At the third chapter the different techniques to control the induction motor speed is briefly listed and

then explained.

I =

Im

Dynamic inductance

I =

J

JIm

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At the fourth chapter the dynamic simulation of induction motor drive according to the model expressed

in chapter two is done and each and every part is separately explained and executed.

The fifth chapter will discuss how to improve the speed control of induction motor based on genetic

algorithm controller for taking better results compare to dynamic model simulation.

The sixth chapter will discuss how to improve the speed control of fuzzy controller based simulation

with replacing fuzzy controller part with genetic algorithm controller.

At the end the seventh chapter will compare all discussed methods, and find a technique as the best in

this project

.

1.7 SPEED CONTROL METHODS

Following are the methods employed to control the speed of induction motors.

A) Pole changing.

B) Stator voltage control.

C) Supply frequency control.

D) Eddy-current control.

E) Rotor resistance control.

F) Slip power recovery.

While pole changing is applicable to squirrel cage motors, stator voltage control and supply frequency

control can be used for both squirrel cage and wound rotor motors. Whereas rotor resistance control and slip

power recovery methods are applicable only to wound rotor motors as they are controlled from the rotor circuit.

A) POLE CHANGING METHOD:

For a particular frequency, the synchronous speed is inversely proportional to the number of poles.

Changing the number of poles can change synchronous speed and therefore the motor speed. Provision for

changing the number of poles has to be incorporated at the time of manufacturing stage and such machines are

called, pole-changing motors or multi-speed motors.

Squirrel cage rotor is not wound for any specific number of poles. It produces the same number of poles

as stator winding has. Therefore, in a squirrel cage motor, an arrangement is required only for changing the

number of poles in stator. In wound rotor motor, arrangement for changing the number of poles in rotor is also

required, which complicates the machine. Therefore, this method of speed control is only used with squirrel

cage motors.

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This method is simple but expensive arrangement for changing the number of stator poles. It uses two

separate windings, which are wound for two different pole numbers. An economical and common alternative is

to use a single stator winding divided into few coil groups, and by rearranging the coil groups we can obtain

different speeds, which are factor of 2. The Fig. 3.1 shows a phase winding which consists of six coils divided

into two groups a-b consisting of odd number coils(1,3,5) connected in series and c-d consisting of even

numbered coils(2,4,6) connected in series which are shown.

Fig. 1.5 Stator phase connections for six poles

The speed-torque curves for 6 pole and 12 pole formation can be shown as in Fig. 3.2.

Fig. 1.6 Speed-Torque curves

In some applications, change in speed is required only by a small amount (for example. fan and pump

drives).Such a small change in speed is possible by pole amplitude modulation. As pole systems are not

alternating along the periphery, these motors in modified connection suffer from harmonic currents and

voltages, and have lower power factor and efficiency than pole changing motors.

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B) STATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL:

By reducing the stator voltage, speed of a high-slip induction motor can be reduced by an amount, which

is sufficient for the speed control. While torque is proportional to square of the voltage, the voltage if reduced

reduces the speed. So for the same current the motor develops lower torque therefore such loads which demand

less torque with the decrease in the speeds are suitable under this control ( fan and pump drives ).

This method of speed control is not suitable for normal mains fed with 3-phase Induction Motor. The

portion of speed torque curve beyond the point of maximum torque is unstable. The normal cage motor has

small resistance and therefore, the unstable portion is large. The speed control is possible only in narrow band

of speeds. The starting current of these motors is also very high. The equipment used to control the speed must

be able to withstand this current. The power factor is poor at large slips. Therefore special rotor design with

high resistance is required to be able to take advantage of speed control by voltage variation. The Fig. 3.3 shows

the Torque-Speed curves of an Induction motor at various voltages assuming sinusoidal voltage.

This method is very simple but speed control range is very much limited. Speed range can be made

wider if the rotor resistance is larger. The line p.f is poor. The line and motor currents have harmonic content.

Fig. 1.7 Torque-speed curves at various voltages

Machine has poor efficiency, heating of motor is more, and regeneration is not possible. It is used with

fan loads, blowers and pumps.

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C) VARIABLE FREQUENCY CONTROL(V/F):

Synchronous speed

P

f

N

s

120 ..(3.1)

And, motor speed,

s r

N s N 1 (3.2) check

eqn no

From the above it is evident that synchronous speed is directly proportional to the supply frequency.

Therefore, by varying supply frequency we can control the speed of the induction motor. Motor speed can be

controlled below and above the synchronous speed. Voltage induced in stator is proportional to the product of

supply frequency and air gap flux. If stator drop is neglected, terminal voltage can be considered proportional to

the product of frequency and flux. The equations 3.3 and 3.4 justify the above statements.

ps s m w

T f k . E 44 4

(3.3)

ps s m w

T f k . V 44 4

...(3.4)

While any increase in flux beyond the rated value is undesirable from the consideration of saturation

effects a decrease in flux is also avoided to retain the torque capability of motor. Therefore, the variable

frequency control below the rated frequency is generally carried out by reduced machine phase voltage along

with the frequency; the motor is operated at a constant voltage because of limitations imposed by stator

insulation or supply voltage limitations.

The motor is always operated on the portion of the speed torque curves with a negative slope, by

limiting either the slip speed or the current for getting the advantages of the high torque to current ratio, high

efficiency and a good power factor.

Fig. 1.8 Torque-Speed characteristics for variable frequency control

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Variable frequency control gives larger torques with reduced currents for the complete range of speeds. This

method provides a highly efficient variable speed drive with excellent running and transient performance.

Regenerative braking is also possible below synchronous speed down to zero speed.

D) EDDY CURRENT CONTROL

Drive consists of an eddy current clutch placed between an induction motor running at a fixed speed and

the variable speed load. Speed is controlled by controlling D.C excitation to magnetic circuit of the clutch.

Since motor runs at a fixed speed, it can be fed directly from AC mains.

E) ROTOR RESISTANCE CONTROL

This method is suitable for wound rotor induction motor. Maximum torque is independent of rotor

resistance, speed at which the maximum torque is produced changes with rotor resistance. For the same torque,

speed falls with an increase in rotor resistance. Advantages of rotor resistance control are that motor torque

capability remains unaltered even at low speeds. Only other method, which has this advantage, is variable

frequency control. This method is used for only low speeds, because of low cost of rotor resistance and high

torque capability at low speeds, and rotor resistance control is employed in cranes, high load drives. A major

disadvantage is low efficiency due to additional losses in resistor connected in the rotor circuit.

Fig. 1.9 Slip ring induction motor with external rotor resistors

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Fig. 1.10 Torque versus speed at various rotor resistances, curves 1, rotor short-circuited; 2-4,

increasing values of external resistance

F) SLIP ENERGY RECOVERY SCHEME

The portion of air gap power, which is not converted into mechanical power, is called slip power. Slip

control methods regulate the amount of slip power. The slip power is controlled by controlling the voltage

injection into the rotor. By this method induction motor speed can be controlled from speed zero to speed higher

than the synchronous speed. Instead of wasting power in external resistors, it is usefully employed here.

Therefore, these methods of speed control are classified as slip power recovery schemes. The circuital

connections for slip energy recovery scheme and torque speed characteristics can be as shown in the next

Figures.

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Fig. 1.11 Static Kramer method

The main problem in providing suitable source is that the frequency of the injected emf must match the

rotor slip frequency at all speeds. Two such schemes are: static Scherbius drives and static Kramer drives which

provides speed control of wound rotor motor below and above synchronous speed respectively.

This speed is suitable for driving high capacity centrifugal pumps and fans. Speed control is achieved from

above synchronous speed to zero speed.

. 1.8 CONCLUSION

In this chapter mathematical model of induction motor has been developed for dynamic analysis of the

symmetrical induction machines in the arbitrary reference frame. In chapter Four the block based simulation

will be constructed according to these equations and then will be simulated.

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CHAPTER TWO

DYNAMIC MODELLING & SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR

DRIVE

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2.1 DYNAMIC MODELLING OF INDUCTION MOTOR

The voltage and torque equations that describe the dynamic behavior of an induction motor are time-

varying. Differential equations involve some complexity. A change of variables can be used to reduce the

complexity of these equations by eliminating all time-varying inductances. By this approach, a poly phase

winding can be reduced to a set of two phase windings (q-d) with their magnetic axis formed in quadrature. In

other words, the stator and rotor variables (voltages, currents and flux linkages) of an induction machine are

transferred to a reference frame, which may rotate at any angular velocity or remain stationary. Such a frame of

reference is commonly known in the generalized machines analysis as arbitrary reference frame.

Fig. 2.1: the d-q equivalent circuit of an induction motor

The dynamic analysis of the symmetrical induction machines in the arbitrary reference frame has been

intensively used as a standard simulation approach from which any particular mode of operation may then be

developed. It can be a powerful technique in implementing the machine equations as they are transferred to a

particular reference frame. Thus, every single equation among the model equations can be easily implemented

in one block so that all the machine variables can be made available for control and verification purposes[2-3].

qs

(-

r

)

qs

Rs Rr Lls = Ls+Lm L'lr = Lr+Lm

Vds

Vdr

ds

dr

ds

(-

r

)

ds

Rr

Vqr

Rs Lls = Ls+Lm Llr = L'r+Lm

Vqs

qs

qr

L

m

L

m

i

ds

i

dr

i

qs

i

qr

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2.2 DYNAMIC MODEL OF INDUCTION MOTOR

Before everything, its better to clarify some of the parameters and concepts that are existing in the

dynamic model.

R

s

: the stator resistance

R

r

: the rotor resistance

L

m

: the magnetizing inductance of the motor

L

ls

: the stator leakage inductance

L

lr

: the rotor leakage inductance

r

: the slip frequency which is the frequency of the actual rotor current

L

lr

: the rotor leakage inductance referred to stator side

Rr: the rotor resistance referred to stator side

qs ,

ds

: q-axis and d-axis components of stator flux

qr ,

dr

: q-axis and d-axis components of rotor flux

i

qs ,

i

ds

: q-axis and d-axis components of stator current

i

qr ,

i

qr

: q-axis and d-axis components of rotor current

v

qs ,

v

ds

: q-axis and d-axis components of stator voltage

v

qr ,

v

qr

: q-axis and d-axis components of rotor voltage

Note that in this equivalent circuit, all rotor parameters and variables are not actual quantities but are quantities

referred to the stator. And also we know that induction motors do not rotate synchronously to the excitation

frequency. At rated load, the speed of induction motors are slightly less than the synchronous speed.

Fig. 2.2: d-axis and q-axis on an arbitrary reference frame.

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Let the stator to rotor winding turn ratio be n and the angular position of the rotor be , and define the

rotor velocity in the form of the following that p is the number of poles.

r

= p

Fig. 2.2 illustrates the relationship between d-q axis and complex plane on a rotating frame with respect

to stationary a-b-c frame. Note that d-axes and q-axes are defined on a rotating reference frame at the speed of

a

with respect to fixed a-b-c frame.

=

a

= p

a

The generalized equivalent circuit on an arbitrarily rotating frame is shown in Fig. 2.1. Now, depending

on a specific choice of

a

, many forms of dynamic equivalent circuit can be established. Among them, the

synchronous frame form can be obtained by choosing

a

=

e

.

2.3 INDUCTION MOTOR INDUCTANCE MATRIX CALCULATION

The sum of the stator leakage inductance and magnetizing inductance is called the stator inductance (L

s

=

L

ls

+ L

m

), and the sum of the rotor leakage inductance and magnetizing inductance is called the rotor inductance

(L

r

= L

lr

+ L

m

), where we have the following equations:

Is =

Xs

Ir =

Xr

As we can see in the Fig. 2.1 the rotating emf-es are represented by voltage sources and not by

Inductances. Consequently, rotor appears near to the natural induced voltage, expressed by means of the rotor

speed.

Driving the model equations can be generated from the d-q equivalent circuit of the induction machine

shown in Fig. 2.1. The voltage and current equations associated with this circuit can be found as follows:

The flux linkages can be achieved as follows:

qs

= I

s

i

qs

+ I

m

i

q

.(2.1)

ds

= I

m

i

d

+ I

s

i

ds

= I

m

i

ds

+ I

i

d

..(2.2)

q

= I

i

q

+ I

m

i

qs

...........(2.3)

d

= I

i

d

+ I

m

i

ds

= I

m

i

d

+ I

s

i

ds

......(2.4)

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The voltage equations are as following:

:

qs

= R

s

i

qs

+

d

qs

dt

+

ds

.....(2.5)

:

ds

= R

s

i

ds

+

d

ds

dt

qs

...(2.6)

:

q

= R

i

q

+

J

q

Jt

+ (

)

ds

. . . . (2.7)

:

d

= R

i

d

+

J

d

Jt

(

)

qs

. . (2.8)

For obtaining the voltages the following steps have to be done:

By placing the equation 1 and equation 2 into the equation 5, v

qs

obtained as:

:

qs

= R

s

i

qs

+

J

qs

Jt

+

ds

:

qs

= R

s

i

qs

+

J(I

s

i

qs

+ I

m

i

q

)

Jt

+ (I

m

i

d

+ I

s

i

ds

)

= R

s

i

qs

+ I

s

Ji

qs

Jt

+ I

m

Ji

q

Jt

+ I

m

i

d

+ I

s

i

ds

. .(2.9)

By placing the equation 1 and equation 2 into the equation 6, v

ds

obtained as:

:

ds

= R

s

i

ds

+

J

ds

Jt

qs

:

ds

= R

s

i

ds

+

J(I

m

i

d

+ I

s

i

ds

)

Jt

(I

s

i

qs

+ I

m

i

q

)

= R

s

i

ds

+ I

s

Ji

ds

Jt

+ I

m

Ji

d

Jt

I

s

i

qs

I

m

i

q

(2.10)

By placing the equation 2 and equation 3 into the equation 7 , v

qr

obtained as:

:

q

= R

i

q

+

J

q

Jt

+ (

)

ds

:

q

= R

i

q

+

J(I

i

q

+ I

m

i

qs

)

Jt

+ (

)(I

m

i

ds

+ I

i

d

)

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= R

i

q

+ I

Ji

q

Jt

+ I

m

Ji

qs

Jt

+ (

)I

m

i

ds

(

)I

i

d

. (2.11)

By placing the equation 1 and equation 4 into the equation 8, v

dr

obtained as:

:

d

= R

i

d

+

J

d

Jt

(

)

qs

:

d

= R

i

d

+

J(I

i

d

+ I

m

i

ds

)

Jt

(I

m

i

qs

+ I

i

q

)

= R

i

d

+ I

Ji

d

Jt

+ I

m

Ji

ds

Jt

(

)I

m

i

qs

(

)I

i

q

. (2.12)

According to calculation, for ease of studying equations 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12 are listed below:

:

qs

= R

s

i

qs

+ I

s

d

qs

dt

+ I

m

d

qr

dt

+ I

m

i

d

+ I

s

i

ds

:

ds

= R

s

i

ds

+ I

s

Ji

ds

Jt

+ I

m

Ji

d

Jt

I

s

i

qs

I

m

i

q

:

q

= R

i

q

+ I

Ji

q

Jt

+ I

m

Ji

qs

Jt

+ (

)I

m

i

ds

+ (

)I

i

d

:

d

= R

i

d

+ I

Ji

d

Jt

+ I

m

Ji

ds

Jt

(

)I

m

i

qs

(

)I

i

q

V

dr

and V

qr

are short circuited hence they are equal to zero. The electrical transient model in terms of voltages

and currents can be given in matrix form as:

_

:

qs

:

ds

0

0

_ = _

R

s

+ I

s

p I

s

I

s

R

s

+ I

s

p

I

m

p I

m

I

m

I

m

p

I

m

p (

)I

m

(

)I

m

I

m

p

R

+ I

p (

)I

)I

+ I

p

_ _

i

qs

i

ds

i

q

i

d

_

In the above matrix p represents the operator

d

dt

. For stationary reference frame, by substituting = 0, the above

matrix equation is reduced to:

_

:

qs

:

ds

0

0

_ = _

R

s

+ I

s

p 0

0 R

s

+ I

s

p

I

m

p 0

0 I

m

p

I

m

p (

)I

m

(

)I

m

I

m

p

R

+ I

p (

)I

)I

+ I

p

_ _

i

qs

i

ds

i

q

i

d

_

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Moreover, for synchronous frame, we have

=

c

_

:

qs

:

ds

0

0

_ = _

R

s

+ I

s

p

c

I

s

c

I

s

R

s

+ I

s

p

I

m

p

c

I

m

c

I

m

I

m

p

I

m

p (

c

)I

m

(

c

)I

m

I

m

p

R

+ I

p (

c

)I

(

c

)I

+ I

p

_ _

i

qs

i

ds

i

q

i

d

_

Since actual stator variables either to be generated or to be measured are all in stationary a-b-c frame, frame

transform should be executed in the control. The most popular transform is between stationary a-b-c frame

quantities to synchronously rotating d-q quantities.

2.4 PARKS TRANSFORMATION

The following equation shows how a-b-c frame can be transformed into the q-d frame:

_

y

q

y

d

0

_ = _

cos0

sin0

cos(0 2n/ 3) cos(0 + 2n/ 3)

sin(0 2n/ 3) sin(0 + 2n/ 3)

0.5 0.5 0.5

_ _

y

u

y

b

y

c

_

And its inverse transform is given by:

_

y

u

y

b

y

c

_ = _

cos0

cos(0 2n/ 3)

sin0 1

sin(0 2n/ 3) 1

cos(0 + 2n/ 3) sin(0 + 2n/ 3) 1

_ _

y

q

y

d

0

_

As we have seen the voltage and current in stationary and rotor reference frame in the form of [ :] = [ z] [i] is

achieved, where [v] and [i] are 4x1 column matrices of voltage and current and are given as

[:

qs

:

ds

:

q

:

d

]

1

and [i

qs

i

ds

i

q

i

d

]

1

respectively.

2.5 INDUCTION MOTOR TORQUE CALCULATION

The torque equation is:

I

c

=

3

2

p

2

1

b

(

ds

i

qs

qs

i

ds

) (2.13)

Which is in the vector form. Equation 2.13 can be rewriten as (Bolded letters shows it is in vector space):

=

3

4

p

1

b

Im(

s

I

s

) . .. (2.14)

For calculating the electromagnetic torque, transfer [:] = [z][i] to the stationary reference frame so that the

will be equal to zero.

then s is kept as superscript which is written as follows:

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[ :

s

] = [ z

s

] [i

s

]

Where [:

s

] and [ i

s

] are 4x1 column matrices of voltage and current in the stationary frame and are given as

[ :

qs

s

:

ds

s

:

q

s

:

d

s

]

1

and [ i

qs

s

i

ds

s

i

q

s

i

d

s

]

1

respectively.

So the impedance matrix will be as follows:

_

R

s

+ I

s

p 0

0 R

s

+ I

s

p

I

m

p 0

0 I

m

p

I

m

p (

)I

m

(

)I

m

I

m

p

R

+ I

p (

)I

)I

+ I

p

_

Although the torque expression on the above is derived from stationary reference frame, it is true for any other

reference frames such as Many other forms of torque equations are also possible, such as:

I

c

=

3

2

p

2

I

m

(i

qs

i

d

i

ds

i

q

)

=

3

4

p I

m

(i

qs

i

d

i

ds

i

q

) . . . (2.15)

We can eliminate I

r

so that the equation will change to:

=

3

4

p

I

m

I

Im(I

q

) .. . . .(2.16)

2.6 INDUCTION MOTOR CURRENTS CALCULATION

According to the single phase circuit of the induction motor shown in Fig. 1.4 one can write current

equations of stator and rotor in the d-q axis as follows:

i

qs

=

(

qs

mq

)

X

Is

. . (2.17)

i

ds

=

(

ds

md

)

X

Is

. . (2.18)

i

q

=

(

q

mq

)

X

Is

. . (2.19)

i

d

=

(

d

md

)

X

Is

.. (2.20)

By substituting

mq

and

md

in the above equations we have the following equations according to the current

flow orientation and knowing that ( i =

X

):

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mq

= X

mI

_

qs

X

Is

+

q

X

I

] . . (2.21)

md

= X

mI

_

ds

X

Is

+

d

X

I

] . . (2.22)

X

mI

=

1

1

X

m

+

1

X

ls

+

1

X

lr

.(2.23)

Referring to equations 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 we can write the flux linkage equations as followings in the per unit (

b

is the base value of angular frequency and suppose induction motor is working in the synchronous speed):

1

b

J

qs

Jt

= :

qs

ds

R

s

i

qs

1

b

J

qs

Jt

= :

qs

b

ds

+

R

s

X

Is

(

mq

qs

) . (2.24)

1

b

J

ds

Jt

= :

ds

qs

R

s

i

ds

1

b

J

ds

Jt

= :

ds

+

c

b

qs

+

R

s

X

Is

(

md

ds

) . (2.25)

1

b

J

q

Jt

= :

q

(

c

d

R

s

i

q

1

b

J

q

Jt

= :

q

(

c

b

d

+

R

s

X

Is

(

mq

q

) . (2.26)

1

b

J

d

Jt

= :

d

+

(

c

q

R

s

i

d

1

b

J

d

Jt

= :

d

+

(

c

b

q

+

R

s

X

Is

(

md

d

) . (2.27)

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2.7 INDUCTION MOTOR ROTOR SPEED

The speed

r

in the above equations is related to the torque by the following mechanical dynamic

equation:

I

c

= I

Ioud

+ [

J

m

Jt

= I

Ioud

+

[2

p

J

Jt

(2.28)

Then we can rewrite the above equation for

as follows:

= _

p

2[

(I

c

I

I

) . (2.29)

Where:

p: number of poles

J: moment of inertia (kg/m

2

)

2.8 SIMULATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING

MATLAB/SIMULINK

SIMULINK is a powerful software package for the study of dynamic and nonlinear systems. Using

SIMULINK, the simulation model can be built up systematically starting from simple sub-models. The

induction motor model developed may be used alone or it can be incorporated in an advanced motor drive

system, e.g. field oriented control.

Simulink is an environment for multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic and

embedded systems. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries

that let you design, simulate, implement, and test a variety of time-varying systems, including communications,

controls, signal processing, video processing, and image processing. Simulink is integrated with MATLAB,

providing immediate access to an extensive range of tools that let you develop algorithms, analyze and visualize

simulations, create batch processing scripts, customize the modeling environment, and define signal, parameter,

and test data.

In this project the simulation process will be starting from conventional modeling according to the

mathematical equations that are expressed in previous parts. The next plan is to improve the operation of

induction motor in the sense that how speed can be increased and in the same duration of time we take faster

rising, so two more techniques will be applied to enhance the control system, one will be fuzzy logic controller

and second one will be Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System that usually is abbreviated to ANFIS. But

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before getting down controlling system First will discuss on conventional simulation. The principle of the

control system is shown in Fig. 2.3.

Fig.2.3: Principle of the control system

Over the years different mathematical models have been used to examine different problems associated

with induction motors. These range from the simple equivalent circuit models to more complex d,q models and

abc models which allow the inclusion of various forms of impedance and/or voltage unbalance. In this project

for more simplicity d-q models is preferred so that it will simplify the very complicated non-linear equations to

be solved and simulated. In Fig. 2.4 the block-diagram of induction motor and its drive that are simulated in

MATLAB/simulink are shown.

Fig. 2.4: Induction model with Conventional controller

In the Fig. 2.4 the structure of conventional simulation of induction motor is shown. According to the model

the AC voltage source that is the sinusdoial signal generator predefined by MATLAB/simulink, is applied to

Parks transformation matrix, then abc system will be converted to d-q form. In the next step the voltage sources

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that are imaged into d-axis and q-axis are applied to induction motor model. According to the previous section

and proven equations the induction motor equations are expressed in d-q frame. The outputs after calculating

the expressed equations, will be stator and rotor currents separately in the d-axis and q-axis, torque and rotor

speed. It can be the last stage but for more result clearance the currents are converted to abc frame with the help

of inverse Parks transformation. So according to existance of different parts in this model the following

headings will be discussed in details:

AC source

Abc to DQ0 Parks transformation

Induction motor in d-q model

Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis

Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis

Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis

Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis

Stator current calculation in the q-axis

Rotor current calculation in the q-axis

Stator current calculation in the d-axis

Rotor current calculation in the d-axis

Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis

Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis

Electrical Torque calculation

Rotor speed calculation

2.8.1 AC source

In the first stage balanced AC sources of sinnusdual wave forms are provided that are predefined blocks by

simulink software, and the data related to the these three phases like amplitude, frequency and phases are given

to the blocks through a GUI as given in Fig. 2.5:

I

u

= 2 I

ms

sin(wt)

I

b

= 2 I

ms

sin _wt

2n

3

]

I

b

= 2 I

ms

sin _wt +

2n

3

]

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Fig. 2.5: AC source of main model

2.8.2 abc to DQ0 Parks transformation

As its apparent from the equation below and block diagram, with the help of function blocks like sin,

cosin and some operational blocks like summation, multiplication and subtraction and one constant blocks for

applying 2n/ 3 value, the Parks transformation is easily modeled. The output of this block will concludes the

voltage sources in d-q frame.

_

:

q

:

d

0

_ = _

cos0

sin0

cos(0 2n/ 3) cos(0 + 2n/ 3)

sin(0 2n/ 3) sin(0 + 2n/ 3)

0.5 0.5 0.5

_ _

:

u

:

b

:

c

_

Fig. 2.6 abc to DQ0 Parks transformation model

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2.8.3 Induction motor in d-q model

In the Fig. 2.7 the overall model of IM is shown in Fig. 2.7 and the sub-blocks will be discussed later.

Fig. 2.7: Induction motor in d-q model

2.8.4 Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis

In Fig. 2.8 all the flux linkages of stator and rotor in d-axis and q-axis and also mutual fluxes in d-axis and

q-axes are calculated.

Fig. 2.8: Flux linkage calculation model overall view

In Fig.2.9 the stator flux linkage in q-axis according to the equation that earlier is proven, is constructed.

1

b

J

qs

Jt

= :

qs

b

ds

+

R

s

X

Is

(

mq

qs

)

6

Wr

5

Te

4

i dr

3

i qr

2

i ds

1

i qs

T

L

T

e

W

r

rotor speed

iqs

Fqs

Fds

ids

Te

electrical torque

Fqr

Fqs

Fmq

iqr

iqs

Subsystem4

Fds

Fdr

ids

idr

Fmd

Subsystem2

Fmq

vqs

vds

Wr

Fmd

Fqr

Fqs

Fds

Fdr

Flux linkage calculation

3

TL

2

Vds

1

Vqs

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Fig. 2.9: Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis

Some variables like

mq

and

ds

are supplying from another blocks that are calculating these parameters.

The constant parameters like base value of rotor speed, stator resistance and stator leakage inductance will be

supplied through a GUI of induction motor which will modify the induction motor characteristics.

2.8.5 Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis

This Fig. 2.10 shows same structure with stator flux linkage but a little bit difference reference to the rotor flux

linkage formula. For squirrel cage induction motor, the rotor voltages V

qr

and V

dr

in the flux equations are set to

zero since the rotor cage bars are shorted, thats because those terms do not appeared in the block structure.

1

b

J

q

Jt

= :

q

(

c

b

d

+

R

s

X

Is

(

mq

q

)

Fig. 2.10: Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis

2.8.6 Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis

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In Fig. 2.11 the stator flux linkage in d-axis according to the formula is calculated. These blocks are

same as the last blocks which achieve the parameters values through GUI which is defined by the induction

motor characteristics.

1

b

J

ds

Jt

= :

ds

+

c

b

qs

+

R

s

X

Is

(

md

ds

)

Fig. 2.11: Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis

2.8.7 Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis

Fig. 2.12 shows same structure as that of the rotor flux linkage but a little bit difference reference to its

formula. For squirrel cage induction motor, the rotor voltages V

qr

and V

dr

in the flux equations are set to

zero since the rotor cage bars are shorted, thats because those terms do not appear in the block structure.

1

b

J

d

Jt

= :

d

+

(

c

b

q

+

R

s

X

Is

(

md

d

)

Fig. 2.12: Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis

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2.8.8 Stator current calculation in the q-axis

In Fig. 2.13 the overall con Fig. uration of stator current, rotor current and mutual flux linkage of induction

motor in q-axis is shown. On Fig. 2.14 the unit which calculate the stator current in q-axis according to equation

is shown.

i

qs

=

(

qs

mq

)

X

Is

Fig. 2.13: Stator, rotor and mutual flux linkage calculation in q-axes

Fig. 2.14: Stator current calculation in the q-axis

2.8.9 Rotor current calculation in the q-axis

In Fig. 2.15 simple structure of rotor current in q-axis according to its equation is shown.

i

q

=

(

q

mq

)

X

Is

Fig. 2.15: Rotor current calculation in the q-axis

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2.8.10 Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis

The mutual flux linkage between stator and rotor in q-axis is nothing but a very simple assumption that

there exist parallel inductances like mutual inductance, the stator leakage inductance and the rotor leakage

inductance in between the stator and rotor in the modeled circuit. Fig. 2.16 is pictorial operation of the mutual

flux linkage of induction motor in q-axis.

mq

= X

mI

_

qs

X

Is

+

q

X

I

]

X

mI

=

1

1

X

m

+

1

X

Is

+

1

X

I

Fig. 2.16: Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis

2.8.11 Rotor current calculation in the d-axis

In Fig. 2.17 the overall Duration of stator current, rotor current and mutual flux linkage of induction

motor in d-axis is shown. On Fig. 2.18 the unit which is responsible to calculate the rotor current in q-axis

according to the equation is shown.

i

d

=

(

d

md

)

X

Is

Fig. 2.17: Stator, rotor and mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis

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Fig. 2.18: Rotor current calculation in the d-axis

2.8.12 Stator current calculation in the d-axis

In Fig. 2.19 very simple structure of stator current in d-axis according to its equation is shown.

i

ds

=

(

ds

md

)

X

Is

Fig. 2.19: Stator current calculation in the d-axis

2.8.13 Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis

The mutual flux linkage between stator and rotor in d-axis is nothing but a very simple assumption that

there exists parallel inductances like mutual inductance, the stator leakage inductance and the rotor leakage

inductance in between the stator and rotor in the modeled circuit. The Fig. 2.20 is pictorial operation of the

mutual flux linkage of induction motor in d-axis.

md

= X

mI

_

ds

X

Is

+

d

X

I

]

X

mI

=

1

1

X

m

+

1

X

Is

+

1

X

I

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Fig. 2.20: Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis

2.8.14 Electrical Torque calculation

Electrical torque equation earlier was defined as combination of relations between stator flux

linkage in d-axis and stator current in q-axis and vice versa the flux linkage of stator in q-axis and

stator current in d-axis. These relations are formulated and modeled as follows:

I

c

=

3

2

p

2

1

b

(

ds

i

qs

qs

i

ds

)

Fig. 2.21: Electrical Torque calculation

2.8.15 Rotor speed calculation

As its apparent in the rotor speed equation, it is a function of electrical torque and load torque which in this

motor is working in no-load condition. The value of moment of inertia is one of the motor characteristics that

will be applied to block through IM GUI.

= _

p

2[

( I

c

I

I

)

Fig. 2.22: Rotor speed calculation

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2.8.16 Inverse Parks transformation

In Fig. 2.23 the inverse transformation of parks theorem is modeled. The blocks are constructed exactly as

its formula with the help of function blocks like sin, cosin and some operational blocks like summation,

multiplication and subtraction and one constant block for applying 2n/ 3 value. This transformation is used two

times; one is transforming stator currents in d-q frame into abc model and second one transforming rotor current

from d-q frame into abc model.

Fig. 2.23: D-Q to abc inverse Parks transformer produce rotor and stator currents

_

y

u

y

b

y

c

_ = _

cos0

cos(0 2n/ 3)

sin0 1

sin(0 2n/ 3) 1

cos(0 + 2n/ 3) sin(0 + 2n/ 3) 1

_ _

y

q

y

d

0

_

2.9 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This simulation according to the Induction motor characteristics which is listed in the appendix shows the

following results for torque, rotor speed, stator currents and rotor currents. As its apparent from speed curve,

the speed value is increasing slowly. Then for the next chapters we will discuss genetic algorithm techniques

such as fuzzy and ANFIS to improve the performance of induction motor under static and dynamic conditions.

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Fig. 2.24: Torque characteristics for

conventional controller

Fig. 2.25: Speed characteristics for conventional

controller

Fig. 2.26: Stator currents for conventional

controller

Fig. 2.27: rotor currents for conventional

controller

CHAPTER THREE

SPEED CONTROLLER OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING ARTIFICIAL

INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES

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3.1 INTRODUCTION

Despite the great efforts devoted to induction motor control, many of the theoretical results cannot be

directly applied to practical systems. Intelligent control techniques are generally classified as expert system

control, fuzzy-logic control, neural-network control and genetic algorithm.Fuzzy Logic (FL) controllers based

on fuzzy set theory are used to represent the experience and knowledge of a human operator in terms of

linguistic variables that are called fuzzy rules. An experienced human operator adjusts the system inputs to get a

desired output by just looking at the system output without any knowledge on the systems dynamics and

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interior parameter variations. The implementation of linguistic fuzzy rules based on the procedures done by

human operators does not also require a mathematical model of the system. Therefore, a Fuzzy Logic Controller

(FLC) becomes nonlinear and adaptive in nature having a robust performance under parameter variations with

the ability to get desired control actions for complex, uncertain, and nonlinear systems without the requirement

of their mathematical models and parameter estimation. FL based controllers provide a mathematical foundation

for approximate reasoning, which has been proven to be very successful in a variety of applications. In modern

control techniques, uncertainty and vagueness have a great amount of importance to be dealt with. The use of

membership functions quantified from ambiguous terms in fuzzy logic control rules has given a pulse to speed

up the control of the systems with uncertainty and vagueness. The introduction of fuzzy set theory and its

application to control systems has become an important and useful tool in especially controlling nonlinear

systems.

3.2 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER IN SIMULINK:

In the Fig. 3.1, the pictorial configuration of fuzzy logic based controlled induction motors drive is

shown.

Fig. 3.1: overall view of Fuzzy-logic based controller

This model is achieved by improving the conventional simulation of induction motor by control system

enhancement. The d-q model of IM and Parks transformation and inverse Parks transformation are same to the

conventional model, but AC source is replaced with PWM inverter which is controlled by Fuzzy Controller. So

in this chapter conventional controller is replaced by the artificial intelligence controller such as GA based,

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fuzzy, ANFIS. In this model the PWM inverter is produces the three phase AC sources which should be applied

to Parks transformation, and then the IM will act as conventional model which is discussed earlier. But the

event which is happening here is the induction motor rotor speed is applied to the Fuzzy Controller, As the first

step, the speed is normalized between zero and one, then it is compared to one and error and change in error

will be calculated. Then the produced crisp value will be applied to fuzzifier model and the preferred fuzzy

value will be produced. Then after defuzzification the achieved crisp value will change the frequency of PWM

inverter which will be discussed later. In the following subsections the overview of Fuzzy Controller has come,

and then there are some basic blocks which play an important rule and fulfill the desire actions. So brief

explanation will be given on some of them.

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Fig. 3.2: The Fuzzy Controller model

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3.3 SPEED CONTROLLER

As explained earlier, the crisp value obtained from Fuzzy Logic Controller is used to change the

frequency of gating signals of PWM inverter. Thus the output AC signals obtained will be variable frequency

sine waves.

Fig. 3.3: Controllable frequency sine wave generator

In the model shown in Fig. 3.3, the sin wave is generated with amplitude, phase and frequency which are

supplied through a GUI. Then the clock signal which is sampling time of simulation is divided by crisp value

which is obtained from FLC. So by placing three sin waves with different phases one can compare them with

triangular waveform and generate necessary gating signals of PWM inverter. So at the first sampling point the

speed is zero and error is maximum. Then whatever the speed rises, the error will decrease, and the crisp value

resulting from FLC will increase. So the frequency of sin wave will decrease which will cause IGBTs switched

ON and OFF faster. It will increase the AC supply frequency, and the motor will speed up. In the Fig. 3.4 the

speed control block is shown.

Fig. 3.4: Speed control model

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3.4 PWM INVERTER

The theoretical description of PWM inverters has come in previous sections so here only simulation

results are focused. In the Fig.3.5 the structure of PWM inverter is shown. The inputs to these blocks are the

gating signals which are produced in speed controller block. The firing signals are applied to IGBTs gates that

will turn ON and OFF the switches according to the following logics.

Fig. 3.5: PWM inverter circuit

When V

control1

> V

tri

then IGBT1 is ON & IGBT4 is OFF

When V

control1

< V

tri

then IGBT1 is OFF & IGBT4 is ON

When V

control2

> V

tri

then IGBT3 is ON & IGBT6 is OFF

When V

control2

< V

tri

then IGBT3 is OFF & IGBT6 is ON

When V

control3

> V

tri

then IGBT5 is ON & IGBT2 is OFF

When V

control3

< V

tri

then IGBT5 is OFF & IGBT2 is ON

The above logics are applied to the order of firing signals in the simulation which has come in the

previous section in speed controller block. In the Fig. 3.6, the outage block produces Voltage of the line to

neutral for each and every three phases. By doing this with the help of voltage measurement blocks the V

AB

,

V

BC

and V

CA

are produced. Then they are applied to LC low pass filters which produces the line to neutral

voltages for all three phases.

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Fig. 3.6: outage block

3.5 PWM OUTPUTS

Fig. 3.7: IGBTs gating signals

Fig. 3.8: PWM inverter output

I

c

I

u

I

u

I

b

I

b

I

c

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3.6 FLOW CHART OF FUZZY CONTROLLER

The following flow chart which is shown in Fig. 3.9 gives clear explanation of the simulation model

which helps us to understand better about the simulation process.

Fig. 3.9: Simulation process flowchart

Start

Reading the initial values and assigned

values of the variables

Generating Vabc and then Vdq0

Solving the differential equations to find the flux

linkages

qs

,

ds

,

q

,

d

,

mq

,

md

Calculating the currents i

qs

, i

ds

, i

q

, i

d

Calculating the torque and the angular speed

t > T

End

t =t + t

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3.7 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this section the simulation results of fuzzy logic controller are listed.

Fig. 3.10: speed response with fuzzy

Fig. 3.12: stator currents with fuzzy

Fig. 3.11: torque response with fuzzy

Fig. 3.13: rotor currents with fuzzy

As apparent in Fig. 3.10 the induction motor speed after fuzzy logic controller application shows less rising

time to arrive the final value. For example at sample time four the speed in dynamic model reach to near 600

rpm but in fuzzy based model and at the same sampling time induction motor has stabled in final speed value.

And from Fig. 3.10 its convey that torque at the no-load condition converged to zero at second sample time but

in dynamic model the convergence is happening five times later. In the next chapter we want to try to improve

the control speed system by applying Neuro-Fuzzy controller and observe how will be response of the system.

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3.8 INTRODUCTION TO ADAPTIVE NEURO-FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

(ANFIS)

A novel design of an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for controlling some of the

parameters, such as speed, torque, flux, voltage, current, etc. of the induction motor is presented in this chapter.

Induction motors are characterized by highly non-linear, complex and time-varying dynamics and

inaccessibility of some of the states and outputs for measurements. Hence it can be considered as a challenging

engineering problem in the industrial sector. Various advanced control techniques has been devised by various

researchers across the world. Some of them are based on the fuzzy techniques. Fuzzy logic based controllers are

considered as potential candidates for such an application. AC motor drives are used in multitude of industrial

and process applications requiring high performances. In high performance drive systems the motor speed

should closely follow a specified reference trajectory regardless of any load disturbances and any model

uncertainties. The controllability of torque in an induction motor with good transient and steady state responses

form the main criteria in the designing of a controller. Though, PI controller is able to achieve these but with

certain drawbacks. The gains cannot be increased beyond certain limit so as to have an improved response.

Moreover, it introduces non linearity into the system making it more complex for analysis. Also it deteriorates

the controller performance. With the advent of artificial intelligent techniques, these drawbacks can be

mitigated. One such technique is the use of Fuzzy Logic in the design of controller either independently or in

hybrid with PI controller. Fuzzy Logic Controller yields superior and faster control, but main design problem

lies in the determination of consistent and complete rule set and shape of the membership functions. A lot of

trial and error has to be carried out to obtain the desired response which is time consuming. On the other hand,

ANN alone is insufficient if the training data are not enough to take care of all the operating modes. The draw-

backs of Fuzzy Logic Control and Artificial Neural Network can be overcome by the use of Adaptive Neuro-

Fuzzy Inference System.

The main concept of a neuro-fuzzy network is derived from the human learning process, where an initial

knowledge of a function is first setup by fuzzy rules and then the degree of function approximation is iteratively

improved by the learning capabilities of the neural network. Hence ANFIS combines the learning power of

neural network with knowledge representation of fuzzy logic.

Intelligent, self-learning or self-organizing controls using expert systems, artificial intelligence, fuzzy

logic, neural networks, hybrid networks, etc have been recently recognized as the important tools to improve the

performance of the power electronics based drive systems in the industrial sectors. Combination of this

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intelligent control with the adaptiveness appears today as the most promising research area in the practical

implementation & control of electrical drives.

Induction motors play a vital role in the industrial sector especially in the field of electric drives &

control. Without proper controlling of the speed, it is virtually impossible to achieve the desired task for a

specific application. AC motors, particularly the Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors (SCIM), enjoy several

inherent advantages like simplicity, reliability, low cost and virtually maintenance-free electrical drives.

However, for high dynamic performance industrial applications, their control remains a challenging problem

because they exhibit significant nonlinearities and many of the parameters, mainly the rotor resistance, vary

with the operating conditions. Field Orientation Control (FOC) or vector control of an induction machine

achieves decoupled torque and flux dynamics leading to independent control of the torque and flux as for a

separately excited DC motor is considered. FOC methods are attractive, but suffer from one major

disadvantage, they are sensitive to motor parametric variations such as the rotor time constant and an incorrect

flux measurement or estimation at low speeds.

Consequently, performance deteriorates and a conventional controller such as a PID is unable to

maintain satisfactory performance under these conditions. Recently, there has been observed an increasing

interest in combining artificial intelligent control tools with classical control techniques. The principal

motivations for such a hybrid implementation is that with fuzzy logic, neural networks & rough sets issues, such

as uncertainty or unknown variations in plant parameters and structure can be dealt with more effectively, hence

improving the robustness of the control system. Conventional controls have on their side well established

theoretical backgrounds on stability and allow different design objectives such as steady state and transient

characteristics of the closed loop system to be specified. Several works were contributed to the design of such

hybrid control schemes which was shown by various researchers. Classical control systems like PI, PID control

have been used, together with vector control methods, for the speed control of induction machines by various

researchers. The main drawbacks of the linear control approaches were the sensitivity in performance to the

system parameters variations and inadequate rejection of external perturbations and load changes.

Neuro fuzzy techniques have emerged from the fusion of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Fuzzy

Inference Systems (FIS) and form a popular framework for solving the real world problems. A neuro fuzzy

system is based on a fuzzy system which is trained by a learning algorithm derived from neural network theory.

While the learning capability is an advantage from the viewpoint of FIS, the formation of linguistic rule base

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will be advantage from the viewpoint of ANN. There are several approaches to integrate ANN and FIS and very

often the choice depends on the applications.

Intelligent control emerged as a viable alternative to conventional model-based control schemes. This is

because with fuzzy logic and neural networks issues such as uncertainty or unknown variations in plant

parameters and structure can be dealt with more effectively and hence improving the robustness of the control

system.

3.9 OVERVIEW OF ANFIS

ANFIS architecture consists of five layers with the output of the nodes in each respective layer is

represented by O

l,i

where i is the i

th

node of layer l.

Fig. 3.14: ANFIS architecture

LAYER 1

Every node i in this layer is an adaptive node with a node function

O

1,i

=

Ai

(x) for i = 1, 2, or

O

1,i

=

Bi2

(x) for i = 3, 4

X (or y) is the input node i and A

i

(or B

i2

) is a linguistic label associated with this node

Therefore O

1,i

is the membership grade of a fuzzy set (A

1

,A

2

,B

1

,B

2

).

M1

M2

M5

M1

M2

M5

e

e

Pro

Pro

Pro

Pro

Pro

Pro

Norm

Norm

Norm

Norm

Norm

Norm

sugeno

sugeno

sugeno

sugeno

sugeno

sugeno

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5

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LAYER 2

In this layer the output of each node is product of input signals, that it can be expressed as following:

O

2,i

= w

i

=

Ai

(x)

Bi

(y), i = 1, 2

And in this layer each node represents the fire strength of the rule.

LAYER 3

In this layer the i

th

node calculates the ratio of the i

th

rules firing strength to the sum of all rules firing

strengths.

w

i

=

w

w

1

+ w

2

+ + w

n

The outputs are called normalized firing strengths.

LAYER 4

Every node i in this layer is an adaptive node with a node function:

0

4,

= w

i

= w

i

(p

x + q

y + r)

Where w

i

is the normalized firing strength from layer 3, and {pi, qi, ri} is the parameter set of this node, that

we referred them as consequent parameters.

LAYER 5

This layer computes the overall output as the summation of all incoming signals. It can be expressed as

following:

0

5,

= w

i

=

w

w

3.10 SIMULATION MODEL

In the last sections the theoretical description of Neuro-Fuzzy controlling of induction motor has been

expressed. In the following sections the simulated model solely is the controlling part which will be described.

In the Fig. 3.15 the overall structure of Neuro-Fuzzy model is shown.

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Fig. 3.15: Overall Neuro-Fuzzy simulation model

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Fig. 3.16: Neuro-Fuzzy controller

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3.11 Simulation Results and Discussion

In this section the simulation results shows the speed, torque, stator and rotor currents.

Fig. 3.17: Speed characteristics with ANFIS

Fig. 3.19: Stator currents with ANFIS controller

Fig. 3.18: Torque characteristics with ANFIS

Fig. 3.20: Rrotor currents with ANFIS controller

From simulation results, it appears that the rising time drastically decreases when FC is added and ANFIS

shows better result against to the FC, and all three results are taken in same period of time. For underestanding

how is the effect of ANFIS on the motor activity improvements. The comparative aproach will clarify the

difference between conventional simulation, Fuzzy controller based simulation and ANFIS simulation.

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CHAPTER FOUR

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES & GENETIC ALGORITHMS

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4.1 OPTIMIZATION:

Optimization is a mathematical discipline that concerns the finding of minima and maxima of functions, subject

to so-called constraints. Optimization originated in the 1940s, when George Dantzig used mathematical

techniques for generating "programs" (training timetables and schedules) for military application. Since then,

his "linear programming" techniques and their descendents were applied to a wide variety of problems, from the

scheduling of production facilities, to yield management in airlines. Today, optimization comprises a wide

variety of techniques from Operations Research, artificial intelligence and computer science, and is used to

improve business processes in practically all industries[10-11].

4. 2 TRADITIONAL METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION:

I. Linear Programming: Linear programming (LP) is a mathematical method for determining a way to

achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a given mathematical model for

some list of requirements represented as linear equations.

II. Dynamic Programming: Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method, and a

computer programming method. In both contexts, it refers to simplifying a complicated problem by

breaking it down into simpler sub problems in a recursive manner.

III. Monte Carlo method: These are a class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated

random sampling to compute their results. Monte Carlo methods are often used in

simulating physical and mathematical systems. Because of their reliance on repeated computation

of random or pseudo-random numbers, these methods are most suited to calculation by a computer and

tend to be used when it is unfeasible or impossible to compute an exact result with a deterministic

algorithm.

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4.3 NON-TRADITIONAL METHOD OF OPTIMIZATION:

S.

No

OPTIMIZATION METHOD PROPOSED BY

1

Simulated Annealing Kirkpatrick , 1983

2

Ant Colony Optimization

(ACO)

Dorigo and Caro, 1999

3

Random Cost Kost and Baumann, 1999

4

Evolution Strategy Kost, 1995

5

Genetic Algorithms Holland, 1975

6

Cellular Automata Wolfram, 1994

SIMULATED ANNEALING:

FOLLOWING ARE THE NON TRADITIONAL METHODS OF OPTIMIZATIO:-

Simulated annealing (SA) is a related global optimization technique that traverses the search space by testing

random mutations on an individual solution. A mutation that increases fitness is always accepted. A mutation

that lowers fitness is accepted probabilistically based on the difference in fitness and a decreasing temperature

parameter. Simulated annealing (SA) is a generic probabilistic metaheuristic for the global optimization problem

of applied mathematics, namely locating a good approximation to the global minimum of a given function in a

large search space. It is often used when the search space is discrete (e.g., all tours that visit a given set of cities). For

certain problems, simulated annealing may be more effective than exhaustive enumeration provided that the goal is

merely to find an acceptably good solution in a fixed amount of time, rather than the best possible solution.

The name and inspiration come from annealing in metallurgy, a technique involving heating and controlled

cooling of a material to increase the size of its crystals and reduce their defects. The heat causes the atoms to

become unstuck from their initial positions (a local minimum of the internal energy) and wander randomly

through states of higher energy; the slow cooling gives them more chances of finding configurations with lower

internal energy than the initial one.SA can also be used within a standard GA algorithm by starting with a

relatively high rate of mutation and decreasing it over time along a given schedule.

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ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION:

Ant colony optimization (ACO) uses many ants (or agents) to traverse the solution space and find locally

productive areas. While usually inferior to genetic algorithms and other forms of local search, it is able to

produce results in problems where no global or up-to-date perspective can be obtained, and thus the other

methods cannot be applied. The ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) is a probabilistic technique for

solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding good paths through graphs. Ant colony

optimization (ACO) is a population-based metaheuristic that can be used to find approximate solutions to

difficult optimization problems.

In ACO, a set of software agents called artificial ants search for good solutions to a given optimization problem.

To apply ACO, the optimization problem is transformed into the problem of finding the best path on a

weighted graph. The artificial ants (hereafter ants) incrementally build solutions by moving on the graph. The

solution construction process is stochastic and is biased by a pheromone model, that is, a set of parameters

associated with graph components (either nodes or edges) whose values are modified at runtime by the ants.

RANDOM COST METHOD:

Random cost method is a stochastic algorithm which moves as enthusiastically uphill as downhill. The method

has no severe problem in escaping from a dead end and is able to find the optima.

(1)EVALUATION STRATEGY(ES):

Evolution strategies (ES) proposed by Rechenberg, 1994 evolve individuals by means of mutation and

intermediate and discrete recombination. ES algorithms are designed particularly to solve problems in the real-

value domain. They use self-adaptation to adjust control parameters of the search. n computer science, evolution

strategy (ES) is an optimization technique based on ideas of adaptation and evolution. It was created in the early 1960s

and developed further along the 1970s and later by Ingo Rechenberg, Hans-Paul Schwefel and his co-workers, and

belongs to the more general class of evolutionary computation or artificial evolution.

Evolution strategies use natural problem-dependent representations, and primarily mutation and selection as

search operators. As common with evolutionary algorithms, the operators are applied in a loop. An iteration of

the loop is called a generation. The sequence of generations is continued until a termination criterion is met.

As far as real-valued search spaces are concerned, mutation is normally performed by adding a normally

distributed random value to each vector component. The step size or mutation strength (i.e. the standard

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deviation of the normal distribution) is often governed by self-adaptation. Individual step sizes for each

coordinate or correlations between coordinates are either governed by self-adaptation or by covariance matrix

adaptation.

(2)CELLULAR AUTOMATA (CA):

A CA is a discrete modelstudiedincomputability theory, mathematics, physics, Complexity Science, theoretical

biology and microstructure modeling. It consists of a regular grid of cells, each in one of a finite number of

states, such as "On" and "Off". The grid can be in any finite number of dimensions. For each cell, a set of cells

called its neighborhood (usually including the cell itself) is defined relative to the specified cell. For example,

the neighborhood of a cell might be defined as the set of cells a distance of 2 or less from the cell. An initial

state (time t=0) is selected by assigning a state for each cell. A new generation is created (advancing t by 1),

according to some fixed rule (generally, a mathematical function) that determines the new state of each cell in

terms of the current state of the cell and the states of the cells in its neighborhood. For example, the rule might

be that the cell is "On" in the next generation if exactly two of the cells in the neighborhood are "On" in the

current generation; otherwise the cell is "Off" in the next generation. Typically, the rule for updating the state of

cells is the same for each cell and does not change over time, and is applied to the whole grid simultaneously,

though exceptions are known. A cellular automaton is a discrete dynamical system consisting of identical

elements whose behavior is completely specified in terms of local rules. They consist of infinite number of cells

arranged in a regular grid such that each cell can exist in one of the finite number of possible states. The grid

can be two-dimensional consisting of cells or multi-dimensional where it consists of hypercube. Each cell in the

grid is aware of the state of its neighboring cells and changes its own state based on the states of its neighbors at

any instance of time.

By repeating such interactions with neighbors, a collective behavior pattern of the entire grid emerges.

In cellular automata, all the objects are assembled from the same kind of structural elements and are subject to

the same laws. These laws or rules are uniformly applied to all the cells to determine their state at each time

step. The paper proposes an optimization methodology that uses cellular automata by describing local rules in a

search space grid to cluster the search space based on the pattern of constraint violations and to obtain the

optima within each of the clusters. Clustering is defined as an attempt to find natural groups of components (or

data) based on some similarity metric. Clustering algorithms have been employed in the past to group large sets

of data into clusters of similar data.

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INTRODUCTION:

A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search technique used in computing to find exact

or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. Genetic algorithms are categorized as global

search heuristics. Genetic algorithms are a particular class of evolutionary algorithms (EA) that use

techniques inspired by evolutionary biology such as inheritance, mutation, selection, and crossover. Genetic

algorithms are implemented in a computer simulation in which a population of abstract representations

(called chromosomes or the genotype of the genome) of candidate solutions (called individuals, creatures,

or phenotypes) to an optimization problem evolves toward better solutions. Traditionally, solutions are

represented in binary as strings of 0s and 1s, but other encodings are also possible.

4.4 HISTORY OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS:

Computer simulations of evolution started as early as in 1954 with the work of Nils Aall Barricelli, who was

using the computer at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. His 1954 publication was not

widely noticed. Starting in 1957, the Australian quantitative geneticist Alex Fraser published a series of papers

on simulation of artificial selection of organisms with multiple loci controlling a measurable trait. From these

beginnings, computer simulation of evolution by biologists became more common in the early 1960s, and the

methods were described in books by Fraser and Burnell (1970) and Crosby (1973). Fraser's simulations

included all of the essential elements of modern genetic algorithms. In addition, Hans Bremermann published

a series of papers in the 1960s that also adopted a population of solution to optimization problems, undergoing

recombination, mutation, and selection. Bremermann's research also included the elements of modern genetic

algorithms. Other noteworthy early pioneers include Richard Friedberg, George Friedman, and Michael

Conrad. Many early papers are reprinted by Fogel (1998).

Although Barricelli, in work he reported in 1963, had simulated the evolution of ability to play a simple

game, artificial evolution became a widely recognized optimization method as a result of the work of Ingo

Rechenberg and Hans-Paul Schwefel in the 1960s and early 1970s - Rechenberg's group was able to solve

complex engineering problems through evolution strategies Evolutionary programming originally used finite

state machines for predicting environments, and used variation and selection to optimize the predictive logics.

Genetic algorithms in particular became popular through the work of John Holland in the early 1970s, and

particularly his book Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (1975). His work originated with studies

of cellular automata, conducted by Holland and his students at the University of Michigan. Holland introduced a

formalized framework for predicting the quality of the next generation, known as Holland's Schema Theorem.

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Research in GAs remained largely theoretical until the mid-1980s, when The First International Conference on

Genetic Algorithms was held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Recently, EAs, which are probabilistic optimum search methods using genetics and evolution theory has been

widely used. These are stochastic search methods that have been applied successfully in many search,

optimization, and machine learning problems In real-world problems, EAs can implement algorithms without

complex procedures and dont require lots of modification in software to handle additional constraints. Because

the search process is parallel, there is a high probability of finding optimal solutions. EAs also use objective

function information, not derivatives or other auxiliary knowledge .A variety of evolutionary algorithms have

been proposed in literature. The major ones are:

Genetic algorithms (GA),

Evolutionary programming (EP),

Evolution strategies (ES),

Classifier systems (CS), and

Genetic programming(GP).

4.5 FUCNTIONING OF A GENETIC ALGORITHM:

The evolution usually starts from a population of randomly generated individuals and happens in generations.

In each generation, the fitness of every individual in the population is evaluated, multiple individuals

are stochastically selected from the current population (based on their fitness), and modified (recombined and

possibly randomly mutated) to form a new population. The new population is then used in the next iteration of

the algorithm. Commonly, the algorithm terminates when either a maximum number of generations has been

produced, or a satisfactory fitness level has been reached for the population. If the algorithm has terminated due

to a maximum number of generations, a satisfactory solution may or may not have been reached.

A typical genetic algorithm requires:

1. a genetic representation of the solution domain,

2. a fitness function to evaluate the solution domain.

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The Genetic algorithm is based on Darwins principle that The candidates, which can survive, will live, others

would die. This principal is used to find fitness value of the process for solving maximization problems.

Minimization problems are usually transferred into maximization problems using some suitable

transformations. Fitness value f (x) is derived from the objective function and is used in successive genetic

operations. The fitness function for maximization problem can be used the same as objective function F(X ) .

Coming up with an encoding is the first thing in genetic algorithm user has to do. The next step is to specify a

function that can assign a score to any possible solution or structure. The score is a numerical value that

indicates how well the particular solution solves the problem. Using a biological metaphor, the score is the

fitness of the individual solution. It represents how well the individual adapts to the environment. In case of

optimization, the environment is the search space. The task of the GAs is to discover solutions that have fitness

values among the set of all possible solutions. In general, a fitness function F(x) is first derived from the

objective function and used in successive genetic operations. Certain genetic operators require that the fitness

function be non-negative. For maximization problems, the fitness function be considered to be the same as

objective function or F(X) =f(x).For minimization problems, the fitness function is an equivalent maximization

problem chosen such that the optimum point remains unchanged. The following fitness function is often used in

minimization problems:

F(X) =

1

1+ I(x)

This information does not alter the location of the minimum, but converts a minimization problem to an

equivalent maximization problem. The fitness function value of a string is known as the strings fitness. A

standard representation of the solution is as an array of bits. Arrays of other types and structures can be used in

essentially the same way. The main property that makes these genetic representations convenient is that their

parts are easily aligned due to their fixed size, which facilitates simple crossover operations. Variable length

representations may also be used, but crossover implementation is more complex in this case. Tree-like

representations are explored in genetic programming and graph-form representations are explored

in evolutionary programming.

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Figure 4.1: Block diagram of genetic algorithm

The fitness function is defined over the genetic representation and measures the quality of the represented

solution. The fitness function is always problem dependent. For instance, in the knapsack problem one wants to

maximize the total value of objects that can be put in a knapsack of some fixed capacity. A representation of a

solution might be an array of bits, where each bit represents a different object, and the value of the bit (0 or 1)

represents whether or not the object is in the knapsack. Not every such representation is valid, as the size of

objects may exceed the capacity of the knapsack.

Figure 4.2: Genetic scheme of genetic algorithm

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4.6 GENETIC PARAMETERS:

Genetic parameters are a means of manipulating the performance of a Genetic Algorithm. There are many

possible implementations of Genetic Algorithms involving variations such as additional genetic operators,

variable sized populations and so forth. Listed below are some of the basic genetic parameters:

(i) Population Size (N)

(ii) Crossover rate (C)

(iii) Mutation rate (M)

(i). Population Size (N): Population size affects the efficiency and performance of the algorithm. Using a small

population size may result in a poor performance from the algorithm. This is due to the process not covering the

entire problem space. A larger population on the other hand, would cover more space and prevent premature

convergence to local minima. At the same time, a large population needs more evaluations per generation and

may slow down the convergence rate.

(ii). Crossover rate (C): The crossover rate is the parameter that affects the rate at which the process of

crossover is applied. In each new population, the number of strings that undergo the process of crossover can be

depicted by a chosen probability. This probability is known as the crossover rate. A higher crossover rate

introduces new strings more quickly into the population. If the crossover rate is too high, high performance

strings are eliminated faster than selection can produce improvements. A low crossover rate may cause

stagnations due to the lower exploration rate, and convergence problems may occur. In a GA literature the terms

over rated is usually as P

C

the probability of crossover. The probability varies from 0 to 1 . This is calculated in

GA by finding out the ratio of the number of pairs to be crossed to some fixed population. Typically for a

population size of 30 to 200 cross over rates are ranged from 0.5 to 1.

(iii). Mutation rate (M): Mutation rate is the probability with which each bit position of each chromosome in

the new population undergoes a random change after the selection process. It is basically a secondary search

operator which increases the diversity of the population. A low mutation rate helps to prevent any bit position

from getting trapped at a single value, whereas a high mutation rate can result in essentially random search. The

mutation operator preserves the diversity among the population which is also very important for the search.

Mutation probabilities are smaller in natural populations leading us to conclude that mutation is appropriately

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considered a secondary mechanism of genetic algorithm adoption. Typically, the genetic algorithms uses the

population size 30 to 200 with mutation rate varying from 0.001 to 0.5.

4.7 BASIC OPERATORS IN GENETIC ALGORITHM:

Following are the bam operation of genetic algorithm:-

1. Selection

2. Cross Over

3. Mutation

4.7.1 SELECTION:

Selection is the stage of a genetic algorithm in which individual genomes are chosen from a population for later

breeding (recombination or crossover).

A generic selection procedure may be implemented as follows:

1. The fitness function is evaluated for each individual, providing fitness values, which are then

normalized. Normalization means dividing the fitness value of each individual by the sum of all fitness

values, so that the sum of all resulting fitness values equals 1.

2. The population is sorted by descending fitness values.

3. Accumulated normalized fitness values are computed (the accumulated fitness value of an individual is

the sum of its own fitness value plus the fitness values of all the previous individuals). The accumulated

fitness of the last individual should of course be 1

4. A random number R between 0 and 1 is chosen.

5. The selected individual is the first one whose accumulated normalized value is greater than R.

If this procedure is repeated until there are enough selected individuals, this selection method is called fitness

proportionate selection or roulette-wheel selection. If instead of a single pointer spun multiple times, we have

multiple, equally spaced pointers on a wheel that we spin once, it is called stochastic universal sampling.

Repeatedly selecting the best individual of a randomly chosen subset is tournament selection. Taking the best

half, third or another proportion of the individuals is truncation selection.

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There are other selection algorithms that do not consider all individuals for selection, but only those with a

fitness value that is higher than a given (arbitrary) constant. Other algorithms select from a restricted pool where

only a certain percentage of the individuals are allowed, based on fitness value. The Reproduction is the

straightforward copying of an individual to the next generation. Reproduction is usually first operator applied

on a population. Reproduction selects good strings in a population and forms a mating pool. That is why the

reproduction operator is sometimes known as the selection operator. There exists a number of reproductions

operators in GA literature, but essential idea in all of them is that the above average strings are picked from the

current population and their multiple copies are inserted in the mating pool in a probabilistic manner. The

commonly used reproduction operator is the proportionate reproduction operator where a string is selected for

the mating pool with a probability proportional to its fitness. Thus, the ith string in the population is selected

with a probability proportional to fitness Fi.

ROULETTE-WHEEL SELECTION:

Fitness proportionate selection, also known as roulette-wheel selection, is a genetic operator used in genetic

algorithms for selecting potentially useful solutions for recombination.In fitness proportionate selection, as in

all selection methods, the fitness function assigns fitness to possible solutions or chromosomes. This fitness

level is used to associate a probability of selection with each individual chromosome. If f

i

is the fitness of

individual i in the population, its probability of being selected is,

P

i

=

FI

Fj

n

]=1

Where N is the number of individuals in the population.

This could be imagined similar to a Roulette wheel in a casino. Usually a proportion of the wheel is assigned to

each of the possible selection based on their fitness value. This could be achieved by dividing the fitness of a

selection by the total fitness of all the selections, thereby normalizing them to 1. Then a random selection is

made similar to how the roulette wheel is rotated.

While candidate solutions with a higher fitness will be less likely to be eliminated, there is still a chance that

they may be. Contrast this with a less sophisticated selection algorithm, such as truncation selection, which will

eliminate a fixed percentage of the weakest candidates. With fitness proportionate selection there is a chance

some weaker solutions may survive the selection process; this is an advantage, as though a solution may be

weak, it may include some component which could prove useful following the recombination process.

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The analogy to a roulette wheel can be envisaged by imagining a roulette wheel in which each candidate

solution represents a pocket on the wheel; the size of the pockets are proportionate to the probability of

selection of the solution. Selecting N chromosomes from the population is equivalent to playing N games on the

roulette wheel, as each candidate is drawn independently.

Figure 4.3: Roulette-wheel selection

This is the commonly used reproduction operator where a string is selected from the mating pool with a

probability proportional to the fitness. Thus i

th

string in the population is selected with a probability proportional

to F

i

where F

i

is the fitness value for that string. Since the population size is usually kept fixed in a simple GA,

the sum of the probabilities of each string being selected for the mating pool must be one. One way to

implement this selection scheme is to imagine a Roulette-wheel with its circumference for each string marked

proportionate to strings fitness as given in Figure 4.3. . The fitness of the population is calculated as Roulette

wheel spun `n times each time selecting an instance of the string chosen by the Roulette wheel pointer. Since

the circumference of the wheel is marked according to a strings fitness. For the above figure the third individual

has a higher fitness than any other, it is expected that the Roulette-wheel selection will choose the third

individual more than any other individual.

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RANK SELECTION: The Roulette-Wheel will have problem when the fitness values differ very much. For

example, if the best chromosome fitness is 90% of Roulette-Wheel, then other

Table1. Population/fitness

Figure 4.4: Rank selection diagram

Chromosomes will have very few chances to be selected. Rank Selection first ranks the population and taken

every chromosome, receives fitness from the ranking.

TOURNAMENT SELECTION:

Tournament selection is a method of selecting an individual from a population of individuals in a

genetic algorithm. Tournament selection involves running several "tournaments" among a few individuals

chosen at random from the population. The winner of each tournament (the one with the best fitness) is selected

for crossover. Selection pressure is easily adjusted by changing the tournament size. If the tournament size is

larger, weak individuals have a smaller chance to be selected. GA uses a strategy to select the individuals from

the population and insert them into the mating pool. Individuals from the mating pool are used to generate new

offspring, which are the basis for the next generation. As the individuals in the mating pool are the ones whose

genes will be inherited by the next generation it is desirable that the mating pool consists of good individuals. A

selection strategy in GA is simply a process that favours the selection of better individuals in the population for

the mating pool.

There are two important issues in the evolution process of genetic search, population diversity and

selective pressure. Population diversity means that the genes from the already discovered good individuals are

exploited while promising the new areas of the search space continue to be explored. Selective pressure is the

degree to which the better individuals are favoured. The higher the selective pressure the more the better

individuals are favoured. The selective pressure drives GA to improve population fitness over succeeding

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generations. The convergence rate of GA is largely determined by the selective pressure and population

diversity. In general, higher selective pressure results in higher convergence rates. However, if the selective

pressure is too high, there is an increased chance of GA prematurely converging to local optimal solution

because the population diversity of the search space to be exploited is lost.

STEADY STATE SELECTION: This is not a particular method of selecting the parents. The main idea of

selection is that bigger part of chromosome should survive to next generation, Here GA, works in the following

way. In every generation are selected, a few chromosomes for creating new offsprings. Then some

chromosomes with low fitness are removed and new offspring is placed in that place. The rest of population

survives as a new generation.

BOLTZMANN SELECTION:

Simulated annealing is a method of functional minimization or maximization. This method simulates the

process of slow cooling of molten metal to achieve the minimum function value in a minimization problem. The

cooling phenomenon is simulated by controlling a temperature like parameter introduced with the concept of

Boltzmann probability distribution so that a system in thermal equilibrium at a temperature T has its energy

distributed probabilistically according to

P(E) = exp [

L

k1

Where `k is Boltzmann constant. This expression suggests that a system at a high temperature has almost

uniform probability of being at any energy state, but at a low temperature it has a small probability of being

high energy state. Therefore, by controlling the temperature T ans assuming search

4.7.2 CROSS OVER:

After the reproduction phase is over, the population is enriched with better individuals, Reproduction makes

clones of good strings, but does not create new ones. Cross over operator is applied to the mating pool. The aim

of the crossover operator is to search the parameter space. In addition, search is to be made in a way that the

information is stored in the present string is maximally preserved because these parent strings are instances of

good strings selected during reproduction. Cross Over is a recombination operator, which proceeds in three

steps. First, the reproduction operator selects at random a pair of two individual strings for mating, then a cross

site is selected at random along the string length and the position values are swapped between the strings

following the cross site.

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SINGLE POINT CROSS OVER : In a single site crossover a cross site is selected randomly along the

length of the mated strings and bits are exchanged.

Figure 4.5: Single point cross over

One crossover point is selected, binary string from beginning of chromosome to the crossover point is copied

from one parent, and the rest is copied from the second parent.

TWO POINT CROSSOVER - Two crossover point are selected, binary string from beginning of chromosome

to the first crossover point is copied from one parent, the part from the first to the second crossover point is

copied from the second parent and the rest is copied from the first parent

Figure 4.6: Two point cross over

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

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UNIFORM CROSSOVER - Bits are randomly copied from the first or from the second parent. In a uniform

crossover operator, each bit from either parent is selected with probability of 0.5 and then interchanged as

shown in figure. It is seen that uniform cross over is radically different

PARENT -1

PARENT - 2

BEFORE CROSSING

CHILD - 1

CHILD -2

INTERCHANGE INTERCHANGE

Figure 4.7: Uniform cross over

from one point cross. Sometimes gene in the offspring is created by copying the corresponding gene from one

or the other parent chosen according to a randomly generated cross over mask.

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

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ARITHEMETIC CROSS OVER: - Some arithmetic operation is performed to make a new offspring

4.7.3 MUTATION:

Mutation also plays a role in this process, although how important its role is, depends upon the conditions. It is

also known as background operator .It plays dominant role in the evolutionary process. It cannot be stressed too

strongly that the genetic Algorithm is not a random search for a solution to a problem for highly fit individual. It

consists of randomly selecting a mutation point. The genetic algorithm uses stochastic processes, but the result

is distinctly non-random. Genetic Algorithms are used for a number of different applications areas. An example

of this would be multidimensional optimization problems in which the character string of the Chromosome can

be used to encode the values for the different parameters being optimized. Mutation is an important operator, as

newly created individuals have no new inheritance information, this process results in contraction of the

population at one single point, which is wished one. Mutation operator changes 1 to 0 at only one placein the

whole string with a small probability and vice versa.

e.g. Child 1 101100

Let mutation is done at location 5 the new child will be

New child 1 01110

In general, the mutation probability is fixed through out the whole process. However a small mutation

probability results in small premature convergence but the search with large fixed mutation probability will not

converge a lot so this operator is seldom used in the process.

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4.8 STAGES IN A GENETIC ALGORITHM:

INITIALIZATION:

Initially many individual solutions are randomly generated to form an initial population. The population size

depends on the nature of the problem, but typically contains several hundreds or thousands of possible

solutions. Traditionally, the population is generated randomly, covering the entire range of possible solutions

(the search space). Occasionally, the solutions may be "seeded" in areas where optimal solutions are likely to be

found.

SELECTION:

During each successive generation, a proportion of the existing population is selected to breed a new generation.

Individual solutions are selected through a fitness-based process, where fitter solutions (as measured by a fitness

function) are typically more likely to be selected. Certain selection methods rate the fitness of each solution and

preferentially select the best solutions. Other methods rate only a random sample of the population, as this

process may be very time-consuming.

Most functions are stochastic and designed so that a small proportion of less fit solutions are selected. This

helps keep the diversity of the population large, preventing premature convergence on poor solutions. Popular

and well-studied selection methods include roulette wheel selection and rank method selection.

REPRODUCTION:

The next step is to generate a second generation population of solutions from those selected through genetic

operators: crossover (also called recombination), and/or mutation.For each new solution to be produced, a pair

of "parent" solutions is selected for breeding from the pool selected previously. By producing a "child" solution

using the above methods of crossover and mutation, a new solution is created which typically shares many of

the characteristics of its "parents".

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Figure 4.8: Stages in a typical genetic algorithm

New parents are selected for each new child, and the process continues until a new population of solutions of

appropriate size is generated. Although reproduction methods that are based on the use of two parents are more

"biology inspired", some research suggests more than two "parents" are better to be used to reproduce a good

quality chromosome. These processes ultimately result in the next generation population of chromosomes that is

different from the initial generation. Generally the average fitness will have increased by this procedure for the

population, since only the best organisms from the first generation are selected for breeding, along with a small

proportion of less fit solutions, for reasons already mentioned above.

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TERMINATION

This generational process is repeated until a termination condition has been reached. Common terminating

conditions are:

A solution is found that satisfies minimum criteria

Fixed number of generations reached

Allocated budget (computation time/money) reached

The highest ranking solution's fitness is reaching or has reached a plateau such that successive iterations

no longer produce better results

Manual inspection

Combinations of the above

4.9 STEPS IN GENETIC ALGORITHM:

1. Choose the initial population of individuals

2. Evaluate the fitness of each individual in that population

3. Repeat on this generation until termination: (time limit, sufficient fitness achieved, etc.)

I. Select the best-fit individuals for reproduction

II. Breed new individuals through crossover and mutation operations to give birth to offspring

III. Evaluate the individual fitness of new individuals

IV. Replace least-fit population with new individuals.

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Figure 4.9: Typical GA representation

4.10 WHEN IN USE GENETIC ALGORITHM:

Genetic Algorithms should be used in case

1. Alternate solutions are too slow or overly complicated.

2. Need an exploratory tool to examine new approaches,

3. Problem is similar to that has already been successfully solved by using Genetic Algorithm

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4. We want to hybridize with an existing solution

5. Benefits of Genetic Algorithm technology meet key problem requirements.

4.11 GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLICATIONS:

DOMAINS APPLICATION TYPES

Control Pole Balancing, Gas Pipe line

Design Semi Conductor Layout, air craft design

Scheduling Manufacturing, resource allocation

Robotics Trajectory Planning

Game Playing Poker, Checker, Prisoners Dilemma

Signal Processing Filter designing

In addition to the above applications Genetic Algorithms have wide range of applications in areas of

Learning Robot behavior using Genetic Algorithms, Learning fuzzy rule base using genetic algorithms

and in Electronic circuit design, known as Evolvable hardware. Quality control.

In power systems, the GAs has been used to:

contingency analysis and security assessment of power systems,

economic load dispatch,

loss reduction using power system reconfiguration,

power system expansion planning, distribution network planning,

power system restoration planning.

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4.12 ADVANTAGES OF GENETIC ALGORITHM:

Easy to understand

Modular, Separate from application

Supports multiple objective optimization

We always get an answer and the answer gets better with time

Inherently parallel and easily distributed.

Easy to exploit for previous or alternate solutions

Flexible in forming building blocks for hybrid applications

It has substantial history and range of use.

Robust in Nature

4.13 APPLICATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO HYBRID SYSTEMS:

Neural Networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are soft computing methods which have been inspired by

biological computational processes and natures problem solving strategies. Genetic Algorithms inspired by the

process of biological evolution, are adaptive search and optimization algorithms. The objective of hybridization

is to overcome the weakness in one technology during its application, with the strengths of the other by

appropriately integrating them. Hybridization should only be performed for the purpose of investigating better

methods of

NEURO- GENETIC HYBRIDS: Neural networks can learn various tasks from training examples; classify

phenomena, and model nonlinear relationships. However, the primary features that are of concern in the design

of the network are problem specific. Despite the availability of some guidelines, it would be helpful to have

computational procedure in this aspect, especially for the optimum design of an Neural Network. Genetic

Algorithms have offered themselves as potential candidates for the optimization of parameters of Neural

Networks. Genetic Algorithms encode the parameters of neural networks as a string of properties of the

network that is Chromosomes. A large population of Chromosomes representing the many possible parameter

sets for the given Neural Networks is generated. Combined GA-NN technology also known as GANN has the

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ability to locate the neighborhood of the optimal solution GANN strategies tend to converge slower than the

conventional ones.

FUZZY GENETIC HYBRIDS: Fuzzy systems have been integrated with GAs. Kosko (1992) has shown

that the fuzzy systems like NNs are universal approximators in the fact that they exhibit the capability to

approximate general nonlinear functions to any desired degree of accuracy. The adjustment of the system

parameters that is called for in the process, so that the system output matches the training data, has been tackled

using GAs. Several parameters with a fuzzy system is involved with namely input/output variables and the

membership functions that define the fuzzy systems, have been optimized using GA s. Fuzzy Genetic Hybrid

system applicable on fuzzy optimization problems. The system obtains optimal solution to problems with fuzzy

constraints and fuzzy variables.

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CHAPTER FIVE

GENETIC ALGORITHMS BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION

MOTOR DRIVE

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5.1 SIMULATION OF GA BASED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

Figure. 5.1: Speed controlled of induction motor with genetic algorithm

In the Fig.5.1 the structure of conventional simulation of induction motor is shown. According to the model

the AC voltage source that is the sinusdoial signal generator predefined by MATLAB/simulink, is applied to

Parks transformation matrix, then abc system will be converted to d-q form. In the next step the voltage sources

that are imaged into d-axis and q-axis are applied to induction motor model. According to the previous section

and proven equations the induction motor equations are expressed in d-q frame. The outputs after calculating

the expressed equations, will be stator and rotor currents separately in the d-axis and q-axis, torque and rotor

speed. It can be the last stage but for more result clearance the currents are converted to abc frame with the help

of inverse Parks transformation. So according to existance of different parts in this model the following

headings will be discussed in details:

AC source

Abc to DQ0 Parks transformation

Induction motor in d-q model

Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis

Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis

Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis

Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis

Stator current calculation in the q-axis

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Rotor current calculation in the q-axis

Stator current calculation in the d-axis

Rotor current calculation in the d-axis

Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis

Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis

Electrical Torque calculation

Rotor speed calculation

Generation and cost calculation

5.2 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION WITH GENETIC ALGORITHMS BASED FUZZY

CONTROLLER

In this section the simulation results shows the speed, torque, stator and rotor currents.

Fig. 5.2: Speed characristics with GA controller Fig. 5.3: torque characteristics with GA controller

Fig. 5.4: Stator currents with GA controller Fig. 5.5: Rotor currents with GA controller

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Fig 5.6: GA optimization values

From simulation results, it appears that the rising time drastically decreases when Fuzzy controller is added and

Genetic Algorithm shows better result against to the Fuzzy controller, and all three results are taken in same

period of time. For underestanding how is the effect of Genetic Algorithm on the motor activity improvements.

The comparative aproach will clarify the difference between conventional simulation, Genetic

Algoritham,Fuzzy controller based simulation and ANFIS simulation.

5.3 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION WITH GA,ANFIS,FUZZY

In this section the simulation results shows the speed, torque, stator and rotor currents.

Fig 5.7: Speed with GA controller Fig 5.8: Torque with GA controller

From this result, the simulation of rotor current and stator is same in the GA and ANFIS and FUZZY

so that in this the genetic algorithm gives the best result to controlled the induction motor. Now a days induction

motor is a very useful in the industries so that the controlling the speed and gives the good efficiency is very

important.

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Fig. 5.9:Speed with ANFIS

Fig. 5.11: Stator currents with ANFIS

Fig. 5.10: Torque with ANFIS

Fig. 5.12: Rotor currents withANFIS

From simulation results, it appears that the rising time drastically decreases when FC is added and ANFIS

shows better result against to the FC, and all three results are taken in same period of time. For underestanding

how is the effect of ANFIS on the motor activity improvements. The comparative aproach will clarify the

difference between conventional simulation, Fuzzy controller based simulation and ANFIS simulation.

5.4 Comparative approach to Different AI based Simulation of Induction Motor

After modeling and simulation of Induction motor in conventional, Genetic algorithm and fuzzy and

ANFIS based models are tested .The results of simulation for induction motor which its characteristics are

expressed in Appendix C are given as following:

Genetic algorithm gives the best optimization solution and it is easy calculated the complex and variable

values so that genetic algorithms is the best method to controlled the speed of induction motot.

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Fig. 5.13: Speed Response of Conventional

Controller with fuzzy

From these three Figures, it is appear the rising

time drastically decreased when fuzzy

controller added to simulation model and also

ANFIS shows better result against to the FC,

and all three results are taken in same period of

time.

Fig. 5.15: Speed Response of ANFIS

Fig 5.16: Speed Response of GA Controller

Fig 5.17: Torque Response of GA Controller

Fig. 5.14: Speed Response of Fuzzy

Controller

For more clarification in the following part the

table shows numerical comparison between

these three different methods in the speed

domain of induction motor.

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Speed in

conventional

Simulation

(rpm)

Speed in

FC based

simulation

(rpm)

Speed in

ANFIS

based

simulation

(rpm)

Speed in

GENETIC

ALGORITHM

based

simulation(rpm)

0.5

65

400

600

900

1

150

800

1000

1250

2

240

1680

1710

1710

4

580

1710

1710

1710

8

1460

1710

1710

1710

10

1640

1710

1710

1710

Table 5.1 Speed comparison between Conventional, Genetic algorithm, fuzzy and ANFIS

Fig. 5.18 Torque Response of Conventional

Controller

As it is apparent converging to zero in FC

based and ANFIS is happening intensively in

less duration of time.

Fig. 5.19 Torque Response of ANFIS

Fig. 5.20 Torque Response of Fuzy Controller

Time

line

Speed

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This are the final output of the speed and torque of the induction motor using genetic algorithm and its gives

the optimize solution. This is the best method to controller the induction motor of speed compare to other

methods like ANFIS, Fuzzy, and its gives the better results show in bellow.

Fig 5.21: Speed Response of GA Controller Fig 5.22: Torque Response of GA Controller

Many successful applications of GAs for controller design indicate that GAs can be a powerful tool in

the hands of a control engineer. In particular the fact that GAs require nothing more than a fitness measure to

work and pose no restrictions to the problem at hand, gives them an edge over most regular methods in dealing

with non-linear systems and uncertainty. We therefore conclude that control engineers should consider the use

of GAs when they are faced with a control problem and the regular techniques cannot handle very well provided

their application can accept the resource intensive nature of GAs.

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5.5 CONTINUOS GENETIC ALGORITHM MATLAB CODE

We propose a method to build discrete Markov chain models of continuous stochastic optimisers that can

approximate them on arbitrary continuous problems to any precision. We discretise the objective function using

a finite element method grid which produces corresponding distinct states in the search algorithm. Iterating the

transition matrix gives precise information about the behaviour of the optimiser at each generation, including

the probability of it finding the global optima or being deceived. The approach is tested on a (1+1)-ES, a bare

bones PSO and a real-valued GA . The predictions are remarkably accurate. This method easy calculate the

complex values,so that the below code is a continuous genetic algorithm.

MATLAB CODE APPIX A:

%continous genetic algorithm

clc

clear all

ff=@testfunction;

npar=2;

varhi=5.3109e+005;

varlo=2;

maxit=100;

mincost=-999999;

popsize=12;

mutrate=0.2;

selection=0.5;

Nt=npar;

keep=floor(selection*popsize);

nmut=ceil((popsize-1)*Nt*mutrate);

M=ceil((popsize-keep)/2);

iga=0;

par=(varhi-varlo)*rand(popsize,npar)+varlo;

cost=feval(ff,par);

[cost,ind]=sort(cost);

par=par(ind,:);

minc(1)=min(cost);

meanc(1)=mean(cost);

while iga<maxit

iga=iga+1;

M=ceil((popsize-keep)/2);

prob=flipud([1:keep]'/sum([1:keep]));

odds=[0 cumsum(prob(1:keep))'];

pick1=rand(1,M);

pick2=rand(1,M);

ic=1;

while ic<=M

for id=2:keep+1

if pick1(ic)<=odds(id)&&pick1(ic)>odds(id-1)

ma(ic)=id-1;

end

if pick2(ic)<=odds(id)&&pick2(ic)>odds(id-1)

pa(ic)=id-1;

end

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end

ic=ic+1;

end

ix=1:2:keep;

xp=ceil(rand(1,M)*Nt);

r=rand(1,M);

for ic=1:M

xy=par(ma(ic),xp(ic))-par(pa(ic),xp(ic));

par(keep+ix(ic),:)=par(ma(ic),:);

par(keep+ix(ic)+1,:)=par(pa(ic),:);

par(keep+ix(ic),xp(ic))=par(ma(ic),xp(ic))-r(ic).*xy;

par(keep+ix(ic)+1,xp(ic))=par(pa(ic),xp(ic))+r(ic).*xy;

if xp(ic)<npar

par(keep+ix(ic),:)=[par(keep+ix(ic),1:xp(ic))

par(keep+ix(ic)+1,xp(ic)+1:npar)];

par(keep+ix(ic)+1,:)=[par(keep+ix(ic)+1,1:xp(ic))

par(keep+ix(ic),xp(ic)+1:npar)];

end

end

mrow=sort(ceil(rand(1,nmut)*(popsize-1))+1);

mcol=ceil(rand(1,nmut)*Nt);

for ii=1:nmut

par(mrow(ii),mcol(ii))=(varhi-varlo)*rand+varlo;

end

cost=feval(ff,par) %#ok<NOPTS>

[cost,ind]=sort(cost);

par=par(ind,:);

minc(iga+1)=min(cost);

meanc(iga+1)=mean(cost);

if iga>maxit|cost(1)<mincost %#ok<OR2>

break

end

[iga cost(1)] %#ok<NOPTS>

% [par]

end

%displays output

day=clock;

disp(datestr(datenum(day(1),day(2),day(3),day(4),day(5),day(6)),0))

format short g

disp(['popsize= ' num2str(popsize)])

disp(['mutrate= ' num2str(mutrate)])

disp(['selection= ' num2str(selection)])

disp(['#par= ' num2str(npar)])

disp(['#generations= ' num2str(iga)])

disp(['best cost= ' num2str(cost(1))])

disp(['best solution= ' num2str(par(1,:))])

disp('continuous genetic algorithm')

figure(24)

iters=0:length(minc)-1;

plot(iters,minc,iters,meanc,'-');

xlabel('generation');

ylabel('cost');

text(0,minc(1),'best');

text(1,minc(2),'population average')

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 98

5.6 TEST FUNCTION MATLAB CODE APPIX B

%Test function for optimization

%Set funnum to the function you want to use

function f=testfunction(x)

%L=0.632930;

%ns=1;

n=0.975;p=4;

% vid=1.0; vic=0.793673;

%sij=0.043351; sji=sij;

funnum=2;

if funnum==1 %speed of IM

f=(1-(n*(x(:,1))));

elseif funnum==2 %speed of IM

f=(120*(x(:,1))/p);

end

end

5.7 CONCLUSION

In this Thesis, simulation results of the induction motor are presented in conventional, Genetic

Algorithm and fuzzy control and ANFIS based models. As it is apparent from the speed curve in two models,

the genetic algorithm controller drastically decreased the rising time, in the manner which the frequency of sin

waves are changing according to the percentage of error from favorite speed, so firing signals of IGBTs in

PWM are continuously changing, then the frequency of applied voltage to IM naturally will increase, thus

according to the direct relation of induction motor speed and frequency of supplied voltage the speed will

increase also. With results obtained from simulation, it is clear that for the same operation condition of

induction motor using genetic algorithm controller had better performance than the conventional controller. And

also with comparing fuzzy and ANFIS model with FC model it is apparent adding learning algorithm to the

control system will decrease the rising time more than expectations.

5.8 THE SCOPE OF THE FUTURE WORKS

In the power system some things like testing process, operator training, apparatus modeling, costly

failures, integrating a subsystem into the system without any fault are some of the concerns of engineers that

can be harmful and cost effective. Research on high level modeling, new converter-inverter topologies and

control strategies are the major research areas in electrical drives. So according to expressed problems there are

some rational reasons for creating digital control on electrical machines and drives. A particular merit of this

approach is that it even permits a gradual change from simulation to actual application, as it allows to start from

a pure simulation and to gradually integrate real electrical and mechanical subsystems into the loop as they

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 99

become available. A simulation can help reduce development cycles, cut overall cost, prevent costly failures,

increase repeatability through controlled environment and test a subsystem exhaustively before integrating it

into the system.

Today, it is more common to test controllers using simulated motor models in a real-time environment.

This methodology offers several distinct advantages. For example, the simulated motor drive can be tested with

borderline conditions that would damage a real motor, often a costly prototype. While testing, a controller is

interfaced with the real-time simulated motor drive through a set of proper I/Os. Such motor drive simulation is

required for motor drive manufacturers to accelerate development and testing time, by using real-time

simulation before making tests on physical prototypes

Appendix C

Following are the parameters of the induction motor chosen for the simulation studies:

V = 220 f = 60 HP = 3 R

s

= 0.435

R

r

= 0.816 X

ls

= 0.754 X

lr

= 0.754 X

m

= 26.13

p = 4 J = 0.089 rpm = 171

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 100

REFERENCES

[1] K. L . Shi, T . F. Chan, Y. K. Wong and S. L . HO, Modelling and simulation of the three phase

induction motor Using SIMULINK, Int.J. Elect. Enging. Educ., Vol. 36, 1999, pp. 163172.

[2] Tze Fun Chan and Keli Shi, Applied intelligent control of induction motor drives, IEEE Willey Press, First

edition, 2011.

[3] Ned Mohan, Advanced Electric Drives: Analysis, Control Modeling using Simulink, MNPERE

Publication ,2001.

[4] A A Ansari, D M Deshpande, Mathematical Model of Asynchronous Machine in MATLAB Simulink,

International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2(5), 2010, pp1260-1267.

[5] S. J. Chapman, Electric machinery fundamentals, Singapore: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

[6] Dal Y. Ohm, Dynamic Model of induction motor for vector control, Drivetech, Inc., Blacksburg,

Virginia.

[7] P. M Menghal , A Jaya Laxmi, Artificial Intelligence Based Dynamic Simulation of Induction Motor

Drives IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) ISSN: 2278-1676 Volume 3,

Issue 5 (Nov. - Dec. 2012), pp 37-45.

[8] P. M Menghal , A Jaya Laxmi ,Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Based Simulation of

Induction Motor Drives International Review on Modelling and Simulations (I.RE.MO.S.), Vol. 5, N-5,

October 2012, pp 2007-2016.

[9] P. M Menghal , A Jaya Laxmi ,Neural Network Based Dynamic Simulation of Induction Motor Drive, IEEE

International conference on Power, Energy & Control (ICPEC 13) ,pp 566-571.

[10] P. M Menghal , A Jaya Laxmi, Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy based dynamic simulation of induction motor

drives, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy System (IEEE Fuzz 2013), Hyderabad, India, pp 1-8

[7] I.H. Altas and A.M. Sharaf, A Generalized Direct Approach for Designing Fuzzy Logic Controllers in

Matlab/Simulink GUI Environment, International Journal of Information Technology and Intelligent

Computing, Int. J. IT&IC no.4 vol.1, 2007.

[8] Chee-Mun Ong,Dynamic Simulation of Electric Machinery using Matlab/Simulink, Prentice Hall,

New Jersey 1997.

[9] Satean Tunyasrirut, Tianchai Suksri, Sompong Srilad Fuzzy Logic Control for a Speed Control of

Induction Motor using Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation World Academy of Science, Engineering and

Technology 25 2007, pp 71-77.

[10] Maswood, A.I., and Wei, S., Genetic algorithm based solution in PWM converter switching, IEE

Proc. Elect. Power Appl., 2005, Vol.152, No.3, pp. 473-478.

[11] Goldberg, D.E. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and

Machine Learning, Addison- Wesley. 1989.

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[12] Koza, J.R. Evolving a Computer Program to Generate Rand- om Numbers Using the Genetic

Programming Paradigm, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. On Genetic Algorithms, Morgan Kaufmann, La

Jolla, CA.: 37-44, 1991.

[13] Man, K.F., Tang, K.S. Genetic algorithms for control and signal processing. 23rd Int. Conf. on

Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation, Vol. 4: 1541 1555. 1997.

[14] Fleming, P.J., R.C. Purhouse. Genetic Algorithms in Control Systems Engineering, Research Report

No. 789, University of Sheffield Sheffield, UK,2001.

[15] Maswood, A.I., and Wei, S., Genetic algorithm based solution in PWM converter switching, IEE

Proc. Elect. Power Appl., 2005, Vol.152, No.3, pp. 473-478.

[16] Shen, W., and Maswood, A.I., A novel current source PWM drive topology with specific harmonic

elimination switching, Proc. Canadian Conf. on Electrical and computer Engineering (CCECE), Halifax,

Canada, 2000, No. 12, pp.53-55.

[17] Sundareswaran, K., and Mullangi chanda, Evolutionary Approach for Line Current harmonic

Reduction in AC/DC converters, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, 2002, Vol.49, No. 3, pp. 716-719.

[18] Sayyah, A., Aflaki, M., and Rezazade, A.R., Optimization of THD and Suppressing Certain Order

Harmonics in PWM inverters using Genetic Algorithms, Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent

Control, Munich, Germany, 2006, pp 874-879.

[19] M. N. Uddin, T. S. Radwan, M. Rahman, Performance of fuzzy-logic-based indirect vector control

for induction motor drive, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., Vol.38, No. 5, Sept./Oct. 2002, pp. 1219-1225.

[20] F. Barrero, A. Gonzalez, A,. Torralba, E. Galvan and L. G.Franquelo, Speed control of Induction

Motors using a novel Fuzzy Sliding Mode structure, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., Vol.10, No.3, June 2002,

pp. 375-383.

[21] Y. Lai and J. Lin, New hybrid Fuzzy controller for Direct Torque Control Induction Motor drives,

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 18, No. 5, Sept. 2003, pp. 1211-1219.

[22] F. Lin, W. Chou and P. Huang, Adaptive sliding mode controller based on real time genetic algorithm

for induction motor servo drive, IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., Vol.150, No.1, Jan.2003, pp. 1-13.

[23] O. Barambones, A.J. Garrido, F.J. Maseda and P. Alkorta, An adaptive sliding mode control law for

Induction Motor Using field oriented control theory, Proc. IEEE International Conf. on Control

Applications, 2006, pp. 1008-1013.

[24] J. Lo and Y. Kuo, Decoupled Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., Vol.6, No. 3,

Aug. 1998, pp. 426-435.

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 102

BIO-DATA

Name: DHARAVATH NAGESWARA RAO

Father Name: D RAMACHANDRU

Roll. No: 11011D4318

Date of Birth: 16 JUNE 1989

Nationality: INDIAN

Communication Address:

VI) PAINAMPALLY THANDA (PO) THIMMARAO PETA (MD) ENKOOR

(DI) KHAMMAM AP.

PIN Code: 507168

Ph. No: +91- 9908338521

e-mail: munnadharavath9@gmail.com

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 103

Permanent Address:

VI) PAINAMPALLY THANDA (PO) THIMMARAO PETA (MD) ENKOOR

(DI) KHAMMAM AP.

PIN Code: 507168

Ph. No: +91- 9908338521

e-mail: munnadharavath9@gmail.com

Qualifications: M.Tech (POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING)

Area of Interest:Power systems,power electronics,control systems, mathematical

modeling.

Declaration: I do hereby declare that the information furnished above is true to the

best of my knowledge.

(D NAGESWARA RAO )

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