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GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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SPEED CONTROLLER OF INDUCTION MOTOR
USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS

A Thesis
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
Requirements for the award of the Degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
In
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
(POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING)

By
D. NAGESWARA RAO
11011D4318

Under the esteemed guidance of
Dr. A. JAYA LAXMI




DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(AUTONOMOUS)
HYDERABAD 500085
ANDHRA PRADESH
Year 2011 - 2013

GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(AUTONOMOUS)
HYDERABAD 500 085

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING



CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is a bonafide record of the dissertation work entitled, SPEED CONTROLLER OF
INDUCTION MOTOR USING GENETIC ALGORITHM, done by D. NAGESWARA RAO bearing Admn.
No: 11011D4318 submitted to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the Degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY with specialization in POWER ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERING from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, College of Engineering
(Autonomous), Hyderabad.




Signature of the Head of the Department
Dr. M. SUSHAMA
M Tech, Ph.D(JNTUH),M.I.S.T.E
M.S.S.I,M.I.E.T.E
Professor & Head, JNTUCEH

Signature of the Supervisor
Dr. A. JAYA LAXMI
M. Tech, Ph. D, M.I.E,M.I.S.T.E
Professor



GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

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ABSTRACT
In the power system, some things like testing process, operator training, apparatus modeling, costly
failures, integrating a subsystem into the system without any fault are some of the concerns of engineers that
can be harmful and cost effective. Research on high level modeling, new converter-inverter topologies and
control strategies are the major research areas in electrical drives. So according to expressed problems there are
some rational reasons for creating digital control on electrical machines and drives. A particular merit of this
approach is that it even permits a gradual change from simulation to actual application, as it allows to start from
a pure simulation and to gradually integrate real electrical and mechanical subsystems into the loop as they
become available. A simulation can help reduce development cycles, cut overall cost, prevent costly failures,
increase repeatability through controlled environment and test a subsystem exhaustively before integrating it
into the system.
Today, it is more common to test controllers using simulated motor models in a real-time environment.
This methodology offers several distinct advantages. For example, the simulated motor drive can be tested with
borderline conditions that would damage a real motor, often a costly prototype. While testing, a controller is
interfaced with the real-time simulated motor drive through a set of proper I/Os. Such motor drive simulation is
required for motor drive manufacturers to accelerate development and testing time, by using real-time
simulation before making tests on physical prototypes.
The project involves Simulation of Induction Motor drive Using Genetic Algorithms with compared
Artificial Intelligence Techniques Such as Fuzzy and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS).
The dissertation work entries the following:
(a) Mathematical modeling and Simulation of Induction Machine Drives with conventional controller
using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
(b) Static and Dynamic Analysis of Induction Motor, using conventional controller.
(c) Implementation of simulation of Induction Machine drives using speed controlled of induction motor
using genetic algorithms, fuzzy, ANFISN are presented in this thesis.
(d) Comparison of dynamic performance of induction motor drive using artificial intelligence controller
such as fuzzy, ANFIS, genetic algorithm.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I owe a great many thanks to great peoples who helped and supported me during the project. This
acknowledgement is not just a position of words but also an account of confession.
I would like to express my deepest respect and sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. A Jaya Lakshmi for
guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. M. SUSHAMA Professor and Head of electrical and electronic
engineering College of JNTUH for providing me an opportunity to do my project work.
I thank Mr. Prashant Menghal one of my best friends for sharing his valuable time and for giving me helpful
information to finish this project. Thank you.
Last but not least I wish to avail myself of this opportunity, express a sense of gratitude towards my parents for
their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped me in completion of this project. I don't always show
it but they know that I do appreciate how much the both of them have helped me with my life, and given me all
of the things that have gotten me here. Thank you Mom and Dad.






D.NAGESWARA RAO







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D. NAGESWARA RAO
Contents
CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................................................ 11
INTRODUCTION TO INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES ....................................................................................................11
1.1 INTRODUCTION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE ................................................................................................................. 12
1.2 SYNCHRONOUS SPEED ............................................................................................................................................................... 12
1.3 SLIP ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
1.4 TORQUE CURVE ............................................................................................................................................................................. 14
1.4.1 LOCKED ROTOR TORQUE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15
1.4.2 PULL-UP TORQUE ...................................................................................................................................................................... 15
1.4.3 BREAKE-DOWN TORQUE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15
1.4.4 FULL-LOAD TORQUE ............................................................................................................................................................... 15
1.5 OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
1.6 CHAPTER BREAK UP ..................................................................................................................................................................... 16
1.7 SPEED CONTROL METHOD .......................................................................................................................................................... 17
A) POLE CHANGING METHOD ......................................................................................................................................................... 17
B) STATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL ..................................................................................................................................................... 19
C) VARIABLE FREQUENCY CONTROL .......................................................................................................................................... 20
D) EDDY CURRENT CONTROL .......................................................................................................................................................... 21
E) ROTOR RESISITANCE CONTROL ................................................................................................................................................ 21
F) SLIP ENERGY RECOVERY SCHEME .......................................................................................................................................... 22
1.8 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................................................23
CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................................................................... 24
DYNAMIC MODELLING & SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES .........................................................24
2.1 DYNAMIC MODELLING OF INDUCTION MOTOR ...............................................................................................25
2.2 DYNAMIC MODEL OF INDUCTION MOTOR .......................................................................................................................... 26
2.3 INDUCTION MOTOR INDUCTANCE MATRIX CALCULATION .......................................................................................... 27
2.4 PARKS TRANSFORMATION........................................................................................................................................................ 30
2.5 INDUCTION MOTOR TORQUE CALCULATION ...................................................................................................................... 30
2.6 INDUCTION MOTOR CURRENT CALCULATION ................................................................................................................... 31
2.7 INDUCTION MOTOR ROTOR SPEED .......................................................................................................................................... 33
2.8 SIMULATION OF A THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING MATLAB-SIMULINK .............................................. 33
2.8.1 AC SOURCE .................................................................................................................................................................................. 35
2.8.2 ABC TO DQ0 PARKS TRANSFORMATION .......................................................................................................................... 36
2.8.3 INDUCTION MOTOR IN D-Q MODEL .................................................................................................................................... 37
2.8.4 STATOR FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS ....................................................................................................... 37
2.8.5 ROTOR FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS ........................................................................................................ 38
2.8.6 STATOR FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN D-AXIS ....................................................................................................... 38
2.8.7 ROTOR FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN D-AXIS ........................................................................................................ 39
2.8.8 STATOR CURRENT CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS ................................................................................................................. 39
2.8.9 ROTOR CURRENT CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS .................................................................................................................. 40
2.8.10 MUTUAL FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN Q-AXIS .................................................................................................. 40
2.8.11 ROTOR CURRENT CALCULATION IN D-AXIS .................................................................................................................. 41
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2.8.12 STATOR CURRENT CALCULATION IN D-AXIS ............................................................................................................... 41
2.8.13 MUTUAL FLUX LINKAGE CALCULATION IN D-AXIS .................................................................................................. 42
2.8.14 ELECTRICAL TORQUE CALCULATION ............................................................................................................................ 42
2.8.15 ROTOR SPEED CALCULATION ............................................................................................................................................ 43
2.8.16 INVERSE PARKS TRANSFORMATION .............................................................................................................................. 43
2.9 DISCUSSION AND SIMULATION RESULTS ........................................................................................................................... 44
CHAPTER THREE .................................................................................................................................................. 46
SPEED CONTROLLER OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES .............46
3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................................. 47
3.2 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER IN SIMULINK .......................................................................................................................... 47
3.3 SPEED CONTROLLER .................................................................................................................................................................... 50
3.4 PWM INVERTER ............................................................................................................................................................................. 51
3.5 PWM OUTPUTS ................................................................................................................................................................................ 52
3.6 FLOW CHART OF FUZZY CONTROLLER ................................................................................................................................. 53
3.7 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS .......................................................................................................................... 54
3.8 INTRODUCTION TO ANFIS .......................................................................................................................................................... 55
3.9 OVERVIEW OF ANFIS .................................................................................................................................................................... 57
3.10 SIMULATION MODEL OF ANFIS .............................................................................................................................................. 58
3.11 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................... 61
CHAPTER FOUR ..................................................................................................................................................... 62
OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES & GENETIC ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................62
4.1 OPTIMIZATION ................................................................................................................................................................................ 63
4.2 TRADITIONAL METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION ....................................................................................................................... 63
4.3 NON TRADITIONAL METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION ............................................................................................................. 64
4.4 HISTORY OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS ...................................................................................................................................... 67
4.5 FUNCTIONING OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS ............................................................................................................................ 68
4.6 GENETIC PARAMETERS ............................................................................................................................................................... 71
4.7 BASIC OPERATION AND STAGES IN TYPIC GENETIC ALGORITHMS ...........................................................72
4.7.1 SELECTION ................................................................................................................................................................................... 72
4.7.2 CROSS OVER ................................................................................................................................................................................ 76
4.7.3 MUTATION .................................................................................................................................................................................... 79
4.8 STAGES IN GENETIC ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................................................................ 80
4.9 STEPS IN GENETIC ALGORITHMS ............................................................................................................................................. 82
4.10 WHEN IN USE GENETIC ALGORITHMS .................................................................................................................................. 83
4.11 GENETIC ALGORITHMS APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................................................... 84
4.12 ADVANTAGES OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS .......................................................................................................................... 85
4.13 APPLICATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO HYBRID SYSTEMS .............................................................................. 85
CHAPTER FIVE ....................................................................................................................................................... 87
GENETC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE.....................................................87
5.1 SIMULATION OF GA BASED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE ................................................................................................ 87
5.2 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION WITH GA BASED FUZZY CONTROLLER .............................................. 89
5.3 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION WITH GA,ANFIS,FUZZY ............................................................................. 90
5.4 COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO DIFFERENT AI BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR ............................ 91
5.5 CONTINUOS GENETIC ALGORITHM MATLAB CODE APPIXA ....................................................................................... 95
5.6 TEST FUNCTION MATLAB CODEAPPIXB ........................................................................................................................... 97

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5.7 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................................................................. 97
5.8 THE SCOPE OF THE FUTURE WORKS ...................................................................................................................................... 97
APPENDIXC ............................................................................................................................................................................98
REFERENCE..............................................................................................................................................................................99


Figures
CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................................................ 11
INTRODUCTION TO INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES .....................................................................................................11
Fig. 1.1 Conceptual diagram of an induction machine ......................................................................................................................... 13
Fig. 1.2 Conventional per-phase equivalent circuit .............................................................................................................................. 13
Fig. 1.3 Torque speed curve ................................................................................................................................................................. 15
Fig. 1.4 Static and dynamic inductance definitions .............................................................................................................................. 16
Fig. 1.5 Stator phase connections for six poles ...................................................................................................................................... 18
Fig. 1.6 Speed-Torque curves ................................................................................................................................................................. 18
Fig. 1.7 Torque-speed curves at various voltages ................................................................................................................................. 19
Fig. 1.8 Torque-Speed characteristics for variable frequency control ................................................................................................. 20
Fig. 1.9 Slip ring induction motor with external rotor resistors ............................................................................................................ 21
Fig. 1.10 Torque versus speed at various rotor resistances ................................................................................................................... 22
Fig. 1.11 Static Kramer method .............................................................................................................................................................. 23
CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................................................................... 24
DYNAMIC MODELLING & SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE ...........................................................24
Fig. 2.1 The d-q equivalent circuit of an induction motor ..................................................................................................................... 25
Fig. 2.2 Definition of d-axis and q-axis on an arbitrary reference frame ............................................................................................. 26
Fig. 2.3 Principle of the control system .................................................................................................................................................. 34
Fig. 2.4 Induction model with conventional controller ......................................................................................................................... 34
Fig. 2.5 AC source of main model ......................................................................................................................................................... 36
Fig. 2.6 abc to DQ0 Parks transformation model ................................................................................................................................. 36
Fig. 2.7 Induction motor in d-q model ................................................................................................................................................... 37
Fig. 2.8 Flux linkage calculation model overall view ........................................................................................................................... 37
Fig. 2.9 Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis .................................................................................................................................. 38
Fig. 2.10 Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis ................................................................................................................................. 38
Fig. 2.11 Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis ................................................................................................................................. 39
Fig. 2.12 Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis ................................................................................................................................. 39
Fig. 2.13 Stator, rotor and mutual flux linkage calculation in q-axes ................................................................................................... 40
Fig. 2.14 Stator current calculation in the q-axis ................................................................................................................................... 40
Fig. 2.15 Rotor current calculation in the q-axis ................................................................................................................................... 40
Fig. 2.16 Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis ........................................................................................................................ 41
Fig. 2.17 Stator, rotor and mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis ............................................................................................. 41
Fig. 2.18 Rotor current calculation in the d-axis ................................................................................................................................... 41
Fig. 2.19 Stator current calculation in the d-axis ................................................................................................................................... 42
Fig. 2.20 Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis ......................................................................................................................... 42
Fig. 2.21 Electrical Torque calculation ................................................................................................................................................... 43
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Fig. 2.22 Rotor speed calculation ........................................................................................................................................................... 43
Fig. 2.23 D-Q to abc inverse Parks transformer produce rotor and stator currents ............................................................................ 44
Fig. 2.24 Torque result from conventional simulation ......................................................................................................................... 45
Fig. 2.25 Speed result from conventional simulation ........................................................................................................................... 45
Fig. 2.26 Stator current result from conventional simulation ............................................................................................................... 45
Fig. 2.27 Rotor current result from conventional simulation ............................................................................................................... 45
CHAPTER THREE ..................................................................................................................................................... 46
SPEED CONTROLLER OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES .............46
Fig. 3.1 Overall view of Fuzzy-logic based controller .......................................................................................................................... 47
Fig. 3.2 The Fuzzy Controller model ...................................................................................................................................................... 49
Fig. 3.3 Controllable frequency sin wave generator ............................................................................................................................. 50
Fig. 3.4 Speed control model .................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Fig. 3.5 PWM inverter circuit ................................................................................................................................................................ 51
Fig. 3.6 Outage block .............................................................................................................................................................................. 52
Fig. 3.7 IGBTs gating signals ................................................................................................................................................................. 52
Fig. 5.8 PWM inverter output ................................................................................................................................................................ 52
Fig. 3.9 Simulation process flow chart ................................................................................................................................................... 53
Fig. 3.10 Speed response with fuzzy ...................................................................................................................................................... 54
Fig. 3.11 Torque response with fuzzy ..................................................................................................................................................... 54
Fig. 3.12 Stator currents with fuzzy ........................................................................................................................................................ 54
Fig. 3.13 Rotor currents with fuzzy ........................................................................................................................................................ 54
Fig. 3.14 ANFIS architecture ................................................................................................................................................................. 57
Fig. 3.15 Overall Neuro-Fuzzy simulation model ................................................................................................................................ 58
Fig. 3.16 Neuro-Fuzzy ............................................................................................................................................................................. 60
Fig. 3.17 Speed characteristics with ANFIS .......................................................................................................................................... 61
Fig. 3.18 Torque characteristics with ANFIS ......................................................................................................................................... 61
Fig. 3.19 Stator currents with ANFIS controller .................................................................................................................................. 61
Fig. 3.20 Rotor currents with ANFIS controller .................................................................................................................................. 61
CHAPTER FOUR ........................................................................................................................................................ 62
OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES & GENETIC ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................62
Fig. 4.1 Block diagram of genetic algorithm ......................................................................................................................................... 70
Fig. 4.2 General scheme of a genetic algorithm .................................................................................................................................... 70
Fig. 4.3 Roulette- wheel selection .......................................................................................................................................................... 74
Fig. 4.4 Rank selection diargam ............................................................................................................................................................. 75
Fig. 4.5 Single point crossover ................................................................................................................................................................ 77
Fig. 4.6 Two point crossover ................................................................................................................................................................... 77
Fig. 4.7 Uniform crossover ...................................................................................................................................................................... 78
Fig. 4.8 Stages in a typical genetic algorithm......................................................................................................................................... 81
Fig. 4.9 Typical genetic algorithm representation .................................................................................................................................. 83
CHAPTER FIVE ......................................................................................................................................................... 87
GENETIC ALGORITHMS BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE ................................................87
Fig. 5.1 speed controller of induction motor with genetic algorithm ..................................................................................................... 88
Fig. 5.2 Speed characristics with GA controller ....................................................................................................................................... 89
Fig. 5.3 Torque characristics with GA controller ..................................................................................................................................... 89
Fig. 5.4 Stator currents with GA controller ............................................................................................................................................. 89
Fig. 5.5 Rotor currents with GA controller .............................................................................................................................................. 89
Fig. 5.6 GA optimization values............................................................................................................................................................... 90
Fig. 5.7 Speed with GA controller ........................................................................................................................................................... 90
Fig. 5.8 Torque with GA controller.......................................................................................................................................................... 90
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Fig. 5.9 Speed with ANFIS controller ..................................................................................................................................................... 91
Fig. 5.10 Torque with ANFIS controller ................................................................................................................................................. 91
Fig. 5.11 Stator current with ANFIS ........................................................................................................................................................ 91
Fig. 5.12 Rotor currents with ANFIS ....................................................................................................................................................... 91
Fig. 5.13 Speed response of conventional controller with fuzzy ........................................................................................................... 92
Fig. 5.14 Speed response of FUZZY controller ...................................................................................................................................... 92
Fig. 5.15 Speed response of ANFIS controller ........................................................................................................................................ 92
Fig. 5.16 Speed with GA controller ......................................................................................................................................................... 92
Fig. 5.17 Torque with GA controller........................................................................................................................................................ 92
Fig. 5.18 Torque response of conventional controller ............................................................................................................................ 93
Fig. 5.19 Torque response of ANFIS ....................................................................................................................................................... 93
Fig. 5.20 Torque response of fuzzy controller........................................................................................................................................ 93
Fig. 5.21 Speed response of GA controller .............................................................................................................................................. 94
Fig. 5.22 Torque response of GA controller ............................................................................................................................................ 94




Tables
Table 4.1 Population and fitness. ............................................................................................................................................................ 75
Table 7.1 Speed comparison between Conventional, Genetic algorithm, fuzzy and ANFIS ............................................................ 93













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GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS
R
s
The stator resistance
R
r
The rotor resistance
L
m
The magnetizing inductance of the motor
L
ls
The stator leakage inductance
L
lr
The rotor leakage inductance

r
The slip frequency which is the frequency of the actual rotor current
L
lr
The rotor leakage inductance referred to stator side
Rr The rotor resistance referred to stator side

qs ,

ds
Q-axis and d-axis components of stator flux

qr ,

dr
Q-axis and d-axis components of rotor flux
i
qs ,
i
ds
Q-axis and d-axis components of stator current
i
qr ,
i
qr
Q-axis and d-axis components of rotor current
v
qs ,
v
ds
Q-axis and d-axis components of stator voltage
v
qr ,
v
qr
Q-axis and d-axis components of rotor voltage
p Number of poles
The angular position of the rotor

a
Reference frame rotating speed
J Moment of inertia (kg/m
2
)
T
e
Electrical torque
T
l
Load torque
e (k) Control error

r (k) Reference signal
y (k) Output signal
e(k) Changed error
u(Ri) The crisp u value corresponding to the maximum membership degree


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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

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1.1 INTRODUCTION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

In the industrial sector especially in the field of electric drives & control, induction motors play a vital role.
Without proper controlling of the speed, it is virtually impossible to achieve the desired task for a specific
application. Basically AC motors, such as Induction Motors are of Squirrel-Cage type. They are simple,
reliable, low cost and virtually maintenance-free electrical drives. Based on the inability of conventional control
methods like PI, PID controllers to work under wide range of operation, artificial intelligent based controllers
are widely used in the industry like ANN, Fuzzy controller, ANFIS, expert system, genetic algorithm. The main
problem with the conventional fuzzy controllers is that the parameters associated with the membership
functions and the rules depend broadly on the intuition of the experts. To overcome this problem, GA based
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy controller and Fuzzy Logic controller are proposed in this dissertation .
In most of the industries, induction motors play very important and that is the reason they are manufactured in
large numbers. About half of the electrical energy generated in a developed country is ultimately consumed by
electric motors, of which over 90 % are induction motors. For a relatively long period, induction motors have
mainly been deployed in constant-speed motor drives for general purpose applications. The rapid development
of power electronic devices and converter technologies in the past few decades, however, has made possible
efficient speed control by varying the supply frequency, giving rise to various forms of adjustable-speed
induction motor drives. In about the same period, there were also advances in control methods and Artificial
Intelligence (AI) techniques. Artificial Intelligent techniques mean use of expert system, fuzzy logic, neural
networks and genetic algorithm. Researchers soon realized that the performance of induction motor drives can
be enhanced by adopting artificial-intelligence-based methods. Since the 1990s, AI-based induction motor
drives have received greater attention. Among the existing control technologies, intelligent control methods,
such as fuzzy logic control, neural network control, genetic algorithm, and expert system, have exhibited
particular superiorities. Artificial Intelligent Controller (AIC) could be the best controller for Induction Motor
control. Over the last two decades, researchers have been working to apply AIC for induction motor drives [1-
6]. This is because that AIC possesses advantages as compared to the conventional PI, PID and their adaptive
versions. Since the unknown and unavoidable parameter variations, due to disturbances, saturation and change
in temperature exists; it is often difficult to develop an accurate system mathematical model. High accuracy is
not usually of high importance for most of the induction motor drive. During the operation, even when the
parameters and load of the motor varies, a desirable control performance in both transient and steady states must
be provided. Controllers with fixed parameters cannot provide these requirements unless unrealistically high
gains are used. Therefore, control strategy must be robust and adaptive. As a result, several control strategies
have been developed for induction motor drives within last two decades. The main idea for such a hybrid
controller is that with a combination of fuzzy logic and neural network, such as uncertainty or unknown
variations in plant parameters and structure can be dealt more effectively. Hence, the robustness of the control
of induction motor is improved. Conventional controllers have on their side well established theoretical
backgrounds on stability and allow different design objectives such as steady state and transient characteristics
of the closed loop system to be specified. Much research work is in progress in the design of such hybrid
control schemes. Fuzzy controller conventionally is totally dependent to memberships and rules, which are
based broadly on the intuition of the designer.
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The induction motor, which is the most widely used motor type in the industry, has been favored
because of its good self-starting capability, simple and rugged structure, low cost and reliability, etc. Along with
variable frequency AC inverters, induction motors are used in many adjustable speed applications which do not
require fast dynamic response.
In induction and synchronous motors, the stator is powered with alternating current (poly phase
current in large machines) and designed to create a rotating magnetic field which rotates in time with the AC
oscillations. In a synchronous motor, the rotor turns at the same rate as the stator field. By contrast, in an
induction motor the rotor rotates at a slower speed than the stator field. Therefore the magnetic field through the
rotor is changing (rotating). The rotor has windings in the form of closed loops of wire. The changing magnetic
flux induces currents in the windings as in a transformer, and these currents create their own magnetic fields.
These interact with the stator field to create torque to turn the rotor.
For these currents to be induced, the speed of the physical rotor must be lower than that of the stator's
rotating magnetic field (n
s
), or the magnetic field would not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no
currents would be induced. As the speed of the rotor drops below synchronous speed, the rotation rate of the
magnetic field in the rotor increases, inducing more current in the windings and creating more torque. The ratio
between the rotation rate of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (slip speed) and the rotation rate of the
stator's rotating field is called "slip". Under load, the speed drops and the slip increases enough to create
sufficient torque to turn the load. For this reason, induction motors are sometimes referred to as asynchronous
motors.
1.2 SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

The synchronous speed of an AC motor is the rotation rate of the rotating magnetic field created by the
stator. It is always an integer fraction of the supply frequency. The synchronous speed n
s
in revolutions per
minute (rpm) is given by:
n
s
=
60
p


where f is the frequency of the AC supply current in Hz and p is the number of magnetic pole pairs per
phase. For example, a small 3-phase motor typically has six magnetic poles organized as three opposing pairs
120 apart, each powered by one phase of the supply current, so there is one pole pair per phase and p = 1. For
60 Hz supply frequency, its synchronous speed is thus 3600 RPM. Under no-load conditions, when the only
load on the motor is its friction, the speed approaches synchronous speed.
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The concept of vector control has opened up a new possibility that induction motors can be controlled to
achieve dynamic performance as good as that of DC or brushless DC motors.
In order to understand and analyze vector control, the dynamic model of the induction motor is
necessary. In this project as a first step, an induction motor model is derived in relatively simple terms by using
the concept of space vectors and d-q variables.


Fig. 1.1 Conceptual diagram of an induction machine.
Traditionally in analysis and design of induction motors, the per-phase equivalent circuit of induction
motors shown in Fig. 1.1 has been widely used. In the circuit note that all rotor parameters and variables are not
actual quantities but are quantities referred to the stator, parameters are defined by:
Ls Lsr Rrs

Fig. 1.2 Conventional per-phase equivalent circuit
Rs: stator resistance
Rr: rotor resistance
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Lm: magnetizing inductance of the motor
Ls: stator inductance
Lr: rotor inductance
Lrs: rotor inductance referred to the stato
It is also known that induction motors do not rotate synchronously to the excitation frequency. At rated load, the
speed of induction motors are slightly less than the synchronous speed.
1.3 SLIP
Slip s is the ratio of the rotation rate of the rotor magnetic field to the rotation rate of the stator magnetic
field.
s =
N
s
N
r
N
s

Where n
r
is the rotor rotation speed in rpm. It is zero at synchronous speed and one (100%) when the rotor is
stationary. The slip determines the motor's torque. Since the short-circuited rotor windings have small
resistance, a small slip induces a large current in the rotor and produces large torque.
1.4 TORQUE CURVE

The torque exerted by the motor as a function of slip is given by a torque curve. Over a motor's normal
load range, the torque line is close to a straight line, so the torque is proportional to slip. As the load increases
above the rated load, increases in slip provide less additional torque, so the torque line begins to curve over.
Finally at a slip of around 20% the motor reaches its maximum torque, called the "breakdown torque". If the
load torque reaches this value, the motor will stall. At values of slip above this, the torque decreases. In 3-phase
motors the torque drops but still remains high at a slip of 100% (stationary rotor), so these motors are self-
starting. The starting torque of an induction motor is less than other types of motor, but still around 300% of
rated torque. In 2-pole single-phase motors, the torque goes to zero at 100% slip (zero speed), so these require
alterations to the stator such as shaded poles to provide starting torque.





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Fig. 1.3 Torque speed curve
1.4.1 LOCKED ROTOR TORQUE: The minimum torque that a motor will develop at rest for all angular
positions of the rotor is called locked rotor torque or starting torque.

1.4.2 PULL-UP TORQUE: The minimum torque delivered by an AC motor during the period of acceleration
from zero to the speed at which breakdown occurs.

1.4.3 BREAK-DOWN TORQUE: It is the point at which an excessive load on the motor will cause it to stop.

1.4.4 FULL-LOAD TORQUE: The torque a motor produces at its rated horsepower and full-load speed.
As I said
r
is called the slip frequency which is the frequency of the actual rotor current. In the steady-
state AC circuit, current and voltage phasors are used and they are denoted by the overline. In Fig. 1.2, power
consumption in the stator is interpreted as Is
2
Rs, while Ir
2
Rrs represents both power consumption in the rotor
and the mechanical output (torque). By subtracting rotor loss Ir
2
Rr from Ir
2
Rrs, produced torque (mechanical
power divided by the shaft speed) is given by:
I =
p
m


By definition, two kinds of analysis of induction motors are considered in the literature:
1) The static inductance: that the slope of the straight line (OA) from the origin through the actual
operating point A on the magnetizing curve Fig. 1.4. The static inductance is therefore the division of
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the flux by the magnetizing current. This value is used for steady state condition or when operation of
the machine changes from one to another steady state situation and the transients are not so important.

Static inductance


Fig. 1.4 static and dynamic inductance definitions

2) The dynamic inductance: that the slope of the tangent line (AC), to the magnetizing curve at the same
operating point A, as represented in Fig. 1.4.
1.5 OBJECTIVES
Induction Motors have many applications in the industries, because of the low maintenance and
robustness. The speed control of induction motor is more important to achieve maximum torque and efficiency.
This thesis presents an integrated environment for speed control of induction motor (IM) including simulation.
The integrated environment allows users to compare simulation results between classical and genetic algorithm
controllers i.e. Fuzzy and ANFIS. It is due to its unique characteristics like high efficiency, good power factor
and extremely rugged nature of Induction motor. The genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic controller and artificial
neuro-fuzzy controllers are also introduced to the system for keeping the motor speed to be constant. The
performance of genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic and artificial neuro-fuzzy based controllers is compared with
that of the conventional proportional integral controller. The dynamic modeling of Induction motor is done and
the performance of the Induction motor drive has been analyzed.
1.6 CHAPER BREAK UP
In the first chapter the basic knowledge required to understand the Induction motor operation is briefly
covered.
In the second chapter the dynamic model of Induction motor is fully formulated and its mathematical
equations are clearly proven.
At the third chapter the different techniques to control the induction motor speed is briefly listed and
then explained.
I =

Im

Dynamic inductance
I =
J
JIm

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At the fourth chapter the dynamic simulation of induction motor drive according to the model expressed
in chapter two is done and each and every part is separately explained and executed.
The fifth chapter will discuss how to improve the speed control of induction motor based on genetic
algorithm controller for taking better results compare to dynamic model simulation.
The sixth chapter will discuss how to improve the speed control of fuzzy controller based simulation
with replacing fuzzy controller part with genetic algorithm controller.
At the end the seventh chapter will compare all discussed methods, and find a technique as the best in
this project
.
1.7 SPEED CONTROL METHODS
Following are the methods employed to control the speed of induction motors.
A) Pole changing.
B) Stator voltage control.
C) Supply frequency control.
D) Eddy-current control.
E) Rotor resistance control.
F) Slip power recovery.
While pole changing is applicable to squirrel cage motors, stator voltage control and supply frequency
control can be used for both squirrel cage and wound rotor motors. Whereas rotor resistance control and slip
power recovery methods are applicable only to wound rotor motors as they are controlled from the rotor circuit.

A) POLE CHANGING METHOD:
For a particular frequency, the synchronous speed is inversely proportional to the number of poles.
Changing the number of poles can change synchronous speed and therefore the motor speed. Provision for
changing the number of poles has to be incorporated at the time of manufacturing stage and such machines are
called, pole-changing motors or multi-speed motors.
Squirrel cage rotor is not wound for any specific number of poles. It produces the same number of poles
as stator winding has. Therefore, in a squirrel cage motor, an arrangement is required only for changing the
number of poles in stator. In wound rotor motor, arrangement for changing the number of poles in rotor is also
required, which complicates the machine. Therefore, this method of speed control is only used with squirrel
cage motors.
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This method is simple but expensive arrangement for changing the number of stator poles. It uses two
separate windings, which are wound for two different pole numbers. An economical and common alternative is
to use a single stator winding divided into few coil groups, and by rearranging the coil groups we can obtain
different speeds, which are factor of 2. The Fig. 3.1 shows a phase winding which consists of six coils divided
into two groups a-b consisting of odd number coils(1,3,5) connected in series and c-d consisting of even
numbered coils(2,4,6) connected in series which are shown.

Fig. 1.5 Stator phase connections for six poles
The speed-torque curves for 6 pole and 12 pole formation can be shown as in Fig. 3.2.

Fig. 1.6 Speed-Torque curves
In some applications, change in speed is required only by a small amount (for example. fan and pump
drives).Such a small change in speed is possible by pole amplitude modulation. As pole systems are not
alternating along the periphery, these motors in modified connection suffer from harmonic currents and
voltages, and have lower power factor and efficiency than pole changing motors.


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B) STATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL:
By reducing the stator voltage, speed of a high-slip induction motor can be reduced by an amount, which
is sufficient for the speed control. While torque is proportional to square of the voltage, the voltage if reduced
reduces the speed. So for the same current the motor develops lower torque therefore such loads which demand
less torque with the decrease in the speeds are suitable under this control ( fan and pump drives ).
This method of speed control is not suitable for normal mains fed with 3-phase Induction Motor. The
portion of speed torque curve beyond the point of maximum torque is unstable. The normal cage motor has
small resistance and therefore, the unstable portion is large. The speed control is possible only in narrow band
of speeds. The starting current of these motors is also very high. The equipment used to control the speed must
be able to withstand this current. The power factor is poor at large slips. Therefore special rotor design with
high resistance is required to be able to take advantage of speed control by voltage variation. The Fig. 3.3 shows
the Torque-Speed curves of an Induction motor at various voltages assuming sinusoidal voltage.
This method is very simple but speed control range is very much limited. Speed range can be made
wider if the rotor resistance is larger. The line p.f is poor. The line and motor currents have harmonic content.

Fig. 1.7 Torque-speed curves at various voltages
Machine has poor efficiency, heating of motor is more, and regeneration is not possible. It is used with
fan loads, blowers and pumps.




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C) VARIABLE FREQUENCY CONTROL(V/F):
Synchronous speed
P
f
N
s
120 ..(3.1)
And, motor speed,
s r
N s N 1 (3.2) check
eqn no
From the above it is evident that synchronous speed is directly proportional to the supply frequency.
Therefore, by varying supply frequency we can control the speed of the induction motor. Motor speed can be
controlled below and above the synchronous speed. Voltage induced in stator is proportional to the product of
supply frequency and air gap flux. If stator drop is neglected, terminal voltage can be considered proportional to
the product of frequency and flux. The equations 3.3 and 3.4 justify the above statements.

ps s m w
T f k . E 44 4
(3.3)


ps s m w
T f k . V 44 4
...(3.4)

While any increase in flux beyond the rated value is undesirable from the consideration of saturation
effects a decrease in flux is also avoided to retain the torque capability of motor. Therefore, the variable
frequency control below the rated frequency is generally carried out by reduced machine phase voltage along
with the frequency; the motor is operated at a constant voltage because of limitations imposed by stator
insulation or supply voltage limitations.
The motor is always operated on the portion of the speed torque curves with a negative slope, by
limiting either the slip speed or the current for getting the advantages of the high torque to current ratio, high
efficiency and a good power factor.

Fig. 1.8 Torque-Speed characteristics for variable frequency control
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Variable frequency control gives larger torques with reduced currents for the complete range of speeds. This
method provides a highly efficient variable speed drive with excellent running and transient performance.
Regenerative braking is also possible below synchronous speed down to zero speed.
D) EDDY CURRENT CONTROL
Drive consists of an eddy current clutch placed between an induction motor running at a fixed speed and
the variable speed load. Speed is controlled by controlling D.C excitation to magnetic circuit of the clutch.
Since motor runs at a fixed speed, it can be fed directly from AC mains.
E) ROTOR RESISTANCE CONTROL
This method is suitable for wound rotor induction motor. Maximum torque is independent of rotor
resistance, speed at which the maximum torque is produced changes with rotor resistance. For the same torque,
speed falls with an increase in rotor resistance. Advantages of rotor resistance control are that motor torque
capability remains unaltered even at low speeds. Only other method, which has this advantage, is variable
frequency control. This method is used for only low speeds, because of low cost of rotor resistance and high
torque capability at low speeds, and rotor resistance control is employed in cranes, high load drives. A major
disadvantage is low efficiency due to additional losses in resistor connected in the rotor circuit.


Fig. 1.9 Slip ring induction motor with external rotor resistors
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Fig. 1.10 Torque versus speed at various rotor resistances, curves 1, rotor short-circuited; 2-4,
increasing values of external resistance

F) SLIP ENERGY RECOVERY SCHEME
The portion of air gap power, which is not converted into mechanical power, is called slip power. Slip
control methods regulate the amount of slip power. The slip power is controlled by controlling the voltage
injection into the rotor. By this method induction motor speed can be controlled from speed zero to speed higher
than the synchronous speed. Instead of wasting power in external resistors, it is usefully employed here.
Therefore, these methods of speed control are classified as slip power recovery schemes. The circuital
connections for slip energy recovery scheme and torque speed characteristics can be as shown in the next
Figures.
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Fig. 1.11 Static Kramer method
The main problem in providing suitable source is that the frequency of the injected emf must match the
rotor slip frequency at all speeds. Two such schemes are: static Scherbius drives and static Kramer drives which
provides speed control of wound rotor motor below and above synchronous speed respectively.
This speed is suitable for driving high capacity centrifugal pumps and fans. Speed control is achieved from
above synchronous speed to zero speed.

. 1.8 CONCLUSION

In this chapter mathematical model of induction motor has been developed for dynamic analysis of the
symmetrical induction machines in the arbitrary reference frame. In chapter Four the block based simulation
will be constructed according to these equations and then will be simulated.








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CHAPTER TWO
DYNAMIC MODELLING & SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR
DRIVE



































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2.1 DYNAMIC MODELLING OF INDUCTION MOTOR

The voltage and torque equations that describe the dynamic behavior of an induction motor are time-
varying. Differential equations involve some complexity. A change of variables can be used to reduce the
complexity of these equations by eliminating all time-varying inductances. By this approach, a poly phase
winding can be reduced to a set of two phase windings (q-d) with their magnetic axis formed in quadrature. In
other words, the stator and rotor variables (voltages, currents and flux linkages) of an induction machine are
transferred to a reference frame, which may rotate at any angular velocity or remain stationary. Such a frame of
reference is commonly known in the generalized machines analysis as arbitrary reference frame.


Fig. 2.1: the d-q equivalent circuit of an induction motor

The dynamic analysis of the symmetrical induction machines in the arbitrary reference frame has been
intensively used as a standard simulation approach from which any particular mode of operation may then be
developed. It can be a powerful technique in implementing the machine equations as they are transferred to a
particular reference frame. Thus, every single equation among the model equations can be easily implemented
in one block so that all the machine variables can be made available for control and verification purposes[2-3].




qs

(-
r
)
qs

Rs Rr Lls = Ls+Lm L'lr = Lr+Lm
Vds
Vdr

ds

dr

ds

(-
r
)
ds
Rr
Vqr
Rs Lls = Ls+Lm Llr = L'r+Lm
Vqs

qs

qr

L
m

L
m

i
ds
i
dr

i
qs
i
qr

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2.2 DYNAMIC MODEL OF INDUCTION MOTOR

Before everything, its better to clarify some of the parameters and concepts that are existing in the
dynamic model.
R
s
: the stator resistance
R
r
: the rotor resistance
L
m
: the magnetizing inductance of the motor
L
ls
: the stator leakage inductance
L
lr
: the rotor leakage inductance

r
: the slip frequency which is the frequency of the actual rotor current
L
lr
: the rotor leakage inductance referred to stator side
Rr: the rotor resistance referred to stator side

qs ,

ds
: q-axis and d-axis components of stator flux

qr ,

dr
: q-axis and d-axis components of rotor flux
i
qs ,
i
ds
: q-axis and d-axis components of stator current
i
qr ,
i
qr
: q-axis and d-axis components of rotor current
v
qs ,
v
ds
: q-axis and d-axis components of stator voltage
v
qr ,
v
qr
: q-axis and d-axis components of rotor voltage
Note that in this equivalent circuit, all rotor parameters and variables are not actual quantities but are quantities
referred to the stator. And also we know that induction motors do not rotate synchronously to the excitation
frequency. At rated load, the speed of induction motors are slightly less than the synchronous speed.



Fig. 2.2: d-axis and q-axis on an arbitrary reference frame.
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Let the stator to rotor winding turn ratio be n and the angular position of the rotor be , and define the
rotor velocity in the form of the following that p is the number of poles.

r
= p
Fig. 2.2 illustrates the relationship between d-q axis and complex plane on a rotating frame with respect
to stationary a-b-c frame. Note that d-axes and q-axes are defined on a rotating reference frame at the speed of

a
with respect to fixed a-b-c frame.
=
a
= p
a
The generalized equivalent circuit on an arbitrarily rotating frame is shown in Fig. 2.1. Now, depending
on a specific choice of
a
, many forms of dynamic equivalent circuit can be established. Among them, the
synchronous frame form can be obtained by choosing
a
=
e
.

2.3 INDUCTION MOTOR INDUCTANCE MATRIX CALCULATION

The sum of the stator leakage inductance and magnetizing inductance is called the stator inductance (L
s
=
L
ls
+ L
m
), and the sum of the rotor leakage inductance and magnetizing inductance is called the rotor inductance
(L
r
= L
lr
+ L
m
), where we have the following equations:
Is =
Xs



Ir =
Xr



As we can see in the Fig. 2.1 the rotating emf-es are represented by voltage sources and not by
Inductances. Consequently, rotor appears near to the natural induced voltage, expressed by means of the rotor
speed.
Driving the model equations can be generated from the d-q equivalent circuit of the induction machine
shown in Fig. 2.1. The voltage and current equations associated with this circuit can be found as follows:
The flux linkages can be achieved as follows:


qs
= I
s
i
qs
+ I
m
i
q
.(2.1)

ds
= I
m
i
d
+ I
s
i
ds
= I
m
i
ds
+ I

i
d
..(2.2)


q
= I

i
q
+ I
m
i
qs
...........(2.3)


d
= I

i
d
+ I
m
i
ds
= I
m
i
d
+ I
s
i
ds
......(2.4)

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The voltage equations are as following:

:
qs
= R
s
i
qs
+
d
qs
dt
+
ds
.....(2.5)
:
ds
= R
s
i
ds
+
d
ds
dt

qs
...(2.6)
:
q
= R

i
q
+
J
q
Jt
+ (

)
ds
. . . . (2.7)

:
d
= R

i
d
+
J
d
Jt
(

)
qs
. . (2.8)

For obtaining the voltages the following steps have to be done:
By placing the equation 1 and equation 2 into the equation 5, v
qs
obtained as:

:
qs
= R
s
i
qs
+
J
qs
Jt
+
ds


:
qs
= R
s
i
qs
+
J(I
s
i
qs
+ I
m
i
q
)
Jt
+ (I
m
i
d
+ I
s
i
ds
)

= R
s
i
qs
+ I
s
Ji
qs
Jt
+ I
m
Ji

q
Jt
+ I
m
i
d
+ I
s
i
ds
. .(2.9)


By placing the equation 1 and equation 2 into the equation 6, v
ds
obtained as:


:
ds
= R
s
i
ds
+
J
ds
Jt

qs


:
ds
= R
s
i
ds
+
J(I
m
i
d
+ I
s
i
ds
)
Jt
(I
s
i
qs
+ I
m
i
q
)

= R
s
i
ds
+ I
s
Ji
ds
Jt
+ I
m
Ji
d
Jt
I
s
i
qs
I
m
i
q
(2.10)


By placing the equation 2 and equation 3 into the equation 7 , v
qr
obtained as:


:
q
= R

i
q
+
J
q
Jt
+ (

)
ds


:
q
= R

i
q
+
J(I

i
q
+ I
m
i
qs
)
Jt
+ (

)(I
m
i
ds
+ I

i
d
)
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= R

i
q
+ I

Ji
q
Jt
+ I
m
Ji
qs
Jt
+ (

)I
m
i
ds
(

)I

i
d
. (2.11)

By placing the equation 1 and equation 4 into the equation 8, v
dr
obtained as:


:
d
= R

i
d
+
J
d
Jt
(

)
qs


:
d
= R

i
d
+
J(I

i
d
+ I
m
i
ds
)
Jt

(I
m
i
qs
+ I

i
q
)

= R

i
d
+ I

Ji
d
Jt
+ I
m
Ji
ds
Jt
(

)I
m
i
qs
(

)I

i
q
. (2.12)
According to calculation, for ease of studying equations 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12 are listed below:

:
qs
= R
s
i
qs
+ I
s
d
qs
dt
+ I
m
d

qr
dt
+ I
m
i
d
+ I
s
i
ds

:
ds
= R
s
i
ds
+ I
s
Ji
ds
Jt
+ I
m
Ji
d
Jt
I
s
i
qs
I
m
i
q

:
q
= R

i
q
+ I

Ji
q
Jt
+ I
m
Ji
qs
Jt
+ (

)I
m
i
ds
+ (

)I

i
d

:
d
= R

i
d
+ I

Ji
d
Jt
+ I
m
Ji
ds
Jt
(

)I
m
i
qs
(

)I

i
q


V
dr
and V
qr
are short circuited hence they are equal to zero. The electrical transient model in terms of voltages
and currents can be given in matrix form as:

_
:
qs
:
ds
0
0
_ = _
R
s
+ I
s
p I
s
I
s
R
s
+ I
s
p

I
m
p I
m
I
m
I
m
p
I
m
p (

)I
m
(

)I
m
I
m
p
R

+ I

p (

)I

)I

+ I

p
_ _
i
qs
i
ds
i
q
i
d
_

In the above matrix p represents the operator
d
dt
. For stationary reference frame, by substituting = 0, the above
matrix equation is reduced to:

_
:
qs
:
ds
0
0
_ = _
R
s
+ I
s
p 0
0 R
s
+ I
s
p

I
m
p 0
0 I
m
p
I
m
p (

)I
m
(

)I
m
I
m
p
R

+ I

p (

)I

)I

+ I

p
_ _
i
qs
i
ds
i
q
i
d
_


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Moreover, for synchronous frame, we have

=
c


_
:
qs
:
ds
0
0
_ = _
R
s
+ I
s
p
c
I
s

c
I
s
R
s
+ I
s
p

I
m
p
c
I
m

c
I
m
I
m
p
I
m
p (
c

)I
m
(
c

)I
m
I
m
p
R

+ I

p (
c

)I

(
c

)I

+ I

p
_ _
i
qs
i
ds
i
q
i
d
_

Since actual stator variables either to be generated or to be measured are all in stationary a-b-c frame, frame
transform should be executed in the control. The most popular transform is between stationary a-b-c frame
quantities to synchronously rotating d-q quantities.
2.4 PARKS TRANSFORMATION

The following equation shows how a-b-c frame can be transformed into the q-d frame:
_
y
q
y
d
0
_ = _
cos0
sin0
cos(0 2n/ 3) cos(0 + 2n/ 3)
sin(0 2n/ 3) sin(0 + 2n/ 3)
0.5 0.5 0.5
_ _
y
u
y
b
y
c
_

And its inverse transform is given by:

_
y
u
y
b
y
c
_ = _
cos0
cos(0 2n/ 3)
sin0 1
sin(0 2n/ 3) 1
cos(0 + 2n/ 3) sin(0 + 2n/ 3) 1
_ _
y
q
y
d
0
_

As we have seen the voltage and current in stationary and rotor reference frame in the form of [ :] = [ z] [i] is
achieved, where [v] and [i] are 4x1 column matrices of voltage and current and are given as
[:
qs
:
ds
:
q
:
d
]
1
and [i
qs
i
ds
i
q
i
d
]
1
respectively.
2.5 INDUCTION MOTOR TORQUE CALCULATION

The torque equation is:
I
c
=
3
2
p
2
1

b
(
ds
i
qs

qs
i
ds
) (2.13)

Which is in the vector form. Equation 2.13 can be rewriten as (Bolded letters shows it is in vector space):

=
3
4
p
1

b
Im(
s
I
s
) . .. (2.14)

For calculating the electromagnetic torque, transfer [:] = [z][i] to the stationary reference frame so that the
will be equal to zero.

then s is kept as superscript which is written as follows:
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[ :
s
] = [ z
s
] [i
s
]
Where [:
s
] and [ i
s
] are 4x1 column matrices of voltage and current in the stationary frame and are given as
[ :
qs

s
:
ds
s
:
q
s
:
d
s
]
1
and [ i
qs
s
i
ds
s
i
q
s
i
d
s
]
1
respectively.
So the impedance matrix will be as follows:

_
R
s
+ I
s
p 0
0 R
s
+ I
s
p

I
m
p 0
0 I
m
p
I
m
p (

)I
m
(

)I
m
I
m
p
R

+ I

p (

)I

)I

+ I

p
_

Although the torque expression on the above is derived from stationary reference frame, it is true for any other
reference frames such as Many other forms of torque equations are also possible, such as:

I
c
=
3
2
p
2
I
m
(i
qs

i
d

i
ds

i
q

)
=
3
4
p I
m
(i
qs

i
d

i
ds

i
q

) . . . (2.15)

We can eliminate I
r

so that the equation will change to:

=
3
4
p
I
m
I

Im(I
q

) .. . . .(2.16)
2.6 INDUCTION MOTOR CURRENTS CALCULATION

According to the single phase circuit of the induction motor shown in Fig. 1.4 one can write current
equations of stator and rotor in the d-q axis as follows:

i
qs
=
(
qs

mq
)
X
Is
. . (2.17)

i
ds
=
(
ds

md
)
X
Is
. . (2.18)

i
q
=
(
q

mq
)
X
Is
. . (2.19)

i
d
=
(
d

md
)
X
Is
.. (2.20)
By substituting
mq
and
md
in the above equations we have the following equations according to the current
flow orientation and knowing that ( i =

X
):
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mq
= X
mI
_

qs
X
Is
+

q
X
I
] . . (2.21)


md
= X
mI
_

ds
X
Is
+

d
X
I
] . . (2.22)

X
mI
=
1
1
X
m
+
1
X
ls
+
1
X
lr
.(2.23)

Referring to equations 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 we can write the flux linkage equations as followings in the per unit (
b

is the base value of angular frequency and suppose induction motor is working in the synchronous speed):

1

b
J
qs
Jt
= :
qs

ds
R
s
i
qs


1

b
J
qs
Jt
= :
qs

b

ds
+
R
s
X
Is
(
mq

qs
) . (2.24)
1

b
J
ds
Jt
= :
ds

qs
R
s
i
ds


1

b
J
ds
Jt
= :
ds
+

c

b

qs
+
R
s
X
Is
(
md

ds
) . (2.25)

1

b
J
q
Jt
= :
q

(
c

d
R
s
i
q


1

b
J
q
Jt
= :
q

(
c

b

d
+
R
s
X
Is
(
mq

q
) . (2.26)

1

b
J
d
Jt
= :
d
+
(
c

q
R
s
i
d


1

b
J
d
Jt
= :
d
+
(
c

b

q
+
R
s
X
Is
(
md

d
) . (2.27)



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2.7 INDUCTION MOTOR ROTOR SPEED
The speed
r
in the above equations is related to the torque by the following mechanical dynamic
equation:
I
c
= I
Ioud
+ [
J
m
Jt
= I
Ioud
+
[2
p
J

Jt
(2.28)

Then we can rewrite the above equation for

as follows:

= _
p
2[
(I
c
I
I
) . (2.29)

Where:
p: number of poles
J: moment of inertia (kg/m
2
)

2.8 SIMULATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING
MATLAB/SIMULINK

SIMULINK is a powerful software package for the study of dynamic and nonlinear systems. Using
SIMULINK, the simulation model can be built up systematically starting from simple sub-models. The
induction motor model developed may be used alone or it can be incorporated in an advanced motor drive
system, e.g. field oriented control.
Simulink is an environment for multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic and
embedded systems. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries
that let you design, simulate, implement, and test a variety of time-varying systems, including communications,
controls, signal processing, video processing, and image processing. Simulink is integrated with MATLAB,
providing immediate access to an extensive range of tools that let you develop algorithms, analyze and visualize
simulations, create batch processing scripts, customize the modeling environment, and define signal, parameter,
and test data.
In this project the simulation process will be starting from conventional modeling according to the
mathematical equations that are expressed in previous parts. The next plan is to improve the operation of
induction motor in the sense that how speed can be increased and in the same duration of time we take faster
rising, so two more techniques will be applied to enhance the control system, one will be fuzzy logic controller
and second one will be Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System that usually is abbreviated to ANFIS. But
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before getting down controlling system First will discuss on conventional simulation. The principle of the
control system is shown in Fig. 2.3.







Fig.2.3: Principle of the control system
Over the years different mathematical models have been used to examine different problems associated
with induction motors. These range from the simple equivalent circuit models to more complex d,q models and
abc models which allow the inclusion of various forms of impedance and/or voltage unbalance. In this project
for more simplicity d-q models is preferred so that it will simplify the very complicated non-linear equations to
be solved and simulated. In Fig. 2.4 the block-diagram of induction motor and its drive that are simulated in
MATLAB/simulink are shown.

Fig. 2.4: Induction model with Conventional controller
In the Fig. 2.4 the structure of conventional simulation of induction motor is shown. According to the model
the AC voltage source that is the sinusdoial signal generator predefined by MATLAB/simulink, is applied to
Parks transformation matrix, then abc system will be converted to d-q form. In the next step the voltage sources

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that are imaged into d-axis and q-axis are applied to induction motor model. According to the previous section
and proven equations the induction motor equations are expressed in d-q frame. The outputs after calculating
the expressed equations, will be stator and rotor currents separately in the d-axis and q-axis, torque and rotor
speed. It can be the last stage but for more result clearance the currents are converted to abc frame with the help
of inverse Parks transformation. So according to existance of different parts in this model the following
headings will be discussed in details:
AC source
Abc to DQ0 Parks transformation
Induction motor in d-q model
Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis
Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis
Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis
Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis
Stator current calculation in the q-axis
Rotor current calculation in the q-axis
Stator current calculation in the d-axis
Rotor current calculation in the d-axis
Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis
Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis
Electrical Torque calculation
Rotor speed calculation
2.8.1 AC source
In the first stage balanced AC sources of sinnusdual wave forms are provided that are predefined blocks by
simulink software, and the data related to the these three phases like amplitude, frequency and phases are given
to the blocks through a GUI as given in Fig. 2.5:
I
u
= 2 I
ms
sin(wt)
I
b
= 2 I
ms
sin _wt
2n
3
]
I
b
= 2 I
ms
sin _wt +
2n
3
]
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Fig. 2.5: AC source of main model
2.8.2 abc to DQ0 Parks transformation
As its apparent from the equation below and block diagram, with the help of function blocks like sin,
cosin and some operational blocks like summation, multiplication and subtraction and one constant blocks for
applying 2n/ 3 value, the Parks transformation is easily modeled. The output of this block will concludes the
voltage sources in d-q frame.
_
:
q
:
d
0
_ = _
cos0
sin0
cos(0 2n/ 3) cos(0 + 2n/ 3)
sin(0 2n/ 3) sin(0 + 2n/ 3)
0.5 0.5 0.5
_ _
:
u
:
b
:
c
_

Fig. 2.6 abc to DQ0 Parks transformation model

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2.8.3 Induction motor in d-q model
In the Fig. 2.7 the overall model of IM is shown in Fig. 2.7 and the sub-blocks will be discussed later.

Fig. 2.7: Induction motor in d-q model
2.8.4 Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis
In Fig. 2.8 all the flux linkages of stator and rotor in d-axis and q-axis and also mutual fluxes in d-axis and
q-axes are calculated.

Fig. 2.8: Flux linkage calculation model overall view
In Fig.2.9 the stator flux linkage in q-axis according to the equation that earlier is proven, is constructed.
1

b
J
qs
Jt
= :
qs

b

ds
+
R
s
X
Is
(
mq

qs
)
6
Wr
5
Te
4
i dr
3
i qr
2
i ds
1
i qs
T
L
T
e
W
r
rotor speed
iqs
Fqs
Fds
ids
Te
electrical torque
Fqr
Fqs
Fmq
iqr
iqs
Subsystem4
Fds
Fdr
ids
idr
Fmd
Subsystem2
Fmq
vqs
vds
Wr
Fmd
Fqr
Fqs
Fds
Fdr
Flux linkage calculation
3
TL
2
Vds
1
Vqs
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Fig. 2.9: Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis
Some variables like
mq
and
ds
are supplying from another blocks that are calculating these parameters.
The constant parameters like base value of rotor speed, stator resistance and stator leakage inductance will be
supplied through a GUI of induction motor which will modify the induction motor characteristics.



2.8.5 Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis
This Fig. 2.10 shows same structure with stator flux linkage but a little bit difference reference to the rotor flux
linkage formula. For squirrel cage induction motor, the rotor voltages V
qr
and V
dr
in the flux equations are set to
zero since the rotor cage bars are shorted, thats because those terms do not appeared in the block structure.
1

b
J
q
Jt
= :
q

(
c

b

d
+
R
s
X
Is
(
mq

q
)

Fig. 2.10: Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis
2.8.6 Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis
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In Fig. 2.11 the stator flux linkage in d-axis according to the formula is calculated. These blocks are
same as the last blocks which achieve the parameters values through GUI which is defined by the induction
motor characteristics.

1

b
J
ds
Jt
= :
ds
+

c

b

qs
+
R
s
X
Is
(
md

ds
)

Fig. 2.11: Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis


2.8.7 Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis
Fig. 2.12 shows same structure as that of the rotor flux linkage but a little bit difference reference to its
formula. For squirrel cage induction motor, the rotor voltages V
qr
and V
dr
in the flux equations are set to
zero since the rotor cage bars are shorted, thats because those terms do not appear in the block structure.
1

b
J
d
Jt
= :
d
+
(
c

b

q
+
R
s
X
Is
(
md

d
)

Fig. 2.12: Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis
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2.8.8 Stator current calculation in the q-axis
In Fig. 2.13 the overall con Fig. uration of stator current, rotor current and mutual flux linkage of induction
motor in q-axis is shown. On Fig. 2.14 the unit which calculate the stator current in q-axis according to equation
is shown.
i
qs
=
(
qs

mq
)
X
Is





Fig. 2.13: Stator, rotor and mutual flux linkage calculation in q-axes

Fig. 2.14: Stator current calculation in the q-axis
2.8.9 Rotor current calculation in the q-axis
In Fig. 2.15 simple structure of rotor current in q-axis according to its equation is shown.
i
q
=
(
q

mq
)
X
Is


Fig. 2.15: Rotor current calculation in the q-axis
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2.8.10 Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis
The mutual flux linkage between stator and rotor in q-axis is nothing but a very simple assumption that
there exist parallel inductances like mutual inductance, the stator leakage inductance and the rotor leakage
inductance in between the stator and rotor in the modeled circuit. Fig. 2.16 is pictorial operation of the mutual
flux linkage of induction motor in q-axis.

mq
= X
mI
_

qs
X
Is
+

q
X
I
]

X
mI
=
1
1
X
m
+
1
X
Is
+
1
X
I


Fig. 2.16: Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis

2.8.11 Rotor current calculation in the d-axis
In Fig. 2.17 the overall Duration of stator current, rotor current and mutual flux linkage of induction
motor in d-axis is shown. On Fig. 2.18 the unit which is responsible to calculate the rotor current in q-axis
according to the equation is shown.
i
d
=
(
d

md
)
X
Is


Fig. 2.17: Stator, rotor and mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis
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Fig. 2.18: Rotor current calculation in the d-axis
2.8.12 Stator current calculation in the d-axis
In Fig. 2.19 very simple structure of stator current in d-axis according to its equation is shown.
i
ds
=
(
ds

md
)
X
Is


Fig. 2.19: Stator current calculation in the d-axis


2.8.13 Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis
The mutual flux linkage between stator and rotor in d-axis is nothing but a very simple assumption that
there exists parallel inductances like mutual inductance, the stator leakage inductance and the rotor leakage
inductance in between the stator and rotor in the modeled circuit. The Fig. 2.20 is pictorial operation of the
mutual flux linkage of induction motor in d-axis.

md
= X
mI
_

ds
X
Is
+

d
X
I
]

X
mI
=
1
1
X
m
+
1
X
Is
+
1
X
I

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Fig. 2.20: Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis
2.8.14 Electrical Torque calculation
Electrical torque equation earlier was defined as combination of relations between stator flux
linkage in d-axis and stator current in q-axis and vice versa the flux linkage of stator in q-axis and
stator current in d-axis. These relations are formulated and modeled as follows:
I
c
=
3
2
p
2
1

b
(
ds
i
qs

qs
i
ds
)

Fig. 2.21: Electrical Torque calculation


2.8.15 Rotor speed calculation
As its apparent in the rotor speed equation, it is a function of electrical torque and load torque which in this
motor is working in no-load condition. The value of moment of inertia is one of the motor characteristics that
will be applied to block through IM GUI.

= _
p
2[
( I
c
I
I
)

Fig. 2.22: Rotor speed calculation
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2.8.16 Inverse Parks transformation
In Fig. 2.23 the inverse transformation of parks theorem is modeled. The blocks are constructed exactly as
its formula with the help of function blocks like sin, cosin and some operational blocks like summation,
multiplication and subtraction and one constant block for applying 2n/ 3 value. This transformation is used two
times; one is transforming stator currents in d-q frame into abc model and second one transforming rotor current
from d-q frame into abc model.

Fig. 2.23: D-Q to abc inverse Parks transformer produce rotor and stator currents
_
y
u
y
b
y
c
_ = _
cos0
cos(0 2n/ 3)
sin0 1
sin(0 2n/ 3) 1
cos(0 + 2n/ 3) sin(0 + 2n/ 3) 1
_ _
y
q
y
d
0
_
2.9 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This simulation according to the Induction motor characteristics which is listed in the appendix shows the
following results for torque, rotor speed, stator currents and rotor currents. As its apparent from speed curve,
the speed value is increasing slowly. Then for the next chapters we will discuss genetic algorithm techniques
such as fuzzy and ANFIS to improve the performance of induction motor under static and dynamic conditions.
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Fig. 2.24: Torque characteristics for
conventional controller

Fig. 2.25: Speed characteristics for conventional
controller


Fig. 2.26: Stator currents for conventional
controller

Fig. 2.27: rotor currents for conventional
controller

CHAPTER THREE
SPEED CONTROLLER OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES


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3.1 INTRODUCTION
Despite the great efforts devoted to induction motor control, many of the theoretical results cannot be
directly applied to practical systems. Intelligent control techniques are generally classified as expert system
control, fuzzy-logic control, neural-network control and genetic algorithm.Fuzzy Logic (FL) controllers based
on fuzzy set theory are used to represent the experience and knowledge of a human operator in terms of
linguistic variables that are called fuzzy rules. An experienced human operator adjusts the system inputs to get a
desired output by just looking at the system output without any knowledge on the systems dynamics and
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interior parameter variations. The implementation of linguistic fuzzy rules based on the procedures done by
human operators does not also require a mathematical model of the system. Therefore, a Fuzzy Logic Controller
(FLC) becomes nonlinear and adaptive in nature having a robust performance under parameter variations with
the ability to get desired control actions for complex, uncertain, and nonlinear systems without the requirement
of their mathematical models and parameter estimation. FL based controllers provide a mathematical foundation
for approximate reasoning, which has been proven to be very successful in a variety of applications. In modern
control techniques, uncertainty and vagueness have a great amount of importance to be dealt with. The use of
membership functions quantified from ambiguous terms in fuzzy logic control rules has given a pulse to speed
up the control of the systems with uncertainty and vagueness. The introduction of fuzzy set theory and its
application to control systems has become an important and useful tool in especially controlling nonlinear
systems.
3.2 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER IN SIMULINK:
In the Fig. 3.1, the pictorial configuration of fuzzy logic based controlled induction motors drive is
shown.

Fig. 3.1: overall view of Fuzzy-logic based controller
This model is achieved by improving the conventional simulation of induction motor by control system
enhancement. The d-q model of IM and Parks transformation and inverse Parks transformation are same to the
conventional model, but AC source is replaced with PWM inverter which is controlled by Fuzzy Controller. So
in this chapter conventional controller is replaced by the artificial intelligence controller such as GA based,
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fuzzy, ANFIS. In this model the PWM inverter is produces the three phase AC sources which should be applied
to Parks transformation, and then the IM will act as conventional model which is discussed earlier. But the
event which is happening here is the induction motor rotor speed is applied to the Fuzzy Controller, As the first
step, the speed is normalized between zero and one, then it is compared to one and error and change in error
will be calculated. Then the produced crisp value will be applied to fuzzifier model and the preferred fuzzy
value will be produced. Then after defuzzification the achieved crisp value will change the frequency of PWM
inverter which will be discussed later. In the following subsections the overview of Fuzzy Controller has come,
and then there are some basic blocks which play an important rule and fulfill the desire actions. So brief
explanation will be given on some of them.


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Fig. 3.2: The Fuzzy Controller model

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3.3 SPEED CONTROLLER
As explained earlier, the crisp value obtained from Fuzzy Logic Controller is used to change the
frequency of gating signals of PWM inverter. Thus the output AC signals obtained will be variable frequency
sine waves.

Fig. 3.3: Controllable frequency sine wave generator
In the model shown in Fig. 3.3, the sin wave is generated with amplitude, phase and frequency which are
supplied through a GUI. Then the clock signal which is sampling time of simulation is divided by crisp value
which is obtained from FLC. So by placing three sin waves with different phases one can compare them with
triangular waveform and generate necessary gating signals of PWM inverter. So at the first sampling point the
speed is zero and error is maximum. Then whatever the speed rises, the error will decrease, and the crisp value
resulting from FLC will increase. So the frequency of sin wave will decrease which will cause IGBTs switched
ON and OFF faster. It will increase the AC supply frequency, and the motor will speed up. In the Fig. 3.4 the
speed control block is shown.

Fig. 3.4: Speed control model
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3.4 PWM INVERTER
The theoretical description of PWM inverters has come in previous sections so here only simulation
results are focused. In the Fig.3.5 the structure of PWM inverter is shown. The inputs to these blocks are the
gating signals which are produced in speed controller block. The firing signals are applied to IGBTs gates that
will turn ON and OFF the switches according to the following logics.

Fig. 3.5: PWM inverter circuit
When V
control1
> V
tri
then IGBT1 is ON & IGBT4 is OFF
When V
control1
< V
tri
then IGBT1 is OFF & IGBT4 is ON
When V
control2
> V
tri
then IGBT3 is ON & IGBT6 is OFF
When V
control2
< V
tri
then IGBT3 is OFF & IGBT6 is ON
When V
control3
> V
tri
then IGBT5 is ON & IGBT2 is OFF
When V
control3
< V
tri
then IGBT5 is OFF & IGBT2 is ON
The above logics are applied to the order of firing signals in the simulation which has come in the
previous section in speed controller block. In the Fig. 3.6, the outage block produces Voltage of the line to
neutral for each and every three phases. By doing this with the help of voltage measurement blocks the V
AB
,
V
BC
and V
CA
are produced. Then they are applied to LC low pass filters which produces the line to neutral
voltages for all three phases.
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Fig. 3.6: outage block
3.5 PWM OUTPUTS


Fig. 3.7: IGBTs gating signals


Fig. 3.8: PWM inverter output







I
c
I
u

I
u
I
b

I
b
I
c


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3.6 FLOW CHART OF FUZZY CONTROLLER
The following flow chart which is shown in Fig. 3.9 gives clear explanation of the simulation model
which helps us to understand better about the simulation process.



Fig. 3.9: Simulation process flowchart


Start
Reading the initial values and assigned
values of the variables
Generating Vabc and then Vdq0
Solving the differential equations to find the flux
linkages
qs
,
ds
,
q
,
d
,
mq
,
md

Calculating the currents i
qs
, i
ds
, i
q
, i
d

Calculating the torque and the angular speed
t > T
End
t =t + t
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3.7 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this section the simulation results of fuzzy logic controller are listed.


Fig. 3.10: speed response with fuzzy



Fig. 3.12: stator currents with fuzzy



Fig. 3.11: torque response with fuzzy



Fig. 3.13: rotor currents with fuzzy
As apparent in Fig. 3.10 the induction motor speed after fuzzy logic controller application shows less rising
time to arrive the final value. For example at sample time four the speed in dynamic model reach to near 600
rpm but in fuzzy based model and at the same sampling time induction motor has stabled in final speed value.
And from Fig. 3.10 its convey that torque at the no-load condition converged to zero at second sample time but
in dynamic model the convergence is happening five times later. In the next chapter we want to try to improve
the control speed system by applying Neuro-Fuzzy controller and observe how will be response of the system.


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3.8 INTRODUCTION TO ADAPTIVE NEURO-FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM
(ANFIS)
A novel design of an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for controlling some of the
parameters, such as speed, torque, flux, voltage, current, etc. of the induction motor is presented in this chapter.
Induction motors are characterized by highly non-linear, complex and time-varying dynamics and
inaccessibility of some of the states and outputs for measurements. Hence it can be considered as a challenging
engineering problem in the industrial sector. Various advanced control techniques has been devised by various
researchers across the world. Some of them are based on the fuzzy techniques. Fuzzy logic based controllers are
considered as potential candidates for such an application. AC motor drives are used in multitude of industrial
and process applications requiring high performances. In high performance drive systems the motor speed
should closely follow a specified reference trajectory regardless of any load disturbances and any model
uncertainties. The controllability of torque in an induction motor with good transient and steady state responses
form the main criteria in the designing of a controller. Though, PI controller is able to achieve these but with
certain drawbacks. The gains cannot be increased beyond certain limit so as to have an improved response.
Moreover, it introduces non linearity into the system making it more complex for analysis. Also it deteriorates
the controller performance. With the advent of artificial intelligent techniques, these drawbacks can be
mitigated. One such technique is the use of Fuzzy Logic in the design of controller either independently or in
hybrid with PI controller. Fuzzy Logic Controller yields superior and faster control, but main design problem
lies in the determination of consistent and complete rule set and shape of the membership functions. A lot of
trial and error has to be carried out to obtain the desired response which is time consuming. On the other hand,
ANN alone is insufficient if the training data are not enough to take care of all the operating modes. The draw-
backs of Fuzzy Logic Control and Artificial Neural Network can be overcome by the use of Adaptive Neuro-
Fuzzy Inference System.
The main concept of a neuro-fuzzy network is derived from the human learning process, where an initial
knowledge of a function is first setup by fuzzy rules and then the degree of function approximation is iteratively
improved by the learning capabilities of the neural network. Hence ANFIS combines the learning power of
neural network with knowledge representation of fuzzy logic.
Intelligent, self-learning or self-organizing controls using expert systems, artificial intelligence, fuzzy
logic, neural networks, hybrid networks, etc have been recently recognized as the important tools to improve the
performance of the power electronics based drive systems in the industrial sectors. Combination of this
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intelligent control with the adaptiveness appears today as the most promising research area in the practical
implementation & control of electrical drives.
Induction motors play a vital role in the industrial sector especially in the field of electric drives &
control. Without proper controlling of the speed, it is virtually impossible to achieve the desired task for a
specific application. AC motors, particularly the Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors (SCIM), enjoy several
inherent advantages like simplicity, reliability, low cost and virtually maintenance-free electrical drives.
However, for high dynamic performance industrial applications, their control remains a challenging problem
because they exhibit significant nonlinearities and many of the parameters, mainly the rotor resistance, vary
with the operating conditions. Field Orientation Control (FOC) or vector control of an induction machine
achieves decoupled torque and flux dynamics leading to independent control of the torque and flux as for a
separately excited DC motor is considered. FOC methods are attractive, but suffer from one major
disadvantage, they are sensitive to motor parametric variations such as the rotor time constant and an incorrect
flux measurement or estimation at low speeds.
Consequently, performance deteriorates and a conventional controller such as a PID is unable to
maintain satisfactory performance under these conditions. Recently, there has been observed an increasing
interest in combining artificial intelligent control tools with classical control techniques. The principal
motivations for such a hybrid implementation is that with fuzzy logic, neural networks & rough sets issues, such
as uncertainty or unknown variations in plant parameters and structure can be dealt with more effectively, hence
improving the robustness of the control system. Conventional controls have on their side well established
theoretical backgrounds on stability and allow different design objectives such as steady state and transient
characteristics of the closed loop system to be specified. Several works were contributed to the design of such
hybrid control schemes which was shown by various researchers. Classical control systems like PI, PID control
have been used, together with vector control methods, for the speed control of induction machines by various
researchers. The main drawbacks of the linear control approaches were the sensitivity in performance to the
system parameters variations and inadequate rejection of external perturbations and load changes.
Neuro fuzzy techniques have emerged from the fusion of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Fuzzy
Inference Systems (FIS) and form a popular framework for solving the real world problems. A neuro fuzzy
system is based on a fuzzy system which is trained by a learning algorithm derived from neural network theory.
While the learning capability is an advantage from the viewpoint of FIS, the formation of linguistic rule base
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will be advantage from the viewpoint of ANN. There are several approaches to integrate ANN and FIS and very
often the choice depends on the applications.
Intelligent control emerged as a viable alternative to conventional model-based control schemes. This is
because with fuzzy logic and neural networks issues such as uncertainty or unknown variations in plant
parameters and structure can be dealt with more effectively and hence improving the robustness of the control
system.
3.9 OVERVIEW OF ANFIS
ANFIS architecture consists of five layers with the output of the nodes in each respective layer is
represented by O
l,i
where i is the i
th
node of layer l.


Fig. 3.14: ANFIS architecture
LAYER 1
Every node i in this layer is an adaptive node with a node function
O
1,i
=
Ai
(x) for i = 1, 2, or
O
1,i
=
Bi2
(x) for i = 3, 4
X (or y) is the input node i and A
i
(or B
i2
) is a linguistic label associated with this node
Therefore O
1,i
is the membership grade of a fuzzy set (A
1
,A
2
,B
1
,B
2
).
M1
M2
M5
M1
M2
M5
e
e
Pro
Pro
Pro
Pro
Pro
Pro
Norm
Norm
Norm
Norm
Norm
Norm
sugeno
sugeno
sugeno
sugeno
sugeno
sugeno

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5
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LAYER 2
In this layer the output of each node is product of input signals, that it can be expressed as following:
O
2,i
= w
i
=
Ai
(x)
Bi
(y), i = 1, 2
And in this layer each node represents the fire strength of the rule.
LAYER 3
In this layer the i
th
node calculates the ratio of the i
th
rules firing strength to the sum of all rules firing
strengths.
w
i
=
w

w
1
+ w
2
+ + w
n


The outputs are called normalized firing strengths.
LAYER 4
Every node i in this layer is an adaptive node with a node function:
0
4,
= w
i

= w
i
(p

x + q

y + r)
Where w
i
is the normalized firing strength from layer 3, and {pi, qi, ri} is the parameter set of this node, that
we referred them as consequent parameters.
LAYER 5
This layer computes the overall output as the summation of all incoming signals. It can be expressed as
following:
0
5,
= w
i

=
w


w


3.10 SIMULATION MODEL
In the last sections the theoretical description of Neuro-Fuzzy controlling of induction motor has been
expressed. In the following sections the simulated model solely is the controlling part which will be described.
In the Fig. 3.15 the overall structure of Neuro-Fuzzy model is shown.
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Fig. 3.15: Overall Neuro-Fuzzy simulation model
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Fig. 3.16: Neuro-Fuzzy controller

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3.11 Simulation Results and Discussion
In this section the simulation results shows the speed, torque, stator and rotor currents.

Fig. 3.17: Speed characteristics with ANFIS



Fig. 3.19: Stator currents with ANFIS controller

Fig. 3.18: Torque characteristics with ANFIS



Fig. 3.20: Rrotor currents with ANFIS controller
From simulation results, it appears that the rising time drastically decreases when FC is added and ANFIS
shows better result against to the FC, and all three results are taken in same period of time. For underestanding
how is the effect of ANFIS on the motor activity improvements. The comparative aproach will clarify the
difference between conventional simulation, Fuzzy controller based simulation and ANFIS simulation.




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CHAPTER FOUR
OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES & GENETIC ALGORITHMS


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4.1 OPTIMIZATION:
Optimization is a mathematical discipline that concerns the finding of minima and maxima of functions, subject
to so-called constraints. Optimization originated in the 1940s, when George Dantzig used mathematical
techniques for generating "programs" (training timetables and schedules) for military application. Since then,
his "linear programming" techniques and their descendents were applied to a wide variety of problems, from the
scheduling of production facilities, to yield management in airlines. Today, optimization comprises a wide
variety of techniques from Operations Research, artificial intelligence and computer science, and is used to
improve business processes in practically all industries[10-11].
4. 2 TRADITIONAL METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION:
I. Linear Programming: Linear programming (LP) is a mathematical method for determining a way to
achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a given mathematical model for
some list of requirements represented as linear equations.
II. Dynamic Programming: Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method, and a
computer programming method. In both contexts, it refers to simplifying a complicated problem by
breaking it down into simpler sub problems in a recursive manner.
III. Monte Carlo method: These are a class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated
random sampling to compute their results. Monte Carlo methods are often used in
simulating physical and mathematical systems. Because of their reliance on repeated computation
of random or pseudo-random numbers, these methods are most suited to calculation by a computer and
tend to be used when it is unfeasible or impossible to compute an exact result with a deterministic
algorithm.






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4.3 NON-TRADITIONAL METHOD OF OPTIMIZATION:
S.
No
OPTIMIZATION METHOD PROPOSED BY
1
Simulated Annealing Kirkpatrick , 1983
2
Ant Colony Optimization
(ACO)
Dorigo and Caro, 1999
3
Random Cost Kost and Baumann, 1999
4
Evolution Strategy Kost, 1995
5
Genetic Algorithms Holland, 1975
6
Cellular Automata Wolfram, 1994

SIMULATED ANNEALING:
FOLLOWING ARE THE NON TRADITIONAL METHODS OF OPTIMIZATIO:-
Simulated annealing (SA) is a related global optimization technique that traverses the search space by testing
random mutations on an individual solution. A mutation that increases fitness is always accepted. A mutation
that lowers fitness is accepted probabilistically based on the difference in fitness and a decreasing temperature
parameter. Simulated annealing (SA) is a generic probabilistic metaheuristic for the global optimization problem
of applied mathematics, namely locating a good approximation to the global minimum of a given function in a
large search space. It is often used when the search space is discrete (e.g., all tours that visit a given set of cities). For
certain problems, simulated annealing may be more effective than exhaustive enumeration provided that the goal is
merely to find an acceptably good solution in a fixed amount of time, rather than the best possible solution.
The name and inspiration come from annealing in metallurgy, a technique involving heating and controlled
cooling of a material to increase the size of its crystals and reduce their defects. The heat causes the atoms to
become unstuck from their initial positions (a local minimum of the internal energy) and wander randomly
through states of higher energy; the slow cooling gives them more chances of finding configurations with lower
internal energy than the initial one.SA can also be used within a standard GA algorithm by starting with a
relatively high rate of mutation and decreasing it over time along a given schedule.
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ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION:
Ant colony optimization (ACO) uses many ants (or agents) to traverse the solution space and find locally
productive areas. While usually inferior to genetic algorithms and other forms of local search, it is able to
produce results in problems where no global or up-to-date perspective can be obtained, and thus the other
methods cannot be applied. The ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) is a probabilistic technique for
solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding good paths through graphs. Ant colony
optimization (ACO) is a population-based metaheuristic that can be used to find approximate solutions to
difficult optimization problems.
In ACO, a set of software agents called artificial ants search for good solutions to a given optimization problem.
To apply ACO, the optimization problem is transformed into the problem of finding the best path on a
weighted graph. The artificial ants (hereafter ants) incrementally build solutions by moving on the graph. The
solution construction process is stochastic and is biased by a pheromone model, that is, a set of parameters
associated with graph components (either nodes or edges) whose values are modified at runtime by the ants.
RANDOM COST METHOD:
Random cost method is a stochastic algorithm which moves as enthusiastically uphill as downhill. The method
has no severe problem in escaping from a dead end and is able to find the optima.
(1)EVALUATION STRATEGY(ES):
Evolution strategies (ES) proposed by Rechenberg, 1994 evolve individuals by means of mutation and
intermediate and discrete recombination. ES algorithms are designed particularly to solve problems in the real-
value domain. They use self-adaptation to adjust control parameters of the search. n computer science, evolution
strategy (ES) is an optimization technique based on ideas of adaptation and evolution. It was created in the early 1960s
and developed further along the 1970s and later by Ingo Rechenberg, Hans-Paul Schwefel and his co-workers, and
belongs to the more general class of evolutionary computation or artificial evolution.
Evolution strategies use natural problem-dependent representations, and primarily mutation and selection as
search operators. As common with evolutionary algorithms, the operators are applied in a loop. An iteration of
the loop is called a generation. The sequence of generations is continued until a termination criterion is met.
As far as real-valued search spaces are concerned, mutation is normally performed by adding a normally
distributed random value to each vector component. The step size or mutation strength (i.e. the standard
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deviation of the normal distribution) is often governed by self-adaptation. Individual step sizes for each
coordinate or correlations between coordinates are either governed by self-adaptation or by covariance matrix
adaptation.
(2)CELLULAR AUTOMATA (CA):
A CA is a discrete modelstudiedincomputability theory, mathematics, physics, Complexity Science, theoretical
biology and microstructure modeling. It consists of a regular grid of cells, each in one of a finite number of
states, such as "On" and "Off". The grid can be in any finite number of dimensions. For each cell, a set of cells
called its neighborhood (usually including the cell itself) is defined relative to the specified cell. For example,
the neighborhood of a cell might be defined as the set of cells a distance of 2 or less from the cell. An initial
state (time t=0) is selected by assigning a state for each cell. A new generation is created (advancing t by 1),
according to some fixed rule (generally, a mathematical function) that determines the new state of each cell in
terms of the current state of the cell and the states of the cells in its neighborhood. For example, the rule might
be that the cell is "On" in the next generation if exactly two of the cells in the neighborhood are "On" in the
current generation; otherwise the cell is "Off" in the next generation. Typically, the rule for updating the state of
cells is the same for each cell and does not change over time, and is applied to the whole grid simultaneously,
though exceptions are known. A cellular automaton is a discrete dynamical system consisting of identical
elements whose behavior is completely specified in terms of local rules. They consist of infinite number of cells
arranged in a regular grid such that each cell can exist in one of the finite number of possible states. The grid
can be two-dimensional consisting of cells or multi-dimensional where it consists of hypercube. Each cell in the
grid is aware of the state of its neighboring cells and changes its own state based on the states of its neighbors at
any instance of time.
By repeating such interactions with neighbors, a collective behavior pattern of the entire grid emerges.
In cellular automata, all the objects are assembled from the same kind of structural elements and are subject to
the same laws. These laws or rules are uniformly applied to all the cells to determine their state at each time
step. The paper proposes an optimization methodology that uses cellular automata by describing local rules in a
search space grid to cluster the search space based on the pattern of constraint violations and to obtain the
optima within each of the clusters. Clustering is defined as an attempt to find natural groups of components (or
data) based on some similarity metric. Clustering algorithms have been employed in the past to group large sets
of data into clusters of similar data.
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INTRODUCTION:
A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search technique used in computing to find exact
or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. Genetic algorithms are categorized as global
search heuristics. Genetic algorithms are a particular class of evolutionary algorithms (EA) that use
techniques inspired by evolutionary biology such as inheritance, mutation, selection, and crossover. Genetic
algorithms are implemented in a computer simulation in which a population of abstract representations
(called chromosomes or the genotype of the genome) of candidate solutions (called individuals, creatures,
or phenotypes) to an optimization problem evolves toward better solutions. Traditionally, solutions are
represented in binary as strings of 0s and 1s, but other encodings are also possible.
4.4 HISTORY OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS:
Computer simulations of evolution started as early as in 1954 with the work of Nils Aall Barricelli, who was
using the computer at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. His 1954 publication was not
widely noticed. Starting in 1957, the Australian quantitative geneticist Alex Fraser published a series of papers
on simulation of artificial selection of organisms with multiple loci controlling a measurable trait. From these
beginnings, computer simulation of evolution by biologists became more common in the early 1960s, and the
methods were described in books by Fraser and Burnell (1970) and Crosby (1973). Fraser's simulations
included all of the essential elements of modern genetic algorithms. In addition, Hans Bremermann published
a series of papers in the 1960s that also adopted a population of solution to optimization problems, undergoing
recombination, mutation, and selection. Bremermann's research also included the elements of modern genetic
algorithms. Other noteworthy early pioneers include Richard Friedberg, George Friedman, and Michael
Conrad. Many early papers are reprinted by Fogel (1998).
Although Barricelli, in work he reported in 1963, had simulated the evolution of ability to play a simple
game, artificial evolution became a widely recognized optimization method as a result of the work of Ingo
Rechenberg and Hans-Paul Schwefel in the 1960s and early 1970s - Rechenberg's group was able to solve
complex engineering problems through evolution strategies Evolutionary programming originally used finite
state machines for predicting environments, and used variation and selection to optimize the predictive logics.
Genetic algorithms in particular became popular through the work of John Holland in the early 1970s, and
particularly his book Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (1975). His work originated with studies
of cellular automata, conducted by Holland and his students at the University of Michigan. Holland introduced a
formalized framework for predicting the quality of the next generation, known as Holland's Schema Theorem.
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Research in GAs remained largely theoretical until the mid-1980s, when The First International Conference on
Genetic Algorithms was held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Recently, EAs, which are probabilistic optimum search methods using genetics and evolution theory has been
widely used. These are stochastic search methods that have been applied successfully in many search,
optimization, and machine learning problems In real-world problems, EAs can implement algorithms without
complex procedures and dont require lots of modification in software to handle additional constraints. Because
the search process is parallel, there is a high probability of finding optimal solutions. EAs also use objective
function information, not derivatives or other auxiliary knowledge .A variety of evolutionary algorithms have
been proposed in literature. The major ones are:
Genetic algorithms (GA),
Evolutionary programming (EP),
Evolution strategies (ES),
Classifier systems (CS), and
Genetic programming(GP).
4.5 FUCNTIONING OF A GENETIC ALGORITHM:
The evolution usually starts from a population of randomly generated individuals and happens in generations.
In each generation, the fitness of every individual in the population is evaluated, multiple individuals
are stochastically selected from the current population (based on their fitness), and modified (recombined and
possibly randomly mutated) to form a new population. The new population is then used in the next iteration of
the algorithm. Commonly, the algorithm terminates when either a maximum number of generations has been
produced, or a satisfactory fitness level has been reached for the population. If the algorithm has terminated due
to a maximum number of generations, a satisfactory solution may or may not have been reached.
A typical genetic algorithm requires:
1. a genetic representation of the solution domain,
2. a fitness function to evaluate the solution domain.
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The Genetic algorithm is based on Darwins principle that The candidates, which can survive, will live, others
would die. This principal is used to find fitness value of the process for solving maximization problems.
Minimization problems are usually transferred into maximization problems using some suitable
transformations. Fitness value f (x) is derived from the objective function and is used in successive genetic
operations. The fitness function for maximization problem can be used the same as objective function F(X ) .
Coming up with an encoding is the first thing in genetic algorithm user has to do. The next step is to specify a
function that can assign a score to any possible solution or structure. The score is a numerical value that
indicates how well the particular solution solves the problem. Using a biological metaphor, the score is the
fitness of the individual solution. It represents how well the individual adapts to the environment. In case of
optimization, the environment is the search space. The task of the GAs is to discover solutions that have fitness
values among the set of all possible solutions. In general, a fitness function F(x) is first derived from the
objective function and used in successive genetic operations. Certain genetic operators require that the fitness
function be non-negative. For maximization problems, the fitness function be considered to be the same as
objective function or F(X) =f(x).For minimization problems, the fitness function is an equivalent maximization
problem chosen such that the optimum point remains unchanged. The following fitness function is often used in
minimization problems:
F(X) =
1
1+ I(x)

This information does not alter the location of the minimum, but converts a minimization problem to an
equivalent maximization problem. The fitness function value of a string is known as the strings fitness. A
standard representation of the solution is as an array of bits. Arrays of other types and structures can be used in
essentially the same way. The main property that makes these genetic representations convenient is that their
parts are easily aligned due to their fixed size, which facilitates simple crossover operations. Variable length
representations may also be used, but crossover implementation is more complex in this case. Tree-like
representations are explored in genetic programming and graph-form representations are explored
in evolutionary programming.
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Figure 4.1: Block diagram of genetic algorithm
The fitness function is defined over the genetic representation and measures the quality of the represented
solution. The fitness function is always problem dependent. For instance, in the knapsack problem one wants to
maximize the total value of objects that can be put in a knapsack of some fixed capacity. A representation of a
solution might be an array of bits, where each bit represents a different object, and the value of the bit (0 or 1)
represents whether or not the object is in the knapsack. Not every such representation is valid, as the size of
objects may exceed the capacity of the knapsack.

Figure 4.2: Genetic scheme of genetic algorithm

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4.6 GENETIC PARAMETERS:
Genetic parameters are a means of manipulating the performance of a Genetic Algorithm. There are many
possible implementations of Genetic Algorithms involving variations such as additional genetic operators,
variable sized populations and so forth. Listed below are some of the basic genetic parameters:
(i) Population Size (N)
(ii) Crossover rate (C)
(iii) Mutation rate (M)
(i). Population Size (N): Population size affects the efficiency and performance of the algorithm. Using a small
population size may result in a poor performance from the algorithm. This is due to the process not covering the
entire problem space. A larger population on the other hand, would cover more space and prevent premature
convergence to local minima. At the same time, a large population needs more evaluations per generation and
may slow down the convergence rate.
(ii). Crossover rate (C): The crossover rate is the parameter that affects the rate at which the process of
crossover is applied. In each new population, the number of strings that undergo the process of crossover can be
depicted by a chosen probability. This probability is known as the crossover rate. A higher crossover rate
introduces new strings more quickly into the population. If the crossover rate is too high, high performance
strings are eliminated faster than selection can produce improvements. A low crossover rate may cause
stagnations due to the lower exploration rate, and convergence problems may occur. In a GA literature the terms
over rated is usually as P
C
the probability of crossover. The probability varies from 0 to 1 . This is calculated in
GA by finding out the ratio of the number of pairs to be crossed to some fixed population. Typically for a
population size of 30 to 200 cross over rates are ranged from 0.5 to 1.
(iii). Mutation rate (M): Mutation rate is the probability with which each bit position of each chromosome in
the new population undergoes a random change after the selection process. It is basically a secondary search
operator which increases the diversity of the population. A low mutation rate helps to prevent any bit position
from getting trapped at a single value, whereas a high mutation rate can result in essentially random search. The
mutation operator preserves the diversity among the population which is also very important for the search.
Mutation probabilities are smaller in natural populations leading us to conclude that mutation is appropriately
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considered a secondary mechanism of genetic algorithm adoption. Typically, the genetic algorithms uses the
population size 30 to 200 with mutation rate varying from 0.001 to 0.5.
4.7 BASIC OPERATORS IN GENETIC ALGORITHM:
Following are the bam operation of genetic algorithm:-
1. Selection
2. Cross Over
3. Mutation
4.7.1 SELECTION:
Selection is the stage of a genetic algorithm in which individual genomes are chosen from a population for later
breeding (recombination or crossover).
A generic selection procedure may be implemented as follows:
1. The fitness function is evaluated for each individual, providing fitness values, which are then
normalized. Normalization means dividing the fitness value of each individual by the sum of all fitness
values, so that the sum of all resulting fitness values equals 1.
2. The population is sorted by descending fitness values.
3. Accumulated normalized fitness values are computed (the accumulated fitness value of an individual is
the sum of its own fitness value plus the fitness values of all the previous individuals). The accumulated
fitness of the last individual should of course be 1
4. A random number R between 0 and 1 is chosen.
5. The selected individual is the first one whose accumulated normalized value is greater than R.
If this procedure is repeated until there are enough selected individuals, this selection method is called fitness
proportionate selection or roulette-wheel selection. If instead of a single pointer spun multiple times, we have
multiple, equally spaced pointers on a wheel that we spin once, it is called stochastic universal sampling.
Repeatedly selecting the best individual of a randomly chosen subset is tournament selection. Taking the best
half, third or another proportion of the individuals is truncation selection.
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There are other selection algorithms that do not consider all individuals for selection, but only those with a
fitness value that is higher than a given (arbitrary) constant. Other algorithms select from a restricted pool where
only a certain percentage of the individuals are allowed, based on fitness value. The Reproduction is the
straightforward copying of an individual to the next generation. Reproduction is usually first operator applied
on a population. Reproduction selects good strings in a population and forms a mating pool. That is why the
reproduction operator is sometimes known as the selection operator. There exists a number of reproductions
operators in GA literature, but essential idea in all of them is that the above average strings are picked from the
current population and their multiple copies are inserted in the mating pool in a probabilistic manner. The
commonly used reproduction operator is the proportionate reproduction operator where a string is selected for
the mating pool with a probability proportional to its fitness. Thus, the ith string in the population is selected
with a probability proportional to fitness Fi.
ROULETTE-WHEEL SELECTION:
Fitness proportionate selection, also known as roulette-wheel selection, is a genetic operator used in genetic
algorithms for selecting potentially useful solutions for recombination.In fitness proportionate selection, as in
all selection methods, the fitness function assigns fitness to possible solutions or chromosomes. This fitness
level is used to associate a probability of selection with each individual chromosome. If f
i
is the fitness of
individual i in the population, its probability of being selected is,
P
i
=
FI
Fj
n
]=1

Where N is the number of individuals in the population.
This could be imagined similar to a Roulette wheel in a casino. Usually a proportion of the wheel is assigned to
each of the possible selection based on their fitness value. This could be achieved by dividing the fitness of a
selection by the total fitness of all the selections, thereby normalizing them to 1. Then a random selection is
made similar to how the roulette wheel is rotated.
While candidate solutions with a higher fitness will be less likely to be eliminated, there is still a chance that
they may be. Contrast this with a less sophisticated selection algorithm, such as truncation selection, which will
eliminate a fixed percentage of the weakest candidates. With fitness proportionate selection there is a chance
some weaker solutions may survive the selection process; this is an advantage, as though a solution may be
weak, it may include some component which could prove useful following the recombination process.
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The analogy to a roulette wheel can be envisaged by imagining a roulette wheel in which each candidate
solution represents a pocket on the wheel; the size of the pockets are proportionate to the probability of
selection of the solution. Selecting N chromosomes from the population is equivalent to playing N games on the
roulette wheel, as each candidate is drawn independently.

Figure 4.3: Roulette-wheel selection
This is the commonly used reproduction operator where a string is selected from the mating pool with a
probability proportional to the fitness. Thus i
th
string in the population is selected with a probability proportional
to F
i
where F
i
is the fitness value for that string. Since the population size is usually kept fixed in a simple GA,
the sum of the probabilities of each string being selected for the mating pool must be one. One way to
implement this selection scheme is to imagine a Roulette-wheel with its circumference for each string marked
proportionate to strings fitness as given in Figure 4.3. . The fitness of the population is calculated as Roulette
wheel spun `n times each time selecting an instance of the string chosen by the Roulette wheel pointer. Since
the circumference of the wheel is marked according to a strings fitness. For the above figure the third individual
has a higher fitness than any other, it is expected that the Roulette-wheel selection will choose the third
individual more than any other individual.
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RANK SELECTION: The Roulette-Wheel will have problem when the fitness values differ very much. For
example, if the best chromosome fitness is 90% of Roulette-Wheel, then other
Table1. Population/fitness
Figure 4.4: Rank selection diagram
Chromosomes will have very few chances to be selected. Rank Selection first ranks the population and taken
every chromosome, receives fitness from the ranking.
TOURNAMENT SELECTION:
Tournament selection is a method of selecting an individual from a population of individuals in a
genetic algorithm. Tournament selection involves running several "tournaments" among a few individuals
chosen at random from the population. The winner of each tournament (the one with the best fitness) is selected
for crossover. Selection pressure is easily adjusted by changing the tournament size. If the tournament size is
larger, weak individuals have a smaller chance to be selected. GA uses a strategy to select the individuals from
the population and insert them into the mating pool. Individuals from the mating pool are used to generate new
offspring, which are the basis for the next generation. As the individuals in the mating pool are the ones whose
genes will be inherited by the next generation it is desirable that the mating pool consists of good individuals. A
selection strategy in GA is simply a process that favours the selection of better individuals in the population for
the mating pool.
There are two important issues in the evolution process of genetic search, population diversity and
selective pressure. Population diversity means that the genes from the already discovered good individuals are
exploited while promising the new areas of the search space continue to be explored. Selective pressure is the
degree to which the better individuals are favoured. The higher the selective pressure the more the better
individuals are favoured. The selective pressure drives GA to improve population fitness over succeeding
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generations. The convergence rate of GA is largely determined by the selective pressure and population
diversity. In general, higher selective pressure results in higher convergence rates. However, if the selective
pressure is too high, there is an increased chance of GA prematurely converging to local optimal solution
because the population diversity of the search space to be exploited is lost.
STEADY STATE SELECTION: This is not a particular method of selecting the parents. The main idea of
selection is that bigger part of chromosome should survive to next generation, Here GA, works in the following
way. In every generation are selected, a few chromosomes for creating new offsprings. Then some
chromosomes with low fitness are removed and new offspring is placed in that place. The rest of population
survives as a new generation.
BOLTZMANN SELECTION:
Simulated annealing is a method of functional minimization or maximization. This method simulates the
process of slow cooling of molten metal to achieve the minimum function value in a minimization problem. The
cooling phenomenon is simulated by controlling a temperature like parameter introduced with the concept of
Boltzmann probability distribution so that a system in thermal equilibrium at a temperature T has its energy
distributed probabilistically according to
P(E) = exp [
L
k1

Where `k is Boltzmann constant. This expression suggests that a system at a high temperature has almost
uniform probability of being at any energy state, but at a low temperature it has a small probability of being
high energy state. Therefore, by controlling the temperature T ans assuming search
4.7.2 CROSS OVER:
After the reproduction phase is over, the population is enriched with better individuals, Reproduction makes
clones of good strings, but does not create new ones. Cross over operator is applied to the mating pool. The aim
of the crossover operator is to search the parameter space. In addition, search is to be made in a way that the
information is stored in the present string is maximally preserved because these parent strings are instances of
good strings selected during reproduction. Cross Over is a recombination operator, which proceeds in three
steps. First, the reproduction operator selects at random a pair of two individual strings for mating, then a cross
site is selected at random along the string length and the position values are swapped between the strings
following the cross site.
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SINGLE POINT CROSS OVER : In a single site crossover a cross site is selected randomly along the
length of the mated strings and bits are exchanged.






Figure 4.5: Single point cross over
One crossover point is selected, binary string from beginning of chromosome to the crossover point is copied
from one parent, and the rest is copied from the second parent.
TWO POINT CROSSOVER - Two crossover point are selected, binary string from beginning of chromosome
to the first crossover point is copied from one parent, the part from the first to the second crossover point is
copied from the second parent and the rest is copied from the first parent





Figure 4.6: Two point cross over

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0
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UNIFORM CROSSOVER - Bits are randomly copied from the first or from the second parent. In a uniform
crossover operator, each bit from either parent is selected with probability of 0.5 and then interchanged as
shown in figure. It is seen that uniform cross over is radically different


PARENT -1


PARENT - 2

BEFORE CROSSING

CHILD - 1



CHILD -2

INTERCHANGE INTERCHANGE
Figure 4.7: Uniform cross over
from one point cross. Sometimes gene in the offspring is created by copying the corresponding gene from one
or the other parent chosen according to a randomly generated cross over mask.


0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1
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ARITHEMETIC CROSS OVER: - Some arithmetic operation is performed to make a new offspring

4.7.3 MUTATION:
Mutation also plays a role in this process, although how important its role is, depends upon the conditions. It is
also known as background operator .It plays dominant role in the evolutionary process. It cannot be stressed too
strongly that the genetic Algorithm is not a random search for a solution to a problem for highly fit individual. It
consists of randomly selecting a mutation point. The genetic algorithm uses stochastic processes, but the result
is distinctly non-random. Genetic Algorithms are used for a number of different applications areas. An example
of this would be multidimensional optimization problems in which the character string of the Chromosome can
be used to encode the values for the different parameters being optimized. Mutation is an important operator, as
newly created individuals have no new inheritance information, this process results in contraction of the
population at one single point, which is wished one. Mutation operator changes 1 to 0 at only one placein the
whole string with a small probability and vice versa.
e.g. Child 1 101100
Let mutation is done at location 5 the new child will be
New child 1 01110
In general, the mutation probability is fixed through out the whole process. However a small mutation
probability results in small premature convergence but the search with large fixed mutation probability will not
converge a lot so this operator is seldom used in the process.




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4.8 STAGES IN A GENETIC ALGORITHM:
INITIALIZATION:
Initially many individual solutions are randomly generated to form an initial population. The population size
depends on the nature of the problem, but typically contains several hundreds or thousands of possible
solutions. Traditionally, the population is generated randomly, covering the entire range of possible solutions
(the search space). Occasionally, the solutions may be "seeded" in areas where optimal solutions are likely to be
found.
SELECTION:
During each successive generation, a proportion of the existing population is selected to breed a new generation.
Individual solutions are selected through a fitness-based process, where fitter solutions (as measured by a fitness
function) are typically more likely to be selected. Certain selection methods rate the fitness of each solution and
preferentially select the best solutions. Other methods rate only a random sample of the population, as this
process may be very time-consuming.
Most functions are stochastic and designed so that a small proportion of less fit solutions are selected. This
helps keep the diversity of the population large, preventing premature convergence on poor solutions. Popular
and well-studied selection methods include roulette wheel selection and rank method selection.
REPRODUCTION:
The next step is to generate a second generation population of solutions from those selected through genetic
operators: crossover (also called recombination), and/or mutation.For each new solution to be produced, a pair
of "parent" solutions is selected for breeding from the pool selected previously. By producing a "child" solution
using the above methods of crossover and mutation, a new solution is created which typically shares many of
the characteristics of its "parents".
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Figure 4.8: Stages in a typical genetic algorithm
New parents are selected for each new child, and the process continues until a new population of solutions of
appropriate size is generated. Although reproduction methods that are based on the use of two parents are more
"biology inspired", some research suggests more than two "parents" are better to be used to reproduce a good
quality chromosome. These processes ultimately result in the next generation population of chromosomes that is
different from the initial generation. Generally the average fitness will have increased by this procedure for the
population, since only the best organisms from the first generation are selected for breeding, along with a small
proportion of less fit solutions, for reasons already mentioned above.



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TERMINATION
This generational process is repeated until a termination condition has been reached. Common terminating
conditions are:
A solution is found that satisfies minimum criteria
Fixed number of generations reached
Allocated budget (computation time/money) reached
The highest ranking solution's fitness is reaching or has reached a plateau such that successive iterations
no longer produce better results
Manual inspection
Combinations of the above
4.9 STEPS IN GENETIC ALGORITHM:
1. Choose the initial population of individuals
2. Evaluate the fitness of each individual in that population
3. Repeat on this generation until termination: (time limit, sufficient fitness achieved, etc.)
I. Select the best-fit individuals for reproduction
II. Breed new individuals through crossover and mutation operations to give birth to offspring
III. Evaluate the individual fitness of new individuals
IV. Replace least-fit population with new individuals.
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Figure 4.9: Typical GA representation
4.10 WHEN IN USE GENETIC ALGORITHM:
Genetic Algorithms should be used in case
1. Alternate solutions are too slow or overly complicated.
2. Need an exploratory tool to examine new approaches,
3. Problem is similar to that has already been successfully solved by using Genetic Algorithm
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4. We want to hybridize with an existing solution
5. Benefits of Genetic Algorithm technology meet key problem requirements.
4.11 GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLICATIONS:
DOMAINS APPLICATION TYPES
Control Pole Balancing, Gas Pipe line
Design Semi Conductor Layout, air craft design
Scheduling Manufacturing, resource allocation
Robotics Trajectory Planning
Game Playing Poker, Checker, Prisoners Dilemma
Signal Processing Filter designing

In addition to the above applications Genetic Algorithms have wide range of applications in areas of
Learning Robot behavior using Genetic Algorithms, Learning fuzzy rule base using genetic algorithms
and in Electronic circuit design, known as Evolvable hardware. Quality control.
In power systems, the GAs has been used to:
contingency analysis and security assessment of power systems,
economic load dispatch,
loss reduction using power system reconfiguration,
power system expansion planning, distribution network planning,
power system restoration planning.

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4.12 ADVANTAGES OF GENETIC ALGORITHM:
Easy to understand
Modular, Separate from application
Supports multiple objective optimization
We always get an answer and the answer gets better with time
Inherently parallel and easily distributed.
Easy to exploit for previous or alternate solutions
Flexible in forming building blocks for hybrid applications
It has substantial history and range of use.
Robust in Nature
4.13 APPLICATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO HYBRID SYSTEMS:
Neural Networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are soft computing methods which have been inspired by
biological computational processes and natures problem solving strategies. Genetic Algorithms inspired by the
process of biological evolution, are adaptive search and optimization algorithms. The objective of hybridization
is to overcome the weakness in one technology during its application, with the strengths of the other by
appropriately integrating them. Hybridization should only be performed for the purpose of investigating better
methods of
NEURO- GENETIC HYBRIDS: Neural networks can learn various tasks from training examples; classify
phenomena, and model nonlinear relationships. However, the primary features that are of concern in the design
of the network are problem specific. Despite the availability of some guidelines, it would be helpful to have
computational procedure in this aspect, especially for the optimum design of an Neural Network. Genetic
Algorithms have offered themselves as potential candidates for the optimization of parameters of Neural
Networks. Genetic Algorithms encode the parameters of neural networks as a string of properties of the
network that is Chromosomes. A large population of Chromosomes representing the many possible parameter
sets for the given Neural Networks is generated. Combined GA-NN technology also known as GANN has the
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ability to locate the neighborhood of the optimal solution GANN strategies tend to converge slower than the
conventional ones.
FUZZY GENETIC HYBRIDS: Fuzzy systems have been integrated with GAs. Kosko (1992) has shown
that the fuzzy systems like NNs are universal approximators in the fact that they exhibit the capability to
approximate general nonlinear functions to any desired degree of accuracy. The adjustment of the system
parameters that is called for in the process, so that the system output matches the training data, has been tackled
using GAs. Several parameters with a fuzzy system is involved with namely input/output variables and the
membership functions that define the fuzzy systems, have been optimized using GA s. Fuzzy Genetic Hybrid
system applicable on fuzzy optimization problems. The system obtains optimal solution to problems with fuzzy
constraints and fuzzy variables.














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CHAPTER FIVE
GENETIC ALGORITHMS BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION
MOTOR DRIVE
















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5.1 SIMULATION OF GA BASED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

Figure. 5.1: Speed controlled of induction motor with genetic algorithm
In the Fig.5.1 the structure of conventional simulation of induction motor is shown. According to the model
the AC voltage source that is the sinusdoial signal generator predefined by MATLAB/simulink, is applied to
Parks transformation matrix, then abc system will be converted to d-q form. In the next step the voltage sources
that are imaged into d-axis and q-axis are applied to induction motor model. According to the previous section
and proven equations the induction motor equations are expressed in d-q frame. The outputs after calculating
the expressed equations, will be stator and rotor currents separately in the d-axis and q-axis, torque and rotor
speed. It can be the last stage but for more result clearance the currents are converted to abc frame with the help
of inverse Parks transformation. So according to existance of different parts in this model the following
headings will be discussed in details:
AC source
Abc to DQ0 Parks transformation
Induction motor in d-q model
Stator flux linkage calculation in q-axis
Rotor flux linkage calculation in q-axis
Stator flux linkage calculation in d-axis
Rotor flux linkage calculation in d-axis
Stator current calculation in the q-axis
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Rotor current calculation in the q-axis
Stator current calculation in the d-axis
Rotor current calculation in the d-axis
Mutual flux linkage calculation in the q-axis
Mutual flux linkage calculation in the d-axis
Electrical Torque calculation
Rotor speed calculation
Generation and cost calculation
5.2 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION WITH GENETIC ALGORITHMS BASED FUZZY
CONTROLLER
In this section the simulation results shows the speed, torque, stator and rotor currents.

Fig. 5.2: Speed characristics with GA controller Fig. 5.3: torque characteristics with GA controller

Fig. 5.4: Stator currents with GA controller Fig. 5.5: Rotor currents with GA controller

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Fig 5.6: GA optimization values
From simulation results, it appears that the rising time drastically decreases when Fuzzy controller is added and
Genetic Algorithm shows better result against to the Fuzzy controller, and all three results are taken in same
period of time. For underestanding how is the effect of Genetic Algorithm on the motor activity improvements.
The comparative aproach will clarify the difference between conventional simulation, Genetic
Algoritham,Fuzzy controller based simulation and ANFIS simulation.
5.3 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION WITH GA,ANFIS,FUZZY
In this section the simulation results shows the speed, torque, stator and rotor currents.

Fig 5.7: Speed with GA controller Fig 5.8: Torque with GA controller
From this result, the simulation of rotor current and stator is same in the GA and ANFIS and FUZZY
so that in this the genetic algorithm gives the best result to controlled the induction motor. Now a days induction
motor is a very useful in the industries so that the controlling the speed and gives the good efficiency is very
important.
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Fig. 5.9:Speed with ANFIS



Fig. 5.11: Stator currents with ANFIS

Fig. 5.10: Torque with ANFIS



Fig. 5.12: Rotor currents withANFIS
From simulation results, it appears that the rising time drastically decreases when FC is added and ANFIS
shows better result against to the FC, and all three results are taken in same period of time. For underestanding
how is the effect of ANFIS on the motor activity improvements. The comparative aproach will clarify the
difference between conventional simulation, Fuzzy controller based simulation and ANFIS simulation.
5.4 Comparative approach to Different AI based Simulation of Induction Motor
After modeling and simulation of Induction motor in conventional, Genetic algorithm and fuzzy and
ANFIS based models are tested .The results of simulation for induction motor which its characteristics are
expressed in Appendix C are given as following:
Genetic algorithm gives the best optimization solution and it is easy calculated the complex and variable
values so that genetic algorithms is the best method to controlled the speed of induction motot.

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Fig. 5.13: Speed Response of Conventional
Controller with fuzzy

From these three Figures, it is appear the rising
time drastically decreased when fuzzy
controller added to simulation model and also
ANFIS shows better result against to the FC,
and all three results are taken in same period of
time.



Fig. 5.15: Speed Response of ANFIS

Fig 5.16: Speed Response of GA Controller
Fig 5.17: Torque Response of GA Controller


















Fig. 5.14: Speed Response of Fuzzy
Controller


For more clarification in the following part the
table shows numerical comparison between
these three different methods in the speed
domain of induction motor.


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Speed in
conventional
Simulation
(rpm)

Speed in
FC based
simulation
(rpm)
Speed in
ANFIS
based
simulation
(rpm)
Speed in
GENETIC
ALGORITHM
based
simulation(rpm)

0.5

65

400

600
900

1

150

800

1000
1250

2

240

1680

1710
1710

4

580

1710

1710
1710

8

1460

1710

1710
1710

10

1640

1710

1710
1710
Table 5.1 Speed comparison between Conventional, Genetic algorithm, fuzzy and ANFIS



Fig. 5.18 Torque Response of Conventional
Controller



As it is apparent converging to zero in FC
based and ANFIS is happening intensively in
less duration of time.


Fig. 5.19 Torque Response of ANFIS


Fig. 5.20 Torque Response of Fuzy Controller


Time
line
Speed
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This are the final output of the speed and torque of the induction motor using genetic algorithm and its gives
the optimize solution. This is the best method to controller the induction motor of speed compare to other
methods like ANFIS, Fuzzy, and its gives the better results show in bellow.


Fig 5.21: Speed Response of GA Controller Fig 5.22: Torque Response of GA Controller

Many successful applications of GAs for controller design indicate that GAs can be a powerful tool in
the hands of a control engineer. In particular the fact that GAs require nothing more than a fitness measure to
work and pose no restrictions to the problem at hand, gives them an edge over most regular methods in dealing
with non-linear systems and uncertainty. We therefore conclude that control engineers should consider the use
of GAs when they are faced with a control problem and the regular techniques cannot handle very well provided
their application can accept the resource intensive nature of GAs.







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5.5 CONTINUOS GENETIC ALGORITHM MATLAB CODE
We propose a method to build discrete Markov chain models of continuous stochastic optimisers that can
approximate them on arbitrary continuous problems to any precision. We discretise the objective function using
a finite element method grid which produces corresponding distinct states in the search algorithm. Iterating the
transition matrix gives precise information about the behaviour of the optimiser at each generation, including
the probability of it finding the global optima or being deceived. The approach is tested on a (1+1)-ES, a bare
bones PSO and a real-valued GA . The predictions are remarkably accurate. This method easy calculate the
complex values,so that the below code is a continuous genetic algorithm.
MATLAB CODE APPIX A:
%continous genetic algorithm
clc
clear all
ff=@testfunction;
npar=2;
varhi=5.3109e+005;
varlo=2;
maxit=100;
mincost=-999999;
popsize=12;
mutrate=0.2;
selection=0.5;
Nt=npar;
keep=floor(selection*popsize);
nmut=ceil((popsize-1)*Nt*mutrate);
M=ceil((popsize-keep)/2);
iga=0;
par=(varhi-varlo)*rand(popsize,npar)+varlo;
cost=feval(ff,par);
[cost,ind]=sort(cost);
par=par(ind,:);
minc(1)=min(cost);
meanc(1)=mean(cost);
while iga<maxit
iga=iga+1;
M=ceil((popsize-keep)/2);
prob=flipud([1:keep]'/sum([1:keep]));
odds=[0 cumsum(prob(1:keep))'];
pick1=rand(1,M);
pick2=rand(1,M);
ic=1;
while ic<=M
for id=2:keep+1
if pick1(ic)<=odds(id)&&pick1(ic)>odds(id-1)
ma(ic)=id-1;
end
if pick2(ic)<=odds(id)&&pick2(ic)>odds(id-1)
pa(ic)=id-1;
end
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end
ic=ic+1;
end
ix=1:2:keep;
xp=ceil(rand(1,M)*Nt);
r=rand(1,M);
for ic=1:M
xy=par(ma(ic),xp(ic))-par(pa(ic),xp(ic));
par(keep+ix(ic),:)=par(ma(ic),:);
par(keep+ix(ic)+1,:)=par(pa(ic),:);
par(keep+ix(ic),xp(ic))=par(ma(ic),xp(ic))-r(ic).*xy;
par(keep+ix(ic)+1,xp(ic))=par(pa(ic),xp(ic))+r(ic).*xy;
if xp(ic)<npar
par(keep+ix(ic),:)=[par(keep+ix(ic),1:xp(ic))
par(keep+ix(ic)+1,xp(ic)+1:npar)];
par(keep+ix(ic)+1,:)=[par(keep+ix(ic)+1,1:xp(ic))
par(keep+ix(ic),xp(ic)+1:npar)];
end
end
mrow=sort(ceil(rand(1,nmut)*(popsize-1))+1);
mcol=ceil(rand(1,nmut)*Nt);
for ii=1:nmut
par(mrow(ii),mcol(ii))=(varhi-varlo)*rand+varlo;
end
cost=feval(ff,par) %#ok<NOPTS>
[cost,ind]=sort(cost);
par=par(ind,:);
minc(iga+1)=min(cost);
meanc(iga+1)=mean(cost);
if iga>maxit|cost(1)<mincost %#ok<OR2>
break
end
[iga cost(1)] %#ok<NOPTS>
% [par]

end
%displays output
day=clock;
disp(datestr(datenum(day(1),day(2),day(3),day(4),day(5),day(6)),0))
format short g
disp(['popsize= ' num2str(popsize)])
disp(['mutrate= ' num2str(mutrate)])
disp(['selection= ' num2str(selection)])
disp(['#par= ' num2str(npar)])
disp(['#generations= ' num2str(iga)])
disp(['best cost= ' num2str(cost(1))])
disp(['best solution= ' num2str(par(1,:))])
disp('continuous genetic algorithm')
figure(24)
iters=0:length(minc)-1;
plot(iters,minc,iters,meanc,'-');
xlabel('generation');
ylabel('cost');
text(0,minc(1),'best');
text(1,minc(2),'population average')



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Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 98
5.6 TEST FUNCTION MATLAB CODE APPIX B
%Test function for optimization
%Set funnum to the function you want to use
function f=testfunction(x)
%L=0.632930;
%ns=1;
n=0.975;p=4;
% vid=1.0; vic=0.793673;
%sij=0.043351; sji=sij;
funnum=2;

if funnum==1 %speed of IM
f=(1-(n*(x(:,1))));
elseif funnum==2 %speed of IM
f=(120*(x(:,1))/p);
end

end


5.7 CONCLUSION
In this Thesis, simulation results of the induction motor are presented in conventional, Genetic
Algorithm and fuzzy control and ANFIS based models. As it is apparent from the speed curve in two models,
the genetic algorithm controller drastically decreased the rising time, in the manner which the frequency of sin
waves are changing according to the percentage of error from favorite speed, so firing signals of IGBTs in
PWM are continuously changing, then the frequency of applied voltage to IM naturally will increase, thus
according to the direct relation of induction motor speed and frequency of supplied voltage the speed will
increase also. With results obtained from simulation, it is clear that for the same operation condition of
induction motor using genetic algorithm controller had better performance than the conventional controller. And
also with comparing fuzzy and ANFIS model with FC model it is apparent adding learning algorithm to the
control system will decrease the rising time more than expectations.

5.8 THE SCOPE OF THE FUTURE WORKS
In the power system some things like testing process, operator training, apparatus modeling, costly
failures, integrating a subsystem into the system without any fault are some of the concerns of engineers that
can be harmful and cost effective. Research on high level modeling, new converter-inverter topologies and
control strategies are the major research areas in electrical drives. So according to expressed problems there are
some rational reasons for creating digital control on electrical machines and drives. A particular merit of this
approach is that it even permits a gradual change from simulation to actual application, as it allows to start from
a pure simulation and to gradually integrate real electrical and mechanical subsystems into the loop as they
GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 99
become available. A simulation can help reduce development cycles, cut overall cost, prevent costly failures,
increase repeatability through controlled environment and test a subsystem exhaustively before integrating it
into the system.
Today, it is more common to test controllers using simulated motor models in a real-time environment.
This methodology offers several distinct advantages. For example, the simulated motor drive can be tested with
borderline conditions that would damage a real motor, often a costly prototype. While testing, a controller is
interfaced with the real-time simulated motor drive through a set of proper I/Os. Such motor drive simulation is
required for motor drive manufacturers to accelerate development and testing time, by using real-time
simulation before making tests on physical prototypes
Appendix C
Following are the parameters of the induction motor chosen for the simulation studies:
V = 220 f = 60 HP = 3 R
s
= 0.435
R
r
= 0.816 X
ls
= 0.754 X
lr
= 0.754 X
m
= 26.13
p = 4 J = 0.089 rpm = 171















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BIO-DATA
Name: DHARAVATH NAGESWARA RAO
Father Name: D RAMACHANDRU
Roll. No: 11011D4318
Date of Birth: 16 JUNE 1989
Nationality: INDIAN
Communication Address:
VI) PAINAMPALLY THANDA (PO) THIMMARAO PETA (MD) ENKOOR
(DI) KHAMMAM AP.
PIN Code: 507168
Ph. No: +91- 9908338521
e-mail: munnadharavath9@gmail.com
GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED SIMULATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 2013

Jntuh College Of Engi neering Hyderabad Page 103
Permanent Address:
VI) PAINAMPALLY THANDA (PO) THIMMARAO PETA (MD) ENKOOR
(DI) KHAMMAM AP.
PIN Code: 507168
Ph. No: +91- 9908338521
e-mail: munnadharavath9@gmail.com
Qualifications: M.Tech (POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING)
Area of Interest:Power systems,power electronics,control systems, mathematical
modeling.
Declaration: I do hereby declare that the information furnished above is true to the
best of my knowledge.
(D NAGESWARA RAO )