Tag:
Mathematics
/
Combination Versus Permutation
Combination and permutation are terms that refer to the selection of a subset of
objects from a larger set or pool of objects.
Combination refers to the selection process where the order of the selected objects
is not important to the problem being addressed. An example of a combination is
finding how many groups of four people can be formed from a population of fifteen
people.
Permutation refers to the selection of a group of elements or objects from the total
available number of elements or objects, and the arrangement of the selected items
in a certain order. To follow the above example, if the groups of four people were
subdivided into president, vicepresident, secretary and treasurer, then the order of
those selected would be important and would need to be factored in when selecting
the groups.
Statistical theory, in particular those concepts termed set theory, are important to
computer related privacy and security issues. By use of programs that can rapidly
project combinations and permutations of letters and symbols, hackers are often
able to gain unauthorized access to programs and data. Such brute
forcehacking often involves the generation of millions of expressions to be checked
against the actual password. Although not elegant, programs without some non
randomized security element or key are often easily cracked by the highspeed
generation of combinations and permutations of symbols.
Formula #1: Find the number of combinations of n elements taken r at a time.
nCr= n!/r!(nr)!
Example:
In how many ways can a sample of 4 chocolates be selected from a box of 12 chocolates?
Answer:
12C4 = 12!/[4!(124)!] = 12!/(4!8!) = 495
Hence, there are 495 possible ways to select 12 chocolates taken 4 chocolates at a time.
Formula #2: Find the number of combinations of n elements with n1 elements taken r1 at a time, n2 elements taken r2 at a time, etc.
C = n1Cr1 n2Cr2 ...
(a) Number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time, when p particular things
are always included =
np
C
rp
.
(b) Number of combination of n different things, taken r at a time, when p particular things
are always to be excluded =
np
C
r
Example: In how many ways can a cricketeleven be
chosen out of 15 players? If (i) A particular player is always chosen,(ii) A particular is never
chosen.
Ans: (i) A particular player is always chosen, it means that 10 players are selected out of
the remaining 14 players. =. Required number of ways = 14C10 =
14
C
4
= 14!/4!x19! = 1365
(ii) A particular player is never chosen, it means that 11 players are selected out of 14
players. => Required number of ways = 14C11 = 14!/11!x3! = 364
(c) Number of ways of selecting zero or more things from n different things is given by: 2
n

1
Example: John has 8 friends. In how many ways can he invite one or more of them to
dinner? Ans. John can select one or more than one of his 8 friends.=> Required number of
ways = 2
8
1 1= 255.
(d) Number of ways of selecting zero or more things from n identical things is given by :
n+1
Example: In how many ways, can zero or more letters be selected form the letters AAAAA?
Ans. Number of ways of : Selecting zero 'A's=1, Selecting one 'A's = 1 , Selecting two 'A's
=1, Selecting three 'A's = 1 Selecting four 'A's = 1 , Selecting five 'A's = 1 =>
Required number of ways = 6 [5+1]
(e) Number of ways of selecting one or more things from p identical things of one type
qidentical things of another type, r identical things of the third type and n different
things is given by:  (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)2
n
 1
Example: Find the number of different choices that can be made from 3 apples, 4 bananas
and 5 mangoes, if at least one fruit is to be chosen.
Ans: Number of ways of selecting apples = (3+1) = 4 ways Number of ways of selecting
bananas = (4+1) = 5 ways. Number of ways of selecting mangoes = (5+1) = 6 ways.
Total number of ways of selecting fruits = 4 x 5 x 6 But this includes, when no fruits
i.e. zero fruits is selected => Number of ways of selecting at least one fruit = (4x5x6)
1 = 119 Note:  There was no fruit of a different type, hence here n=o => 2
n
= 2
0
=1
(f) Number of ways of selecting r things from n identical things is 1.
(g)
n
C
k
=
n
C
n  k
Division of similar objects
Below post is from my comment
@ http://www.cat4mba.com/node/6201
updated here as I thought it might help others
Lets make the question a bit simple. Say we have 6 similar balls and we want to distribute it among 3 persons where each person
should get at least one ball.
Imagine that the 6 balls are placed somewhere and we want to divide it into three groups by putting two separators (marks) in
between them
This division can be made in many different ways like
Now think what exactly we are doing we are putting 2 different marks in 5 different places. How many combinations are possible?
Isnt it
5
C
2
?
Now suppose we did not have the restriction of giving at least one ball to each person.
Then we can put the marks in either end and so total number of places becomes 7 (6 + 2 1)
So its permutation of 7 different items where 2items are of type 1 and 5 are of type 2.
Possible number of arrangements = 7! / 5! 2!
In general,
If n identical objects are to be distributed among m persons then the number of possible ways of doing it is
n1
C
m1
when each person should get at least one object
n+m1
C
m1
w/o any restriction.
Permutations
Tag:
Mathematics
/
BY THE SYMBOL n! ("n factorial") we mean the product of consecutive numbers 1 through n.
n! = 1 x 2 x 3 x . . . . x (n  2) x (n  1) x n
=n x (n  1) x (n  2) x . . . .x 3 x 2 x 1
The order of the factors does not matter, whether backwards or forwards.
0! is defined as 1. 0! = 1
(The usefulness of this definition will become clear as we continue.)
Example. 6! = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 = 720 Any factorial less than n! is a factor of n!.
Counting Principles
Counting principles describe the total number of possibilities or choices for certain selections. The two fundamental counting
principles are listed below.
Fundamental Counting Principle 1:
If the number of events be n, and the number of outcomes for each event in an experiment be Ti (such that i = 1 for the first event, 2
for the second event, ..., and n for the nth event), then the total number of outcomes for all event is T1 x T2 x . . . . x Tn.
Example:
A movie theater sells 3 sizes of popcorn (small, medium, and large) with 3 choices of toppings (no butter, butter, extra butter). How
many possible ways can a bag of popcorn be purchased?
Answer:
3 x 3 = 9
Fundamental Counting Principle 2:
If the number of mutually exclusive (no common elements) experiments be m, and the total number of outcomes for all events in
each experiment be xj (such that j = 1 for the first experiment, 2 for the second experiment, ..., and m for the mth experiment), then
the total number of outcomes for all experiments is x1 + x2 + ... + xm.
Arrangements Sets (n Permutations m)
Permutation is the selection of subsets from a set of elements when the order of the selected elements is a factor.
BY THE PERMUTATIONS of the letters abc we mean all of their possible arrangements: abc acb bac bca cab cba
There are 6 permutations of three different things
The arrangements of n elements taken m at a time represent, in fact, a partial permutation. Older books use the notation nPm (n
Permutation m) for arrangements:
nPm = n! / (nm)!
The number of permutations of n different things taken n at a time is n!.
Important Notes:
a) Number of permutations of n things, taken r at a time, when a particular thing is to be always included in each arrangement = r
n
1
Pr1
(b) Number of permutations of n things, taken r at a time, when a particular thing is fixed: = n1 Pr1
(c) Number of permutations of n things, taken r at a time, when a particular thing is never taken: = n1 Pr.
(d) Number of permutations of n things, taken r at a time, when m specified things always come together = m! x ( nm+1) !
(e) Number of permutations of n things, taken all at a time, when m specified things always come together = n !  [ m! x (nm+1)! ]
(f) The number of permutations of n elements with n1 of repeated element, n2 of another repeated element, etc. taken n at a time.
P=n!/(n1!)(n2!)
(g) The number of arrangement of n different things, taken r at a time, when each may be repeated any number of times in each
arrangement, is n
r
Circular permutations
There are two cases of circularpermutations: 
(a) If clockwise and anti clockwise orders are different, then total number of circularpermutations is given by (n1)!
(b) If clockwise and anticlockwise orders are taken as not different, then total number of circularpermutations is given by (n1)!/2!
Number of circularpermutations of n different things taken r at a time:
(a) If clockwise and anticlockwise orders are taken as different, then total number of circularpermutations = nPr /r
(b) If clockwise and anticlockwise orders are taken as not different, then total number of circular permutation = nPr/2r
Examples
Q1. Your state issues license plates consisting of letters and numbers. There are 26 letters and the letters may be repeated. There
are 10 digits and the digits may be repeated. How many possible license plates can be issued with two letters followed by three
numbers?
a. 25000
b. 67600
c. 676000
d. 250000
Ans:
26 x 26 x 10 x 10 x 10
Q2. How many different signals can be made by 5 flags from 8flags of different colours?
Ans. Number of ways taking 5 flags out of 8flage = 8P5
= 8!/(85)!
= 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 = 6720
Q3. Find the total number of words that can be made by using all the letters from the word MACHINE using only once.
a. 7320
b. 5040
c. 720
d. 12340
Ans:
5040
Q4. In how many ways can the letters of the word ABACUS be rearranged such that the vowels always appear together?
a. 4! x 3!
b. 3! x 3!
c. (4! x 3!)/3!
d. (4! x 3!)/2
Answer:
d. (4! x 3!)/2
Q5. In how many different ways, can 4 boys and 4 girls can arrange themselves in a circle such that boys & girls alternate?
Answer: After fixing one girl round the table, remaining 3 girls can sit in 3!ways. Since boys & girls have to alternate there will be four
places, one place each between two girls. These four places can be filled by 4 boys in 4! ways. Hence, by the law of multiplication,
the required Number. of ways = 4! x 3! = 144
Q6. How many words can be made by using the letters of the word "SIMPLETON" taken all at a time?
Ans. There are 9 different letters of the word SIMPLETON
Number of Permutations taking all the letters at a time = 9P9
= 9! = 362880.
Q7. How many different 4dgit numbers can be made from the first 4 natural numbers, using each digit only once?
a. 24
b. 18
c. 12
d. 120
Q8. Heather has finally narrowed her clothing choices for the big party down to 3 skirts, 2 tops and 4 pair of shoes. How many
different outfits could she form from these choices?
a. 12
b. 24
c. 36
d. 48
Ans: 3x2x4
Q9. In how many ways can 5 letters be posted in 3 post boxes, if any number of letters can be posted in all of the three post boxes?
a. 5C3
b. 5P3
c. 5
3
d. 3
5
Answer: d
Probability
Tag:
Mathematics
/
An experiment is a situation involving chance or probability that leads to results called
outcomes.
An outcome is the result of a single trial of an experiment.
An event is one or more outcomes of an experiment.
Probability is the measure of how likely an event is.Probability starts with logic. There is a
set of N elements. We can define a subset of n favorable elements, where n is less than or
equal to N. Probability is defined as the rapport of the favorable cases over total cases, or
calculated as:
P=n/N
It is the Fundamental Formula of Probability (FFPr) and everything in theory of probability is
derived from it.
NOTESAn urn contains w white balls and b black balls (w > 0 and b > 0). The balls are
thoroughly mixed and two are drawn, one after the other, without replacement.
Let W
i
andB
i
denote the respective outcomes 'white on the ith draw' and 'black on the ith
draw,' for i= 1, 2.
P(W2) = P(W
1
) = w/(w + b). (Which clearly implies a similar identity for B
2
and B
1
.)
Furthermore, P(W
i
) = w/(w + b), for any i not exceeding the total number of balls w + b.
In order to measure probabilities, mathematicians have devised the following formula for
finding the probability of an event.
Combining Events If E and F are events In an experiment, then:
E' is the event that E does not occur.
E U F is the event that either E occurs or F occurs (or both).
E F is the event that both E and F occur.
E and F are said to be disjoint or mutually exclusive if (E F) is empty
Some Properties of Estimated Probability
Let S = {s
1
, s
2
, ... , s
n
} be a sample space and let P(s
i
) be the estimated probability of the
event {s
i
}. Then
(a) 0 P(s
i
) 1
(b) P(s
1
) + P(s
2
) + ... + P(s
n
) = 1
(c) If E = {e
1
, e
2
, ..., e
r
}, then P(E) = P(e
1
) + P(e
2
) + ... + P(e
r
).
In words:(a) The estimated probability of each outcome is a number between 0 and 1.
(b) The estimated probabilities of all the outcomes add up to 1.
(c) The estimated probability of an event E is the sum of the estimated probabilities of the
individual outcomes in E.
Empirical Probability
The empirical probability, P(E), of an event E is a probability determined from the nature of
the experiment rather than through actual experimentation.
The estimated probability approaches the empirical probability as the number of trials gets
larger and larger.
Notes
1. We write P(E) for both estimated and empirical probability. Which one we are referring to
should always be clear from the context.
2. Empirical probability satisfies the same properties (shown above) as estimated
probability:
Abstract Probability
An abstract finite sample space is just a finite set S. An (abstract) probability distribution is
an assignment of a number P(s
i
) to each outcome s
i
in a sample space S ={s
1
, s
2
, ... , s
n
}
so that
(a) 0 P(s
i
) 1
(b) P(s
1
) + P(s
2
) + ... + P(s
n
) = 1.
P(s
i
) is called the (abstract) probability of s
i
. Given a probability distribution, we obtain the
probability of an event E by adding up the probabilities of the outcomes in E.
If P(E) = 0, we call E an impossible event. The event f is always impossible,
sincesomething must happen.
Notes 1. Abstract probability includes both estimated and empirical probability. Thus, all
properties of abstract probability are also properties of estimated and empirical
probability. As a consequence, everything we say about abstract probability applies equally
well to estimated and empirical probability.
2. From now on, we will speak only of "probability," meaning abstract probability, thus
covering both estimated and empirical probability, depending on the context.
Addition Principle Mutually Exclusive Events
If E and F are mutually exclusive events, then P(E F) = P(E) + P(F).
This holds true also for more events: If E
1
, E
2
, . . . , E
n
are mutually exclusive events (that
is, the intersection of any pair of them is empty) and E is the union of E
1
, E
2
, . . . , E
n
, then
P(E) = P(E
1
) + P(E
2
) + . . . + P(E
n
).
General Addition Principle
If E and F are any two events, then P(E F) = P(E) + P(F)  P(E U F).
Further Properties of Probability . /The following are true for any sample space S and any
event E.
P(S) = 1
The probability of something
happening is 1.
P(f) = 0
The probability of nothing
happening is 0.
P(E') = 1P(E)
The probability of E not
happening is 1 minus the probability of E.
Conditional Probability
If E and F are two events, then the conditional probability, P(EF), is the probability that E
occurs, given that F occurs, and is defined by
P(EF) = P(E F)/P(F)
We can rewrite this formula in a form known as the multiplication principle:
P(EF) P(F) = P(E F)
Test for Independence
The events E and F are independent if and only if
P(E F) = P(E)P(F).
If two events E and F are not independent, then they are dependent.
Given any number of mutually independent events, the probability of their intersection is
the product of the probabilities of the individual events.
Bayes' Theorem The short form of Bayes' Theorem states that if E and F are events, then
P(FE) =
P(EF)P(F)

.
P(EF)P(F) + P(EF')P(F')
We can often compute P(FE) by instead constructing a probability tree.(To see how, go to
the tutorial by following the link below.)
An expanded form of Bayes' Theorem states that if E is an event, and if F
1
, F
2
, and F
3
are a
partition of the sample space S, then
P(F
1
E) =
P(EF
1
)P(F
1
)

P(EF
1
)P(F
1
) + P(EF
2
)P(F
2
) + P(EF
3
)P(F
3
)
A similar formula works for a partition of S into four or more events
Man Hour Work
Tag:
Mathematics
/
Most of the questions asked in CAT from the chapter MAN HOUR WORK are complicated in nature and requires a good reasoning
skill. First try to understand the basics and solve the questions given here as example before moving to the questions in Question
Bank.
CONCEPT
Lets take an example of building a bridge.
You have been told that 10 men worked for 10 days and 8 hours daily to complete the above task.
Now lets analyze few different cases by changing some of the above variables associated with the task.
Case1: You are asked to build a similar bridge at some other place but with less number of people (say 8) then its quite obvious
that the number of days required shall increase.
(Note: Here we are assuming that each man does same amount of work in a given time frame)
Case 2: You have to build one more bridge with 10 men but the number of working hours reduced to 6 hr daily. In this case the
number of daysll also increase.
Case 3: Lets consider another case where we are in a hurry and required to finish the work in less number of days (say 5).
Then what well have to do?
We have to increase either the number of workers or the number of working hours per day or both.
Case 4: Finally lets consider a situation where we are required to build more than one bridge (say 2).
Here if we want to build the bridge in 10 days then we would be required to increase either the number of workers or the number of
working hours per day or both.
If we dont increase the number of workers or working hour then the time taken to complete the bridge will be definitely more.
From all the above cases it can be concluded that each task/work can be represented with 4 variables
M = number of men
D = number of days
H = number of hours per day
W = amount of work
And the basic relationship among the variables is
MDH/W = Constant
In the above specified situation
M = 10 , D = 10, H =8 and W = 1
Now try to answer the following questions
1. How long will it take 8 men to complete the bridge working 6 hours per day?
2. If the bridge is required to be completed in 5 days then how many workers need to work 6 hour per day to complete the job
3. How many days it ll take for 10 men working 10 hours per day to build 3 similar bridges?
Answer 1: M1=8 , H1=6 and W1=1
Using the formula
MDH/W= M1D1H1/ W1
We get
10 x 10 x 8 = 8 x D1 x 6
=> D1 = 100/6 = 50/3 days
Similarly try to solve the other two questions and discuss it in forum if you have any difficulty in doing so.
Problem Solving
With the above mentioned concept you can solve any kind of MAN HOUR WORK problem but for few specific problems it is easier
to attempt the problem in a different way .
If five men finish a work in 6 hours then 3 men will finish the same work in __________ many hours?
Method 1: This problem assumes that all men do the same amount of Work in an hour, and that they would do, say, twice as much
work in two hours.
The first phrase: "Five men finish the work in 6 hours" is simply a
Statement of how much work is to be done. We know how many men; we know how many hours; but we are not told how much
work. That is a clue that the problem demands us to figure out what sort of number, with what sort of units, can be attached to the
word work.
Each men works for 6 hours and there are 5 men. So the total effort given is 30 man hour. Now that we know how much work three
men must do, it is not so hard to figure out how long it will take them to do it
Simply divide 30 by 3 and the answer is 10 hour.
You can use the MDH/W formula to calculate it and the result ll be the same. Here W and D are 1.
Method 2:
The first step is to find out what fraction each men contributes to the completion of the job.
5 men complete the job in 6 hour.
=> One man can complete the job in 30 hours.
=> One man does 1/30th of the job each hour.
=> 3 men ll do 3/30(=1/10)th job in each hour.
=> The job can be done in 10 hours
(Read the above lines carefully and try to understand it thoroughly as itll help you in solving many MHW problem)
Lets try to solve one more problem with method 2
Question: Rama is able to do a job in 10 days working alone and Anil is able to do the same job in 20 days, working alone
(i). How long will they take to do the job if both of them work together ?
(ii)If they work alternately (provided Rama starts)?
Sol.(i) Rama completes the job in 10 days
=>Rama does 1/10th of the job in one day
Anil completes the job in 20 days
=>Anil does 1/20th of the job in one day
So total job done in one day (when both work together) = 1/10 + 1/20 = 3/20
Number of days taken by them would be 20/3
Sol (ii) When they work on alternate days, starting with Rama, it means that on first day, Rama works. On second day, Anil works,
on third day, Rama works, and so on.
Therefore, in first two days, the fractional contribution to the amount of work is 3/20.
So in 6 two days they would complete 18/20th of the work (i.e 12 working days)
So total job left after 12th day = 1 18/20 = 1/10
And on 13 th day Rama would be working who completes 1/10th of the job in a day.
So the task would be completed on 12 + 1 = 13 th day.
EXAMPLE
Example 1: Let there be three men for a construction job. A completes the job in 30 days, B in 20 days and C demolishes the
construction in 60 days, each person working alone. When will the construction be complete if
(a) they all work together
(b) they work on alternate day starting with A, then B and then C
Sol.(a) When they all work together, fractional work done on each day = 1/30 + 1/20 1/60 = 4/60 = 1/15. Therefore, they will take
15 days to complete the job.
(b)When they work on alternate days, then we observe that in the first 3 days, the fractional work done is 4/60 (from (a)). The
greatest multiple of this fraction such that the fraction is less than 1 is 14 times this fraction, i.e., 56/60. Therefore, in 14 x 3 = 42
days, the fractional work done is 56/60 and the work left is 4/40 or 1/15. On 43rd day, A will do 1/30th of the work and we will be left
with 1/30th work, which will be done by B in 20/30 days or 2/3rd of the day. Therefore, total number of days taken would be 43 2/3
days.
Example 2:
A tank is fitted with 8 pipes, some of them that fill the tank and others that are waste pipe meant to empty the tank. Each of the pipes
that fill the tank can fill it in 8 hours, while each of those that empty the tank can empty it in 6 hours. If all the pipes are kept open
when the tank is full, it will take exactly 6 hours for the tank to empty. How many of these are fill pipes?
(1)2
(2)4
(3)6
(4)5
Solution:
Let the number of fill pipes be n'. Therefore, there will be 8n, waste pipes.
Each of the fill pipes can fill the tank in 8 hours. Therefore, each of the fill pipes will fill 1/8th of the tank in an hour.
Hence, n fill pipes will fill n/8th of the tank in an hour.
Similarly, each of the waste pipes will drain the full tank in 6 hours. That is, each of the waste pipes will drain 1/6th of the tank in an
hour.
Therefore, (8n) waste pipes will drain ((8n)/6)th of the tank in an hour.
Between the fill pipes and the waste pipes, they drain the tank in 6 hours. That is, when all 8 of them are opened, 1/6th of the tank
gets drained in an hour.
(Amount of water filled by fill pipes in 1 hour  Amount of water drained by waste pipes 1 hour) = 1/6th capacity of the tank drained in
1 hour.
Example 3:
A takes 2 days to finish a task, B takes twice that amount of time, C takes twice of B, and D takes twice of C. If they do it in pairs,
one pair takes twice the amount of time as the other,, which is the pair that takes longer?
a. A, B
b. B, C
c. B, D
d. C, D
ANS: b
Example 4:
30 cows graze a piece of grassland in 60 days, whereas 40 cows graze in 40 days. In how many days will 20 cows graze the grass
(assuming the grass grows every day)?
Sol.Let a be the initial quantity (in relevant units) of grass and b be the amount of grass eaten per day.
Then, 60 x 30 = 1800 = a + 60b and
40 x 40 = 1600 = a + 40b. Solving these equations, we get a = 1200 units and b = 10 units.
Example 5:
If A and B work together, they will complete a job in 7.5 days. However, if A works alone and completes half the job and then B
takes over and completes the remaining half alone, they will be able to complete the job in 20 days. How long will B alone take to do
the job if A is more efficient than B?
(1)20 days
(2)40 days
(3)30 days
(4)24 days
Solution:
Let a be the number of days in which A can do the job alone. Therefore, working alone, A will complete 1/a of the job in a day.
Similarly, let b the number of days in which B can do the job alone. Hence, B will complete 1/b of the job in a day.
Working together, A and B will complete (1/a + 1/b) of the job in a day. The problem states that working together, A and B will
complete the job in 7.5 or 15/2 days. i.e they will complete 2/15th of the job in a day.
Therefore,
(1/a + 1/b)=2/15 (i)
From statement 2 of the question, we know that if A completes half the job working alone and B takes over and completes the next
half, they will take 20 days.
As A can complete the job working alone in a days, he will complete half the job, working alone, in a/2 days.
Similarly, B will complete the remaining half of the job in b/2 days.
Therefore, or a/2 + b/2 = 20
=> a + b = 40
=>a = b 40  (2)
From (1) and (2) we get,
=> 600 = 80b  2b2
=> b
2
 40b + 300 = 0
=> (b  30)(b  10) = 0
=> b = 30 or b = 10.
If b = 30, then a = 40  30 = 10 or
If b = 10, then a = 40  10 = 30.
As A is more efficient then B, he will take lesser time to do the job alone. Hence A will take only 10 days and B will take 30 days.
If A takes 10 days to do a job, he will do 1/10th of the job in a day. Similarly, if 2/5ths of the job is done in a day, the entire job will
be done in 5/2 days
Example 6:
Mark can dig a ditch in 4 hours. Greg can dig the same ditch in 3 hours. How long would it take them to dig it together?
Solution: Let x = number of hours to dig the ditch together. If Mark takes 4 hours to dig the ditch, he can dig 1/4 of it in 1 hour. Greg
can dig 1/3 of it in one hour. Mark's rate is 1/4 and Greg's rate is 1/3. If it takes them x hours to dig it together, they can dig 1/x part
of it in 1 hour together. The total of the fractional part each can dig or 1/3 + 1/4 = the fractional part they can dig together in 1 hour.
1/3 + 1/4 = 1/x
Multiply be 12x to clear the fractions.
4x + 3x = 12
7x = 12
x = 12/7 or 1 5/7
SUMMARY
1. To solve work problems, you need to work with the same unit of measure within each problem. For example, you cannot mix
hours and minutes in the same equation.
2. You need to find the fractional part of the job that would be done in one unit of time, such as 1 minute or 1 hour. If a person can
do a complete job in 3 days, he can do 1/3 of it in 1 day.
3. The fractional part of the job one person can do in 1 day plus the fractional part another person can do in 1 day equals the
fractional part of the job the two can do together in 1 day. Example: If Bill can build 1/3 of a dog house in 1 day and Gary can build
1/5 of it in 1 day, together they can build 1/3 + 1/5 of the dog house in 1 day.
4. Rate of work x time = work done.
5. MDH/W = Constant