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Rev.S08

MAC 1114

Module 1

Trigonometric Functions

2 Rev.S08

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this module, you should be able to:

1. Use basic terms associated with angles.

2. Find measures of complementary and supplementary angles.

3. Calculate with degrees, minutes, and seconds.

4. Convert between decimal degrees and degrees, minutes, and

seconds.

5. Identify the characteristics of an angle in standard position.

6. Find measures of coterminal angles.

7. Find angle measures by using geometric properties.

8. Apply the angle sum of a triangle property.

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

3 Rev.S08

Learning Objectives (Cont.)

9. Find angle measures and side lengths in similar triangles.

10. Solve applications involving similar triangles.

11. Learn basic concepts about trigonometric functions.

12. Find function values of an angle or quadrantal angles.

13. Decide whether a value is in the range of a trigonometric

function

14. Use the reciprocal, Pythagorean and quotient identities.

15. Identify the quadrant of an angle.

16. Find other function values given one value and the quadrant.

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

2

4 Rev.S08

Trigonometric Functions

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

- Angles - Angles

- Angle Relationships and Similar Triangles - Angle Relationships and Similar Triangles

- Trigonometric Functions - Trigonometric Functions

- Using the Definitions of the Trigonometric - Using the Definitions of the Trigonometric

Functions Functions

There are four major topics in this module:

5 Rev.S08

What are the basic terms?

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

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! Two distinct points determine a line called

line AB.

! Line segment ABa portion of the line

between A and B, including points A and B.

! Ray ABportion of line AB that starts at A

and continues through B, and on past B.

A B

A B

A B

6 Rev.S08

What are the basic terms? (cont.)

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

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! Angle-formed by rotating a

ray around its endpoint.

! The ray in its initial

position is called the initial

side of the angle.

! The ray in its location after

the rotation is the terminal

side of the angle.

3

7 Rev.S08

How to Identify a Positive Angle and a

Negative Angle?

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! Positive angle: The

rotation of the terminal

side of an angle

counterclockwise.

! Negative angle: The

rotation of the terminal

side is clockwise.

8 Rev.S08

Most Common unit and Types of Angles

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! The most common unit for measuring angles is

the degree.

! The major types of angles are acute angle, right

angle, obtuse angle and straight angle.

9 Rev.S08

What are Complementary Angles?

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! When the two angles form a right

angle, they are complementary

angles. Thus, we can find the

measure of each angle in this

case.

k ! 16

k +20

The two angles have measures of

43 + 20 = 63 and 43 ! 16 = 27

4

10 Rev.S08

What are Supplementary Angles?

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! When the two angles form a straight

angle, they are supplementary

angles. Thus, we can find the measure of

each angle in this case too.

6x + 7 3x + 2

These angle measures are

6(19) + 7 = 121 and 3(19) + 2 = 59

11 Rev.S08

How to Convert a Degree

to Minute or Second?

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! One minute is 1/60 of a degree.

! One second is 1/60 of a minute.

12 Rev.S08

Example

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! Perform the calculation.

! Since 86 = 60 + 26, the

sum is written

! Perform the calculation.

! Write

5

13 Rev.S08

Example

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! Convert ! Convert 36.624

14 Rev.S08

How to Determine an Angle is

in Standard Position?

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! An angle is in standard position if its vertex is

at the origin and its initial side is along the

positive x-axis.

15 Rev.S08

What are Quadrantal Angles?

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! Angles in standard position having their terminal

sides along the x-axis or y-axis, such as angles

with measures 90, 180, 270, and so on, are

called quadrantal angles.

6

16 Rev.S08

What are Coterminal Angles?

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

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! A complete rotation of a ray results in an angle

measuring 360. By continuing the rotation,

angles of measure larger than 360 can be

produced. Such angles are called coterminal

angles.

17 Rev.S08

Example

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! Find the angles of smallest possible positive

measure coterminal with each angle.

! a) 1115 b) !187

! Add or subtract 360 as may times as needed to

obtain an angle with measure greater than 0 but

less than 360.

! a) b) !187 + 360 = 173 1115 3(360 )

!

o

35

=

o

o

18 Rev.S08

What are Vertical Angles?

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! Vertical Angles have equal measures.

! The pair of angles NMP and RMQ are vertical

angles.

M

Q

R

P

N

7

19 Rev.S08

Parallel Lines and Transversal

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! Parallel lines are lines that lie in the same

plane and do not intersect.

! When a line q intersects two parallel lines, q, is

called a transversal.

m

n

parallel lines

q

Transversal

20 Rev.S08

Important Angle Relationships

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Angle measures are equal. 2 & 6, 1 & 5,

3 & 7, 4 & 8

Corresponding angles

Angle measures add to 180. 4 and 6

3 and 5

Interior angles on the same

side of the transversal

Angle measures are equal. 1 and 8

2 and 7

Alternate exterior angles

Angles measures are equal. 4 and 5

3 and 6

Alternate interior angles

Rule Angles Name

m

n

q

21 Rev.S08

Example of Finding Angle Measures

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

! Find the measure of each

marked angle, given that

lines m and n are parallel.

! The marked angles are

alternate exterior angles,

which are equal.

m

n

(10x ! 80)

(6x + 4)

!

! One angle has measure

6x + 4 = 6(21) + 4 = 130

! and the other has measure

10x ! 80 = 10(21) ! 80 = 130

8

22 Rev.S08

Angle Sum of a Triangle

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

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! The sum of the measures of the angles of any

triangle is 180.

23 Rev.S08

Example of Applying the Angle Sum

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! The measures of two of

the angles of a triangle

are 52 and 65. Find the

measure of the third

angle, x.

! Solution

! The third angle of the

triangle measures 63.

52

65

x

24 Rev.S08

Types of Triangles: Angles

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! Note: The sum of the measures of the angles of

any triangle is 180.

9

25 Rev.S08

Types of Triangles: Sides

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! Again, the sum of the measures of the angles of

any triangle is 180.

26 Rev.S08

What are the Conditions for

Similar Triangles?

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! Corresponding angles must have the same

measure.

! Corresponding sides must be proportional.

(That is, their ratios must be equal.)

27 Rev.S08

Example of Finding Angle Measures

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

! Triangles ABC and DEF

are similar. Find the

measures of angles D and

E.

! Since the triangles are

similar, corresponding

angles have the same

measure.

! Angle D corresponds to

angle A which = 35

! Angle E corresponds to

angle B which = 33

A

C B

F

E

D

35

112 33

112

10

28 Rev.S08

Example of Finding Side Lengths

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

! Triangles ABC and DEF

are similar. Find the

lengths of the unknown

sides in triangle DEF.

A

C B

F

E

D

35

112 33

112

32

48

64

16

! To find side DE.

! To find side FE.

29 Rev.S08

Example of Application

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! The two triangles are

similar, so corresponding

sides are in proportion.

! The lighthouse is 48 m

high.

! A lighthouse casts a

shadow 64 m long. At the

same time, the shadow

cast by a mailbox 3 feet

high is 4 m long. Find the

height of the lighthouse.

64

4

3

x

30 Rev.S08

The Six Trigonometric Functions

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Click link to download other modules.

! Let (x, y) be a point other the origin on the terminal

side of an angle " in standard position. The

distance from the point to the origin is

The six trigonometric functions of " are defined as

follows.

11

31 Rev.S08

Example of Finding Function Values

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

! The terminal side of angle " in standard position

passes through the point (12, 16). Find the

values of the six trigonometric functions of

angle ".

(12, 16)

16

12

"

32 Rev.S08

Example of Finding Function Values (cont.)

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

! Since x = 12, y = 16, and r = 20, we have

33 Rev.S08

Another Example

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! Find the six trigonometric

function values of the

angle " in standard

position, if the terminal

side of " is defined by

x + 2y = 0, x # 0.

! We can use any point on

the terminal side of " to

find the trigonometric

function values.

12

34 Rev.S08

Another Example (cont.)

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Click link to download other modules.

! Choose x = 2

! The point (2, !1) lies on

the terminal side, and the

corresponding value of r is

! Use the definitions:

35 Rev.S08

Example of Finding Function Values with

Quadrantal Angles

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! Find the values of the six trigonometric functions for an angle

of 270.

! First, we select any point on the terminal side of a 270 angle.

We choose (0, !1). Here x = 0, y = !1 and r = 1.

36 Rev.S08

Undefined Function Values

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! If the terminal side of a quadrantal angle lies

along the y-axis, then the tangent and secant

functions are undefined.

! If it lies along the x-axis, then the cotangent

and cosecant functions are undefined.

13

37 Rev.S08

What are the Commonly Used

Function Values?

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undefined 1 undefined 0 1 0

360

!1 undefined 0 undefined 0 !1

270

undefined !1 undefined 0 !1 0

180

1 undefined 0 undefined 0 1

90

undefined 1 undefined 0 1 0

0

csc " sec " cot " tan " cos " sin " "

38 Rev.S08

Reciprocal Identities

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39 Rev.S08

Example of Finding Function Values

Using Reciprocal Identities

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! Find cos " if sec " =

! Since cos " is the

reciprocal of sec "

! Find sin " if csc "

14

40 Rev.S08

Signs of Function Values

at Different Quadrants

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! + ! ! + !

IV

! ! + + ! !

III

+ ! ! ! ! +

II

+ + + + + +

I

csc " sec " cot " tan " cos " sin " " in

Quadrant

41 Rev.S08

Identify the Quadrant

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! Identify the quadrant (or quadrants) of any

angle " that satisfies tan " > 0 and cot " > 0.

! tan " > 0 in quadrants I and III

! cot " > 0 in quadrants I and III

! so, the answer is quadrants I and III

42 Rev.S08

Ranges of Trigonometric Functions

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! For any angle " for which the indicated functions

exist:

! 1. !1 $ sin " $ 1 and !1 $ cos " $ 1;

! 2. tan " and cot " can equal any real number;

! 3. sec " $ !1 or sec " # 1 and

csc " $ !1 or csc " # 1.

(Notice that sec " and csc " are never between

!1 and 1.)

15

43 Rev.S08

Pythagorean Identities

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

44 Rev.S08

Quotient Identities

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45 Rev.S08

Example of Other Function Values

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! Find sin " and cos " if tan " = 4/3 and " is in

quadrant III.

! Since " is in quadrant III, sin " and cos " will both

be negative.

! sin " and cos " must be in the interval [!1, 1].

16

46 Rev.S08

Example of Other Function Values (cont.)

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

! We use the identity

47 Rev.S08

What have we learned?

We have learned to

1. Use basic terms associated with angles.

2. Find measures of complementary and supplementary angles.

3. Calculate with degrees, minutes, and seconds.

4. Convert between decimal degrees and degrees, minutes, and

seconds.

5. Identify the characteristics of an angle in standard position.

6. Find measures of coterminal angles.

7. Find angle measures by using geometric properties.

8. Apply the angle sum of a triangle property.

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

48 Rev.S08

What have we learned? (Cont.)

9. Find angle measures and side lengths in similar triangles.

10. Solve applications involving similar triangles.

11. Learn basic concepts about trigonometric functions.

12. Find function values of an angle or quadrantal angles.

13. Decide whether a value is in the range of a trigonometric

function

14. Use the reciprocal, Pythagorean and quotient identities.

15. Identify the quadrant of an angle.

16. Find other function values given one value and the quadrant.

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

17

49 Rev.S08

Credit

Some of these slides have been adapted/modified in part/whole from the

slides of the following textbook:

Margaret L. Lial, John Hornsby, David I. Schneider, Trigonometry, 8th

Edition

http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/

Click link to download other modules.

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