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R. K. Mallick, Member, IEEE, and R. K.

Patnaik, PG student

Abstract A new detection method for DC line faults in a
voltage source Converter based three terminal high voltage DC
(VSC-MTDC) systems is proposed in this paper. A three-
terminal MTDC model is used to investigate fault behavior and
detection of type of fault and the dc line of the model where fault
has occurred using the simulation program
MATLAB/SIMULINK. The fault clearing must be done very
rapidly, to limit the effect of the fault on neighboring DC lines
because of the rapid increase in DC current. However, before
clearing the line, the fault location must be detected as soon as
possible. A rapid fault location and detection algorithm is
therefore needed. The detection method proposed in this paper
uses wavelet decomposition to detect the type of fault and the
line in which fault has occurred, based on local measurements.
The energy of the fifth level detailed decomposed coefficients of
the positive line dc current is calculated for each case of fault.
The final objective is to form a decision tree by analyzing the
Energy values of each case and implementing it to a MATLAB
program which will accurately detect the type of fault and the dc
line of the model where fault has occurred. Simulation results
shows that the proposed method is simple and very effective in
fault detection on the dc side of a VSC-MTDC system.

Keywordsdc faults, Voltage source converters, multi-terminal
HVDC systems, MATLAB/ SIMULINK, fault detection,
Wavelet Analysis.

I. INTRODUCTION
Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) Transmission links is a fairly
new field of research. The MTDC can be said to be a DC
equivalent of AC grid which will have DC bus network at
their dc networks. MTDCs have been proposed for off-shore
wind farms [1], underground urban sub-transmission and
distribution systems [2], ship-board power supplies [3], and
as a back-bone for distributed and renewable generation
systems. It is a transmission network connecting more than
two AC/DC converter stations. A VSC-Multi-Terminal dc
Transmission link consists of a number of Voltage source
converters (VSCs) which are connected to a common dc
network. So it is increasingly being realized that MTDC
systems may be more attractive in many cases to fully exploit


This paper work was supported in part by the Multi-Disciplinary Research Lab
situated at Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar.
R. K. Mallick is with Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
Institute for Technical Education and Research under Siksha O Anusandhan University
(e-mail: ranjan_research@yahoo.com).
R. K. Patnaik is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute for
Technical Education and Research under Siksha O Anusandhan University (e-mail:
rkp.rajeshkumar@gmail.com).

978-1-4673-0136-7/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE
the economic and Technical advantages of the HVDC
systems.
When a fault occurs on the dc side of the Multi-Terminal DC
links, the dc current values rises to a very high level which
can damage the equipments connected across it. It also affects
the performance of all the VSC based systems which are
interconnected to it at the common dc terminal. This is the
main difficulty which is generally faced while detection of
faults on the dc side of the MTDC system. Depending on the
fact that, DC system does experience currents that do not
change in polarity makes it more difficult to extinguish the
current arc [4]. The protection system which includes
detection, classification and location of fault at preliminary
stage, may be the main problem when considering the
VSCHVDC Multi Terminal configurations and a complete
new method should be developed. Identifying the line in
which a fault occurs is not so easy and traditional AC
methods cannot be used .It is very much necessary to identify
which type of fault has occurred and which dc line is the
faulted line so that it can be protected.

II. TYPES OF FAULT ON THE DC SIDE
Voltage Source Converter based Multi Terminal DC systems
are easily exposed to faults on the DC systems. Classical
current-sourced-converter based (CSC) HVDC are naturally
able to withstand short circuit currents due the presence of
DC inductors which helps in limiting the current during fault
conditions [5]. When a fault occurs on the DC side of a VSC-
HVDC system the IGBTs lose control and the freewheeling
diodes act a bridge rectifier and feed the fault [6] as shown in
Figure 1.
The types of faults possible on the dc side of a MTDC system
are as follows.
1. Positive line to ground fault,
2. Negative line to ground fault,


Figure 1 VSC Operation (a) Normal. (b) Positive Line-to-Ground Fault.
3. Positive line to negative line fault,
4. Positive line to negative line to ground fault.
A line-to-ground fault occurs when the positive or negative
line is shorted to ground. In overhead lines faults may occur
when lightning strikes the line. This may cause the line to
Fault Analysis of Voltage-Source Converter
based multi- terminal HVDC transmission links
break, fall to the ground and create fault. The impact this type
of fault is that it discharges the dc capacitor to ground, thus
creating an imbalance of power on the dc side of the
Converters, which results in reducing the DC link voltage
between the positive and negative poles. As the voltage of the
faulted line begins to fall, high currents flow from the
capacitor as well as the AC grid. These high currents may
damage the capacitors and the converter [7]. A line-to-line
fault on a cable-connected system is less likely to occur on
the cable. In an overhead system, line-to-line faults occur,
when an object falls across the positive and negative line or
they may also occur in the event of the failure of a switching
device causing the lines to short. A switching fault, which is
independent of how the converter stations are connected
together, causes the positive bus to short to the negative bus
inside the converter. A line to line fault may be either
temporary or permanent. A challenge associated with the
protection of VSC-HVDC systems is that the fault current
must be detected and cleared very quickly, due to the fact that
converters fault withstand rating is only twice the converter
full load rating [6]. Fault detection is also important,
especially on multi terminal systems, in order to isolate the
fault and restore the system to working order.
III. WAVELET ANALYSIS
The Wavelet analysis is a new and powerful method of signal
analysis well suited to fault generated signals [8].This method
is very helpful to detect abrupt, local changes in a signal(e.g.
short time phenomenon such as transient processes etc.).The
necessary and sufficient condition for wavelets is that it must
be oscillatory, must decay quickly to zero and must have an
average value of zero. An important point is that wavelet
analysis does not use a time frequency region, but rather uses
a time-scale region. The windowing of wavelet transform is
adjusted automatically for low and high frequencies i.e.it uses
short time interval for high frequency components and long
time intervals for low frequency components. Wavelet
Analysis is based on decomposition of signals into Scales
using wavelet prototype function called mother wavelet.
The temporal analysis is performed with a contracted, high
frequency version of the mother wavelet, while the
frequency analysis is performed with a dilated low frequency
version of the mother wavelet. This wavelet is scaled and
translated to match an input signal locally. The subsequent
calculated wavelet coefficients represent the correlation
between the (scaled) wavelet and the signal. The generated
waveforms are analyzed with wavelet analysis to extract sub-
band information from the simulated disturbances.
Daubechies four wavelet is used in this paper as the mother
wavelet for the analysis as it closely matches the signal to be
processed, which is of utmost importance in wavelet
application. Also, the efficiency of daubechies wavelets based
on the accurate reconstruction of power system transient
signals as described in [9], and the suitability of daubechies
four wavelets for the analysis of power system transients
from the family of daubechies wavelets as described in [10]
are the basis for choosing daubechies four wavelets. The
wavelet transform decomposes signals over dilated and
translated wavelets. A wavelet is a function with a zero
average value
] (t)Jt

-
= 0 (1)
A wavelet transformation is characterized by a translation
parameter u and a dilation parameter [S[ .The dilation
parameter determines the size of the window in which the
wavelet transform is performed. The translation parameter
determines the time corresponding to the centre point of each
window. A wavelet is normalised [[ = 1 and centered in
the neighborhood of t=0. For each mother wavelet , a
family can be obtained by scaling by S and translation of
by u

u,S
(t) =
1
S
[
t-u
S
(2)
Also, the scaled and translated wavelets remains normalized.
The wavelet transform (W.T) of a signal f(t) at time u and
Scale S is calculated by
WT (u, S) = ] (t)

-
1
S

-
[
t-u
S
Jt (3)
with
-
the complex conjugate of the wavelet function .
IV. SIMULATION MODEL
The Figure 2 shows the model of a three-terminal MTDC
transmission link, which is simulated in MATLAB
/SIMULINK. There are two sending ends (line 1 and 2) and a
single receiving end (line 3).

The line 1 of the model consists of a 100 MVA, 230 kV, 50
Hz source whereas the line 2 consists of a 50 MVA, 230 kV,
50 Hz source which are interconnected and fed to a third
system, line3 which is a 230 kV grid. The parameters of the
various model elements are tabulated in Appendix A.
The line 1 and 2 consists of Voltage IGBT/Diode based
Voltage source converters (Rectifier stations) whereas the
line 3 consists of a single IGBT/Diode based Voltage source
converter (Inverter station). A circuit breaker along with a
fault resistance is used to apply various faults on the DC side
of the model. The entire model has been simulated with 50
Hz Frequency. Fixed step Simulation of the models has been
carried out using ode3 (Bogacki Shampine) solver.
Sampling has been done with 64 samples per cycle (50 Hz).
Therefore Sampling frequency is (64*50) Hz i.e. 3200Hz and
Sampling time=Ts= (1 /Sampling Frequency) =0.0003125
seconds. The model is simulated for 0.5 seconds i.e. 25
cycles. DC faults are given for a period of 0.1 seconds i.e.
from 0.2s to 0.3 sec i.e. 5 cycles. In the Simulink Models the
"Model initialization" function automatically sets the sample
times in the MATLAB workspace. The voltage and current of
the ac side of the model has been normalized to p.u. value
based on peak-value of nominal phase to phase voltage using
100 MVA as base power 230 KV as nominal voltage used for
p.u. measurement(I
rms
phase to phase). The behavior of the
three terminals VSC-MTDC model, during positive line to
ground fault conditions on DC transmission line in Line 1 is
being observed as under. As can be seen clearly from
Figure3 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), when a positive line to
ground fault in dc transmission line of line 1 occurs , it effects
the performance of all the systems which are interconnected
to it. As stated before, when a line to ground fault occurs, the
voltage across the dc side decrease, whereas the current
values are very high as to 2.5 p.u. There is a indication that
fault has occurred in the system on observing the waveforms



























































Figure 2 : MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of the three-terminal MTDC system

but it is very difficult to say the type of fault has occurred and
in which line the fault has occurred. For this reason, the value
of the current in the positive pole of the dc line which is
sampled at 64 samples per cycle is recorded and further
processed to a MATLAB program which uses wavelet
transform to detect and identify the type of fault and line in
which fault has occurred. This process has been performed
for thirteen cases (as there are 3 systems or lines and in each
line four types of faults are simulated, which results to twelve
cases, and a case of no fault condition), and each data has
been processed through the MATLAB program for detection
of fault.
V. WAVELET APPROACH FOR FAULT DETECTION
The Waveform of positive line dc current observed under
different cases has been recorded in a particular .mat files
which stores the values of time and amplitude of the signal in
the form of an array. Then the mat file consisting of positive
line dc currents of line 1,2and 3 are processed to an m-file
(which runs in MATLAB 2010 editor) which decomposes the
signals using db4 as mother wavelet for 5 levels. Then the
5th level Detailed Decomposition coefficients are being
plotted which clearly shows that when a line is under fault or
not. Under normal operating Condition, the wavelet output is
constant. Whenever there is a fault condition, the wavelet
output shows an abrupt change in the waveform in the
particular area of occurrence of the fault. This confirms us
that a fault has occurred in the system or not. The Energy for
the same 5th level Detailed Decomposition coefficients are
being computed using another m-file for various faults on dc
side is shown in table 1(a),(b),(c),(d) and (e). Finally
forming a decision tree by comparing the energy of the 5th
level detail decomposed coefficients, the type of the fault and
the line in which fault has occurred is determined. The energy
of the detailed coefficients of level w (E
w
) is nothing but the
sum of the square of all the coefficients of
w
.
Mathematically,
E
w
= |
w
(k)]
2 n
k=1
(4)

Where
w
(k) are the k
th
level wavelet coefficients within
the w
th
window and n is the window length.
VI. ALGORITHM FOR WAVELET DECOMPOSITION AND
ENERGY CALCULATION

Step1: Store the positive line dc current values in mat
files using suitable variable names.
Step2: Load the particular mat file into an m-file.
Step3: Load the particular values of the mat file
(which is to be processed) to a temporary variable i.e. y.
Step4: Now execute the Wavelet decomposition function on
the variable y using db4 as mother wavelet for 5 levels and
store the decomposed coefficients in variable C and
corresponding lengths in variable L.
GENERATOR
1
LINE 1
TRANSFORME
R 1
A.C LINE
1
SERIES
FILTER 1
CONVERTER
STATION 1
(RECTIFIER )
DC CAPACITOR BANK
1 AND DC
TRANSMISSION LINE 1
CONV_1_PULSE
SHUNT
FILTER
1
CONV_2_PULSE
GENERATOR
2
LINE 2
TRANSFORMER
2
A.C LINE
2
SERIES
FILTER 2
CONVERTER
STATION 2
(RECTIFIER )
DC CAPACITOR
BANK 2 AND DC
TRANSMISSION LINE
2
SHUNT
FILTER
2
GRID
LINE 3
TRANSFORMER
3
A.C LINE
3
SHUNT
FILTER
3
SERIES
FILTER 3
CONVERTER
STATION 3
(INVERTER )
Inv_pulse
DC CAPACITOR
BANK 3 AND DC
TRANSMISSION LINE
3
MEASUREMENT POWER GUI CONTROLLER








0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-2
-1
0
1
Time (in seconds) ------------------------>
A
C

V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(
i
n

p
.
u
.
)
-
-
>
Figure 3(a) Response of ac voltage to Rectifier of line 1 for a positive line to ground fault on the dc transmission line of line 1


0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-2
-1
0
1
Figure 3(b) Response of AC Voltage to Rectifier of line 2 for a positive line to ground fault on the dc transmission line of line 1
Time (in seconds)------------------->
A
C

V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(

i
n

p
.
u
.
)
-
-
>
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-2
-1
0
1
Time (in Seconds )----------------------->
Figure 3(c) Response of AC Voltage from Inverter of line 3 for a positive line to ground fault on the dc transmission line of line 1
A
C

V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(
i
n

p
.
u
.
)
-
-
-
>
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-1
0
1
2
Time ( in seconds)-------------------->
D
C

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(

i
n

p
.
u
.
)
-
-
-
>
Figure 3(d) Response of positive line dc current of line 1 for a positive line to ground fault in dc transmission line 1
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-1
0
1
2
Time ( in seconds)--------------------------------->
D
C

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
p
.
u
.
)
-
-
-
>
Figure 3(e) Response of positive line dc current of line 2 for a positive line to ground fault on the dc transmission line of line 1
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-2
0
2
4
Figure 3(f) Response of positive line dc current of line 3 for a positive line to ground fault on the dc transmission line of line 1
Time (in seconds) ----------------------->
D
C

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(

i
n

p
.
u
.
)
-
-
-
>

Figure 4 Wavelet output for 5
th
level detail coefficients of line 1, 2 and 3 for a positive line to ground fault in the dc side Transmission line of system 1

Step5: From the wavelet decomposition structure (C and L),
store the 5th level reconstructed detail coefficients in variable
D5.
Step6: Now plot the original signal and d5 in a single Figure.
Step7: Repeat all the above 6 steps for all the positive line dc
current values to get the final output of energy of the 5th level
detailed decomposed coefficients
Step 8: Now execute sum of the square of D5 and store it in
variable for example E_L1.
Step 9: Repeat all the above 8 steps for all the positive line
current DC currents of all the lines to get the final outputs of
energy.
As can be clearly seen from Figure 4 the region on wavelet
output where there is no fault is constant near zero. Whenever
there is an occurrence of fault, the output oscillates rapidly.

VII. TABLE FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF ENERGY OF LINE 1,2
AND 3 FOR DIFFERENT FAULT CONDITIONS

The energy values of the fifth level detailed reconstructed
coefficients have been calculated for various cases which are
shown in the Table 1(a),1(b),1(c),1(d),1(e). The base value
of the energy
has been taken as 400.

no fault Energy
Line 1 energy value
in p.u.
3.1030e-005
Line 2 energy value
in p.u.
2.1044e-005
Line 3 energy value
in p.u.
3.8159e-004

Table: 1(a) Energy values of 5th level detailed decomposed Coefficients of
negative line dc current for no fault condition




positive line to ground
fault
Fault in line
1
Fault in line
2
Fault in line
3
Line 1 energy value in
p.u.
0.0501 0.0474 0.0477
Line 2 energy value in
p.u.
0.0139 0.0145 0.0150
Line 3 energy value in
p.u.
0.0669 0.0877 0.0873
Table: 1(b) Energy values of 5th level detailed decomposed coefficients of
positive line dc current for positive line to ground fault

negative line to
ground
fault
Fault in line
1
Fault in line
2
Fault in line
3
Line 1 energy value in
p.u.
3.1571e-05 3.1647e-05 3.1631e-05
Line 2 energy value in
p.u.
2.1730e-05 2.2039e-05 2.1907e-05
Line 3 energy value in
p.u.
4.3027e-04 4.4202e-04 4.3164e-04
Table: 1(c) Energy values of 5th level detailed decomposed coefficients of
positive line dc current for negative line to ground fault
positive line to
negative line
fault
Fault in
line 1
Fault in
line 2
Fault in line 3
Line 1 energy
value
0.1159 0.2416 0.2227
Line 2 energy
value
0.1289 0.0563 0.0813
Line 3 energy
value
0.6977 0.7204 0.5728
Table: 1(d) Energy values of 5th level detailed decomposed coefficients of
positive line dc current for positive line to negative line fault

positive line to
negative line to
ground fault
Fault in
line 1
Fault in line
2
Fault in line 3
Line 1 energy value 0.0586 0.1262 0.1175
Line 2 energy value 0.0660 0.0338 0.0425
Line 3 energy value 0.4885 0.4644 0.3295
Table: 1(e) Energy values of 5th level detailed decomposed coefficients of
positive line dc current for positive line to negative line to ground fault
0 500 1000 1500 2000
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
number of coefficients----->
d
c

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

l
i
n
e

1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
>
0 500 1000 1500 2000
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
number of coefficients----->
5
t
h

l
e
v
e
l

d
e
t
a
i
l

w
a
v
e
l
e
t

c
e
o
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
s

l
i
n
e

1
-
-
-
>
0 500 1000 1500 2000
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
number of coefficients----->
d
c

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

l
i
n
e
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
>
0 500 1000 1500 2000
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
number of coefficients----->
5
t
h

l
e
v
e
l

d
e
t
a
i
l

w
a
v
e
l
e
t

c
e
o
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
s

l
i
n
e

2
-
-
-
>0 500 1000 1500 2000
-1
0
1
2
3
4
number of coefficients----->
d
c

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

l
i
n
e

3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
>
0 500 1000 1500 2000
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
number of coefficients----->
5
t
h

l
e
v
e
l

d
e
t
a
i
l

w
a
v
e
l
e
t

c
e
o
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
s

l
i
n
e

3
-
-
-
>







































Figure 5 Decision Tree for detecting the type of fault and the line in which fault has occurred in the 3- Terminal model
VIII. DECISION TREE FOR DETECTION OF TYPE OF FAULT AND
LINE IN WHICH FAULT HAS OCCURRED
The various values of Energy of the 5th level detailed
decomposed coefficients of positive line dc current of line 1,
2 and 3 (table 1(a) - 1(e)) which will be denoted in this paper
as E_L1, E_L2 and E_L3 respectively, are analyzed and
compared to form a decision tree to find or detect which type
of fault has occurred and which is the line (either line1 or 2 or
3) in which fault has occurred which is being shown in
Figure 5. Here P denotes to positive line, N denotes to
negative line and G denotes to ground.

IX. CONCLUSION
Detection of the type of fault occurred and the particular dc
line which is faulted, on the dc side of the Voltage Source
Converter based three-terminal MTDC system is very
challenging. It is due to the fact that unlike the ac side, when
a fault occurs on the dc side of a single converter of the
MTDC system, it affects the performance of all the VSCs
connected to it. The Voltage drops where as the currents
increases to a very large value during the fault condition.
From the observations of the waveforms of ac or dc side
voltage and currents during the fault condition, we can only

conclude that a fault has been occurred in the system, but this
is not enough when we are concerned for the protection of the
system. In Protection systems, fast and accurate detection of
faults is of utmost importance. Therefore a methodology
using wavelets is presented in this paper which allows us for
correct detection of the type of fault occurred and the exact
line where the fault has occurred. A simple decision tree has
been made on analyzing the different values of the Energy of
S
th
level decomposition coefficients of the positive line dc
currents during different fault conditions, which is applied to
a MATLAB program for the detection of faults. The obtained
results show the effectiveness of the method being developed,
for almost all the cases being simulated.










Get the 5
th
level detailed wavelet coefficients of the
positive line dc currents of line 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
Calculate the energy of the above coefficients and store it in variables
E_L1, E_L2 and E_L3 respectively.
if
E_L1<3.12*10^-5 ,
E_L2<2.15*10^-5
and E_L3<4*10^-4
if
E_L1>0.03,
E_L2>0.01 and
E_L3<0.09
if
E_L1>3.12*10^-5,
E_L2<2.3*10^-5 and
E_L3>4*10^-4
if
E_L1>0.1, E_L2<0.2
and E_L3>0.5

if
E_L1<0.13,
E_L2>0.03 and
E_L3>0.3
If
E_L2>0.0146
else
if
E_L2<0.0142
if
E L1>3.1635*10^-5
if E_L1<3.1600*10^-5
else
if
E_L3>0.7
if
E L3<0.6
else
if
E_L2>0.05
if
E_L2<0.04
else
No
fault
P-G
fault
in line
3
P-G
fault
in line
1
P-G
fault
in line
2
N-G
fault
in line
2
N-G
fault
in line
1
N-G
fault
in line
3
P-N
fault
in line
2
P-N
fault
in line
3
P-N
fault in
line 1
P-N-G
fault in
line 3
P-N-G
fault in
line 1
P-N-G
fault in
line 2
X. APPENDIX
The Specification of various components of the three
terminal MTDC systems as described in this is tabulated as
under
Sl.
N
o.
Elements Line 1
(Sending end
1)
Line 2
(Sending end 2)
Line 3
(Receiving end)
1 Voltage
Sources
230KV,50 Hz
R
s
=0.8929
I
s
=16.58mH
230KV, 50 Hz
R
s
=0.8929
I
s
=16.58mH
230KV, 50 Hz
I
s
=62.23mH
2 Source
Filters
I
s
= 62.23mH
R
p
=13.79
I
p
= 31.02mH
I
s
= 62.23mH
R
p
=13.79
I
p
= 31.02mH
R
p
=13.79
I
p
= 31.02mH
3 Transform-
ers
100 MVA,
230KV:100KV
50 MVA,
230KV:100KV
120 MVA,
100KV:230KV
4 AC
Transmiss-
ion
Lines
20 Km
R
0
=0.4054
R
1
=0.07375
I
0
=8.9524mH
I
1
=3.4358mH
C
0
=0.0044F
C
1
=0.0075F
10 Km
R
0
=0.4054
R
1
=0.07375
I
0
=8.9524mH
I
1
=3.4358mH
C
0
=0.0044F
C
1
=0.0075F
10 Km
R
0
=0.4054
R
1
=0.07375
I
0
=8.9524mH
I
1
=3.4358mH
C
0
=0.0044F
C
1
=0.0075F
5 Shunt Filters 100 KV,
40 MVAR,
High Pass
Filters
100 KV,
40 MVAR,
High Pass Filters
100 KV,
40 MVAR,
High Pass Filters
7 Series Filter R
s
=0.7935
I
s
=2525H
R
s
=1.587
I
s
=0.5051H

R
s
=0.125
I
s
=0.03978H
8 Voltage
Sourced
Converter
Rectifier 1
3-phase
IGBT/Diodes
R
s
=1000,
C
s
=1F
Rectifier 2
3-phase
IGBT/Diodes
R
s
=1000,
C
s
=1F
Inverter
3-phase
IGBT/Diodes
R
s
=1000,
C
s
=1F
9 DC
Capacitance
1- 1u
-12
F each 1- 1u
-12
F each 1- 1u
-9
F each
10 Smoothing
Reactors
R
s
=0.0025
Ls=0.8mH

R
s
=0.0025
Ls=0.8mH

R
s
=0.0025
Ls=0.8mH

11 DC
Transmissi-
on
Lines
200 Km
R=0.001/Km,
L=0.9867H/Km,
C=8.69F/Km
100 Km
R=0.001/Km,L
=0.9867H/Km,
C=8.69F/Km
100 Km
R=0.001/Km,L=
0.9867H/Km,
C=8.69F/Km
13 DC Faults R
]
=1m
R
cb
=0.0001
Switching
time:0.2s-0.3s
R
]
=1m
R
cb
=0.0001
Switching
time:0.2s-0.3s
R
]
=1m
R
cb
=0.0001
Switching
time:0.2s-0.3s

XI. REFERANCES

[1] W.Lu and B.T.Ooi,Optimal acquisition and aggregation of off-
shore wind power by multi terminal voltage-source had. IEEE
Trans. Power Del., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 201-206, Jan 2003.

[2] W.Lu and B.T.Ooi,''Multiterminal HVDC as enabling
Technology of premium quality park, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol.
18, no. 3, pp. 915-920, jul 2003.

[3] J.C.Ciezki and R.W.Ashton, Selection and stability issues
associated with a navy shipboard and DC zonal electric
distribution. IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 665-669,
Apr 2000.

[4] L Tang, and B. Ooi, Locating and Isolating DC faults in Multi-
Terminal DC Links, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, VOL.
22, No. 3, July 2007.

[5] L. Tang and B. Ooi, Protection of VSC-multi-terminal HVDC
against DC faults, 33rd Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialist
Conference, vol. 2, pp. 719724, November 2002.

[6] M. Baran and N. Mahajan, Overcurrent protection on voltage
sourced converter based multi terminal DC distribution systems,
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 406412,
January 2007.

[7] J. Yang, J. Zhen, G. Tang, and Z. He, Characteristics and
recovery performance of VSC-
HVDC DC transmission line fault, Power and Energy Engineering
Conference (APPEEC), pp. 14,
April 2010.

[8] D.Chanda, N.K.Kishore, A.K. Sinha , Application of wavelets
mutiresolution analysis for the identification and classification of
faults on transmission lines, Department of Electrical Engineering ,
Indian Institute of technology,
Kharagpur.doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2004.07.006

[9] L. Angrisani, P. Daponte, M. DApuzzo, A. Test, A New wavelet
transform bases procedure for electrical power quality analysis,
Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Harmonic and
power quality, Las Vegas,NV, 16-18 October, 1996, pp-608-614.

[10] S.Santoso, E. Powers, P.Hofmann, Power Quality assessment
via wavelet transform analysis, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 11 (2)
(1996) 924-930.
XII. BIOGRAPHIES

R. K. Mallick was born in India in 1972. He
received his degree in Electrical Engineering from
Institute of Engineers (India) in 1996 and M.E
degree in Power System Engineering from
College of Engineering, Burla, India, in 2001. He
is currently working as an Assistant Professor in
the Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Institute
of Technical Education and Research, under Siksha O Anusandhan
University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. His Research Interest
include application of Power Electronics in Power system
engineering, control of H.V.D.C Converters, voltage and frequency
stability of interconnected power system.
R. K. Patnaik was born in India in1986. He
received his Bachelors degree in Electrical and
Electronics Engineering from Gandhi Institute
for Technological Advancement under Biju
Patnaik University of Technology in 2008 and
M.Tech Degree in Electrical Engineering with
specialization of Power Electronics and Drives
from Institute of Technical Education and Research under Siksha
O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India in 2011.He
is currently working as a Research Associate in Department of
Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Institute of Technical
Education and Research under Siksha O Anusandhan University,
Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. His Research Interest include
protection of Multi terminal HCDC systems, Application of HVDC
in interconnection with Distributed generations such as wind, solar
etc. and control of VSC interconnected to grid.