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Company Overview

PathFinders core business lies in Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) and Measurement-While-Drilling Services (MWD),
Directional Drilling Services and Downhole Drilling Motors.
We are one of a few companies worldwide that currently has the technological capability to offer a full comple-
ment of LWD products and services. LWD tools provide real-time data about the physical properties of downhole
formations. In addition to indicating the possible presence of hydrocarbons, this data also assists in improving
drilling performance.
Before the introduction of LWD technology, well formation data
were typically obtained using open hole wireline tools where in-
formation can only be obtained after the well has been drilled or
during the drilling process if drilling is halted and the drill string
is removed from the well. An advantage that LWD has over tra-
ditional open hole wireline logging is that costs are reduced be-
cause the LWD tools accompany the drill string and downhole
data is provided during drilling operations in real-time. LWD
technology uses real-time formation information to assist in im-
mediate decision making to either alter the path of the wellbore
to a point in the formation which, when compared with previ-
ously obtained wireline data, provides for enhanced recovery of
oil and natural gas.
We also offer measurement-while-drilling (MWD) products and
services, which use downhole tools to help locate and direct
the toolstring to the intended target. This capability is particu-
larly advantageous when drilling directional (non-vertical) wells,
which represent an increasing percentage of overall drilling ac-
tivity. In order to drill a directional well, the driller must be able
to determine the precise direction the drill bit is moving during
the drilling operation. MWD tools assist the driller in making this
determination by transmitting data to the surface enabling the
driller to adjust the drilling path as necessary during the drilling
process.
Our directional drilling services have grown from select areas internationally to include all of North America. Direc-
tional drilling involves skilled personnel directing the wellbore along a pre-determined path to optimally recover
oil and natural gas from a reservoir. These services are used to more accurately drill vertical wells and to drill deviat-
ed or directional wells (which deviate from vertical by a planned angle and direction), horizontal wells (sections of
wells drilled perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to vertical) and extended reach wells (deviated over extended
distances).
We are a supplier of downhole drilling motors and a manufacturer of their components and replacement parts.
PathFinder Drilling Motors product line consists of a wide range of sizes of downhole drilling motors ranging from
3 inch to 11 inches in outside diameter for use at various drilling depths and downhole environments. The
components of the drill motor are designed to operate at various speeds and torque levels and to withstand severe
environmental conditions such as high temperatures, hard rock and abrasive drilling fuids.
Please visit PathFinders website www.PathFinderLWD.com for latest information about our products and services.
Figure 1: PathFinder PathMaker rotary steerable tools .
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Tools, Processing & Services
We have created a full range of state-of-the-art Directional Drilling and M/LWD technology and services to sup-
port any drilling project - ofshore, onshore and in all hole sizes. From motors, rotary steerables, and a whole family
of LWD tools featuring a modular design allowing BHA fexibility such as our Quad Combo, to our state-of-the-art
LWD surface computer and software packages and Formation Analysis Services, PathFinders tools ofer a unique
downhole reprogramming protocol providing a drilling package that can be changed to meet the dynamic needs
of todays drilling environments.
Please refer to tool spec sheet and PathFinder website for more details. http://www.PathFinderlwd.com/services/
2.1. Directional Drilling
2.1.1. PathFinder Drilling Motors (PDM)
PathFinder Drilling Motors, Inc., which includes Dyna-Drill Motors, was established in April of 1991 with the pur-
pose of supplying the oil and gas industry with a series of high quality and dependable downhole drilling motors
on a sales, lease, or rental basis. PDM motors have been a major
player in all areas of the world.
Although diferent sized motors have diferent performance
characteristics, they share the same basic components:
- Top Sub
- Catch Mandrel
- Power Section
- Power Transmission Coupling
- Fixed or Adjustable Bent Housing
- Bearing Pack Assembly
- Bit Box
- Near-Bit Stabilizers
Figure 2 illustrates the major components of our drilling motors.
The TOP SUB has a dual function. It is used as a cross over between
the motor assembly and the drill string. It also functions as part of
the catch system by providing the seat for the catch mandrel.
The Rotor Catch Mandrel is incorporated in the design of PDM mo-
tors as a retaining device. Its function is to minimize the possibility
of losing motor components in the hole in the unlikely event that
an external connection breaks or backs-of. It is also designed to
communicate a possible connection failure to the surface via a se-
ries of pressure signals. To recognize these signals, it is important to
understand how the Rotor Catch Mandrel behaves under normal and
distressed conditions.
Figure 2: Major Components of
PathFinders Drilling Motors.
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The Catch Mandrel is attached to the top of the rotor by a threaded connection. The fow channels around the
mandrel are sized to minimize the pressure losses across the catch mechanism. The upset section of the catch
is positioned inside a cavity within the Top Sub. This cavity provides the seat for the catch if or when an external
motor connection fails. Under normal operating conditions, the catch simply rotates with the rotor without any
substantial load being applied to it. Figure 3-left illustrates the catch under normal operating conditions.
Figure 3 shows the catch position after a connection failure. There are two basic modes of connection failure:
connection breakage and connection back-of. The catch behaves diferently under each condition. If an external
motor connection is severed, with motor on-bottom, a sudden loss of pressure occurs. Picking the motor of-bot-
tom will seat the catch resulting in of-bottom pressure increase. The increase in pressure can range from a few
hundred psi to several hundred psi, depending on the fow rate and mud properties. As soon as the motor is set
on bottom, the catch will unseat itself and relieve the pressure. This pressure fuctuation is indicative of a possible
connection failure.
If the mode of failure is connection back-of, two scenarios are
possible. If the connection separates completely, the pressure
signal will be as previously described. If the catch seats itself
before the joint is totally separated, then setting the motor on-
bottom will not unseat the catch. The rotation of the drill string
might screw the connection back together and relieve the ex-
cessive pressure.
The POWER SECTION uses what is known in the industry as
Positive Displacement power section. Its function is to convert
a portion of the hydraulic energy of the drilling fuid into me-
chanical horsepower. The components comprising the power
section are the rotor and the stator. The rotor is a long and spiral
shaft, designed to ft inside a corresponding stator. It is manu-
factured from a solid bar of stainless steel and plated with hard
industrial chrome or tungsten carbide. The chrome or tungsten
carbide is intended to protect the parent metal against corro-
sion and wear while reducing the friction between the rotor
and the stator. In high-fow applications, PDM rotors can be
jetted to divert the additional fow to the bit.
The stator is the non-rotating member of the power section. It is made out of a seamless, heat-treated tube, lined
with an elastomer (rubber) lining. The internal cavity of the liner has a spiral geometry designed to accept a rotor
of compatible geometry and size. In a Positive Displacement power section, the rotor always has one less lobe
than the stator. When the rotor is inserted inside the stator, a certain number of cavities are formed along the
length of the power section. The interference between the rotor and the stator lining seals these cavities from each
other. During the drilling operation, high pressure drilling fuid is forced into the cavities, causing the rotor to turn
inside the stator.
Figure 3: The cross-sectional view of the rotor and
the stator profle with diferent lobe ratios.
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Power sections are categorized by their size, rotor/stator lobe ratios, and the number of stages (stage in a power
section is defned as the distance, measured parallel to the rotor axis, between two corresponding points of the
same spiral lobe, i.e. lead length of the spiral). Figure 4 shows the cross-sectional view of the rotor and the stator
profle with diferent lobe ratios.
There are a few rules of thumb, which might be benefcial in the selection
and operation of any PDM motor:
Optimum completion of a drilling project relies heavily on the proper selection of the stator elastomer compound.
The main factors to consider are the maximum downhole temperature, mud type, mud additives, and any harm-
ful chemicals which might be encountered during drilling. Given enough forewarning, testing of the drilling fuid
under simulated downhole conditions can be conducted before the drilling tools are assembled. Test results are
helpful to determine the optimum elastomer for the application.
As mentioned in earlier sections, PDM ofers several diferent stator elastomer compounds. These diferent com-
pounds react diferently when exposed to elevated temperatures and the various chemicals present in drilling
fuids. The standard elastomer is a nitrile based rubber NBR suitable for use with water-based and low temperature
oil-based drilling fuids. This rubber is suitable for use in wells with temperatures in excess of 270 F with the proper
sizing and fuid compatibility. The standard nitrile stators are the most common and cost efective option for most
drilling conditions. An additional nitrile elastomer is available in certain models which is more rigid and resilient.
This NBR-HR elastomer can deliver a minimum of 50% more power than the standard NBR with the proper drill-
ing parameters.
In drilling applications where the drilling fuid is less typical and the tem-
perature is elevated, the highly saturated nitrile elastomer HSN may be
the optimum choice. The highly saturated type elastomer is formulated
for greater chemical resistance, especially at higher temperature. HSN
elastomer is the best suited elastomer for oil-based and most synthetic
based drilling fuids.
Some motor sizes have the option of a metal reinforced or uniform elasto-
mer thickness stator equipped power section. The uniform or even elas-
tomer stator compared to a conventional stator can be seen at Figure 5.
Figure 4: The corss-sectional view of the
rotor and the stator profle with diferent
lobe ratios.
Figure 5: The uniform or even elastomer
stator compared to a conventional stator.
The rotational speed of the rotor is proportional to the rate of uid ow
through the power section.
The generated torque is proportional to the differential pressure across
the power section. The torque gener ated is independent of the uid
ow through the power section.
Power sections with a higher lobe ratio typically generate more
torque and have slower rotary speed than the ones with a lower lobe
ratio. For example, a 9 5/8 motor with 3:4 lobe ratio will rotate the drill
bit at a higher RPM and will have less output torque per stage than a
9 5/8 motor with 4:5 lobe ratio.
An increase in the number of stages will proportionally increase the
output power and torque at the same ow rate.
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The metal reinforcement of the elastomer profle provides a structural reinforcement of the elastomer profle al-
lowing its seal against the rotor to operate at signifcantly higher pressure diferential than conventional stators.
This higher pressure diferential produces a higher operating and stall torque. The higher pressure seal between
the rotor and the stator assures a more steady speed of operation than a conventional power section.
The metal reinforcement also provides a superior path for heat dissipation from the rotor and stator interface.
This superior heat dissipation allows the metal reinforced stator to operate more reliably at elevated temperatures
than a conventional power section. The smaller elastomer content of the metal reinforced stator also provides for
a stator more resistant to aggressive oil and synthetic based drilling fuids.
The POWER TRANSMISSION COUPLING is the link between the rotor and the bearing mandrel. It converts the
eccentric motion of the rotor into the concentric rotary motion of the bearing mandrel or driveshaft. It also trans-
mits the torque and the rotary motion of the rotor, generated by the power section, to the bearing assembly. The
hydraulic down thrust of the rotor is also transferred to the bearing section through this member.
All PDM power transmission couplings are manufactured from a high grade of heat treated alloy steel. The
working surfaces of the power transmission are sealed with a high temperature and pressure lubricant to assure
optimum operation and reliability.
The FIXED or ADJUSTABLE BENT HOUSINGS contain the power transmission coupling and connects the stator
housing to the bearing housing. Bent housings are available with fxed and adjustable bends. Fixed bent housings
can only be confgured at PDM facilities in angles ranging from 0 to 5.0 degrees depending on the motor model.
The adjustable housings can be set to various bend angles at the rig site (see the appendix section of this hand-
book for adjustment procedure). The magnitude of the adjustable bent housing bend angle ranges from 0 to 3.0
degrees. This bend of the fxed or adjustable bent housing gives the motor its steering capability. The fxed and
adjustable bent housings are manufactured out of premium grade high strength alloy steel. Their contact surfaces
with the formation are hard-faced to minimize wear while drilling.
The BEARING PACK ASSEMBLY contains the necessary components to transmit the rotary drilling motion to the
drill bit and transmit the drilling forces from the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) to the drill bit. The main compo-
nents of the bearing pack assembly are the bearing mandrel or driveshaft, thrust and radial bearings. The bearing
mandrel or driveshaft is a bored, long shaft designed to transmit the power (torque and rpm) to the drill bit. It also
channels the drilling fuid to the bit. It is manufactured out of a high grade of alloy steel that is forged and heat-
treated for strength and toughness.
The thrust bearings are designed to sustain the applied weight to the drill bit while on-bottom. They are also
capable of bearing the downward hydraulic thrust load of the rotor while circulating of-bottom or drilling with
underbalanced bit weight. Depending on the motor model, the thrust bearings may consist of a unique tool steel
ball bearing design that is precision made and enables the same set of bearings to carry the on-bottom as well
as the of-bottom load. This important feature increases the number of bearing races within the limited available
space and increases the thrust load capacity and the life of the bearing pack. An alternative thrust bearing design
utilized in some models consists of high grade Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) inserts similar to those
used on PDC drill bits. These PDC inserts provide a high capacity and extremely wear-resistant thrust bearing for
applications where shorter tool length or extra longevity is required.
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The radial bearings rigidly support the bearing mandrel inside the bearing housing and transfer the radial forces
generated during drilling to the housings and the rest of the BHA, while assuring that the driveshaft is aligned and
concentric with the axis of the bearing housing. The radial bearings are constructed from specialized tungsten
carbide components to provide optimum life and reliability. The design of the tungsten carbide radial bearings
also precisely meter the amount of drilling uid that ows through the radial and thrust bearings for cooling of the
bearings. This assures the optimum drilling uid ow through the driveshaft and out to the drill bit.
The bearing pack assembly of the PathFinder motor is one
of the few designs that also incorporates a driveshaft safety
catch feature to minimize the possibility of leaving the drill
bit in the hole in the unlikely event the driveshaft breaks or
backs-of. Figure 6 illustrates the normal running position
of the driveshaft and the driveshaft catch on the left and the
engaged position of the catch on the right. If the driveshaft
breaks or backs-of, a precision low stress upset or ridge on the
lower portion of the driveshaft engages a split ring contained
within the lower portion of the bearing housing preventing
the driveshaft from exiting the bearing pack. A substantial
decrease in the of-bottom pressure drop on the surface will
signal an incident has occurred so that appropriate action can
be taken.
The BIT BOX is an integral part of the bearing mandrel. Its out-
side diameter is sized to accept a specifed box connection.
While all the external components of the motor are station-
ary relative to the drill string, the bit box is the only external
component which has a rotary motion independent of the ro-
tational speed of the drill string. The drill bit is screwed directly
into the bit box.
NEAR-BIT STABILIZERS are available with removable or integral stabilizers. The removable stabilizers are screwed
on the bearing housing. Occasionally, certain clients wish to have the option of installing diferent stabilizers on the
motor at the rig site to alter the directional performance of the motor. In that case, the motor and the stabilizer(s)
can be shipped separately and a protective sleeve protects the external threads of the bearing housing.
In todays cost-conscious oil and gas environment, companies and operators recognize the positive contributions
downhole drilling motors can make to their bottom-line. The application of downhole drilling motors are no lon-
ger limited to conventional drilling, but has expanded to other areas such as:
PathFinder Drilling Motors ofers a wide variety of motor confgurations, bit speeds, fow ranges, and power out-
puts to suit your particular need. Our state-of-the-art drill motor is designed to exceed the load capacity of any
available drill bit in the industry today.
Normal Operating
Position
Activated
Position
Bit Box
Figure 6: The normal running position of the drive-
shaft and the driveshaft catch (left) and the engaged
position of the catch (right).
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2.1.2. PathMaker Rotary Steerable Service
PathFinder Energy Services PathMaker Rotary Steerable System is designed for accuracy, reliability and versatil-
ity and has set new standards for rotary steerable in the global marketplace. The specic design of our PathMaker
System enables successful performance in all environments, from extremely soft to very hard rock, from water-based
to oil-based muds, and from in-gauge to over-gauge holes.
Tool Design
The PathMaker Rotary Steerable System (available for 8 16 hole-sizes) is designed with three hydraulically
actuated pads housed in a steering unit. While drilling, the pads provide a constant contact force with the wellbore to
maintain the steering unit stationary. The toolface and dogleg severity (DLS) are controlled by proportionally offset-
ting the steering unit from the centerline of the hole. This proportional control enables the tool to drill a constant
curve resulting in superior borehole quality and reduced torque and drag.
The PathMaker System is the only Rotary Steerable System (RSS) currently available on the market that provides a
Real-time Pad-Contact Caliper (RPCC
TM
) measurement while drilling. The caliper measurement, taken from the physi-
cal pad positions, gives the directional driller real-time caliper information within ve feet of the bit. This information
gives real-time feedback on the borehole condition and allows surface parameters to be optimized so as to ensure
consistent and accurate directional response.
To date, the PathMaker System has been deployed worldwide ranging from vertical to horizontal wells in a vari-
ety of drilling environments. With the 8 tool capable of 6 DLS and the 6 tool capable of producing 10 DLS, the
PathMaker System is suitable for all conventional wells being drilled today. The use of underreamers or xed cutter
reamers allows a variety of hole sizes to be drilled up to 17 .
Tool Congurations
Depending on the drilling application, the PathMaker System can be congured as either Point-the-Bit or Push-
the-Bit. The point system uses a near-bit stabilizer to provide a fulcrum point to tilt the bit in the desired direction.
The push system uses the steering unit to push the bit directly sideways resulting in higher DLS making it more
suitable for shallow washed-out applications and open hole sidetracking.
In push-the-bit mode (Figure 7 a), the steering unit is used to push-the-bit sideways in the desired steering direction.
In point-the-bit mode (Figure 7 b), a near-bit stabilizer is used to act as a fulcrum point and tilts the bit in the desired
direction. There are advantages to both systems depending upon the application. Typically, the system runs in push-
the-bit mode if hole washout is expected, or if higher doglegs are required.
In situations where higher RPM is required at the bit, or where casing wear is a concern, the PathMaker System can
be powered with a PathFinder mud-motor. The motor-assist option is ideal for performance drilling where maximum
ROP is required.
Figure 7a: Push-the-bit Confguration Figure 7b: Point-the-bit Confguration
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The PathMaker System can be integrated with any of PathFinders MWD/LWD suite of tools. For lower-cost vertical
applications, the PathMaker V System can be run stand-alone in Automated Vertical Control Mode.
Additional Features
Downlink of steering commands to the PathMaker System is achieved using a non-intrusive patented RPM pro-
gramming method. No special surface equipment or rig-up is required. The system relies solely on RPM and fow
commands from surface. The downlink sequence has been designed to allow commands to be sent while on-bot-
tom drilling ahead.
Automated closed-loop control for maintaining inclination and azimuth is another feature available on the Path-
Maker System to optimize drilling ef ciency. This mode allows the tool to lock onto the current inclination and/or
azimuth, providing automated control without the need for human interaction. The Target Inclination and Target
Azimuth values can be changed using a downlink if the well path or drilling target positions are moved for any rea-
son. This automated feature is typically used for long tangent sections or laterals to reduce downlink commands.
Lateral and axial vibration severity, and stick-slip severity are monitored using the onboard Real-Time Stick-Slip
and Vibration Detection (RSVDTM) system. Severity levels are transmitted in real-time to surface allowing the di-
rectional driller to change drilling parameters if necessary to reduce downhole vibration and stick-slip.
A gamma-at-bit feature is available for the 6 tool size. PathFinders PZIG (PayZone Inclination Gamma) technol-
ogy can be integrated into the near-bit stabilizer.
The PathMaker Rotary Steerable System has proven successful on a steady string of wells from North America
land, Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea. It is the practical choice for your next directional well.
2.2. MWD
2.2.1. Directional Sensors
2.2.1.1. Measurement Principle
The PathFinder directional sensor is an integral part of the directional tools (HDS), the PayZone Inclination Gamma
tool (PZIG) and the Array Wave Resistivity tool (AWR). Our tools use proven triaxial directional sensors and store
raw data for all surveys in downhole memory. Computed surveys or raw data can be transmitted to the surface in
real-time. Battery power allows survey acquisition with or without mudfow. Triaxial magnetic azimuth correction
(MAC3D) is available. Where magnetic interference prevents the use of conventional magnetic directional sen-
sors, PathFinder is able to provide the gravity MWD.
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2.2.1.2 Tools
2.2.1.2.1 HDS Tools
High-speed Directional Survey (HDS) is the primary modular component for the PathFinder MWD services.
Figure 8 shows the HDS-1L tool which has a proven triaxial directional sensor. The raw data for all surveys
are stored in downhole memory. Computed surveys or raw data can be transmitted to the surface. Battery
power allows survey acquisition with or without mudow. Triaxial magnetic azimuth correction is available.
The Gravity MWD system is used where magnetic interference prevents the use of conventional MWD tools. Figure 9
shows the PathFinder Gravity MWD system HDS-1G, which employs dual accelerometers to compute azimuth and
inclination.

2.2.1.2.2. PZIG Tool
PathFinders PayZone Inclination Gamma (PZIG) tool provides near-bit inclination and gamma measurements.
Please refer to section 2.2.1.2.2 for more information.
Figure 8: HDS-1L Tool. Note the mud pulser at the top of the tool, vibration sensor, directional sensor and gamma
sensor at the middle of the tool.
Figure 10: Gyro HDS-1 Tool.
Figure 9: HDS-1G Tool. Note the dual directional sensors
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The Gyro HDS-1 system ofers considerable time savings over conventional wireline gyros. After drilling beyond
magnetic interference, the Gyro module can be deactivated and drilling continued with the HDS-1 MWD system.
Figure 10 shows a picture of Gyro HDS-1 tool.
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2.2.1.3. Advanced Processing
2.2.1.3.1. Tri-Axial MWD Survey Correction (MAC3D)
Inaccuracies in MWD survey data produce
uncertainties in the position and TVD of ev-
ery point in the wellbore. Magnetic azimuths
from MWD sensors are afected by magnetic
feld distortion from many sources, such as
the drillstring even when non-magnetic col-
lars are used. These induced errors accumu-
late over the length of the well and may afect
bottom hole location calculations. MAC3D is
a Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) survey
error reduction technique. An advanced tri-
axial magnetic correction routine is used to
reduce MWD survey ellipse of uncertainties.
MAC3D identifes and corrects for the efects
of axial and cross-axial, permanent and in-
duced magnetic infuences. When used in
conjunction with PathFinders sag correc-
tion routine, Gravity MWD, Well Interference
Navigation and Ranging (WINNER) tech-
nique, gyro becomes redundant, Figure 11.
2.2.1.4. Applications
Directional measurement is the funda-
mental measurements used in well drill-
ing. It is widely applied in directional
drilling, kick-of/drill without a gyro to
reduce costs and save rig time. It is also
used in casing exits, and collision avoid-
ance.
Passive Ranging is a technique used to
detect nearby and adjacent wells using
conventional MWD tools transmitting
raw magnetic data. Applications where
Passive Ranging is typically used in-
clude:
Well Avoidance.
Relief Well Drilling.
Well Twinning (Figure 12).
Figure 11: Graph from a recent well showing MAC3D azimuths directly
compared to two diferent types of gyro tool.
Figure 12: PathFinders passive ranging technique helps EnCana to drill SAGD
twin wells in heavy oil reserves.
Please refer to Figure 28 and Figure 29 for log examples showing good agreement between dynamic inclinations and MWD survey
inclinations.
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2.2.2. BHA Vibration
2.2.2.1. Measurement Principle
The BHA vibration monitor is integrated in PathFinder HDS-1 MWD platform (Figure 8). The vibration sensor contains
a single-axis accelerometer mounted in the lateral plane, along with various fltering circuitry. Output data from the
accelerometer is sampled digitally and processed by a microprocessor unit. The output is in counts of shock above
5G per second. Once sustained BHA vibration is detected, the relevant personnel ofshore must be informed without
delay.
2.2.2.2. Tools
The vibration monitor is integrated in PathFinder HDS-1 MWD platform (Figure 9).
2.2.2.3. Applications
BHA vibrations can afect the drilling performance and break the downhole equipment. LWD log quality can also
be afected by the vibration. Driller can use BHA vibration monitoring measurement to adjust drilling parameters to
optimize drilling performance and protecting equipments and ensure LWD log quality.
2.2.3. Borehole and Annular Pressure
2.2.3.1. Measurement Principle
It is critical to measure annual pressure and drillpipe pressure during the drilling process. The tool measures the
drillpipe mud pressure and annual mud pressure and temperature. The measurements are transmitted to the surface
real-time and the Equivalent Circulating Density Measured (ECDM) is calculated using the following equation.
ECD = APd / (.0519*TVD)
where:
ECD: Equivalent Circulating Density (lbs./gal)
APd: Dynamic Annular Pressure (PSI)
TVD: Pressure sensor depth in true vertical depth (ft)
0.0519: Conversion factor (gal/lbs./ft.)
2.2.3.2. Tools
2.2.3.2.1. Dynamic Pressure Module (DPM) Tool
Figure 13: Schematic of Dynamic Pressure Module (DPM) Tool
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The DPM tool (Figure 13) uses two independent pressure transducers to continuously measure annulus pressure
and temperature and internal pipe pressure and temperature. The Equivalent Circulating Density Measured (ECDM)
is the most accurate measure of the pressures exerted on the formation and comes from a direct downhole annular
pressure measurement. The drill string pressure (DPPR), annular pressure (ANPR) and annular temperature (TDMP) are
measured downhole and transmitted in real-time.
2.2.3.3. Applications
The Applications of Dynamic Pressure Module Tool include:
Real-time ECD monitoring.
Minimize Reservoir & Borehole Damage.
Detects overloading of cuttings in annulus.
Detect well kicks.
Aides in well kick control.
Optimizes drilling & mud motor performance.
Determines problem areas within the borehole.
Provides ability to monitor and adjust mud properties.
Poor hole Stability and cleaning.
Lost circulation.
The leak-of test.
Fracture initiation and propagation.
Causes of lost circulation.
Hole collapse.
Hole cleaning.
Kick detection.
Motor / sliding performance.
2.2.3.3.1. Borehole pack of detection
Poor hole stability and cleaning is the greatest cause of
drilling downtime. It can potentially be more expensive
than normal drilling operations due to losing bottom
hole assemblies and M/LWD tools, losing mud and ex-
pensive additional additives, unscheduled personnel and
equipment movements, formation damage, and stress
on equipment and people. Figure 14 shows an example
DPM log of packing of. The log annotations provide the
answers to interpreting this DPM log. An elevated ECDM
was seen on the DPM log. Average size of 2 pressured
shale was coming over the shale shakers. The well is fow-
ing at a lower rate. The driller pulled three stands of pipes
out of bottom and reamed back to bottom, the ECDM
dropped to normal value. This pack-of is due to shale
sloughing.
Figure 14: Example of packing of.
12
2.2.3.3.2. Well Kick Detection/Control
DPM log can aid in well kick detection/control. When
there is an infux of gas, there is actually little efect on
the DPM log since efects of gas cut on mud is greater
on surface than downhole because gas is compressible
and expands as it rises. If a kick is detected on the DPM
log, it is usually a very serious problem and requires
well control. Figure 15 shows that while circulating
at the casing shoe, ECD began to decrease due to
an infux of gas. The driller tripped back to bottom
(9 stands) to circulate and monitor the well. In this
scenario, the monitoring of ECD at the casing shoe
prevented a well control situation and saved rig time.
2.2.3.3.3. Lost Circulation
Detection
Lost circulation is a common problem in naturally ex-
isting high permeability or fractured formations. Un-
consolidated formations, fssures / fractures, unsealed
fault boundary, vuggy / cavernous formations can
cause lost circulation. Poor hole cleaning may also be
the reason for lost circulation. Increase cuttings vol-
ume weighting up the mud, pack-of and increased
viscosity are all possible reasons for lost circulation.
Figure 16 shows an example of lost circulation due
to poorly conditioned mud. The highlighted annota-
tions shows the well started losing synthetic oil based
mud due to high ECDM. The driller had to pull out of
the hole to change the BHA (lay out DNSC and CLSS
due to mud problems and fear of getting stuck/los-
ing tools downhole) and condition mud. On this well,
the viscosity exceeded 100 sec/qt and the high ECD
caused by the high viscosity mud exceeded the Leak-
of Test (LOT) pressure. An increase in ECDM is also due
to rotational efects. Very soon after rotation started,
the formation started taking fuid (50 bbl loss). The
company who drilled this well lost four days of drill-
ing time to control the mud viscosity. The DPM logs
were used by the customer to negotiate a $0.5 million
discount of the mud bill. Once the viscosity was un-
der control, the ECD dropped 0.5 PPG (from Run 4 to
Run 5).
Figure 15: Example-DPM log helped detect a kick and prevented
a well control situation
Figure 16: DPM log example of lost mud circulation due to poorly
conditioned mud.
13
2.2.3.3.4. Surge/Swab Pressure Control
Surge / swab can cause downhole pressure changes due
to high pressure transients. High swab pressures can lead
to mechanical collapse. High surge pressure can fracture
formation and loosen blocks. Figure 17 shows the efect
of pipe speed on ECDM. On Run #3, the pressure surges
from tripping to bottom too fast caused mud losses when
on bottom. Run #4 after the company representative saw
the DPM log, showing pipe speed and ECDM surge, the
trip speed was slowed down.
2.2.3.3.5. ECDM Monitoring During Sliding and Rotation
When the drill pipe rotates, the mud carrying capacity is
increased. Cuttings tend to be thrown into a higher ve-
locity region of the annulus by centrifugal forces. Pipe
eccentricity is reduced. Figure 18 shows a DPM log ex-
ample with a sharp increase in ECDM when the pipe be-
gins rotating after a long slide interval. The cuttings are
re-suspended causing an increase in ECDM (also note the
increase in ROP while rotating; this will add cuttings to
the annulus at a higher rate). During sliding, the fow is
laminar. The fow regime changes to turbulent with the
rotation of the pipe. Turbulent fow also increases the
amount of cuttings in suspension. The ECDM increases
as a result.
Figure 17: DPM log example showing surge and swab pressure
on ECDM at diferent pipe speeds.
Figure 18: DPM log example showing increased ECDM when
increased cutting suspension with drill pipe rotation.
14
2.2.3.3.5.1. Riserless Drilling
In a deepwater riserless drilling setup, Mud Weight-iIn
(MWI) does not represent the Equivalent Mud Weight
(EMW) in the hole. Mud Weight Calculated (MWC) is
used as a comparison to ECD to assist in the interpreta-
tion. Figure 19 shows a DPM log display in a riserless
drilling setup. Note the large diference between MWI
and MWC. This example is tripping out of the hole. No-
tice the efect depth has on MWC and ECDM.
2.2.3.3.6. Safe Operating Window
To design and drill the optimal well we need to know :
What are the formation pore pressures?
What are fracture and collapse pressures?
What are the stresses imposed on the formation?
Are we adequately cleaning the hole?
The DPM service can be used to signifcantly reduce these un-
certainties. Figure 20 shows a typical example of mud weight
window for a stable wellbore with diferent borehole deviations.
With in the information provided by DPM log, the mud program
can be optimized to achieve the optimum drilling performance
and maintaining a stable wellbore.

Figure 21 shows a typical rock mechanical analysis plot. Track 1 shows the gamma ray and caliper curves. Track
2 shows a crude caliper image using two identical but opposed caliper curves. Track 3 shows the minimum and
maximum borehole pressure curves delineating a green area of stable wellbore conditions, together with pore-,
mud-, and overburden pressures. Track 5 shows lithology computed using a standard deterministic (or any other)
volumetrics program.
The critical minimum pressure is the pressure at which the formation fails due to shear failure, in other words it
indicates the sanding potential of the formation. When the pressure in the wellbore drops below this critical mini-
mum pressure, the formation will have a sanding problem, during drilling, swabbing or production. The fracture
closure pressure indicates the borehole pressure at which, existing but closed, natural fractures will be re-opened,
resulting in mud loss, and at which the hydraulic fracturing process may begin. The shaded area between these
two curves defnes the mechanically stable wellbore pressure conditions.
Figure 19:Example DPM log in a riserless drilling setup.
Figure 20: Wellbore Failure and Borehole Deviation.
15
This type of log analysis can be used to design hydraulic
fracturing jobs; it provides the stress profle information
for 3-D fracture design programs. The data can be used
in completion decisions such as frac and pack or gravel
pack completions. They can be used in well planning to
design deviated or extended reach and horizontal wells.
Finally, LWD rock mechanical analysis can be done in
real-time at the wellsite to help assist with decisions re-
garding mud weights and casing points.
Figure 21: Wellbore stability analysis plot.
2.2.4. Joint End Locator (JEL)
2.2.4.1. Background
The objective of the MWD Joint End Locator (JEL) is to mill win-
dow avoiding casing joint ends. We can use the MWD JEL to de-
tect the joint ends and set the whipstock, the advantages being
that no wireline casing collar locator (CCL) tool is required, no
bridge plug is required and no additional downhole equipment
is required. It uses a standard MWD Directional tool.
Using current techniques, the CCL tool detects the casing collars,
a bridge plug is set, the MWD tool orients the whipstock, and the
window is milled. This requires two trips. By using MWD JEL, the
JEL detects joint ends, orients and sets the pack-stock, and then
the window is milled. This requires only one trip. No CCL wireline
run is required; hence, saves time and thus saves money.
2.2.4.2. Basic Theory
Casing collars and casing joint ends are found from magnetism
forced into the casing during MPI. The MWD JEL tool detects
the magnetic fuctuations and can hence detect the joint ends.
The surface system does this by calculating the Dynamic Total
Magnetic Field from EX and EY (and EZ if transmitted). By then
plotting TMF against depth on a log, the casing end joints can
be clearly seen (Figure 22). A whipstock symbol has also been
added so that the user can clearly see the current estimated
whipstock location in relation to the casing joints.
Figure 22: JEL locates casing joint and replaces whipstock
at its optimum location.
16
2.3. LWD
2.3.1. Gamma Ray (GR)
2.3.1.1. Measurement Principle
Figure 23: Gamma ray scintillation detector.
2.3.1.2. Tools
2.3.1.2.1. Universal Gamma Sensor (UGS)
The PathFinder gamma ray tool is an integral part of the directional tools (Figure 8, Figure 9 ) and the CWR and
AWR resistivity tools (Figure 43, Figure 44, Figure 45). It is available with the retrievable directional tools. The sen-
sor is a sodium iodide (NaI) crystal used to detect naturally occurring gamma rays. The GR tools measure the GR
detection rate in counts per second, which is converted to API units by the calibration gain factor.
2.3.1.2.2. PayZone Inclination Gamma (PZIG)
PayZone Inclination Gamma (PZIG) is PathFinders near-bit gamma and inclination tool. It is designed to operate
as two separate subs (Figure 24). Lower sub (LXM) acquires data and transmits data to upper sub via EM frequency
and upper stub (UXM) provides communication to MWD/LWD telemetry (Figure 26). The PZIG can accomodate
fexible BHA design and is compatible with any motor. Since it is not integrated into the motor, the cost is re-
duced. PZIG provides the closest to the bit sensor ofsets available in the industry and is the only tool to provide
both gamma and inclination at-bit. Table 1 shows the gamma and inclination sensors distance-to-bit.
The Gamma ray (GR) log is a measurement
of the formations natural radioactivity.
Gamma ray emission is produced by three
radioactive series found in the earths crust:
Potassium (K40), Uranium series and Tho-
rium series. GR is probably the most wide-
ly used measurements for lithology iden-
tifcation, shale volume calculation and
correlation. PathFinders LWD gamma ray
measurement using scintillation detectors
to achieve improved ef ciency, resolution
and repeatability compared with old Gei-
ger Muller detectors. Figure 23 shows the
scintillation gamma ray detectors.
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
001001100010010001000110
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
Figure 24: PayZone Inclination Gamma (PZIG) Tool
17
PZIG Advantages compared with Standard MWD Gamma
When a standard MWD GR tool recognizes a formation change, the bit is already about 35 feet or more out of the
target zone (Figure 25). PZIG can recognize a formation change much quicker when the bit is nearing a bed
boundary (Figure 26).
2.3.1.3. Advanced Processing
2.3.1.3.1. Gamma Ray Enhanced Calculation
Gamma ray measurement is afected by environment efect such as borehole and mud. The Gamma Ray Enhance-
ment Calculations program is primarily intended to enhance the interpretability of gamma ray measurements
in potassium-rich muds by removing the efect of the potassium. Standard environmental corrections are also
performed. This program can also be used solely to make environmental corrections by setting the potassium
content of the mud to zero. GR corrections depend on the tool type and size. Corrections for the GR measurement
incorporated in the following tools are available:
HDS 4.75, 6.75, 8 and 9.5
AWR 6.75, 8 and 9.5
SAWR 4.75
CWR 6.75, 8 and 9.5
In Figure 27, potassium chloride mud system was used in run 2,
but not in run 1. The black curve represents the uncorrected GR
for both runs. The shift in the GR curve to high values is obvious
in the run 2 data. The red curve is the corrected gamma ray and
we observe a smooth transition from run one to run two.
Tool size 4 6
11 20
Inclination distance - to-bit 22 31

Gamma Ray distance - to-bit
Table 1: PZIGTM gamma and inclination sensor distance-to-bit.
Figure 25: Standard MWD gamma ray is + 35 ft. from bit.
When gamma recognizes formation change, the bit is already
+ 35 ft. out of zone.
Figure 26: PZIG gamma ray is 11 from the bit. When PZIG recog-
nizes a formation change; the bit is nearing the bed boundary.
Figure 27: Gamma Ray KCL Correction.
18
2.3.1.4. Applications
Gamma ray measurement is the most widely used log. It was widely used in lithology identifcation, shale volume
calculation and correlations.
2.3.1.4.1. PZIG Log Examples
PZIG has been widely used in Coal Bed Methane (CBM), tight gas, shale gas plays.
The Benefts of PZIG include:
Optimize wellbore positioning for accelerated production.
Make better real-time decisions.
Early bed boundary detection.
Reduce uncertainty.
Reduce well tortuosity and dogleg severity.
Reduce cost.
Figure 28 shows an improved casing point selection using PZIG tool. Figure 29 shows PZIG tool helping to iden-
tify drilling across a fault quickly to minimize the out-of-zone section. Please also note that the PZIG dynamic in-
clination measurement while drilling has a very good agreement with the static survey inclination measurement.
Figure 28: PZIG Example 1. PZIG GR (NBGR) detects
at-bit formation changes while the standard GR is still in
shale. Casing point was selected with PZIG Gamma with-
out concerns of sensor ofset. While rotating at HZ, PZIG
INC shows good agreement with the MWD survey inclina-
tion.
Figure 29: PZIG Example 2. The driller drilled 4 ft through
fault before recognizing the fault with PZIG GR while drill-
ing at 175ft/hr. PZIG GR showed faulted above reservoir, slide
down re-enter reservoir using both PZIG GR and INC. two
more slides to prevent BHA from exiting bottom of zone. 3ft
TVD zone of interest. While rotating at HZ, PZIG INC shows
good agreement with the MWD survey inclination.
19
PZIG Application in Coal Bed Methane Horizontal Geosteering
Figure 30 is an example of a horizontal CBM well drilled with at-bit measurements WLD resistivity real-rime geo-
steering. Detailed pre-well modeling was prepared in addition to real-time modeling while drilling. The model was
constructed while drilling. The coal seam was encountered deeper than expected. However this was predicted by
the onsite geosteering specialist utilizing the forward-modeling software, and the landing point of the planned
horizontal well was adjusted to enter the coal seam at a measured depth of X475. The LWD resistivity measure-
ments and the forward-modeling software were critical for making the decision to adjust the landing point while
drilling. Deep-reading resistivity gave advanced warning that the coal seam would be encountered deeper than
expected.
By using the combined at-bit gamma and PathFinders geosteering services, the customer was able to improve
the in-zone section from 30% in previous wells, which was drilled with regular GR, to almost 100% in this well.
2.3.2. Resistivity
2.3.2.1. Measurement Principle
The basic operating principle of electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement was discovered and documented
in the early 1970s [Gouillod and Levy, 1970], and frst applied to MWD in the early 1980s [Coope, Shen et al, 1984].
The techniques can be summarized as follows: A radio frequency (400kHz, 500 kHz or 1MHz, 2 MHz) electromag-
netic wave is launched from a transmitter coil wound over the drill collar (Figure 31). The wave travels in the bore-
hole and in the formation before being sensed by two receiver coils mounted on the same mandrel. The phase
diference (degrees) and attenuation (decibels) observed between the two receivers is primarily related to the
resistivity of the formation in the vicinity of the borehole (Figure 32). The measure point is the midpoint between
the two receivers.
Figure 30: Real-time model of CMB horizontal well drilled with at-bit measurements, LWD resistivity and forward-modeling
software.
20
Figure 31: Cartoon of electromagnetic wave propagation resistivity measurement operating principle.
Figure 32: Cartoon of amplitude and phase shifting measurement of electromagnetic wave propa-
gation resistivity tool.
21
2.3.2.1.1. Phase and Attenuation Resistivity
Figure 33: Data fow of AWR apparent attenuation resistivity.
Figure 34: Data fow of AWR apparent phase resistivity.
The CWR and AWR tool feature a borehole compensation scheme similar to those implemented earlier in wireline
acoustic and electromagnetic devices [Wharton et al, 1980]. The main advantages of this system are in the mitigation
of borehole rugosity and tool tilt efects. It also compensates for any temperature related electronics drift. A further
advantage of a borehole compensated design is the symmetrical response of the array, whereby a symmetrical bed
with similar shoulders yields a symmetrical log response. The data fow of attenuation and phase resistivity are shown
in Figure 33 and Figure 34 . The phase and attenuation measurement are converted to apparent resistivity value with
dielectric assumptions. Figure 35 and Figure 36 shows the phase and attenuation resistivity conversion for CWR and
AWR tools.
AMPLITUDE MEASUREMENTS
APPARENT ATTENUATION
RESISTIVITY
ATTENUATION = Amp near/Amp far
BOREHOLE COMPENSATION
ATTENUATION = (Attenuation T1 * Attenuation T2)
1/2
PHASE MEASUREMENTS
APPARENT PHASE
RESISTIVITY
PHASE SHIFT = Ph near - Ph far
BOREHOLE COMPENSATION
PHASE SHIFT = (Phase Shift T1 +Phase Shift T1)/2
T1near, T1far, Tnear, T1far
T2near, T2far, T2near, T2far
T3near, t3far, T3near, T3far
T1, T1
T2, T2
T3, T3
T1
T2
T3
RDAH
RMAH
RSAH
T1near, T1far, Tnear, T1far
T2near, T2far, T2near, T2far
T3near, t3far, T3near, T3far
T1, T1
T2, T2
T3, T3
T1
T2
T3
RDPH
RMPH
RSPH
22
Figure 35: CWR response curves for interpreting phase and attenuation with dielectric assumption of =10
Figure 36: AWR response curves for interpreting phase and attenuation with dielectric assumption =5.0+108.5*Rt-0.35
2.3.2.1.2.Depth of Investigation and Vertical Sharpness
Diameter of Investigation (D.O.I.) is the diameter of the cylinder from which half
of the measured signal emanates computed from the pseudo-geometric factors
of the measurements. Figure 37 shows the defnition used to derive the D.O.I of
our tools as shown in Figure 38. Figure 38 and Figure 39 shows the diameter of
investigation of AWR and CWR phase and attenuation resistivity measurements of
diferent spacings, respectively. The D.O.I depends on sensor spacing, frequency,
attenuation/phase and most importantly on the resistivity of the formation.
Figure 37: Depth of Investigation.
23
Figure 38: Depth of investigation of (S)AWR attenuation and phase resistivities of diferent spacing.
Figure 39: Depth of investigation of CWR attenuation and phase resistivities of diferent spacing
Figure 40: Vertical sharpness.
24
Figure 41 shows the vertical sharpness of the AWR phase and attenuation resistivity measurements.
Figure 41: Vertical sharpness of AWR attenuation and phase resistivities for diferent spacing.
Figure 42: Vertical sharpness of CWR attenuation and phase resistivities for diferent spacing.
2.3.2.2. Tools
2.3.2.2.1. Compensated Wave Resistivity (CWR) Tool
The CWR tool is a dual spaced, symmetrically matched array, 2 MHz resistivity tool. The tool itself is approximately
27 ft long and comprises a dedicated power supply (battery), tool memory, processing electronics, and gamma ray
sensor with associated electronics along with the resistivity measurements section. The CWR measurement has two
spacings of 25 and 55 (Figure 43).
Figure 43: Compensated Wave Resistivity (CWR), available in 6.75-in, 8-in and 9.5-in. Two transmitter spacings of
25 and 55. Borehole compensation. Frequency: 2 MHz. 300 F, 20,000 psi.
25
The Slim Compensated Wave Resistivity (SCWR) is the 4 version of CWR and has two spacings of 15 and 35
(Figure 44).
Figure 44: Slim Compensated Wave Resistivity (SCWR). 4.75-in OD. 15 and 35 transmitter spacings. Borehole
compensation. Frequency: 2 MHz. 300 F. 20,000 psi.
The design objective of the CWR was to make a compensated measurement of deep and shallow resistivity. Trans-
mitter to measure point spacings of 55 inches and 25 inches were determined to be the optimum spacings to
quantify uninvaded zone and invaded zone resistivity, respectively. For the slim hole tools (4 ), these spacings
have been shortened to 35 inches and 15 inches, respectively.
During a fring sequence, the four transmitter coils are activated sequentially with a 2MHz signal. For each activa-
tion, signals are induced in the two receiver coils. Amplitudes of the signals and the phase diference between the
two receiver signals are measured for each transmitter. The amplitude from the receiver closest to the transmitter
is divided by the amplitude furthest from the transmitter to obtain a ratio indicative of attenuation.
The results for each pair of transmitters are averaged to produce borehole compensated attenuation and phase
values. Finally, the two phases and two attenuation ratios are each converted to resistivity values. The conversion
curves are shown in Figure 35.
For 9 , 8 and 6 tools the four resistivity measurements produced are R55A (55 Attenuation Resistivity); R55P
(55 Phase Shift Resistivity); R25A (25 Attenuation Resistivity) and R25P (25 Phase Shift Resistivity). For the 4
tools, these measurements are, respectively R35A, R35P, R15A and R15P.
The AWR tool is PathFinders latest generation of LWD resistivity tool. It features dual frequency measurements of
2 MHz and 500 kHz. The transmitter receiver spacings are 15, 25 and 45. It has a simplifed robust design and new
patented electronics packaging to provide more reliability. The HP/HT version is rated 350 F, 25,000 psi (please
refer to section 2.4). The large memory storage capability (700 hours at 2 points per ft drilling 200 ft per hour), and
separate battery collar which is replaceable at the rig site, together with high speed memory dump provide more
operational fexibility. AWR tool also contains a gamma sensor and an inclination sensor.
Figure 44: Slim Compensated Wave Resistivity (SCWR). 4.75-in OD. 15 and 35 transmitter spacings. Borehole
compensation. Frequency: 2 MHz. 300 F. 20,000 psi.
Figure 45: Array Wave Resistivity (AWR). 4.75-in, 6.75-in, 8-in and 9.5-in OD. 15, 25, 45 Transmitter spacings.
Borehole compensation. Dual frequency: 2 MHz & 500 kHz, 350 F (175 C) 25,000 psi.
26
2.3.2.3. Advanced Processing
Advanced Resistivity Analysis Processing (ARA) is a general purpose program designed to process PathFinder
LWD resistivity data. The program is able to calculate borehole corrected resistivities, dielectric constraint inde-
pendent (DCI) resistivities and dielectric constants, and anisotropic resistivities (Rh and Rv). The thin-bed analysis
module is able to model Rv and Rh of thin-bed to ft the measured data.
2.3.2.3.1. Borehole Correction
The measured resistivity logs can include signifcant borehole ef-
fects, especially when the mud resistivity, Rm, is low and the for-
mation resistivity, Rt, is high. The efect tends to become larger as
the hole size increases (Figure 46). While borehole corrections are
usually minimal, it is a good practice to correct them since they typi-
cally improve the data to some degree.
Borehole corrections remove the efect of a certain volume (defned
by borehole diameter and tool diameter) of borehole fuid of a
certain resistivity. Correction algorithms and charts are available for
conductive mud. Conductive mud can result in borehole efects with
a centered tool even in typical borehole sizes. The borehole efects
tend to be more severe when the mandrel is eccentered. In Figure
47, Figure 48, and Figure 49, the AWR borehole correction factors
are plotted using a mud resistivity of .05 ohm.m. The borehole
efects are slightly larger at 2 MHz than at 500 kHz. The data from
the 25, 45 and 55 spacings see a lower borehole efect than the
15 spacing. The borehole efect may cause the apparent resistivity
to be too high or too low depending on the situation (Haugland,
Figure 46: Resistivity measurement is subject to
borehole efect.
Figure 47: SAWR correction chart, centered tool. Shallow, Medium and Deep 2MHz Phase Resistivity.
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
Centered
0.1 1 10 100 1000 1000
RSPH
R
c
o
r
/
R
S
P
H
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RMPH
R
c
o
r
/
R
M
P
H
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RDPH
R
c
o
r
/
R
D
P
H
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RSAH
R
c
o
r
/
R
S
A
H
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RMAH
R
c
o
r
/
R
M
A
H
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RDAH
R
c
o
r
/
R
D
A
H
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Figure 48: SAWR correction chart, centered tool. Shallow, Medium and Deep 2MHz Attenuation Resistivity.
27
Figure 49: SAWR borehole correction chart, centered tool, Shallow, Medium and Deep 500 kHz Phase Resistivity.
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RSPL
R
c
o
r
/
R
S
P
L
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RDPL
R
c
o
r
/
R
D
P
L
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Figure 50: SAWR borehole correction chart, centered tool, Shallow, Medium and Deep 500 kHz Attenuation Resistivity.
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RSAL
R
c
o
r
/
R
S
A
L
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RMAL
R
c
o
r
/
R
M
A
L
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RMPL
R
c
o
r
/
R
M
P
L
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
Rm = 0.05 ohm.m
RDAL
R
c
o
r
/
R
D
A
L
Centered
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1 10 100 1000 10000
he borehole correction program makes the following assumptions:
The borehole is round and smooth.
The mud resistivity and borehole diameter are both known.
The tool is either centered or fully eccentric. If the tool is moving erratically in the hole and
borehole efects are large, program results may be questionable.
The mud is water-based with Rt>Rm. Oil-based muds are not addressed.
Data requirements: (S)CWR or (S)AWR resistivities in LAS format.
Results: Borehole corrected attenuation and phase resistivities.
28
2.3.2.3.2. Anisotropy Analysis
A property of a medium is said to be anisotropic
if its value depends on the direction of measure-
ment. Resistivity and dielectric anisotropy is com-
mon in earth formations because of depositional
environments and compaction. Rh and Rv are
respectively the resistivity of the formation mea-
sured parallel and perpendicular to the axis of
anisotropy, which is typically the normal to the
bedding planes, as shown in Figure 50. The an-
isotropy ratio is the ratio of vertical over horizon-
tal resistivity (Rv/Rh).
The relative inclination is the angle between the
normal to the bedding planes and the axis of the
tool (or the wellbore). When the relative inclina-
tion is small, the tool will only sense the hori-
zontal resistivity because all the eddy currents
induced by the transmitter are in the horizontal
plane. These eddy currents have a component in
the vertical direction when the relative inclina-
tion is not zero. This results in sensitivity to the
vertical resistivity and dielectric constant.
The typical response is that longer spacings are more afected than the shorter spacings. Phase resistivities are more
afected than attenuation resistivities and high frequency measurements are more afected than low frequency
measurements. All resistivities read higher than they would at zero relative inclination.
Figure 51 shows the response from the four resistivity measurements of the CWR tool in a formation with Rh = 1
and Rv/Rh = 3.
Figure 51: CWR tool anisotropy efect on apparent resistivities in a formation with Rh = 1
and Rv/Rh = 3.
Figure 51: CWR tool anisotropy efect on apparent resistivities
in a formation with Rh = 1 and Rv/Rh = 3.
29
The anisotropy calculation is intended to operate reliably over the range of parameters covered in the chart book,
and should be especially useful for shale analysis. The speed and ease of use are derived from the following sim-
plifying assumptions:
Homogeneous medium is free of invasion and adjacent bed efects.
Dielectric constant is isotropic and the same as the assumed value in apparent phase and attenuation resistivity
processing.
Accurate estimate for the relative inclination angle is needed for Rv estimation.
The homogenous medium assumption makes it easy to determine the outputs using data from a single depth. It
also facilitates rapid calculation of the answer because a complicated model does not have to be evaluated. Adja-
cent bed efects should not be a problem in most shales or when the vertical distance to another bed is fve feet or
more. If adjacent beds need to be accounted for, use the Thin Bed Analysis program for detailed analysis. Invasion
does not tend to happen in shales, so the assumption of no invasion is not a problem. This may cause inaccuracies
in high permeability formations though invasion efects in LWD on-bottom measurements are usually small.
The isotropic dielectric constant assumption makes this calculation consistent with the chart book. Some dielec-
tric assumption is necessary. For example, assume the dielectric constant has the same anisotropy ratio as the
resistivity, and that it may depend on the horizontalrresistivity.
Data requirements: (S)CWR or (S)AWR resistivities in LAS format, relative inclination (well inclination and azimuth
and formation dip) Please note that relative inclination is required for Rv. Rh is computed independent from the
relative inclination.
Results: Horizontal and vertical resistivities (Rh, Rv)
Applications:
Shaly Sand Analysis. In thin-bedded shaly sand formation the horizontal resistivity refects the low resistivity in the
shale layers while the vertical resistivity is closer to the true resistivity in the hydrocarbon bearing sand layers.
Pore Pressure Estimation. Resistivity is often used to estimate abnormal pore pressure based on the deviation
of the resistivity from an established natural compaction trend. The horizontal resistivity should be used in this
analysis.
PayZone Steering. Rv (or equivalently Rv/Rh) is needed to allow for successful modeling of our tool response at
high angles.
Wireline comparison. In many cases, wireline logs record a value close to Rh because of their low frequency, and
because they are rarely run in very high angle wells. In high angle wells and anisotropic zones, the LWD horizontal
resistivity will better match wireline resistivities from ofset wells.
Example:
Figure 52 shows an example of a CWR log where the four resistivity curves display an efect that resembles the
anisotropy efect. The R25A reads the lowest, whereas the R25P and R55A read similar values. Compare to Figure
51. The only exception is that the R55A does not read the highest, as the theory predicts. The computed anisotropy
ratio is plotted in track 1 and the horizontal and vertical resistivities in track 3. The gamma ray in track 1 does not in-
dicate a change in lithology in the zone from X,X50 to X,X70 ft, where there is a strong anisotropy efect. The forma-
tions above and below these depths display a 1.5 to 2 anisotropy ratio, typical for common shales. The anomalous
zone appears to be a thin-bedded sequence of sand and shale beds with thicknesses below the vertical resolution
of the gamma ray and resistivity measurements. A subsequent wireline imaging log confrmed this hypothesis. The
thin-bedded sequence as opposed to a uniform formation may possibly explain the R55P curve being lower than
the predicted response in the anisotropic zone.
Figure 52: Log example of anisotropy analysis.
2.3.2.3.3.Dielectric Constraint Independent (DCI) Resistivity
Electrical Polarization
The dielectric constant is a measure of the susceptibility of a medium to electrically polarize in the presence of
an applied electric feld. Electrical polarization is distinguished from electrical conductivity because conductivity
is a measure of how readily charge is transported from point-to-point within the material given an applied feld
whereas polarization is a measure of how readily charges within a given material separate (are polarized) when
an electric feld is applied. The higher the dielectric constant, the more readily the charges separate. A polar mol-
ecule such as water has a relatively high dielectric constant because the charges are already separated due to the
molecular structure. Such molecules tend to orient with an applied feld. When this happens, polarization can be
observed.
Dielectric Assumptions
The two most fundamental variables afecting the tool response are the conductivity and the dielectric constant.
Both variables have to be accounted for. The approach currently used by most LWD companies is to assume a
value for the dielectric constant and then compute resistivity estimates independently from the phase shift and
attenuation measurements. This results in independent resistivity curves for phase and attenuation for each trans-
mitter spacing and frequency.
31
The crossplot of resistivity and dielectric con-
stant (Figure 53) shows phase shift (red) and
attenuation (blue) factors for a 2 MHz measure-
ment. The green line is the dielectric assumption
of the AWR tool. A similar plot is also available
for 500 kHz measurement. When the dielectric
assumption is signifcantly violated, the log will
read an erroneous value. The most typical sce-
nario is that the dielectric constant is actually
higher than assumed. In this case, the attenua-
tion resistivity reads too high, and the phase re-
sistivity reads too low. If the dielectric constant is
lower than assumed, the attenuation resistivity
read below the phase resistivity.
Dielectric Constraint Independent Resistivity and Dielectric Constant
An alternative to making dielectric assumptions is to simply ft the attenuation and phase measurement to a
model of the tool in a homogeneous, isotropic medium. When this is done, the result is a single resistivity estimate
and a single dielectric constant estimate. PathFinder has shown that phase measurement senses the dielectric
constant in essentially the same volume that the attenuation measurement senses the resistivity, and attenuation
measurement senses the dielectric constant in essentially the same volume that the phase measurement senses
the resistivity. The physical basis for these facts is that the transmitter induces two types of currents in the forma-
tion: displacement currents, which are associated with the dielectric constant; and, conduction currents, which
are associated with the resistivity. By defnition, at any point in the formation, the displacement currents are 90
degrees out of phase with the conduction currents. The conclusion regarding the volume of investigation of each
measurement with respect to each variable follows directly from the observation that the two types of current are
90 degrees out-of-phase everywhere.
2.3.2.3.4. Thin Bed Modeling
Finite bed thickness is a common source of error
on resistivity logs. Due to the limited vertical reso-
lution of log measurement (please refer to section
2.3.2.1.2), thin-bed efects depend on many variables
such as, bed resistivities, dielectric constants, relative
inclination, bed thickness, the spacing and frequen-
cy of the measurement, anisotropy, etc. Due to the
complexity of the problem, inversion-based process-
ing is the method of choice for thin-bed analysis. In
this approach, model parameters that lead to calcu-
lated results which agree with the actual log data are
correlated with the formation parameters. In Figure
54, Rt (square log in tracks 2 and 3) was derived from
the LWD resistivities (track 2). The estimates of the
anisotropy ratio (square log, track 1) and dielectric
constant (track 4) for each bed are also shown. The
model was able to match the top and the bottom
part of the logs perfectly. The middle part was not
a good match due to borehole quality. The result
shows a higher resistivity than the log shows and will
improve the hydrocarbon estimation.
Figure 53: Phase shift and attenuation factor crossplot for
2 MHz measurement.
Figure 54: Example log of thin bed analysis.
32
2.3.2.4. Applications
Resistivity measurement is one of the most useful logs. It is widely used in fuid, and lithology identifcation,
quantitative analysis and geosteering (section 2.6).
2.3.3. Density Neutron
The neutron and density measurements are important for porosity estimation and lithology identifcation.
PathFinders Density Neutron Standof Caliper service provides the best available bulk density, neutron porosity
and caliper measurements while drilling. PathFinder also provide density borehole image services.

2.3.3.1. Measurement Principle
2.3.3.1.1. Density and Pe Measurements
The density section of the DNSC is located underneath a sleeve to minimize standof. The stabilizer is 8 O.D. for
the 6 tool; 12 O.D. for the 8 tool. The measurement section consists of a 1.5 Curie (Ci) cesium-137 source and
two sodium iodide scintillation detectors. The energy spectra of the detected gamma rays are partitioned into
several energy regions, for which count rates are stored. As is common for wireline tools, a small cesium-137 source
is used to stabilize the detectors against temperature drift (gain stabilization).
The detectors are placed inside a titanium pressure housing; required shielding and collimation are provided by
tungsten. The use of titanium minimizes the number of (low energy) gamma rays that are absorbed by the hous-
ing material and makes it possible to measure the formation Pe accurately.
The density response has been characterized at a test facility in Houston, Texas. This facility contains many stan-
dards that were designed solely for density measurements. The primary standards used for this tool have a 9-inch
borehole diameter; 12-inch and 13-inch diameters were also used to determine the diameter dependence and
large standof dependence.
Formation density and Pe are computed using the techniques described by Moake G.L. A New Approach to Deter-
mining Density and Pe Values with a Spectral Density Tool Paper Z, SPWLA 1991 Annual Logging Symposium.
2.3.3.1.2. Neutron Measurements
The neutron section is located in an enlarged portion of the collar (7 O.D. for the 6 tool; 11 for the 8 tool)
to minimize standof efects. It consists of an 8 Ci americium-beryllium (AmBe) source and two helium-3 counters.
The detector spacings are similar to those used in wireline tools. The neutron response was characterized at test fa-
cilities in Houston and Fort Worth, Texas. Monte Carlo calculations were also used to augment the empirical data.
The neutron porosity is based on the ratio of the near and far count rates. Next, this ratio is converted to porosity
using a lithology dependent algorithm. The measurement is corrected for standof and borehole size, with the
former being the larger correction of the two as the ratio processing does not remove all sensitivity to standof.
This total correction is presented on the log as DNPH (representing ).

2.3.3.1.3. Ultrasonic Measurements
Three ultrasonic transducers are used to make both a caliper measurement and a standof measurement. These
three transducers are spaced at 120-degree intervals around the tool. One of the ultrasonic transducers is aligned
with the density and neutron detectors and measures standof directly in front of the detector sections in order to
improve the nuclear measurements.

1
2 inline ultrasonic transducers for SDNSC, iDNSC
33
Measurements are made with each transducer every 10 milliseconds, providing 100 measurements in one rotation
when the drill string is rotating at 60 RPM. Each measurement is converted to yield the distance from the transduc-
er to the borehole wall. The borehole diameter is then computed using measurements from all three transducers.
This provides an accurate caliper log, regardless of tool position and motion in the borehole.
Apart from providing an accurate caliper log, these standof and caliper measurements are used to apply a correc-
tion to the neutron measurement and to improve the quality of all nuclear data by applying a technique named
standof weighting.
2.3.3.1.4.Stand-of Weighting, Data Processing and Storage
Measurements are made with the ultrasonic transducers every 10 milliseconds and nuclear detectors every 20 mil-
liseconds. Measurements made over a 20-millisecond interval cover
only a small angular fraction of the borehole (21.6 degrees when ro-
tating at 180 RPM) and may span a wide range of standofs in one
rotation. Data corresponding to smaller standofs will lead to more
accurate measurements of formation properties than data obtained
at larger standofs. In order to take advantage of this, the 20-millisec-
ond nuclear data is multiplied by a weighting factor that is computed
from the ultrasonic standof measurement. The weights are larger for
smaller standofs. Data is accumulated for a fxed time interval (user
selectable from 1-60 seconds, normally 10 seconds). At the end of
this interval, the nuclear data is normalized and stored in tool mem-
ory as weighted count rates along with the average values obtained
from the ultrasonic sensors. This weighting greatly emphasizes small
standof data over large standof data. The standof weighting func-
tion is represented in Figure 55.
Figure 56 is a schematic illustrating the weighting technique. Nuclear count rates (Ci) are accumulated in 0.02-sec-
ond intervals. Standof (Si) is also measured during that interval. A downhole processor calculates a weight (W(Si))
appropriate for the measured standof (Figure 55) and multiplies each count rate by the weight. These weighted
count rates are summed over a user selectable accumulation interval after which they are divided by the sum of
the weights to obtain a weighted average ( ). On surface at the end of a run, the tool memory data are merged with
depth and time information to yield data that are stored in even depth increments. The data are depth aligned and
resolution matched before they are used in calculations.
Reference:
Reduction of standof efects on LWD
density and neutron measurements,
Moake et al, Paper V, SPWLA 37th Annual
Logging Symposium, 1996.
Figure 55: Semi-log plot of the weighting applied
to density and neutron measurements.
Figure 56: Standof dynamic weighting of density and neutron
measurements.
34
2.3.3.2. Tools
2.3.3.2.1. Density Neutron Standof Caliper (DNSC) Tool
The DNSC tool density and neutron measurements are similar to wireline counterparts though the measurement
sections are set out slightly diferent. The tool sizes available are 6 and 8 (Figure 57 and Figure 58). The density
section is at the bottom of the tool with the detectors placed above the source, the neutron section is above the
density section with the detectors below the source. Three ultrasonic transducers are located near the neutron
measurement section of the tool.
2.3.3.2.2.Slim Density Neutron Standof Caliper (SDNSC) Tool
The Slim Density Neutron Standof Caliper (SDNSC) tool combines density, neutron, standof and caliper measure-
ments in a 4 collar tool; see Figure 58 below. Similar to the DNSC, the density section is at the bottom of the
tool and the neutron section is above the density section. Two ultrasonic transducers are located in between the
neutron and density measurement sections of the tool. The transducers are in line with the neutron and density
detectors and provide a redundant standof measurement and a caliper measurement while rotating.
Figure 57: 6 -in, 8-in Density Neutron Standof Caliper (DNSC) Tool
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Neutron
-AmBe - 8 Ci Source
-2 He
3
Detectors
6 3/4-in, 8-in OD
Temp: 300F/150C
Press: 20,000 psi
Standof & Caliper
-3 Ultrasonic Transducers
-120 Degrees
Density & Pe
-Cs-137- 1.5 Ci Source
-2 Nal Scintillation Detectors
-Gain Stabilized
35
Figure 58: 4 -in Slim Density Neutron Standof Caliper (SDNSC) Tool.
2.3.3.3. Data Quality Control
Various quality curves are available to use in examining the data, including:
Standard deviation of all nuclear measurements.
Weighted standof for both neutron and density.
Average standof versus borehole size.
DRHO (Density Correction).
DNPH (Neutron Standof + Caliper Cor).
Formation exposure time.
Detector health curves.
Ultrasonic health curves, etc.
An example diagnostic log is presented in Figure 59. Figure 60 shows a typical DNSC log in a triple combo job
with DNSC QC curves.
Mnemonics listing for Log Examples:
NSAN Neutron Sandstone Porosity QN Near Detector Status
NLIM Neutron Limestone Porosity QF Far Detector Status
RHOB Bulk Density BS Bit Size
DRHO Density Correction CALI Caliper
DNPH Neutron Standof + Caliper Cor DDDN Data Density
SOA Average Stand Of SDNP NLIM Std Dev
WSON Weighted Standof Neutron SDRH RHOB Std Dev
WSOD Weighted Standof Density
Neuston
-Cf-252 -.011 Ci Source
-3 He
3
Detectors
4 3/4-in OD
Temp: 350F/175C
Press: 25,000 psi
Standof & Caliper
-2 Ultrasonic Transducers
Density & Pe
-Cs-137- 1.5 Ci Source
-2 Nal Scintillation Detectors
-Gain Stabilized
34
Figure 59: Example of a DNSC diagnostic log.
Figure 60: An example of a triple-combo log from a Gulf of Mexico well. The CWR
was logged while drilling and the DNSC was logged while reaming at 200 ft/hr.
Notice the good density and neutron resolution and cross-over indicating gas.
35
2.3.3.4. Applications
Neutron density tools are the primary porosity estimation tools. Neutron density tools are also used in gas detec-
tion, geosteering and lithology identifcation.
2.3.3.4.1. D-N Crossplot Porosity
The density-neutron crossplot is an invaluable formation evaluation tool (Figure 61). To compute porosity from the
bulk density alone, one needs to know or assume a lithology, (sandstone, limestone, or dolomite). The combina-
tion of bulk density and neutron porosity allows for the simultaneous evaluation of porosity and lithology. This
porosity is referred to as D-N crossplot porosity (Figure 61).
2.3.4. Sonic
2.3.4.1. Measurement Principle
Compressional Slowness
The formations compressional slowness (DTP) is computed in the tool in real-time using a 4-trace semblance al-
gorithm. A fast shear can be computed downhole if the rock is hard enough to support a body shear wave. The
downhole algorithm is described in Boonen et al., 1998. Whereas the downhole algorithm does a reasonable job
in most cases,
Figure 61: PathFinder DNSC Neutron Density Crossplot.
36
one can envision circumstances where the pre-set processing parameters do not cover the entire range in one log-
ging trip. A common occurrence is borehole washout. Sonic energy is attenuated rapidly in fuids and this efect
gets worse with increasing borehole diameters. Another common problem is the slowness range of the formation.
The tool is pre-set to compute slownesses spanning a range of 100 msec/ft. For instance, in a slow formation, the
range is set from 70 to 170 msec/ft. If in this particular slow formation a hard streak is encountered, an anhydrite
or a calcifed zone, the process will skip the frst arrival of these hard rocks if it is less than 70 msec/ft. Typically, the
process will then pick on the hard shear which arrives in the 70 to 170 msec/ft range.
In PathFinders Computing Center, the log analysis can reproduce the downhole computed values using a similar
semblance processing technique. A more advanced processing method is available based on the Phase Velocity
Processing (PVP) algorithm presented by Kozak et al, 2001.
Figure 62 shows a comparison between the LWD compressional slowness and the wireline Dtc in a North Sea chalk
formation. The LWD shear is also presented. Wireline shear was not available from the BHC type of tool. Velocity
ratio and Poisons ratio are included to indicate the validity of the shear measurement.
Figure 63 shows a compressional log with comparison between upper and lower transmitter data and quality
indicators (waveforms, semblance and waveform correlation coef cient).
Figure 62: A Comparison between the LWD compressional slowness and the wireline Dtc in a North Sea Chalk
Formation.
37
Slow Shear Processing
For the purpose of this discussion, a formation will be called acoustically slow if the speed of sound in the borehole
fuid is greater than the velocity of shear waves in the surrounding formation. Shear wave logging under these cir-
cumstances is an important and challenging application. In slow formations, a refracted shear wave does not propa-
gate in the formation along the borehole wall. However, the slowness of guided modes such as Stoneley (mono-
pole), fexural (dipole), and screw (quadrupole) waves can be measured instead. These waves tend to have their
energy concentrated in the borehole, and are thus referred to as borehole-guided waves. The guided wave slowness
depends not only on the formation shear slowness but additionally on the mandrel properties and eccentricity, mud
density and slowness, borehole diameter, frequency, and formation compressional slowness dispersion.
Figure 63: Good consistency of Dtc from top and bottom transmitter.
38
The Figure 64 conveys a rule-of-thumb approach to the
defnition of slow shear as mentioned above. The curve
in the graph represents the so called mud rock line pub-
lished by Castagna et al. (1986). This line is an empirical
relationship between compressional and shear for an of-
shore Gulf of Mexico formation. Borehole fuid slowness
typically ranges from 189 msec/ft for a water-based mud
to 240 msec/ft or more for a synthetic oil-based mud.
When the formation compressional slowness exceeds
between 90 msec/ft in WBM to ~110 msec/ft in OBM, the
shear slowness will be greater than the borehole fuid.
Figure 65 shows the efectiveness of the low frequency
transmitter to enhance the fexural arrival. These plots
are semblance plots computed from 40 to 340 micro-
seconds per foot for both low and high frequency wave-
forms. The red colors represent the highest semblance,
and the blue colors represent the low semblance values.
It is obvious that the fexural arrival is stronger in the low
frequency waveforms whereas the compressional arrival
is enhanced in the high frequency waveforms. Hence we
are going to use the low frequency waveforms to com-
pute the shear wave and the high frequency waveforms
for the compressional slowness. Figure 66 shows an
example about 300 ft of North Sea data. Although the
semblance as shown in the preceding fgure is not used
directly to compute the fexural slowness, it is used to
generate a guide to aid the arrival picking routine of the
phase velocity processing algorithm described later.
References: Kozak et al., 2001 (SPWLA 2001 PP)
Figure 64: Dts and Dts cross plot with mud rock line and bore-
hole fuid slowness.
Figure 65: Semblance plots of e-sonic data at low fre-
quency (5 or 7kHz) and high frequency (15).
39
Figure 66: Example of fexural slowness and compressional slowness log in North Sea. Track 1: Gamma ray.
Track 2: Low frequency waveform used to process the fexural arrival (white curve). Track 3: Semblance of the
fexural arrival (white curve). Track 4: Compressional slowness (DTP) blue, fexural slowness (DTS) red.
Dispersion Correction Processing
Slow shear measurements depend on the processing of the fexural mode. This guided wave slowness depends
not only on the formation shear slowness but additionally on the mandrel properties and eccentricity, mud den-
sity and slowness, borehole diameter, frequency, and formation compressional slowness. Processing, which relies
upon values for these additional variables, is typically required to determine a shear slowness from measured
guided wave arrivals. Such processing is often referred to as dispersion correction. This terminology implies that a
guided mode in question propagates at the formation shear slowness in the zero frequency limit. Since this is not
necessarily the case, it may be more appropriate to call the algorithm a shear slowness estimation algorithm.
Because of the relatively high frequency of the low frequency transmitter (5 or 7 kHz), the recorded fexural arriv-
als are still afected by dispersion, and we cannot directly use the fexural arrival and call it slow shear. We have to
apply a dispersion correction or more correctly apply a true shear estimation algorithm. Such an algorithm was
developed at PathFinder. This algorithm is based on a closed form analytical solution of the wave equation. It is
important to notice which input parameters are required to do this correction well. The interface slowness is the
fexural wave slowness that we record with the tool. The frequency is the center frequency of this arrival as shown
earlier. It is advisable to include a bulk density measurment from a density tool. A great advantage of running a
DNSC is that we then automatically have a caliper measurement which is another important input parameter in
the algorithm. Other parameters are mud density (from log headers) and a mud velocity.
40
An analytical solution to the 2.5-D isotropic medium
problem is used to compute theoretical slowness val-
ues for the guided waves. This theoretical slowness is
then compared to the measured fexural wave slowness
using nonlinear optimization techniques. The solution
to this equation is the correct formation shear slow-
ness when the mode is correctly registered and the as-
sumed parameter vector equals the actual parameter
vector (frequency, eccentricity, borehole diameter, bulk
density, borehole fuid slowness and density). Figure 67
shows the dispersion correction for e-sonic .
Figure 68 is a fnal log showing about 300 ft of data
from a North Sea well. The gamma ray is in track 1, the
low frequency waveform in track 2, the fexural mode
semblance in track 3, compressional,measured fexural
and dispersion corrected shear in track 4, compression-
al semblance in track 5 and the high frequency wave- form in track 6.
The slow shear has been dispersion corrected.
Based on our recent research on the unipole tool phys- ics, a new disper-
sion correction method is being developed with an objective of ease
of use. The new method no longer assumes a particu- lar mode (e.g.,
fexural or Stoneley) for the unipole tool response. Rather, several
diferent modes are combined in a way that mimics the unipole tool
measurement. The guided wave slowness is dispersion corrected using
new tables that are pre-calculated based on the new theory.
Reference: Haugland 2004 (SPE90505), Haugland 2004 (SEG 2004
BG P ( ( SEG 2004 BG1.1)
2.3.4.2.1. CLSS Tool
The CLSS is an LWD fullwave array acoustic tool. It was introduced as a commercial service in the 1995.
The tool comprises a slick drill collar containing two transmitters located above and below an array of four receiv-
ers. A schematic is presented as Figure 69. The use of two transmitters and an array of receivers provide signifcant
redundancy. These dual arrays allow for efective measurement QC as the same formation is sampled twice at the
same time.
Figure 68: An Example e-sonic log in North Sea.
Figure 67: e-sonic dispersion correction.
Figure 69: Schematic of a CLSS tool.
41
Tool Hardware
The transmitters and receivers operate in the same frequency range as wireline acoustic tools (10-20 kHz). Unlike
wireline tools, which are omni-directional, the CLSS transmitters and receivers are aligned along one side of the
tool. This type of transducer is more rugged than the cylindrical rings used in most wireline tools and is thus better
suited to LWD.
Piston transmitters and receivers with respective piezoelectric driving and sensing stacks are used due to their
inherent ruggedness. Each individual transducer assembly incorporates its own independent pressure balancing
system. This facilitates feld maintenance and well site replacement of damaged units.
An ultrasonic transducer located in the center of the receiver array measures standof between the side of the
tool and the borehole wall. The transducer uses a pulse-echo technique similar to that used in the DNSC tool. This
measurement may be used to identify hole rugosity, to aid waveform processing and to provide a crude caliper
when the tool is rotating.
Transmitter-to-receiver spacings are 4, 5, 6 and 7 ft giving formation signals of suf cient signal-to-noise ratio so as
not to require any signal stacking, and consequent loss of resolution.
Slowness Calculation
After waveform fltering, upsampling and tool mode removal the CLSS uses a four trace semblance correlation
procedure to calculate compressional and shear slowness [as per Willis and Toksoz, 1983 Acoustic P and S velocity
determination from fullwave digital acoustic logs, Geophysics, 48, 12, 1613] whereby minimum and maximum
anticipated slowness values are programmed into the tool prior to a run and the compressional and shear arrivals
are picked based upon maximum semblance values. Any correlated noise is discounted from calculations by the
use of an energy threshold. A typical log example is presented in Figure 70.
Figure 70: Typical CLSS log presentation showing fltered waveforms in the frst
track. An image of the semblance and linear standof are presented for QC purposes.

42
PathFinders e-sonic tool (Figure 71) was based on the CLSS design with enhanced dual frequency fring (5 or
7 kHz and 15 kHz) and extended listening time (5120 us) to measure slow shear slowness. The enhanced lower
frequency transmitter uses lead zirconate titanate to maximize signal output with optimized drive pulse, source
strength, center frequency, bandwidth, and radiation pattern. The selection of fring frequency of the e-sonic
tool has taken into consideration of the maximizing compressional and shear signals and minimizing low fre-
quency drilling noise. Generally speaking, a lower frequency helps reduce signal loss in an attenuative formation.
However, frequencies below 3 kHz may introduce signifcant drilling noises into the waveforms. It also is desirable
to use a slightly higher frequency for dispersion correction. Around 5 or 7 kHz, the dispersion curve of the
guided wave is relatively fat, which makes it easier to do dispersion correction.
2.3.4.3. Data Quality Control
Because the sonic log is a direct measurement, there
are no calibrations for sonic tools and quality control
is limited to examining the raw waveforms and the
computed curves. In modern, full waveform recording
tools, the sonic waveforms are the only raw recorded
data. All other data are computed from these wave-
forms. The frst part of log quality control concerns
with the raw waveform (Figure 70 track 2) and qual-
ity of the waveform processing. Semblance (Figure 70
track 4) and phase distribution log can be provided
to examine the processing algorithm. In the second
step, the fnal slowness results are examined in the
context of formation evaluation: crossplot (Figure 72)
and Poissons ratio are used to ensure the fnal result
makes petrochemical sense.
Figure 70: Schematic of an e-sonic tool.
Figure 71: Compressional slowness versus velocity ratio crossplot.
43
Figure 73: Efect of slowness measurements on computed total transit time.
44
In real-time, the quality control options are limited. Quality control looks at diferences between upper and lower trans-
mitter slowness values when both are available. Typically, diferences between the two slowness values are caused by
borehole irregularities. In the best case, an ultrasonic stand-of measurement is also included as a quality indicator
2.3.4.4. Applications
2.3.4.4.1. Seismic Time-to-Depth Conversion and Synthetic
An important application of the sonic log is to provide time-to-depth conversion for seismic interpretation. LWD sonic
data has some advantages over wireline data. Figure 73 shows an example where wireline data reads consistently
about 7 s slower than LWD data. It is believed that the formation has been altered by the borehole fuid between
LWD and WL logging thus LWD sonic log is believed to be more accurate than wireline. Besides this, the LWD sonic log
can provide the result in near real-time during drilling to aid the decision making process.
One can ask whether these mere 7 microseconds per foot diference are important. Lets look at the entire 2,000 ft
of section were we have a comparison between wireline and LWD and compute the total transit time. This exercise
shows that over the 200 ft section there is a diference of about 10 milliseconds in total transit time between the two
logs. This equates to a depth diference after time-to-depth correlations are performed with both the sonic logs of
about 100 to 150 ft. A target structure for drilling would be expected at least 100 ft shallower when the analysis would
have been done using the wireline data. The number, at least 100 ft, is based on only 2,000 ft of data, not the 10,000
+ft of the entire well. This is important.
The LWD sonic log is also often used to generate synthetic seismic traces. Figure 74 shows the equation to convert
sonic slowness/velocity to refection coef cient. Figure 75 shows the complete process of synthesizing seismic
traces from LWD log data.
LWD sonic data is a good tool for synthetic seismogram. The advantages of earlier Dt measurement result in better
correlation with check-shot surveys, less data editing required, seismic steering, real-time position of the drill bit
in the seismic profle, and improved time-to-depth correlation. The use of LWD data over wireline sonic data may
result in a better time-to-depth correlation and a better correlation to seismic check-shots which have a deeper
depth of investigation and hence are less afected by the borehole environment and formation alteration. In gen-
eral, we can state that the use of LWD sonic data for time-to depth correlation improves this process.
Figure 74: Converting sonic velocity to refection coef cient.
Figure 75: Synthetic seismic from well logs.
45
2.3.4.4.2. Pore Pressure Estimation
Sonic log is widely used in pore pressure estimation during drilling. Comparing the local compaction trend with the
sonic log can give early warnings of over pressured zones ahead of bit. Please refer to section 2.5 for more details.
2.3.4.4.3. Sonic Porosity
2.3.4.4.3.1. Compressional Porosity
Compressional slowness can be correlated to porosity using Wyllie time-average equation with shale volume correc-
tion.

2.3.4.4.3.2. Shear Porosity
A number of equations have been proposed over the years to compute porosity from the shear slowness ranging
from an adaptation of the Wyllie equation and a number of empirical equations to the Critical Shear Porosity model
described here. The advantage of using the shear for porosity lies in the fact that fuids do not support a shear wave
and hence shear porosity should be independent of the nature of the formation fuid.
Critical Shear Porosity Model
The Critical Porosity model is based on the shear modulus in the Gassman equation. At zero porosity, the shear ve-
locity is the same as the matrix shear porosity. The shear slowness goes to zero when the porosity reaches the critical
porosity at which no shear wave can exist anymore.
where:
V
s
= shear wave velocity
V
sma
= matrix shear velocity
ma = matrix density
= porosity

c
= critical porosity

f
= formation fuid density
Reference:
Boonen, P., Hill, J., Coombes, T., Holehouse, S. 2001, Shear Acoustic Porosity And Velocity Ratio Analysis Using Sonic LWD In The Dunbar
Field (UK North Sea). SPWLA 42nd Annual Symposium, Houston, Jun 17-20, 2001, Paper MM.
2.3.4.4.3.3. Secondary Porosity Identifcation
The sonic tool only measures primary porosity; it doesnt see vugs or fractures. The porosity from the sonic slow-
ness is not necessarily the same as the porosity from the density or neutron tools. The diference between the sonic
porosity and the neutron-density porosity gives a Secondary Porosity Index (SPI) which is an indication of how much
of this type of porosity exists in the formation.
46
2.3.4.4.4. Rock Elastic Properties
Compressional and shear slowness logs are widely used in rock elastic properties analysis. Please refer to section 2.7
for more information.
2.3.4.4.5. Natural Fracture Identifcation
Full waveform acoustic logging tools record the sonic energy received at an array of receivers over a certain period
of time. Unlike conventional acoustic tools that measure only the frst arrival of the compressional wave, waveform
recording tools ofer the opportunity to compute arrival times of compressional, shear and Stoneley waves and to
determine the relative amplitudes of the diferent arrivals.
A plot of the raw waveform can be an excellent fracture indicator. Fractures are indicated by the following combina-
tion of features:
no major change in the arrival time of the compressional and shear waves;
minor-to-no-attenuation of the compressional wave;
large attenuation of shear waves;
large attenuation of the Stoneley waves.
Lithology changes and particularly shale beds may show similar attenuation patterns; therefore, a gamma ray curve
or another shale indicator should be included to identify such shale beds. Washed out zones may also have a similar
efect on the waveforms. A caliper curve should be included in the plot to check for hole enlargement; however,
borehole washout is often a result of the presence of natural fractures and caliper logs should be examined carefully.
Formation gas may attenuate the compressional wave, but it does not afect the shear wave. Fluids do not support a
shear wave; hence, a fuid (gas) independent porosity can be computed from the shear wave.
Due to the harsh drilling environment in which LWD tools must operate, LWD sonic waveforms typically are quite noisy
as compared to wireline waveforms. They also typically contain tool mode arrivals so that the efects of the presence
of fractures may be dif cult to interpret using the raw waveforms. The SCLSS waveforms were processed using an In-
stantaneous Waveform Characteristics program to enhance the interpretation of the fractured intervals.
Figure 76 is an example of an instantaneous transmissivity plot. The compressional wave shows up as the frst blue
colored bands. The shear wave is represented by the green-yellow colors above 11,300 ft and below 11,400 ft. The
Stoneley wave energy is indicated by the red arrivals (high energy) in the same sections and by the lower energy green
and yellow colors in the fractured section of the formation.
Maximum Stoneley Energy
To provide a numerical analysis of the fracture identifcation, the maximum
energy is computed across a Stoneley arrival window. This curve represents
the relative attenuation of the Stoneley wave. In a similar manner, a maximum
shear energy could be computed. It appears that the Stoneley wave energy re-
sponds better to fractures. Strong attenuation (low energy) relates to fractured
zones. This computation provides a fracture identifcation curve as compared
to a qualitative transmissivity image. The curve can easily be correlated to other
log data.
References
M.T. Taner, F. Koehler, R.E. Sherif, 1979 : Complex Seismic Trace Analysis. Geophysics, Vol 44,
No. 6, June 1979, P. 1041 - 1063.
S. Knize, B. Patton, 1989 : Application of Complex Waveform Analysis and Color Displays to
the Evaluation of Sonic Logs. Paper CWLS002 presented at the 12th Formation Evaluation
Symposium of CWLS, Calgary, Sep 1989, paper
P. Boonen, S. Flowers, 1996 : Hostile environment full wave sonic logging permits fracture
evaluation in high temperature slimhole wells. Paper FF, SPWLA 37th Annual Logging Sym-
posium, New Orleans, 1996.

Figure 76: Instantaneous transmissiv-
ity in fractured carbonates
47
2.3.5. Caliper
2.3.5.1. Measurement Principle
Caliper is an important measurement for drilling, log quality control and the application of environmental corrections.
Caliper measurement in LWD tools relies on non-contact ultrasonic transducers to compute the caliper from the signal
travel time. Mud velocity correction is often required for accurate caliper computation. Simultaneous measurements
from multiple ultrasonic transducers are often used to compute caliper and even borehole shape from eccentric bore-
holes.
2.3.5.2. Tools
PathFinders neutron density tools use two or three ultrasonic transducers depending on tool type to measure tool
standof accurately; the standof measurements are used to produce the caliper measurement while drilling. Please
refer to section 2.3.3.1.3 for more details. PathFinders density image tool (iDNSC) can also measure borehole caliper.
Please refer to section 2.3.6.2.1 for more details.
2.3.5.3. Applications
Caliper and borehole shape logs are often used in data QC and environment correction of other logs. Borehole shape
logs are also often used in borehole stress analysis and borehole volume calculation.
2.3.6. Borehole Image
2.3.6.1. Measurement Principle
Borehole image is a presentation of borehole properties azimuthally around the borehole. In order to achieve the im-
age resolution, the measurement needs to be well-focused. PathFinders current borehole image technology employs
the density measurement and provides density measurements images which cover the entire borehole.
2.3.6.2. Tools
2.3.6.2.1. Imaging Density Neutron Standof Caliper Tool
The iDNSC is PathFinders latest borehole imaging t o o l .
It is currently available in 4 size. It is based on t h e
mature SDNSC tool technology with enhancement i n
imaging capability. Figure 77 shows a schematic of iDNSC
tool. Besides all the existing capability SDNSC tool is able
to provide, iDNSC tool makes oriented measure- me nt
around the borehole. Measurements are made every
10 ms and averaged azimuthally to produce an im- a g e .
Figure 78 shows an oriented measurement of 16 sec- t o r s .
The iDNSC tool is able to acquire up to 32 sectors in mem-
ory data and up to 16 sectors in real-time.
Figure 77: A schematic of PathFinder 4 imaging density neutron
standof caliper tool (iDNSC). Note the image processing sub.
48
Figure 78: The iDNSC provides density, Pe and ultrasonic standof data with 4 to 32
sectors
Figure 79 shows a borehole image of compensated density, photoelectric index, standof and density correction
from the iDNSC. The tool must be rotating to produce an image.
Figure 79: Example log of an iDNSC image log. Note that there is no image during sliding.
49
2.3.6.3.1.Static and Dynamic Normal-
ized Image
Image processing techniques can be applied to iSDNSC density images.
iSDNSC data can be processed with static and dynamic normalization to
enhance geological features. Figure 80 shows enhanced geological feature
identifcation in dynamic normalized images. Histogram normalization pro-
cessing is also available for both static and dynamic processing.
2.3.6.3.2. Dip Picking and Dip Calculation
Geological features can be seen from the real-time and memory images.
When a geological bed intersects the borehole, it appears as a sinusoid on
the borehole image (Figure 81). By ftting true sinusoids to the image data,
dip direction and the angle (both apparent and true) can be calculated and
plotted on the log. Figure 80 shows an example of an iSDNSC borehole im-
age log with dip angle picking. The depth of density image of 1.65 has been
determined by modeling and experiment accurately for the iSDNSC tool to
ensure accurate dip calculation.
Reference:
Analysis of Density Image Dip Angle Calculations, Kevin S.
McKinny, Paul Boonen, and Cornelis Huiszoon, PathFinder En-
ergy Services, SPWLA 2008, Edinburgh Scotland, Paper ZZ.
2.3.6.4. Applications
2.3.6.4.1. Geosteering
Borehole image logs have been widely used in geosteering applications for bed entry/exit identifcation and bed
correlations. Please refer to section 2.6 for details.
2.3.6.4.2. Borehole Breakout
Hydraulic fractures grow in the direction of the maximum horizontal stress. Opening a fracture requires pushing
the formation away to make room for the fuid and proppant. The principle of least resistance tells us that this is
the direction of the minimum horizontal stress; hence, fractures grow in the direction of the maximum horizontal
stress (Figure 82). This principle also tells us that most fractures will be vertical.
Figure 81: Dip angle of a bed intersecting borehole.
Figure 80: Example image log of iSDNSC
tool with dynamic and static normaliza-
tion. Note geology features are enhanced
using dynamic normalization.
50
The direction of the natural fractures should not be confused with t h e
direction in which borehole breakout occurs. Borehole breakout i s
due to stress concentration at the intersection of the stresses with t h e
borehole wall. This concentration is larger in the direction of the
minimum horizontal stress (Kirschs equations); hence, borehole
breakout occurs at the intersection of the borehole with the min- i -
mum horizontal stress (Figure 82).
Kirschs equations
A = 3 h - H
B = 3 H - h
where:
H = maximum horizontal stress
h = minimum horizontal stress
A = stress at the borehole wall in the direction of the maximum horizontal stress
B = stress at the borehole wall in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress
Borehole image logs, together with other logs, are a very good tool for geologists and engineers to analyze the
borehole stress and drilling dynamics analysis.
2.3.6.4.3. Borehole Condition
From density image logs, borehole conditions can be observed and drilling problems can be identifed. Figure 83
shows an example image log in spiral borehole. Please note the spiraling of the standof images.
Figure 82: Borehole breakout and fracture
directions
Figure 83: An example image log in spiral borehole.
51
2.3.7. Formation Pressure
2.3.7.1. Tools
Formation Pressure While Drilling (FPWD) data provide criti-
cal information for decision making. PathFinders Drilling
Formation Tester (DFT) Tool is designed to obtain reliable
formation pressure measurement while drilling. Figure 84
shows a photo of a DFT tool hanging on a rig before going
downhole. The DFT tool is dual packer design (2.5 between
packers) which gives a deep radius of investigation, large
drawdown volumes, large formation exposure and great
repeatability. Due to the merit of dual packer design, the
DFT test will not be afected by supercharging efects, and
anisotropy efects, which is common for probe design for-
mation testers from competitors. Circulation fow is diverted
above packers is during testing.
The DFT tool can take multiple reservoir pressure tests to
provide formation pressure at any time during the drilling
process. While drilling the DFT tool is in sleep mode with
normal circulation through the bit. After drilling/logging a
zone of interest, the BHA can be pulled up to measure forma-
tion pressures or drill to TD and take pressure measurements
during a short trip. Pre-well communication and planning
are crucial to the successful running of the DFT service. Path-
Finder engineers always follow pre-defned protocols to en-
sure communication with operators to secure a successful
DFT job.
DFT operation is fully compatible with other PathFinder
LWD systems and usually it is recommended to run with
at least a triple combo to help identify potential zone of
interest and suitable test spots.
Figure 85 shows a pressure profle of a DFT job. Point A is the initiation with the mud
diverter opening and start of mud infating the packers. Point B is a pressure pulse
as the trapped mud is squeezed between the packers. Point C is frst drawdown and
build-up. Point D is a second drawdown. Finally, point E is packer retraction and re-
turn to hydrodynamic pressure. This pressure profle is transmitted real time during
the test to the surface for analysis.
Figure 84: PathFinders DFT tool on the rig.
Figure 85: DFT pressure profle.
52
Auto Test Mode
Auto test mode is also available and designed to achieve
an optimum test while minimizing test time. A smart
function is built into the frmware to detect a fat spot in
the pressure profle, while monitoring change in pressure
vs. time. The tool will automatically initiate packer defa-
tion when this condition has been met and a 2nd buildup
will only be initiated as long as it is necessary. Figure 86
shows an example pressure profle of the DFT tool in auto
test mode.
Packer Defation
DFT tool is equipped with packer defa-
tion mechanics. 16 pull-back rods can pull
back the packer to ensure a safe and quick
packer defation and mitigate the risk of
becoming stuck in hole. Figure 87 shows
the design of DFT pull-back rods.
Figure 86: DFT auto test mode.
Figure 87: Packer defation.
53
DFT has several safety features built into the design to ensure safe and smooth operation:
Terminate tests by pumps OFF.
Reprogramming sequence to test mode.
Pull back rods defate packers.
Upward string movement assists packer defation.
Firmware prevents packer infation without indication of diverter opening.
Real-time ECD indicates safe conditions to start a test.
DFTs unique design and engineering ofers the following advantages in comparison with other LWD
formation testers:
Deeper radius of investigation.
Large drawdown volumes.
Large formation exposure.
Omni-directional investigation.
No anisotropy efects.
Good test repeatability.
No supercharging biased efects.
No need to orient tool.
Saves rig time.
Packers can withstand the heave up to 40,000 lbs downward force and 60,000 lbs upwards force.
Full pressure profle in real-time for making real-time decisions.
Circulation is maintained throughout testing.
DFT works in ALL formation types.
DFT has been run worldwide with great success. Global Commercial Summary (Feb. 2005) indicates that it has
been run in 25 wells, with 1,462 circulating hours, 51,565 feet drilling and completed 77 successful tests.
2.3.7.1.1. Drilling Formation Tester (DFT) Tool
2.3.7.2. Applications
Formation pressure tools are widely used for formation pressure measurement, permeability estimate, reservoir
connectivity test and depletion test.
2.4. HP/HT MWD/LWD
2.4.1. Measurement Principle
The PathFinder High Pressure/High Temperature Tool Suite (350o F, 25kpsi) includes the SURVIVOR Directional/
Gamma tool based on our highly reliable HDS-1 technology, our SURVIVOR Array Wave Resistivity (AWR) tool
and Slim AWR, and our SURVIVOR Slim Density tool to log in high pressure and high temperature applications.
2.4.2. Tools
2.4.2.1. Survivor HDS-1
The durable HDS-1 Directional/Gamma ray technology has been re-designed to operate in environments with
temperatures up to 350F and pressures up to 25,000 psi. Please refer to section 2.2.1.2.1 for more information.
54
2.4.2.2. Survivor HDS-1R
Upgraded to operate in HPHT environments. A patented wireline retrievable and reinsertable MWD system capable
of working in drilling assemblies from 9 1/2in. O.D. to as small as 3 1/8in. O. D. Please refer to section 2.2.1.2.1 for
more information.
2.4.2.3. Survivor HDS-1G
The Gravity MWD system is a magnetic interference-free survey technique. The Gravity MWD system uses the
modular HDS-1G tool where magnetic interference prevents the use of conventional MWD tools. Please refer to sec-
tion 2.2.1.2.1 for more information.
2.4.2.4. Survivor AWR
The SURVIVOR Resistivity Tools are fully compensated dual frequency (2 MHz and 500 kHz) resistivity tool with 12
diameters of investigation from 3 sensors at spacings of 15, 25 and 45. Three spacings provide robust quantitative
data for invasion corrections and processing without dielectric assumptions, or single frequency results. Please refer
to 2.3.2.2.2 for more information.
2.4.2.5. Survivor SDNSC
The SURVIVOR Slim Density Neutron Standof Caliper (SDNSC) tool provides real-time bulk density, neutron poros-
ity, photoelectric index, standof and caliper measurements in hostile drilling environments and in hole sizes as small
as 5 7/8 while drilling. Please refer to section 2.3.3.2.2 or more information.
2.4.2.6. Survivor DPM
The DPM tool comprises of two independent and highly accurate quartz gauges that provide static and dynamic
annular pressure, borehole pressure and temperature measurements. Please refer to section 2.2.3.2.1 for more infor-
mation.
2.4.3. Applications
HP/HT MWD and LWD tools are widely used in drilling and formation evaluation. Following are two case studies. For
more case studies, please refer to SPE 109940.
55
Well C MWD Survey, Gamma ray, Annular Pressure
An operator in the Gulf of Mexico required real-time equiva-
lent circulating density (ECD) management in a HPHT well-
bore environment. Measured equivalent circulating density
(ECDM), annular pressure (ANPR), drillpipe pressure (DPPR),
diferential pressure (DAPR) and temperature (TDPM) were
requested and monitored at the wellsite (Figure 88). A max-
imum circulating temperature of 316F (158C) and a maxi-
mum static temperature of 322F (161C) were reached at
a total depth of 19,931 feet MD, 18,607 feet TVD. The ECDM
displays a slight increase then slight decrease in value at
18,540 feet MD and 18,559 feet MD respectively. The in-
creased ECDM was caused by the borehole starting to pack
of with increased solid content. The subsequent decrease
and stabilization of the ECDM values occurred as these
solids were removed from the borehole by circulating and
conditioning the mud system.
Well E MWD Survey, Gamma ray, Resistivity, Den-
sity, Neutron Porosity, Caliper
An operator in the Gulf of Mexico required LWD triple
combo measurements in a 7 -in borehole. The over-
all objectives were to provide 4 in nominal collar size
gamma ray, resistivity, density, neutron porosity and
caliper measurement to characterize a hydrocarbon
target. This was accomplished by acquiring, processing
and presenting high resolution real-time and recorded
LWD triple combo formation evaluation data to defne
the lithology, formation fuid volume and types. The
LWD triple combo formation evaluation log plot (Figure
89) shows a shale-to-sand gamma ray response change
at xx,415 feet MD. This is the beginning of the hydro-
carbon zone. In track 2, the resistivity at xx,415 feet MD
increases signifcantly with a corresponding density/
neutron cross-over in track 3. Note that the density and
neutron curves are computed on a sandstone matrix. In
the reservoir, the sandstone formation contains shaly
intervals. The calculated density/neutron crossplot po-
rosity in the hydrocarbon zone is greater than 30%. The
lower section of the hydrocarbon zone ends at xx,504
feet MD. The operator did not run wireline triple combo
services due to the quality of the LWD formation evalu-
ation data.
Figure 87: Well C ECD and relevant data. At 18,540 feet, the
ECD begins increasing due to the borehole solids starting to
pack of around the drillpipe. At 18,559 feet, the ECD begins
decreasing after the solids
Figure 88: Well E LWD formation evaluation data. Note the
thin bed and oil base mud resistive fuid invasion responses of
the resistivity measurements in the hydrocarbon zones.
56
2.5. Pore Pressure Services
2.5.1.1. Introduction
PathFinder ofers a real-time pore pressure service utilizing LWD resistivity and/or sonic measurements and/or seis-
mic data. Pre-well modeling and planning is accomplished with close teamwork of the PathFinder Pore Pressure
Specialists and the operating company. Figure 90 shows the pre-well modeling using data from ofset wells.
The pore pressure model is continuously updated while drilling incorporating real-time LWD data to optimize the
mud weight so drilling can continue with confdence. Any combination of seismic, wireline, LWD, mud log, reser-
voir, and geologic input can be used to analyze formation pore pressure. Figure 91 shows an analysis using seismic
velocity data. Figure 92 shows pore pressure analysis from both sonic and resistivity models. Figure 93 shows an
integrated analysis using all the data available. In addition, the Drilling Formation Tester (DFT) tool can minimize
risk with real-time calibration points for the pore pressure model. Casing point selection can be improved with a
better understanding of the formation pressure around the planned casing point.
Two versions are available for both of ce and/or well site use. The of ce version utilizes any combination of ofset
well data to quickly create pre-drill pressure models. It incorporates most industry standard methods and models
and allows the user to create multiple well models and analyses. Edit features allow generation of predicative
models for specifc applications. Its powerful display/print feature produces colorful and concise graphics. While
the well site version ofers the same functionality as the of ce version. The system is data-driven by continuous
LWD input to compute real-time pore pressures on a foot-by-foot basis while drilling. This enables accurate well site
geopressure monitoring service and analysis for safe and cost efective drilling.
2.5.1.2. Advantages of the Pore Pressure Analysis
Improves accuracy of casing seat selections based on pore pressures measured while drilling.
Increases safety of drilling into zones with little or no geologic control.
Optimizes drilling ef ciencies and mud weights by minimizing over/under balanced conditions.
Increases the value of LWD resistivity and sonic measurements by utilizing them for pore pressure
monitoring.
Use on a well-to-well basis and only when you need it.
Figure 89: Various data types from ofsets.
57
Figure 90: Analysis using seismic velocities.
Figure 91: Pore pressure from both sonic and resistivity.
Figure 92: Data integration for comprehensive analysis.
58
2.5.1.3. Anisotropy and Pore Pressure Estimation
Anisotropy is one of the pitfalls of using resistivity to esti-
mate pore pressure. The deeper curves are more strongly
afected than the shallow curves. The phase measure-
ments are more strongly afected than the attenuation
measurements. The least afected curve is the shallow
attenuation curve, but as seen in the description of the
anisotropy analysis, even this curve can read several times
higher than the true horizontal resistivity.
Using the measured resistivity curves can result is two
types of error in pore pressure estimation: 1) The natural
compaction trend established based on afected curves
may be erroneous; 2) The pore pressure computed from
the raw curves may be underestimating the pore pres-
sure.
The log in Figure 93 shows the shallow attenuation resis-
tivity (green curve, track 2), which is commonly used for
pore pressure estimation. In the interval shown, this well
built angle from 46o to 78o. Because the inclination was
high, the resistivity was corrected for anisotropy and the
resulting Rh (horizontal resistivity) is the red curve in track 2.
Calculated pore pressures are shown in track 3, which were calculated using apparent resistivity (green) and anisot-
ropy corrected Rh (red). The mud weights used to drill this well (9.7 ppg) are consistent with the Rh derived pore
pressures and provide evidence that the anisotropy correction helps to avoid errors in pore pressure estimates.
2.6. PayZone Steering Services
2.6.1. Introduction
Efective drilling of high-angle and horizontal wells
requires that geological changes be quickly detected
and the well plan be adjusted in a timely fashion. The
PZS suite of proprietary computer programs (Figure 94)
was developed to aid directional drillers in recognizing
these geological changes. PathFinder PayZone Steering
service specialists work with the driller in the feld to
provide real-time interpretation to aid the drilling pro-
cess.
PZS software uses forward modeling to predict the re-
sponses of logging-while-drilling (LWD) gamma ray,
resistivity, density-neutron, density image, sonic sen-
sors to the various geological formations along the pro-
posed well path. The program user then compares the
measured response with the predicted response to help
determine the location of the well path with respect to
the formations. If the actual and predicted responses do not agree within reasonable tolerances, then the well may
be of course, or actual formation geometrical and physical parameters may not conform to those assumed, or the
measurements may have been modeled incorrectly.
To calculate the predicted responses, the program requires data from an ofset or pilot well, e.g. gamma ray, re-
sistivity, density-neutron, sonic and survey. Also required is the proposed path of the subject well and the type of
logging tool that will be used in the subject well.
Figure 93: Comparison of pore pressure estimation result using
shallow attenuation resistivity and horizontal resistivity.
Figure 94: PathFinder PayZone Steering (PZS) software
program.
59
Before the subject well is drilled, an accurate representation of the expected formation conditions is created in
consultation with the client. Next, the user formats and processes the data that is to be input into the program,
specifes appropriate parameters to control processing, runs the PZS program modules, plots the results, and visu-
ally analyzes the plots. As the well is being drilled and logged, the predicted log is compared with the measured
log to assist in steering the well. The geologic models are continually reviewed and adjusted as necessary based
on the real-time measured data. After the well is drilled, inverse modeling is used to compare the predicted and
measured responses in order to provide improved data for future drilling.
The PayZone Steering engineer works closely with the geologist, directional driller, and other rig-site personnel to
interpret these data and make real-time decisions on how best to steer the well to maximize its productivity.
2.6.2. MWD and LWD Measurements
At-bit or near-bit MWD sensors, including resistivity, gamma ray, and inclination, can often help determine where
the bit is located and how to redirect the well toward the projected target. Because of their location at or near the
end of the bottomhole assembly (BHA), these sensors furnish drillers with the earliest measurements regarding
the geometrical position of the drill bit and with early information about the formation. In reservoirs that change
quickly, these timely measurements are useful, especially at high deviation angles. They allow the driller to quickly
adjust the wells trajectory, sometimes before the well drifts very far of course. The actual geology/structure may
difer from the expected pre-well modeled geology. The real-time data allows for the well path to be modifed ac-
cordingly in a timely manner maintaining position within the target interval. However, because at- and near-bit
resistivity and gamma ray sensors have shallow depths of investigation, any geological adjustments to trajectory
are usually in response to features near the wellbore.
It is often dif cult to identify impending changes that are due to approaching beds in time to take corrective ac-
tion. The electromagnetic wave propagation resistivity tools are the standard deep-sensing LWD measurements
(CWR, AWR). Because these measurements are similar to wireline resistivity measurements, the LWD logs can be
correlated with similar wireline logs to locate important geological features. Because the wave propagation mea-
surements are well-characterized, the LWD log response is predictable under most conditions. In a directionally
drilled well, comparing the predicted resistivity log to a measured log can help keep the well on target through
the build section of the well. Diferences in measured depth between the predicted and measured logs may warn
that the well is drifting of course or that there is a signifcant diference between the expected geology and the
geology encountered. The LWD resistivity tools have multiple transmitter-receiver spacings and often multiple
frequencies. The resistivity measurement from each spacing and frequency responds diferently to a resistivity
interface located away from the wellbore. If the nature of the resistivity interface is known, it is possible to use
the multiple resistivities to obtain a resistivity profle that can help in maintaining the wells position at a desired
distance from the interface.
2.6.3. Modeled Log
The forward, or predictive, modeling available through the PZS service makes a direct correlation of logs run in
ofset wells possible, even if the deviations of the wells are distinctly diferent from one another. This correlation
is often a dif cult task because at the high relative dips associated with high angle and horizontal wells, small
changes in deviation and dip can have signifcant efects on log responses.
The Need for Modeling
Computer modeling is employed by the PZS service to reduce the dif culty of correlating logs measured in direc-
tionally drilled wells with logs from other vertical and/or directional wells. Through computer modeling, logging
measurements made in an ofset or pilot well are used to generate a predicted, or modeled, log response for a
new well along a proposed trajectory. During drilling, the modeled log can be compared with a measured log from
the new well to aid in geological steering. As alluded to in the preface and in this section, anomalies between the
modeled log and the measured log can indicate the following:
the well may be of course;
the actual formation geometrical and physical parameters may not conform to those assumed in generating the
modeled log;
tool responses were incorrectly modeled;
the modeling program was unable to account for all relevant factors.
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The type of modeling used to generate the modeled log is called forward, or predictive, modeling. Another type
of modeling, called inverse modeling, is used to compare the modeled and measured logs. With inverse model-
ing, the log measurements (usually resistivity and gamma ray) and the assumed thickness of the relevant bedding
planes are judiciously modifed to resolve the diferences between the two logs.
Generating Pre-requisite Data Sets
The major pre-requisites for developing the modeled log are:
The proposed well path.
The earth model, including ground elevation of each ofset well along the proposed well plan.
Structural information.
Water contacts.
Faults and formation lateral continuity.
Ofset well information, including: logs; survey data; Kelly bushing height, etc.
The survey data for the proposed well path are provided by the well planner. The accuracy of the modeled log
that the PZS analyst will develop will depend heavily on how well formation properties measured in the ofset
well can be extrapolated to the area of the proposed well. The nearer the ofset or pilot well is to the proposed
well, combined with a good understating of the subsurface geology, the more likely it is that the extrapolation will
closely approximate formation properties measured in the proposed well. The analyst must take care to account
for special variations in the geology, such as faults (which can cause zones to reappear) or pinchouts (which can
cause zones to disappear).
Resistivity tool response is a function of the earth around the tool. Important earth parameters include the resis-
tivity of the bed in which the tool is located, the relative dip of that bed, and the resistivity contrast between that
bed and the adjacent beds. In the build section, the bedding parameters, such as anisotropy and bed thickness,
become important at high relative dip angles. In the horizontal reach section, the changes in relative dip are usu-
ally quite small except near the end of the reservoir and near local stratigraphic features.
PZS analysts will fnd that data from pilot wells are especially useful because the data have been obtained in a
more localized setting. In addition, if LWD resistivity logs have been run in pilot wells, then the analyst may be able
to use those logs to diagnose relative dielectric constant and thin-bed efects and, for appropriate relative dips,
identify the presence of any resistivity anisotropy.
LWD logs are sometimes better than wireline logs for generating the reference logs. Wireline logs may not prop-
erly refect the layered nature of the formation. On most wireline resistivity logs, thin beds are not apparent, and
resistivity changes are abrupt. The interfaces are smoothed. Additionally, the invasion that occurs between drilling
and wireline-logging times may afect the apparent resistivity changes measured at the interfaces.
Where possible, the ofset logs should be corrected for environmental efects resulting from borehole and forma-
tion conditions, if these corrections have not been made previously. After the environmental corrections, the logs
must be calculated as a function of vertical depth relative to a specifed reference point and then must be cor-
rected for formation dip. The resulting logs are the reference logs. If relative dips in the ofset well are high, it may
be necessary to use forward modeling with the ofset logs to approximate the reference logs.
Using the Modeled Log for Geological Steering
Before drilling, the analyst will discuss the modeled log with the drilling team. During drilling, he will compare
the modeled log with measured logs and will help interpret any signifcant diferences between the two for the
drilling team.
Before the modeled log is used for steering, the analyst should frst meet with the appropriate personnel who will
use the model both at the well site and in the of ce. The analyst should discuss the drilling goals, assumptions,
and data that he used to generate the model with emphasis that the modeled log is a prediction; it should be used
only as a guide. He should also emphasize that he usually expects some diferences between the modeled log and
the measured log in the proposed well because: (1) modeling cannot account for all variables; (2) tool response is
complex; and, (3) only partial knowledge of subsurface geologic conditions is possible.
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Common minor diferences that can occur, but do not require remodeling the entire log, can include:
A vertical depth shift caused by improper depth control on either the ofset log or the measured log in
the proposed well.
Small depth shifts resulting from slight variations in the true vertical depths (TVDs) of correlative
features.
Small stratigraphic formation changes.
Thin beds not predicted by the modeled log.
Shifts in resistivity values caused by borehole efects.
Shifts in resistivity values caused by local changes in the reservoirs petrophysical parameters,
such as water saturation, connate water salinity, porosity, cation exchange capacity, clay volume, and
shale volume.
Higher resistivity values resulting from uncorrected invasion efects on the ofset log.
Shifts in resistivity values caused by variations in anisotropy or relative dielectric constant.
Major deviations can also occur between the modeled and measured logs. Major deviations are defned to be un-
expected or signifcant changes in the nature of the target that require a re-evaluation of the fundamental nature
of the reservoir and perhaps a radical redesign of the well plan. Major deviations can occur when the well is of
course or when unexpected geology is encountered. For example, BHA problems or the inability to adjust drill-
ing parameters to those required by the well plan can cause the well to drift of course. Unexpected geology can
include faults and pinchouts and sharp dip changes.

Figure 95: PathFinder density imaging log shows entering and exiting a bed.
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2.6.4. Post-Drilling Analysis
The analysts goal in post-drilling analysis, which actually starts whenever the memory data are recovered from the
resistivity tool, is to gain a refned knowledge of the geology encountered during the drilling operation. As men-
tioned in the previous section, memory data is generally recorded at a higher rate than data transmitted uphole
in real-time. Also, memory data generally contains some data that may have been recorded but not transmitted
uphole in real-time.
The measured resistivity log is often more sensitive to the efects of thin beds, resistivity anisotropy, and invasion
than the modeled log. Sometimes, the analyst can identify these efects by visual inspection alone; however, be-
cause many factors can infuence the measurements, it is often best that he use inverse modeling to confrm his
formation model. The modeled log assumes that the resistivity measured in a formation in the ofset well is correct
and that it does not change over time (for example, because of invasion or production) or between the ofset well
and the proposed well. Clearly, this assumption may not be correct. The modeled log also assumes that the log-
ging tool used in the ofset well and the tool used in the proposed well have identical responses when subjected
to identical downhole conditions. However, this may not always be the case. For example, at high relative dip
angles (which may be the case when formation dip is high or well deviation is high), the response of an LWD tool
is often more active than that of a standard wireline tool, even though the opposite occurs at lower angles.
With inverse modeling, the analyst constructs a new reference log from the measured log. This new reference
log represents the best estimate for the resistivity and bedding of the formation. Next, the analyst runs the new
reference log through the forward modeling program, and then compares the new modeled log with the original
measured log. Diferences in these logs represent a diference between the actual formation resistivity and bed-
ding from those assumed for the new reference log. By judiciously adjusting the reference logs resistivity, bed
thicknesses, and dielectric constant, the analyst can decrease the diferences between the measured and newly
modeled logs.
The basic assumption underlying the inverse modeling technique is that convergence between the modeled and
measured logs validates the associated reference log. With this technique, the analyst can therefore resolve dif-
ferences between the modeled and measured logs. Because there are numerous possible reasons why the mod-
eled and measured resistivities do not give the same response, some quality control is required to eliminate or
minimize the consideration of low-probability cases. The analyst should eliminate borehole efects before using
inverse modeling. To do this, the analyst simply applies the necessary borehole corrections to the measured log
before using it to generate the new reference log.
Figure 96 shows the actual resistivity log, measured while drilling. The PZS software computes the distance from
the tool (wellbore) to the bed boundaries. This position of the wellbore relative to the bed tops is displayed by the
red line on top of the original earth model. In Figure 97, the earth model has been modifed to satisfy the distance
to the bed boundaries with the actual well path.
Please refer to section 2.2.1.4 for a case study of using PathFinders geosteering services and tools to improve
horizontal drilling in CBM.
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Figure 96: Measured resistivity log in PZS services.
Figure 97: The earth model
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2.7. Geomechanics Analysis Services
Rock mechanical log analysis is based on the availability of
full waveform acoustic logs and the computed compressional
and shear slownesses. The objective of the analysis is to defne
maximum and minimum limits of borehole pressures during
drilling and production operations. Exceeding these limits can
induce mechanical failure in the formation. The analysis draws
attention to zones with potential sanding problems and zones
with potential fracturing problems. The drawdown pressure at
which sand production may occur can be predicted. The re-
sults are used in the design of hydraulic fracturing and in the
design of highly deviated and horizontal wells. Some other
uses may include aid in the design of mud systems, casing
programs and cementing operations.
The program (Figure 98) derives computed values for the elastic constants of the formation from the compressional
wave slowness (tc), the shear wave slowness (ts) and the formation density. The stress feld around the wellbore is
evaluated based on overburden pres-
sure, pore pressure, tectonic stress,
Poissons ratio and the directional data
of the borehole and the orientation of
the formations stress feld. The analy-
sis is a three-dimensional model that
handles any borehole deviation from
vertical to horizontal and that incor-
porates the direction of the principal
stresses in the formation.
Rock mechanical analysis based on
acoustic and other logging data is
considered to be dynamic. The re-
sults need to be calibrated to refect
the static conditions of reservoirs or
such operations as hydraulic fractur-
ing. Calibration can be performed at the level of the elastic moduli by converting the dynamic elastic moduli into
estimated static moduli, or at the level of the computed stresses by calibrating to measured stresses in microfrac
or shadow frac tests.
Wellbore failure can happen in several ways and a series of failure criteria have been published and used. A com-
monly used criterion is the Mohr-Coulomb circle technique (Figure 99).
Minimum and maximum stresses respectively increase and decrease
with increasing wellbore deviation. The software iterates the stress
computations from either 0 degrees deviation (vertical well) or the
actual wellbore deviation to 90 degrees (horizontal well). The range
of stable wellbore pressures is computed as well as the maximum
wellbore deviation for mechanically stable wellbore conditions (Fig-
ure 100). This information is used in the planning of highly deviated
or horizontal wells.
Figure 98: Rockmechanical analysis program fow.
Figure 99: Wellbore failure types.
Figure 100: Wellbore failure and borehole
deviation
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Figure 101 shows a typical rock mechanical analysis plot. Track 1 shows the gamma ray and caliper curves. Track 2
shows a crude caliper image using two identical but opposed caliper curves. Track 3 shows the minimum and maxi-
mum borehole pressure curves delineating a green area of stable wellbore conditions, together with pore-, mud-,
and overburden pressures. Track 5 shows lithology computed using a standard deterministic (or any other) volumet-
rics program.
The critical minimum pressure is the pressure at which the formation fails due to shear failure, in other words it indi-
cates the sanding potential of the formation. When the pressure in the wellbore drops below this critical minimum
pressure, the formation will have a sanding problem, during drilling, swabbing or production. The fracture closure
pressure indicates the borehole pressure at which, existing but closed, natural fractures will be reopened, resulting
in mud loss, and at which the hydraulic fracturing process may begin. The shaded area between these two curves
defnes the mechanically stable wellbore pressure conditions.
References
P. Boonen, G. McElhinney, 2002: Wellbore Stability Analysis While Drilling using LWD Sonic, Density and Caliper Measurements. SPE/
ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference, Oct 20-23, Irving, SPE 78202.
P. Boonen, 2003: Advantages and Challenges of Using Logging-While-Drilling Data in Rock Mechanical Log Analysis and Wellbore
Stability Modeling, AADE National Drilling Technology Conference, Apr 1-3, Houston, AADE-03-NTCE-27.
M.Y. Soliman, P. Boonen, 2000: Rock Mechanics and Stimulation Aspects of Horizontal Wells. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engi-
neering, 25 (2000) 187-204.
M. Y. Soliman, P. Boonen: 1996: Review of Fractured Horizontal Well Technology. SPE International Exhibition and Conference, Abu
Dhabi 13-16 October, 1996, SPE 36289
Figure 101: Wellbore stability analysis plot.
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2.8. Computing Center
PathFinders Computing Center provides the hard copy products as a result of a successful logging operation.
This includes feld prints, fnal prints, digital data and advanced products such as enhanced vertical resolution,
anisotropy and dielectric corrections, etc. as the application and/or customer requires.
Our facilities worldwide serve as our log data QA/QC center where real-time monitoring of LWD projects via inter-
net/satellite/remote access increase the usefulness of the log data. Computing Center personnel include geosci-
entists and log analysts, all trained and experienced with providing accurate logs. The options they can provide in
terms of the data products available allow us to fne tune the critical distribution of well information. In addition,
data distribution costs can be optimized through our fexibility and capabilities in this area. We are pleased to of-
fer you the products and services you may require to make a project work for you and your partners!
2.8.1. Real-time Data Transmission
PathFinder uses Petrolink for real-time data transmission between rig site and of ce. Both PathFinder of ce or
client of ce computers can be set up to receive the real-time logging data from the rig in real-time fashion. Figure
102 shows the PowerStream communication data fow. PowerStream will be used for real-time customer display.
Data transfer from RX5 to Petrolink server via WITSML and can be viewed through a web browser. Latest data
(edited or otherwise) can be displayed. The user will have the fexibility to confgure the logs display. Please refer
to Petrolinks website http://www.petrolink.com/ for more details.
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