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MNPs utilisation in

Biomedical Applications
Chemistry & Characterisation of Thin Films & Surfaces

Asterios Ntais
MNPs - Introduction
Fe Co Ni Metal oxides
manipulation by external Magnetic Field
size ! biological components (drug delivery)
surface + magnetic moment (in vivo MRI)
absorbed energy into heat (hyperthermia)
colloidal stability | no agglomeration
Properties depend on:
magnetic anisotropy composition vacancies
crystal structure size shape
atomic magnetic dipole
(orbital + spin motion)
magnetic order (T
c
")

e
-
arrangements

magnetic behaviour

size ! 100nm:
1. single magnetic
domain
2. magnetisation
reversal = uniform
3. function of T
Synthesis of MNPs
1. Gas-phase methods (s-precipitates from g-phases)
CVD: volatile precursors high T (size & growth control)
Laser pyrolysis: thermochemical decomposition
ultrapure & high quality products | low yield

2. Wet chemical methods (simple, inexpensive, better yield)
Coprecipitation: precipitation of aqueous solution + base
Massart Method: alkaline coprecipitation of ferrous & ferric salt
pH, [cations], temperature dependent
Fe
3
O
4
, #-Fe
2
O
3
uniform size distribution | nucleation & growth


i.e. iron oxides from Fe(Co)
5

Synthesis of MNPs
3. Thermal decomposition (rapid process)
unstable precursors into hot-aqueous solution
organometallic & inorganic precursor, temperature, reaction time
complexes bound to iron via oxygen
surfactants (fatty acids) mediate nucleation & growth rates

4. Microemulsion
H
2
O nanodroplets in oil stabilised by surfactants

A, B reagents dissolved in 2 emulsions
mixing AB precipitation, trapped w/in H
2
O droplets
size and shape control
iron oxide NPs


Surface modification
need for chemical stability & functionalities - biofunctionalisation
high [protein] & [salt] environments
H
2
Ophilic / H
2
Ophobic
ligands & coatings (organic molecules, surfactants, polymers)
Avoid:
immune responses | protein synthesis failure
clotting | generation of ROS (!!!)
Main goals:
1. conservation of magnetic properties
2. increased biocompatibility decreased toxicity



Biomedical Apps of MNPs
Magnetic Hyperthermia
eliminate cancer cells @ 42 - 45
o
C (locally)
application of an AC magnetic field

Drug Delivery
MNPs: drug or antibody carriers to specific organs / tissues
fight w/ forces of blood flow
magnetic guidance
particle size: 10 100nm
surface engineering to minimise interactions w/ phagocytic cells




Energy loss HEAT
Biomedical Apps of MNPs
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MNPs serve as contrast agents
need for high chemical stability and magnetisation
extensive use of maghemite (#-Fe
2
O
3
)
size ! 50nm: imaging of gastrointestinal, liver, spleen, lymph nodes
size " 50nm: diffusion imaging & brain / myocardial imaging

appropriate for enzyme activity imaging (apoptosis, cancer,
metastasis, inflammatory responses)

functionalisation of MNPs w/ monoclonal antibodies


Characterisaton techniques
X-Ray Diffraction
mapping of a material | chemical identification

Transmission Electron Scopy
structural characterisation @ atomic scale resolution

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
fingerprint of a molecule
MNPs: size, shape, element, phase identification

Vibrating Sample Magnetometer
Faradays principle (a changing magnetic field produces an electric field)
delivers information about saturation magnetisation, coercivity, shape
anisotropy, energy loss


Thanx
Questions?