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Handbook of

Jig and Fixture


Design
Second Edition
William E. Boyes
Editor
Ramon Bakerjian
Staff Editor
Edited from
Handbook of Fixture Design
First Edition
Frank W. White,
Editor-in-Chief
John M. Holt, Jr.,
Associate Editor
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
Handbuok of Jig and Fixture Iksign
ISBN No. 0-87263-365.9
Society of Manufucturing Engineers (SME)
Copyright0 1989 by Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
One SME Dr~ve, P.O. Rox 930, Llearborn, Michigan 48 121
All r~ghts reserved including those of translation. Thi\ book, or parts thereof, may not be
reproduced in any fomm without written permission of the copyright owner. The Society
does not, by publication oudata in this book, ensure to anyone the use of such data
again\[ liability ol any kind includmg infringement of any patent. Publication ol any data
in this book does not conhtitute a recommendation of any patent or proprietary right that
may be involved. The Socicty o f Manufacturing Engineers. as well as all contributors and
reviewers of information in this book, disclaim any and all responsibility tbr use of the
information contained herein by reads and users of this Handbook.
First edit~on published in 1962 by McGraw-Hill Book Co, in cooperation with ShlE
under earlier Society name, American Society of Tool Eng~rreers (ASTE), and under t~tle
Hundbook of' Fixture Design.
Printed in the United States of America.
Thanks to Gary Price and Graphis 6 Inc.
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
PREFACE
This book is based on the Volume. Hundbook of Firfure Design ( 1 962). by the Society
of Manufacturing Engineers. Chapters have been expanded and updated, and entirely
new subiects and technologies introduced.
u
The purpose of this book is to supply student and professional tool and gage
designers with generally accepted procedures for designing a jig or fixture, or adapting
a commercially available workholding device to hold a workpiece during machining,
assembly. or inspection.
In addition, specific examples of successful solutions to many workholding problenls
have been included to provide the designer with ideas that can be adapted to his or her
particular problem.
Chapters 1 through 4 cover the general steps necessary to provide economical and
efficient tooling for today's expanding and competitive manufacturing industry. These
steps include predesign analysis, locating, supporting, clamping, positions, and the
design of bodies for workholding devices.
Chapter 5 is a new chapter dealing with tooling for Numerical Control (NC).
Chapter 6 is also new and is included to provide the tool designer with a basic
understanding of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T).
Chapters 7 through 13 provide more specific information regarding the design ofjigs
and fixtures for the various machining operations such as: milling, drilling, reaming,
turning, boring, grinding, sawing, broaching, planing, shaping, and slotting.
Chapter 14 is another new chapter on tooling for Flexible Manufacturing Systems
(FMSs).
Chapters 15 and 16 cover tooling for assembly and inspection respectively.
I would like to extend my gratitude to the many machine, tooling, and component
manufacturers who furnished materials, photographs, and advice.
-
Finally, my thanks to the publications development staff at SME.
William E. Boyes
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
ABOUT THE EDITOR
William E. Boyes retired as Section Manager of the Metrology and Quality Control
Engineering Departments of Mack Trucks, Incorporated, Powertrain Division, Hagers-
town, Maryland, where he worked in various quality control positions for over 20 years.
Mr. Boyes is both a Certified Manufacturing Engineer and a Registered Professional
Engineer. Prior to his retirement, he was an active member of many engineering socie-
ties and associations including the American Society of Quality Control, the Precision
Measurements Association, the American Society for Non-destructive Testing, and the
American Defense Preparedness Association. Mr. Boyes was also a member delegate to
the National Conference of Standards Laboratories and the Mack Trucks representative
to GIDEP (Government-Industry Data Exchange Program).
An SME member since 1958, Mr. Boyes has served on SME's Tool Engineering
Council in many capacities. He was chairman of the council from 1974 to 1978 and
prior to that served as Chairman of its Gage Division. Mr. Boyes is editor of the
Manufacturing Update Series book, Jigs and Fixtures (1982). He is also the editor of the
book, Low-cost Jigs, Fixtures and Guge.~ for Limited Production ( 1 986).
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIRST EDITION *
Frederic N. Abel, Tool Designer, Universal Engineering Corporation, Cedur Rapids, 1.4
Edwin A. Aldous, Sules Engineer, Cincinnati Churchill, Ltd., Windsor, Ontario, Cunudu
John G. Anderson, Engineer, Squure D Compuny, Cedur Rupds, IA
Robert Arva, Industrial Engineer, AMP, Inc., Harrisburg, PA
Thomas At kins, Sufety Engineer, Ford Motor Compuny of Cunudu, Windsor, Onturio,
Cunudu
James W. Barlow, Tool Designer, Kelsey Wheel, Windsor, Ontario, Cunudu
Isaac Barsky, Methods Engineer, Ford Motor Compuny of Cunudu, Windsor, Ontuno,
Cunudu
A. G. Baumgartner, Sules Munuger, The Cincinnuti Shuper Compuny, Cincinnati OH
Joseph Benedict, Production Tooling Engineer, DoALL Compuny, Des Pluines, 1L
Walter D. Bristow, Tool Designer, Cutepillar Trctctor Compuny, Peoriu, IL
E. C airelli, Tool Engineer, Wilson-Jones Company, Chicugo, IL
Edmond E. Canfield, Toolmaker, Hyster Compunv, Peoriu, IL
Robert F. Carbre y, President, Vulley Engineering Compuny, Binghumton, N Y
Walter Fischbacher, Chief Tool Engineer, LeToumeuu- Westinghouse Compuny, Peorirr,
IL
Donald Frantz, Tool Designer, Cuterpillur Trctctor Compuny, Peoriu. IL
Eleonora Freeman, Tool Designer, Generul Electric Cotnpany, Johnson City, NY
Gunter K. Gersbach, Stufi Engineer, Cutepillur Tractor Compuny, Peoriu, IL
James F. Goodall, Industrial Engineer, Collins Radio Compuny, Cedur Rupds, IA
Otto E. Gunthner, Tool Design Supervisor, Cuterpilhr Tractor Compuny Peok, IL
Kendall W. Hamlin, Mechanicul Engineering Dept., Stute University of lowu, lowu City,
IA
J. Nelson Harris. Chief Tool Engineer, New Hdlund Muchine Compuny, New Hollund,
PA
Harold J. Hartlieb, Sulk Engineer, Precision Metuls Div., Humilton Wutch Compunv,
Lancuster, PA
George Heindel, Tool Engineer, York Div., Rorg- Wumer Corporation, York, PA
E. C. Helmke, Chief Engineer, Gisholt Machine Compuny, Madison WI
Norman E. Hinkel, Tool Designer, Squure D Company, Cedur Rap&, IA
Carl A. Holmer, Chief Tool Designer, Cuterpillur Trctctor Company, Peoriu, IL
Graham Jones, Senior Tool Designer, Ford Motor Compuny of Cunudu, Windsor,
Onturio, Cunudu
Joseph 1. Ka rash, Corporute Stufj Munufucturing Engineer, Reliunce Electric &
Engineering Compuny, Cl!elund, OH
Stephan A. Konz, Instructor, Dept. of Mechanicul Engineerwg, Universit~l of Illinois,
Urbunu, IL
Robert L. Kristufek, Assisrunt Head Quulity Control, Borg-Beck Div., Borg- Wc~rner
Corporation, Chicago, IL
Bany Krumeich, Tool Designer, IBM, Owego, NY
Orin E. Lillie, Tool Anulyst, IBM, Owego, NY
Robert A. Lubbock, Tool Designer, Universul Engineering. Cedur Rupuis, 1A
James. E. Lynch, Process Engineer, AMP, Inc.. Hurrisburg, PA
Mario Martellotti, Development Engineer, Cincinnati Milling Muchlne Compuny,
Cincinnati, OH
William S. Mazar, Chlef Tool Engineer, Link Div., Generul Precision, Inc, Binghumton,
NY
Robert W. Newton, Associute Engineer, IBM, Owego, NY
* At the time the first edition was published
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
Gerald H. Ohrt, Tool Designer, Caterpillar Tractor Company, Chillicothe, IL
Paul E. Orr, Plant Engineer, Electroline Manufacturing Compuny, Windsor, Ontario,
Canada
David E. Ostergaard, Proprietor, Chief Engineer, Ostergctard Company, Park Ruige, IL
Walter J. Peters, Tool and Die Designer, Caterpillar Tractor Compuny, Peonh, IL
Howard Poland, Tool Design Supervisor, LeTourneau- Westinghouse Company, Peoria, IL
Richard Poultney, Process Supervisor, Ford Motor Company of Canudu, Windror,
Ontario, Canuda
Robert J. Quilici, Design Section Leader, Scully-Jones and Company, Chicago, IL
Ira L. Rabourn, Tool Engineer, Square D Company, Cedar Rap&, IA
W. Stanley Rice, Tool Engineer, Chrysler Corporation of Canada, Windror, Ontario,
Canada
Michael A. Romano, Chief Tool Engineer, Craft Manufacturing Company, North
Chicago, IL
John Sepanek, Chief Engineer, Speed-0-Pnnt Corporation, Chicago, IL
Ludwig G. Schlappner, Chief Tool Designer, Mack Trucks, Inc. Plainfield, NJ
George H. Sheppard, Director of Research, The DoALL Company, Des Plaines, IL
Stanley J. Snorek, Dept. Chiel Tool Design, Western Electric Company, Inc., Chicago, IL
Richard C. Spoor, Tool Engineer, Linde Compuny, Div. Union Carbuie, Indianapolis, IN
Kenneth E. Starr, Manufacturing Development, Caterpillar Tractor Company, Inc.,
Peoria, IL
E.T. Swenson, Tool Design Supervisor, Western Electric Company, Inc, Chicago, IL
Gordon Way, Tool Engineer, Chrysler Corporation of Canuda, Windror, Ontario,
Canada
James C. Wilson, Chief Tool Designer, Universal Instruments Corporation, Binghamton,
NY
Leslie B. Wilson, Tool Designer, Caterpillar Tractor Company, Peoriu, IL
Allen I. Young, Tool Engineer, Collins Radio Company, Cedar Rapids, IA
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
INTRODUCTION
This book deals primarily with the design and application of locating and workhold-
ing devices that are used to accurately position, support, and hold a workpiece during a
machining, assembly, inspection, or related operation. Those devices are known as
Jirrures. Also covered are devices which provide additional guidance to the cutting tool.
Those devices are known as jigs.
In this book, jigs and fixtures will be known collectively as fixtures.
Fixtures are usually classified by the type of operation using the fixture (for example.
grinding fixture, milling fixture, assembly fixture, inspection fixture).
Jigs are mainly used for drilling, boring, tapping, and related operations. Sometimes
they are named by the operation they perform, but usually they are referred to accord-
ing to their method of construction. Some of the jigs that will be discussed in this book
include template drill jigs (flat plate, circular, and nesting), plate jigs (open, table. and
sandwich), universal or pump jigs (regular and cross-hole), leaf jigs, channel jigs, and
tumble box jigs.
The term gage in this book refers to a device placed onto or into a workpiece to
determine whether or not a workpiece is within specification limits. Fixed functional
gages, such as plug gages, thread gages, and snap gages are named because of their
shape or form. Other gages, which are more specialized. are usually named for the
characteristic that they are used to check (for example, length gages, depth gages, width
gages). If an indicator is added to the gage to permit actual measurements to be taken,
the gage is usually further referred to as a dial or indicating type gage (for example, dial
depth gage, indicating length gage). Whenever it is necessary to place the workpiece
into a gaging device to permit inspection of the workpiece, the gaging device is usually
referred to as an inspection fiture. Jigs, fixtures, and other workpiece locating, clamp-
ing, and indicating equipment will be collectively referred to as tooling.
Cutting tool design, which is a closely related but separate branch of tool design, is
covered in this book only to the extent that it directly applies to the design of a jig or a
fixture, that is, cutter material, size and configuration, chip control, and cutting forces.
The design of forming equipment used in the production of sheet metal parts, extru-
sions, forgings, castings, and other formed parts is not covered.
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
A NOTE ON METRICATION
In some cases (particularly Figures and Tables) in this book the numerical values
listed are only in the english system. If you wish to use an appropriate metric value in its
place (or convert from metric to english), the following conversion factors are listed
below.
Multiply by To get
inches
inillinieters
in.-lbf
newton-meter ( Nm)
Ibf
newton (N)
psi
pascal (P)
ft-lb
Btu
millimeters
inches
newton-meter (N-ni)
in.-lbf
newton ( N)
lbf
pascal (P)
psi
Btu
ft-lb
The reader will notice that metrication was not performed for either diameters and
radiuses or for tolerances. There are English standard diameters which do not have
direct metric equivalents, so to be consistent (and keep the reader from trying to
second-guess metric equivalents), metrication was not performed on diameters and
radiuses.
In the case of tolerancing, the reader may choose from two methods put forth in
ASTM Standard E 380- 1989, page 247, paragraph 4.5.1. It is reproduced here courtesy
of ASTM. The standard states that there are two methods for converting toleranced
dimensions from english to metric: Method A, where rounding is done to values nearest
to each limit, and Method B, where rounding is performed to values always irzsufe the
limits.
4.5.1 General-The number of decimal places given in Table 9 for rounding con-
verted toleranced dimensions relates the degree of accuracy to the size of the tolerances
specified. Two methods of using Table 9 are given: Method A, which rounds to values
nearest to each limit, and Method B, which rounds to values always inside the limits.
In Method A, rounding is effected to the nearest rounded value of the limit, so that,
on the average, the converted tolerances remain statistically identical with the original
tolerances. The limits converted by this method, where acceptable for interchangeabil-
ity, serve as a basis for inspection.
In Method B, rounding is done systematically towurd the interior of the tolerance
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
zone so that the converted tolerances are never larger than the original tolerances. This
method must be employed when the original limits have to be respected absolutely, in
particular, when components made to converted limits are to be inspected by means of
original gages.
Merhod A-The use of this method ensures that even in the most unfavorable cases
neither of the two original limits will be changed by more than 5% of the value of the
tolerance. Proceed as follows:
(a) Calculate the maximum and minimum limits in inches.
(b) Convert the corresponding two values exactly into millimetres by means of the
conversion factor I in. = 25.4 mm.
(c) Round the results obtained to the nearest rounded value as indicated in Table 9,
depending on the original tolerance in inches, that is, on the difference
between the two limits in inches.
Method B-This method must be employed when the original limits may not be
violated, for instance, certain critical mating parts. In extreme cases, this method may
increase the lower limit a maximum of 10% of the tolerance and decrease the upper
limit a maximum of 10% of the tolerance.
(a) Proceed as in Method A step (a).
TABLE 9 Rounding Tolerances Inches to Millimetres
Original Tolerance, inches Fineness of Rounding,
at lease less than mm
(b) Proceed as in Method A step (b).
(c) Round each limit toward the interior of the tolerance, that is, to the next lower
value for the upper limit and to the next higher value for the lower limit.x
Examples:
A dimension is expressed in inches as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.950 kO.0 16
The limits are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.934 and 1.966
Conversion of the two limits into millimetres gives . . . . . 49.1 236 and 49.9364
Method A-The tolerance equals 0.032 in. and thus lies
between 0. 004 and 0.04 in. (see Table 9). Rounding
these values to the nearest 0.01 mm, the values in mil-
limetres to be employed for these two limits are . . . . . 49.12 and 49.94
Method B-Rounding toward the interior of the tolerance,
millimetre values for these two limits are . . . . . . . . . . . 49.13 and 49.93
This reduces the tolerance to 0.80 instead of 0.82 mm
given by Method A.
4.5.2 Special Method for Dimensions with Plus and Minus Deviations-In order to
avoid accumulation of rounding errors, the two limits of size normally are converted
separately: thus, they must first be calculated if the dimension consists of a basic size
and two deviations. However (except when Method B is specified) as an alternative, the
basic size may be converted to the nearest rounded value and each of the deviations
If the digits to be rounded are zeros, the retained digits remain unchanged.
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
converted toward the interior of the tolerance. This method, which sometimes makes
conversion easier, gives the same maximum guarantee of accuracy as Method A, but
usually results in smaller converted tolerances.
4.5.3 Special Method for Limitation Imposed by Accuracy of Measurements-If the
increment of rounding for the tolerances given in Table 9 is too small for the available
accuracy of measurement, limits that are acceptable for interchangeability must be
determined separately for the dimensions. For example, where accuracy of measure-
ment is limited to 0.001 mm, study shows that values converted from 1.0000 +0.0005
in can be rounded to 25.413 and 25.387 mm instead of 25.4127 and 25.3873 mm with
little disadvantage, since neither of the two original limits is exceeded by more than
1.2% of the tolerance.
4.5.4 Positional Tolerance-If the dimensioning consists solely of a positional toler-
ance around a point defined by a nontoleranced basic dimension, the basic dimension
must be converted to the nearest rounded value and the positional variation (radius)
separately converted by rounding downward.
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS
Predesign Analysis and Fixture-Design Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 1
Principles of Locating and Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- 1
Clamping and Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- 1
Fixture Body Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- 1
Tooling for Numerical Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 1
Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 1
Milling Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 1
Tooling for Drilling. Reaming and Related Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- 1
Fixtures for Turning and Boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 1
Grinding Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 1
Sawing and Abrasive Cutoff Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 . 1
Broaching Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12- 1
Planing. Shaping and Slotting Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13- 1
Tooling for Flexible Manufacturing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14- 1
Fixtures for Assembly and Joining Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15- 1
Inspection Fixtures and Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16- 1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 1
Copyright 1989 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.
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